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Project Gutenberg's A Short System of English Grammar, by Henry Bate

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Title: A Short System of English Grammar
       For the Use of the Boarding School in Worcester (1759)

Author: Henry Bate

Release Date: October 22, 2008 [EBook #26991]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1

*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK A SHORT SYSTEM OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***




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A

Short System

OF

English Grammar.



For the use of the

Boarding SCHOOL

In WORCESTER.

decoration

By HENRY BATE A. B.

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Worcester: Printed by R. Lewis,
Bookseller, in High-Street.

[ii]



[iii]


THE

PREFACE.

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Usage and Custom are the Rules and Measures of every Language, and the Rules of Grammar have nothing more to do, than to teach it. The Grammar is to be fashioned from the particular Language, it treats of, and not the Language from the Grammar. For want of following this regular Plan, our Modern GRAMMARIANS have introduced the Grammar Rules of other Languages into their own; as if all Language was founded on Grammar, and the Rules in one Language would serve the same End and Purpose in another.

The Latin, for Instance, has only eight Parts of Speech, and the Writers of English Grammar have unthinkingly adopted the same Number; whereas with the Article, [iv] which the Latin has not, and which is of great Service in a Language, we have no less than nine. The Latin admits of Cases; but as different Cases, properly speaking, are nothing more than the different Inflections and Terminations of Nouns, English Nouns have no Cases. It is not agreeable to the Principles of Grammar to say that—of a Rose—is the Genitive Case of—Rose, or—to a Rose, the Dative; for of and to are no Part of the Word Rose, but only prefix Particles or Prepositions, which shew the different Relation of the Word Rose. So likewise when we say Alexander's Horse, the Word Alexander's is not the Genitive Case of Alexander; for strictly speaking the 's is no Part of the Word Alexander but the final Letter of the Pronoun Possessive his, and without the Apostrophe we shou'd read it thus; Alexander his Horse. If any of the Parts of Speech have Cases, the Pronouns have, and some of the Pronouns may perhaps have two; but for the Sake of making every Thing as easy as I can to the Learner, I have taken the Liberty of distinguishing such Pronouns into Prefix and Subsequent, and entirely laid aside Cases as useless and unnecessary. The Latin has Genders, the Adjective in [v] that Language always varying to correspond with the Substantive; but ourAdjectives never vary, and therefore the Distinction of Genders has nothing to do with English Grammar, but is idle, trifling, impertinent.

Experience shews, that this Sort of pedantick Ignorance and Folly, has made that dark and obscure, which it was intended to elucidate, and unhappily puzzled and perplexed a great many more, than it has ever instructed. Every attempt to make English easy must be fruitless, that is not formed upon a different Plan, and such is the following short System of English Grammar.

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A[1]

Short System

OF

English Grammar.


Of  GRAMMAR and it's Divisions.

Grammar is the Science of Letters or Language, and is the Art of Speaking and Writing properly.

It's Divisions are four;

Orthography Analogy
Prosody Syntax

Of  ORTHOGRAPHY.[2]

Orthography comprehends Writing, and Articulation. Articulation treats of Simple Sounds, which are made by the Organs of Speech, and by which we communicate our Ideas and Sentiments to one another. Writing represents the Living Speech, and makes as it were these Sounds and Sentiments visible.


Of  PROSODY.

Prosody treats of Pronunciation with respect of Accent, Time, and Quantity. But as the Science of Letters, Sounds, and Pronunciation is instilled into the Minds of the English Youth very early in Life, and as this Grammar is not intended for the Use of Foreigners, but for them; I shall not trifle away their Time, in teaching them, what they cannot be supposed to be unacquainted with; but proceed to the third Part of Grammar called Analogy.


Of  ANALOGY.[3]

A nalogy is the mutual Relation, or Agreement of Words with one another, and treats of all the Parts of Speech, which in English are nine.

Article Verb Conjunction
Noun Participle Preposition
Pronoun Adverb Interjection

Of An ARTICLE.

An Article is a Part of Speech put before Nouns to ascertain and fix their Vague Signification. There are three Articles, a, an, and the. A and an are Indefinite Articles and applied to Persons or Things indifferently; as an Oyster, a Prince. The Article the distinguishes individually or particularly; as the Oyster, the Prince.


