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Title: Norfolk Annals
       A Chronological Record of Remarkable Events in the Nineteeth Century, Vol. 2


Author: Charles Mackie



Release Date: May 23, 2011  [eBook #36206]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-646-US (US-ASCII)


***START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK NORFOLK ANNALS***

Transcribed from the 1901 edition by David Price, email ccx074@pglaf.org.  Many thanks to Norfolk and Norwich Millennium Library, UK, for allowing their copy to be used for this transcription.

NORFOLK ANNALS

CHRONOLOGICAL RECORD OF REMARKABLE EVENTS IN THE
NINETEENTH CENTURY

(Compiled from the files of theNorfolk Chronicle”)

BY
CHARLES MACKIE

 

VOLUME II.

1851–1900

 

“It is beyond the capacity of the human intellect to discriminate beforehand between what is valuable and what is valueless in the pursuit of historical research.  What would we give now for newspapers and trade circulars illustrating the social habits of many bygone times and peoples?”—The Times, May 4, 1900.

 

[Entered at Stationers’ Hall]

1901
Printed at the Office of the “Norfolk Chronicle” Market Place Norwich

p. vPREFACE.

In the terms of the publishers’ announcement the two volumes of “Norfolk Annals” were to have contained 800 pages; the work has really exceeded that estimate by 255 pages.

Although the period from 1851 to 1900 was marked by many incidents of great importance in the history of Norfolk and Norwich, the record thereof in Volume II. of “Norfolk Annals” lacks several of the features which made Volume I. acceptable to the lover of folk lore and to the student of local events in the earlier days of the Nineteenth Century.  If, however, the present volume be less interesting than Volume I., it may yet be useful for the verification of the dates of occurrences regarding which the public memory is proverbially shortlived and unreliable.

p. viiCORRIGENDA.

Page 40, fourth line of fifth paragraph, for “56 seconds” read “2 minutes 56 seconds.”

p. ixADDITIONAL SUBSCRIBERS.

George Cubitt, Tombland, Norwich.

H. R. Ladell, Aylsham Road, North Walsham.

Arnold H. Miller, The Guildhall, Norwich.

H. Newhouse, Bella Vista, Thorpe Road, Norwich.

Colonel H. T. S. Patteson, Beeston St. Andrew Hall.

Simms Reeve, 29, Thorpe Road, Norwich.

The Earl of Rosebery, K.G., K.T., 38, Berkley Square, London, W.

T. O. Springfield, The Rookery, Swainsthorpe.

F. Oddin Taylor, St. Ethelbert, Norwich.

Arthur Wolton, 78, Borough High Street, London, S.E.

p. 1NORFOLK ANNALS.
VOLUME II.
1851–1900.

[Note.—Marginal dates distinguished by an asterisk are dates of publication, not of occurrence.]

1851.

JANUARY.

2.—Died at Shipdham, Mary, widow of Mr. Henry Tash, farmer, in the hundredth year of her age.

3.—At the Norfolk Court of Quarter Sessions a report was presented upon the expenditure of the county, into which a committee had inquired in consequence of representations made at public meetings in various districts, to the effect that the ratepayers were unable to control the finances.  The Court passed a resolution affirming that the evidence given before the committee had tended to prove that the financial affairs of the county had been conducted by the Court of Quarter Sessions with proper attention to economy, with just regard to the public interests, and with the publicity required by law.

18.*—“A few days since the steeple of Drayton church fell to the ground with a tremendous crash, the lead which covered the falling mass being completely buried in the débris.”