Of a NOUN.[4]

A Noun is a Part of Speech which expresses the Subject spoke of; as Ink, Paper, Witness.

A Noun is either Substantive, or Adjective.

A Noun Substantive is the Name of a Thing considered simply in itself, and without any Regard to it's Qualities; as a Man, a Woman, a Child.

A Noun Adjective is a Word added to the Noun Substantive, expressing the Circumstance or Quality thereof; as a good Man, an old Woman, a young Child.


Of a PRONOUN.

A Pronoun is a Part of Speech substituted in the Place of a Noun, to avoid the frequent and disagreeable Repetition of the same Word; as the Bird is joyous, he chirps, he sings; which without the Pronoun wou'd be thus; the Bird is joyous, the Bird chirps, the Bird sings.

PRONOUNS Personal.[5]

I He Myself I myself
Me Him Yourself You yourself
You She Thyself Thou thyself
Thou Her Himself He himself
Thee One's self Herself She herself

 

PRONOUNS Relative.

Who, whose, whom, what, which.

 

PRONOUNS Demonstrative.

This, that.

 

PRONOUNS Possessive.

My Ours Your Theirs
Mine Thy Yours Her
Our Thine His Hers

Of  NUMBER.

Number expresses the Difference betwixt one Thing and many, and is either Singular or Plural.

[6] When a Thing is considered as single, or a Multitude of Things considered as united together, it is of the Singular Number; as a Man, a Troop.

When several Things are considered as distinct from each other it is of the Plural Number, as Men, Soldiers.

The Plural is usually formed in Noun Substantives by adding s to the Singular; as Article Articles, Noun Nouns.

But when the Pronunciation requires it, or when the Singular ends in s, x, sh, or ch, the Plural is usually formed by adding the Syllable es; as Ass Asses, Fox Foxes, Sash Sashes, Church Churches.

When the Singular ends in f or fe, the Plural is usually form'd by changing the f or fe into ves; as Wife Wives, Self Selves.

Sometimes the Plural is formed by adding the Syllable en; as Ox Oxen; sometimes by changing the Vowel; as Man Men; and sometimes the Vowels and Consonants; as Penny Pence, Mouse Mice, Louse Lice.

[7] Some of the Pronouns form their Plural very irregular; as I We, Me Us, Thou Ye, Thee You, He They, Him Them, She They, Her Them.

Some Nouns have no Singular Number; as Scissors, the East-Indies, the West-Indies.

Some have no Plural; the Names of Kingdoms for Instance; as England, Ireland, Portugal.

Cities, Towns and Villages; as Worcester, Kinver, Hagley.

Seas, and Rivers; as the Mediterranean, Severn.

Wheat, Barley, Gold, Silver, Pewter, and a great many Words, that cannot be reduced to any Rule want the Plural Number; as Ale, Beer, Bread, Butter, Honey, Milk, Hunger, Thirst, Drunkenness.

The Termination of some Nouns is the same both in the Singular and Plural; as a Sheep, a Swine, a Flock of Sheep, a Herd of Swine, &c.


[8]

Of  COMPARISON.

Comparison is the comparing the different Circumstances of Persons or Things with each other, and serves to alter the Signification of a Word, either by a gradual Increase, or a gradual Diminution; as long longer longest, short shorter shortest.

Adjectives, Adverbs, and Substantives, have three Degrees of Comparison, the Positive, the Comparative, and the Superlative.

The Positive lays down the Natural Signification simply and without excess or Diminution; as long, short, often.

The Comparative raises or lowers the Positive in Signification, and is formed of the Positive by adding the Syllable er; as long longer, short shorter, often oftener.

The Superlative raises or lowers the Signification as much as possible, and if formed of the Positive by adding the Syllable [9] est; as long longest, short shortest, often oftenest.

Sometimes they are compared by the Adverbs very, infinitely; and the Adjectives more, most; less, least; as long, very long, infinitely long; short, more short, most short; commonly, less commonly, least commonly.

These Adjectives deviate from the general Rule, good better best, bad worse worst, little less least, much more most.

Substantives are compared by the Adjectives more, most, the Words than, or that, always following; as a Dunce, more a Dunce than I or me, the most a Dunce that ever I did see.


Of a VERB.

A Verb is a Part of Speech, which serves to express, what we affirm of, or attribute to any Subject, and is either Active or Passive.

A Verb Active is that which expresses an Action; as I kick, I see.

A Verb Passive is that which receives the Action or expresses the Passion; as I am kick'd, I am seen.

[10] A Verb has two Numbers the Singular and the Plural; and three Persons in each Number; as I am, thou art, he is. We are, ye are, they are.

The same is to be observed in every Mood and in every Tense but in the Infinitive, which has neither Number nor Person.


Of  MOODS.

A mood is the Manner of conjugating Verbs agreeably to the different Actions or Affections to be expressed.

There are four Moods, the Indicative, the Imperative, the Conjunctive, and the Infinitive.

The Indicative Mood expresseth the Action or Passion simply directly and absolutely; as I love, I have loved, I will love.

The Imperative commands or forbids; as come, go, begone.

[11] The Conjunctive expresses the Action or Passion conditionally and is always joined with the Indicative, or the same Mood; as I will love you, if you wou'd love me; I wou'd dance, if you wou'd dance.

The Infinitive expresses the Action or Passion indeterminately without any Regard to Time, Place, Number, or Person; as to love, to be loved.


Of the TENSES.

Tense is an Inflection of Verbs, whereby they are made to signify, and distinguish the Circumstance of Time.

There are five Tenses, the Present Tense, the Preterimperfect, the Preterperfect, the Preterpluperfect, and the Future.

1. The Present Tense expresses the Time, that now is; as I sup.

2. The Preterimperfect Tense denotes the historical Relation of a past Action, but yet not perfectly compleated, when [12] joined to another Action that is perfectly compleated; as when or while I supped he came in.

3. The Preterperfect Tense expresses the Time Past perfectly; as I have supped.

4. The Preterpluperfect Tense expresses the Time Past doubly; as I had supped.

5. The Future Tense expresses the Time to come; as I shall sup, I will sup.


Of the CONJUGATION.

Conjugation is the Variation of Verbs through all their Moods and Tenses; and the English Verbs are chiefly conjugated by auxiliary Signs; as to love; or by auxiliary Verbs; as I am loved, I have loved.

Decoration

[13]

Of the AUXILIARY Signs.

T he auxiliary Signs are Words that serve to express the Variations of the Verb.

The Imperative Mood has the Signs do, let; as—do thou love, let him love.

The Infinitive Mood has the Signs to, about; as to love, about to love.

The other Moods have the auxiliary Signs following.

Singular
 
  { I do, did, must, may,
1st Person { can, might, wou'd, cou'd,
  { shou'd, shall, or will.
 
  { Thou do'st, did'st, must,
2d Person { may'st, can'st, might'st,
  { wou'd'st, cou'd'st, shou'd'st,
  { shalt or wilt.
 
[14]
  { He does, or do'th, did, must,
3d Person { may, can, might, wou'd,
  { cou'd, shou'd, shall, or
  { will.
 
Plural
 
  { We do, did, must, may,
1st Person { can, might, wou'd, cou'd,
  { shou'd, shall, or will.
 
  { Ye do, did, must, may,
2d Person { can, might, wou'd, cou'd,
  { shou'd, shall or will.
 
  { They do, did, must, may,
3d Person { can, might, wou'd, cou'd,
  { shou'd, shall or will.

Of the Auxiliary VERBS.

The auxiliary Verbs are only two, to Have and to Be; which cannot be conjugated without the auxiliary Signs, [15] and without the reciprocal Assistance of each other.

To HAVE.

Indicative MOOD.

Present Tense.

Sing. I have; thou hast; he hath, or has. Plur. We have; ye have; they have.

Preterimperfect Tense.

Sing. I had; thou hadst; he had. Plur. We had; ye had; they had.

Preterperfect Tense.

Sing. I have had; thou hast had; he hath, or has had. Plur. We have had; ye have had; they have had.

[16]

Preterpluperfect Tense.

Sing. I had had; thou hadst had; he had had. Plur. We had had; ye had had; they had had.

Future Tense.

Sing. I shall, or will have; thou shalt, or wilt have; he shall, or will have. Plur. We shall, or will have; ye shall, or will have; they shall, or will have.

Imperative MOOD.