20.—A prolonged magisterial inquiry took place at Reepham, into disturbances at Lenwade arising out of the Wesleyan schism.  Two parish constables, Samuel Fairman and John Elliott, were fined for refusing to perform their duty when requested by the Rev. C. Povah.  At Aylsham Petty Sessions, on February 4th, four persons were charged with disturbing the Wesleyan congregation at Cawston on January 19th, and three were committed for trial at the Quarter Sessions.  One of the defendants, Elizabeth Southgate, was ordered by the Court, on March 13th, to pay a penalty of £40; the other two were discharged on their own recognisances to appear at the next Quarter Sessions.  A singular case arising from the same disruption came p. 2before the Vice-Chancellor, Lord Cranworth, on May 7th.  The relators and plaintiffs were the Rev. William Worker and the Rev. George Badcock, and the defendants the trustees of two deeds dated 1814 and 1837, declaring the trusts of the Methodist chapel at Holt subject to the trusts of a deed executed in 1784 by John Wesley, by which the Wesleyan body was organized.  The funds for building the chapel were advanced in 1814 by Mr. Hardy, who, in 1821, received from the trustees a mortgage of the chapel to secure his advances, which amounted to about £700.  In 1833 the debt was reduced to £350.  The congregation having increased, it was determined, in 1837, to build a new chapel, and a site was purchased and conveyed to the trustees upon the trusts of a deed of another chapel, prepared in 1832, and known to the Methodist body as the “model deed,” to which all subsequent deeds were conformable.  By the trusts then declared, such persons only were to be permitted to preach as should be duly approved by a Methodist body called the Conference.  Mr. Hardy assisted in advancing money to build the new chapel, and received as security a mortgage on the chapel.  When the schism occurred it was alleged that the majority of the trustees of the chapels mortgaged were among the schismatics, who now called themselves Wesleyan Reformers, and that they had all formed a scheme of wresting the chapels from the preachers appointed by the Conference.  The defendant united with the character of mortgagee those of acting trustee and treasurer of the two chapels, and it was alleged that he was using his powers as mortgagee, and had publicly recommended others to do the same—most of the Wesleyan chapels being mortgaged—for the purpose of carrying the general scheme into effect, and thus to deprive the Conference of the old body of Methodists of the use of their chapels.  Mr. Hardy accordingly advertised the chapels for sale, and actually sold the old chapel, which was then in possession of the Reformers for their preachers.  Similar proceedings by ejectment were resorted to by a person named Hill, to whom Mr. Hardy had transferred his second mortgage, for the recovery of the new chapel, and led to the filing of this information, which disputed the propriety of the transactions.  His lordship was of opinion that Mr. Hardy, as mortgagee, had a right to assert a title adverse to the trust, and to transfer his mortgage to Hill.  It might be proper to appoint new trustees in the place of those who had ceased to have any sympathy with the religious body from which they had seceded, but there was no ground for immediate interference.  The motion was therefore refused, and there was no order as to costs.

20.—A great Protestant meeting was held at the Assembly Rooms, Norwich, under the presidency of Mr. Samuel Bignold, at which were adopted addresses to the Queen and the Archbishop of Canterbury, protesting against the aggression of the Pope, and condemning the Tractarian movement in the Church of England.

FEBRUARY.

1.—Douglas’s Theatrical Company, which performed in several of the towns previously visited by the Norfolk and Suffolk Company of Comedians for so many years under the management of the Fishers, concluded a successful season at East Dereham.  “Those who have witnessed the performances have been agreeably surprised at finding so great an amount of talent in an itinerant company.”

p. 33.—Died at Lynn, Mr. James Smith, many years manager of the Theatre Royal, Norwich.  He was in his 74th year.

11.—A performance of “Speed the Plough” was given at the Theatre Royal, Norwich, for the benefit of Mr. George Bennett, the “Father of the Norwich Stage,” and “a member of the company in the palmy days of the drama in the city.”  Mr. Bennett appeared in the character of Farmer Ashfield.  “The Mayor gave his patronage, and in every part of the dress circle were to be recognised parties of high respectability, including the old familiar faces of those who, thirty or forty years ago, were wont to uphold and maintain the then palmy but now very depressed cause of legitimate drama.”  The night’s receipts amounted to upwards of £90.

—The Norwich Town Council resolved to petition the House of Commons for the total repeal of the Window-tax.

18.—Mr. Peter Master Yarington was presented with a silver salver and a purse of 283 sovs., in recognition of his efficient discharge of duty as Superintendent of the Norwich Police.  He was appointed Governor of the City Gaol on July 31st, and was succeeded as head of the police force by Mr. Dunne, formerly of the Kent constabulary.  Mr. Yarington died, in his 41st year, on July 21st, 1852, and on October 19th of that year Mr. Robert Campling was appointed Governor of the gaol.

19.—Mr. Albert Smith gave his “new literary, pictorial, and musical entertainment,” entitled, “The Overland Mail,” at the Assembly Rooms, Norwich.

22.—A serious riot occurred at Yarmouth.  Samuel Graystone, mate of the Ant, from Yarmouth to Plymouth, had signed articles to go the voyage, but was forcibly prevented by seamen from boarding his ship.  Masters of other vessels complained to the magistrates that they had been subjected to similar treatment.  The staff of the East Norfolk Militia and the Coastguard were called out to keep the riotous seamen in check, and two troops of the 11th Hussars were conveyed by special trains from Norwich to assist in quelling the disturbance.  The cavalry rode through the town, and quickly cleared the streets.  “The rioters, frightened by the mere appearance of the troops, flew in every direction up the narrow rows of the town, and in a few hours tranquillity was restored.”  It was stated that, but for the timely arrival of the troops, a body of Gorleston seamen would have made an attack upon the town.  Several of the rioters were tried at the Quarter Sessions on March 6th, when, to the surprise of the Court, a verdict of not guilty was returned.

26.—Died at his family seat, Kirby Hall, the Hon. and Rev. Lord Berners.  “He succeeded to the title and estates on the death of his brother Robert, Lord Berners, better known in the sporting world as Col. Wilson.  He only attended at the House of Lords on a few occasions, one of which was to vote for the Reform Bill; but though absent in person, his proxy was always given to the support of the Whigs, of which, through life, he was a firm and constant supporter.”