Present and Future.

Sing. Let me have; do thou have, or have thou; let him have. Plur. Let us have; do ye have, or have ye; let them have.

Conjunctive MOOD.

Present Tense.

Sing. I may, or can have; thou may'st, or can'st have; he may, or can have. [17] Plur. We may, or can have; ye may, or can have; they may, or can have.

Preterimperfect Tense.

Sing. I must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd have; thou must, might'st, woud'st, coud'st, or shoud'st have; he must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd have. Plur. We must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd have; ye must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd have; they must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd have.

Preterperfect Tense.

Sing. I must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd have had; thou must, might'st, wou'd'st, cou'd'st, or shou'd'st have had; he must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd have had. Plur. We must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd have had; ye must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd have had; they must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd have had.

[18]

Preterpluperfect Tense.

Sing. I must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd had had; thou must, might'st, wou'd'st, cou'd'st, or shou'd'st had had; he must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd had had; Plur. We must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd had had; ye must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd had had; they must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd had had.

Future Tense.

Sing. I shall, or will have had; thou shalt, or wilt have had; he shall, or will have had; Plur. We shall, or will have had; ye shall, or will have had; they shall, or will have had.

Infinitive MOOD.

[19]

Participles.


To BE.

Indicative MOOD.

Present Tense.

Sing. I am; thou art; he is. Plur. We are; ye are; they are.

Preterimperfect Tense.

Sing. I was; thou wast; he was; Plur. We were; ye were; they were.

Preterperfect Tense.

Sing. I have been; thou hast been; he hath been. Plur. We have been; ye have been; they have been.

Preterpluperfect Tense.

Sing. I had been; thou hadst been; [20] he had been. Plur. We had been; ye had been; they had been.

Future Tense.

Sing. I shall, or will be; thou shalt, or wilt be; he shall, or will be. Plur. We shall, or will be; ye shall, or will be; they shall, or will be.

Imperative MOOD.

Present and Future.

Sing. Let me be; do thou be, or be thou; let him be. Plur. Let us be; do ye be, or be ye; let them be.

Conjunctive MOOD.

Present Tense.

Sing. I may, or can be; thou may'st, or canst be; he may, or can be. Plur. We may, or can be; ye may, or can be; they may, or can be.

[21]

Preterimperfect Tense.

Sing. I must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd be; thou must, might'st, wou'd'st, cou'd'st, or shou'd'st be; he must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd be. Plur. We must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd be; ye must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd be; they must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd be.

Preterperfect Tense.

Sing. I must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd have been; thou must, might'st, wou'd'st, cou'd'st, or shou'd'st have been; he must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd, have been. Plur. We must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd have been; ye must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd have been; they must, might, wou'd cou'd, or shou'd have been.

Preterpluperfect Tense.

Sing. I must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd have had been; thou must, might'st, wou'd'st, cou'd'st, or shou'd'st, [22] have had been; he must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd have had been. Plur. We must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd have had been; ye must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd have had been; they must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd have had been.

Future Tense.

Sing. I shall, or will have been; thou shalt, or wilt have been; he shall or will have been. Plur. We shall, or will have been; ye shall, or will have been; they shall, or will have been.

Infinitive MOOD.

PARTICIPLES.


[23]

Of  Regular VERBS.

Regular Verbs are those that are conjugated by some established Rules.

The Termination of the Infinitive Mood Present Tense, of the Verb Active, in regular Verbs, is always the same as the first Person of the Indicative Mood Present Tense singular; as to love, I love.

The Termination of the second Person Singular is formed out of the first by adding st or est; as I love, thou lovest; I read, thou readest.

The Termination of the third Person singular is formed out of the first by adding th or eth; as I love, he loveth, I read, he readeth; or only by adding s; as he loves, he reads.

The Termination of the first Person Preterimperfect Tense singular, is formed out [24] of the first Person Present Tense singular by adding the Syllable ed; as I love, I loved.

The Termination of the Participle Present of the Verb Active, is always formed out of the first Person Present by adding the Syllable ing; as I love, loving.

The Termination of the Preterimperfect, the Preterperfect, and the Preterpluperfect of the Indicative Mood; and the Preterperfect, the Preterpluperfect and the Future of the Conjunctive, and the Participle Passive is in regular Verbs the same; as I loved, I have loved, I had loved, I may have loved, I might have loved, I shall have loved, I am loved. And

The Termination of every other Tense, Number or Person, is the same with the Infinitive.


[25]

Of a VERB Active.

A Verb Active regular is conjugated by the auxiliary Signs, the auxiliary Verbs, and the general Rules foregoing.

To LOVE.

Indicative MOOD.

Present Tense.

Sing. I love, or do love; thou lovest, or dost love; he loveth, or loves, or doth love. Plur. We love, or do love; ye love, or do love; they love, or do love.

Preterimperfect Tense.

Sing. I loved, or did love; thou loved'st, or did'st love; he loved, or did love. Plur. we loved, or did love; ye loved, or did love; they loved, or did love.

Preterperfect Tense.

Sing. I have loved; thou hast loved; [26] he hath loved, or has loved. Plur. We have loved; ye have loved; they have loved.

Preterpluperfect Tense.

Sing. I had loved; thou hadst loved; he had loved. Plur. We had loved; ye had loved; they had loved.

Future Tense.

Sing. I shall, or will love; thou shalt, or wilt love; he shall, or will love. Plur. We shall, or will love; ye shall, or will love; they shall, or will love.

Imperative MOOD.

Present and Future.

Sing. Let me love; do thou love, or love thou; let him love. Plur. Let us love; do ye love, or love ye; let them love.

[27]

Conjunctive MOOD.

Present Tense.

Sing. I may, or can love; thou may'st, or can'st love; he may, or can love. Plur. We may, or can love; ye may, or can love; they may, or can love.

Preterimperfect Tense.

Sing. I must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd love; thou must, might'st, wou'd'st, cou'd'st, or shou'd'st love; he must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd love. Plur. We must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd love; ye must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd love; they must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd love.

Preterperfect Tense.

Sing. I must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd have loved; thou must, might'st, wou'd'st, cou'd'st, or shou'd'st have loved; he must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd have loved. Plur. We must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd have loved; ye [28] must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd have loved; they must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd have loved.

Preterpluperfect Tense.

Sing. I must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd have had loved; thou must, might'st, wou'd'st, cou'd'st, or shou'd'st have had loved; he must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd have had loved. Plur. We must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd have had loved; ye must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd have had loved; they must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd have had loved.

Future Tense.

Sing. I shall, or will have loved; thou shalt, or wilt have loved; he shall, or will have loved. Plur. We shall, or will have loved; ye shall, or will have loved; they shall, or will have loved.

[29]

Infinitive MOOD.

Participles.


Of a VERB Passive.

The Verb Passive is nothing more than the Participle Passive joined to the Auxiliary Verb to be; as

Indicative MOOD.

Present Tense I am loved; &c.
Preterimperfect I was loved; &c.
Preterperfect I have been loved; &c.
Preterpluperfect I had been loved; &c.
Future I shall or will be loved; &c.

[30]

Imperative MOOD.

Present and Future.

Let me be loved &c.

Conjunctive MOOD.

Present Tense.

Sing. I may, or can be loved; thou &c.

Preterimperfect Tense.

Sing. I must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd be loved; thou &c.

Preterperfect Tense.

Sing. I must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd have been loved; thou &c.

Preterpluperfect Tense.

Sing. I must, might, wou'd, cou'd, or shou'd have had been loved; thou &c.

Future Tense.

Sing. I shall, or will have been loved; thou &c.

[31]

Infinitive MOOD.

Participles.


Of a PARTICIPLE.

A Participle is a Part of Speech, which partaketh of a Verb and a Noun. When it has a Relation to Time it may be considered as a Verb; but when it is joined to a Substantive or admits of Comparison, it may be considered as an Adjective.

When the termination of the Participle Passive is not formed by adding the Syllable ed to the first Person of the Indicative Mood Present Tense Singular; or when the Termination of the Participle Passive differs from the Termination of the Preter [32] Tenses, the Verb becomes irregular; but in all other Respects is conjugated as the regular Verb; as I abide, thou abidest, &c.

Pres. Tense. Preter. Participle Passive.
Abide Abode Abode
Bite Bit Bitten
Catch Caught Catched
Do Did Done
Eat Eat Eaten
Fall Fell Fallen
Get Got Gotten
Hold Held Holden
Know Knew Known
Lie Lay Laid
Make Made Made
Rise Rose Risen
Shine Shone Shined
Tread Trod Trodden
Weave Wove Woven
&c. &c. &c.

To these may be added the Auxiliary Verbs —— To Have, and to Be.


[33]

Of an ADVERB.

An Adverb is a Part of Speech joined to a Verb, a Noun Substantive, an Adjective or Participle, and sometimes to another Adverb, to express the Manner or Circumstance of the Thing signified; as he speaks properly, an orderly Man, truly good, extreamly loving, very devoutly.

Adverbs are very numerous, and have Relation to

Time; as now, lately, always.

Place; as here, there, no-where.

Order; as by Turns, abreast, orderly.

Quantity; as enough, more, entirely.

Number; as once, twice, thrice.

Doubting; as perhaps, may be, peradventure.

Asking; as why? whence? wherefore?.

Affirmation; as yes, indeed, certainly.

Negation; as no, never, not at all.

Comparison; as more, less, likewise.

Quality; as justly, prudently, indifferently.


[34]

Of a CONJUNCTION.

A Conjunction is a Part of Speech, which serves to connect and join the several Parts of a Discourse together, and is of various Kinds.

Copulative; as and, also, moreover.

Disjunctive; as or, neither, whether.

Adversative; as but, yet, notwithstanding.

Conditional; as if, unless, provided.

Casual; as for, because, forasmuch.

Conclusive; as then, so that, therefore.


Of a PREPOSITION.

A Preposition is a Part of Speech, that serves to express the particular Relation and Circumstance of some other Part of Speech, and is either used in Apposition, as in Heaven; or in Composition, as Invisible.

[35]

Prepositions used in Apposition.

Above between of
about betwixt on
after beyond over
against by through
among for throughout
amongst from towards
at in under
before into unto
behind near upon
beneath near to with
below nigh within
beside nigh to without.

 

Prepositions used in Composition.

A-base ap-point
ab-use as-certain
abs-tract at-taint
ac-commodate be-friend
ad-apt circum-ambient
af-fix co-adjutor
after-noon com-pound
amphi-theatre com-plot
ante-date con-strain
anti-christ contra-diction
an-archy counter-balance.[36]
de-camp op-pression
Dis-appoint over-reach
dif-fusive out-landish
di-minish per-form
e-mission post-master
em-brace pre-eminence
en-close preter-natural
es-say pro-long
ex-terminate re-gain
extra-ordinary retro-grade
for-bear sub-join
fore-see super-fine
im-perfect trans-migration
in-glorious un-worthy
inter-view under-written
intro-duction up-right
ob-noxious with-draw
off-spring &c., &c., &c.

Of an INTERJECTION.

An Interjection is a Part of Speech, that serves to express some sudden Motion or Passion of the Mind, transported with the Sensation of Pleasure or Pain.

[37]

Of Pleasure; as, O brave! O Heavens! O Joy!

Of Pain; as Alas! O my God! O Lord!

Interjections of a lower Order.

Of Caution; as, hold! take Care!

Of Admiration; as, see! look! behold!

Of Aversion; as, fie! away you Fool!

Of Silence; as, be still! Silence!


Of  SYNTAX.

Syntax is the Manner of constructing one Word with another prescribed by the Rules of GRAMMAR.

Rule 1st.

The Article a is usually placed before a Word that begins with a Consonant, [38] the Article an before a Word that begins with a Vowel, and either a or an before a Word that begins with an h; and the Article the, before a Word that begins either with a Vowel or a Consonant; as, a Christian, an Infidel, a Heathen, or an Heathen; the Christian, the Infidel, the Heathen.

Rule 2d.

A Noun Substantive is usually placed after its Noun Adjective; as the Second Chapter, a great Man. But sometimes for the Sake of greater Distinction the Adjective is placed after, with the Article the before it, as George the Second, Peter the Great. In Poetry the Adjective is placed either before or after its Substantive indifferently, as the Versification requires it.

Rule 3d.

All Nouns and Pronouns are of the third Person except I and we, which are of the first Person, and Thou, you and ye, which are of the Second Person; and except [39] the Relative Pronouns which are always of the same Person with the Personal Pronoun to which they relate; as I love, thou lovest, he loveth; I who love, Thou who lovest, he who loveth.

Rule 4th.

The prefix Pronouns, I, we, thou, you, ye, he, she, they, who, are usually placed before the Verb; and the Subsequent Pronouns, me, us, thee, him, her, them, whom, are usually placed after; as I love the Dog, the Dog loves me. But when a Question is asked, or when the Verb is of the Imperative Mood, or in short Sentences, the prefix Pronouns are usually placed after; as lovest thou me? love thou thyself, said he, said they.

Rule 5th.

When a Question is asked, and the Verb has an Auxiliary Sign, or an Auxiliary Verb, the governing Noun or Pronoun is placed immediately after such Auxiliary; as does the Sun shine? has he washed his [40] Hands? And when the Verb has two or more Auxiliaries, the Noun or Pronoun is placed after the first; as have I been taught? Cou'd the Truth have been known?

Rule 6th.

The Verb agrees with its governing Noun, Pronoun Personal, or Pronoun Relative, in Number and Person; as the Birds sing, thou lovest, he who loveth.

Rule 7th.

A Noun of Multitude may have a Verb either Singular or Plural; as the People is mad, or the People are mad.

But if a Substantive of the same Signification follows, that is not a Noun of Multitude, then the Verb is always Plural; as we do not say the People is a mad Man, but the People are mad Men.

Rule 8th.

Two or more Nouns or Pronouns Singular, will have a Verb Plural; as the Dog and Cat are very loving. But when [41] two or more Substantives Singular signify the same Thing or Person, or when the Preposition OF intervenes, the Verb is always Singular; as the River Severn is Navigable. William the Conqueror was a great Man. This System of Grammar is compendious.

Rule 9th.

The subsequent Pronouns are usually placed after Prepositions and Interjections; as of me, to us, for thee, with her, from them, against whom, O me!


Of the POINTS or PAUSES.

The Points or Pauses have a Sort of musical Proportion.

The Period is marked thus (.)——Its Time is equal to two Colons and is never placed but at the End of a Sentence, the Sense of which is perfect and compleat; as By me Kings reign, and Princes decree Justice.

[42] The Colon is marked thus (:) —— Its Time is equal to two Semicolons, and is placed where the Sense seems to be perfect and compleat; but to which notwithstanding something may still be added; as give Instruction to a wise Man, and he will be yet wiser: Teach a just Man and he will increase in Learning.

The Semicolon is marked thus (;) —— its Time is equal to two Commas, and is placed where the Sense is less compleat than the Colon, and more compleat than the Comma; as a wise Man's Heart is at his right Hand; but a Fool's Heart is at his left.

The Comma is marked thus (,) —— It is the last and least Pause or Time that is made use of, and serves to distinguish the simple Numbers of a Period; as arise, my Friend, and come away.


Of the other Notes or Characters.

A Note of Interrogation (?) is used when a Question is asked; as who comes there?

[43] A Note of Admiration (!) is used after Interjections or short Sentences to express our Wonder and Surprize; as O! O Lord!

A Parenthesis (rarely made use of by a good Writer) is used to inclose one Sentence within another.

The Paragraph is marked thus (¶) and denotes the beginning of a new Discourse.

An (') Apostrophe is used when some Part of a Word is left out; as Alexander's Horse, for Alexander his Horse.

A Hyphen (-) is used to join together two Words, as Foot-stool, &c. and is used also when part of a Word is written in one Line, and part in another.

The Caret is marked thus, (^) to shew where the Words in any Sentence that are left out, shou'd come in; as

the Lady The word "is" cenntered above a caret beautiful.

[44] The Subdivision, or part of a Chapter is marked usually thus, §.

The Index points to some remarkable Passage thus, Finger pointing to the right

A Quotation is a double Comma reverse and set against some Lines on the left side of a Page, to shew that they are quoted from another Author, thus, ".

The Notes that refer to the Margin are an Asterisk made thus, *, an Obelisk thus, †, also thus, ||.

Besides these there are literal Characters, numeral Characters, and Abbreviations, the Knowledge of which is not so easily to be acquired by Grammar Rules, as by diligent Observation and Experience.


The   E   N   D.






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