—An exhibition of hawking was given on Hellesdon Brakes, near Norwich, by Mr. Barr, the celebrated Scottish falconer.  Many hundreds of persons were present.  Mr. Barr used four young hawks of the peregrine species.  They were flown at pigeons which were let loose, and in two hours two dozen were brought to the ground.  “The p. 4first two or three were so frightened, that when pursued by the hawk they took refuge among the people, and one of them alighted on the back of a horse, and was taken by hand.”  Mr. Barr gave a second exhibition on March 10th, on Mr. George Gowing’s land at Trowse.

MARCH.

9.—A fire occurred at the office of the “Norwich Mercury,” Castle Street, Norwich.  The roof of the building fell in, and the compositors’ room, with most of the cases of type, was destroyed.

13.—Dr. White, the eminent translator of “D’Aubigné’s History,” delivered, in the old Council Chamber at the Guildhall, Norwich, a lecture on “The Causes and Consequences of the Reformation.”

27.—At the Norfolk Assizes, before Lord Chief Justice Jervis, the libel action, Abbott v. Bacon and Another, was tried.  The defendants published a statement in the “Norwich Mercury,” to the effect that the plaintiff, a superintendent of the County Constabulary at East Dereham, had stolen certain articles from the shop of Mr. Abram, a chemist and druggist in that town.  The jury assessed the damages at one farthing.  On April 16th a motion was made in the Court of Exchequer for a new trial, on the ground of misdirection of the jury, and a rule nisi was granted.  At a meeting held at the Norfolk Hotel, on April 5th, it was resolved, “That the recent trial offered a most painful illustration of the gross injustice which may be inflicted upon the editor of a newspaper who honestly and fearlessly comments on matters of general interest,” and a public subscription was opened to recoup the proprietors of the “Mercury” the loss they had sustained by their successful vindication of the liberty of the Press.  In the Court of Exchequer, on June 27th, both sides agreed to a verdict being entered for one farthing damages.

28.—George Baldry (33) was found guilty, at the Norfolk Assizes, before Mr. Justice Erle, of murdering Caroline Warnes, at Thurlton, by striking her on the head with a hammer.  The sentence of death was commuted to transportation for life.

29.—At the Norwich Assizes, before Mr. Justice Erle, John Whitley Cooper and Edmund Slingsby Drury Long, solicitors, and Frederick Goose, dealer, were indicted for unlawfully conspiring to obtain, by false pretences, from Sarah Roberts Tooke, widow, divers goods, furniture, and effects, with intent to defraud.  Cooper was at the time undergoing sentence of twelve months’ imprisonment, passed upon him at Norwich Quarter Sessions on December 31st, 1850, for fraud.  He was now sentenced to two years’ imprisonment in the Common Gaol; Long was acquitted, and Goose, who had absconded, forfeited his recognisances.  The victim of this conspiracy, said the Judge, had been reduced from a position of respectability to one of absolute ruin.

APRIL.

12.—Mr. Fred Phillips, while performing the part of Rob Roy at Norwich Theatre, fell from a “fictitious precipice” and sustained a compound fracture of the bones of the leg “implicating the ankle p. 5joint.”  He was removed to the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, and “upon a consultation among the surgeons it was deemed necessary to amputate the lower extremity of the bone, an operation which was borne with heroic fortitude by the poor sufferer.”  A performance was given at the Theatre on May 6th for the benefit of Mr. Phillips, when Mr. George Bennett made his last appearance on the stage, in the part of Farmer Ashfield, and Mrs. Phillips sustained the character of Miss Blandford in “The Ladies’ Club.”  Mr. Phillips received a second benefit on April 20th, 1852, and on July 9th, 1853, announced that he had taken the Boar’s Head Inn, Surrey Street.

23.—The headquarters of the 11th Hussars, commanded by the Earl of Cardigan, marched from Norwich Barracks for Nottingham, and were succeeded on the 25th by the 2nd Dragoon Guard’s (Queen’s Bays).

—Samuel Woodhouse, of Plumstead, and William Pyle, of Holt, were buried alive in a well 115 feet deep, at Docking, by the falling in of 36 feet of soil.  “Some of the inhabitants proposed to fill up the well and let them remain in it, stating that the same thing had been done at Tittleshall, where an inquest was held at the mouth of the well and the body or bodies remain there to this day.”  Efforts were made, however, to recover the bodies.  That of Pyle was found on May 14th, and of Woodhouse on the 15th.  “Though the bodies had been buried exactly three weeks, on their being brought to the surface and moved about blood flowed freely from both of them.”

30.—Died, aged 78, Mr. Richard Slann, of Southtown, Great Yarmouth, historical engraver to her Majesty the Queen.

MAY.

3.—The Census returns for the city of Norwich were published.  The number of inhabited houses was 14,990, of uninhabited 339, and in course of building 101.  The population was 68,706, of whom 31,213 were males, and 37,493 females.

4.—A pauper named John Rowland, who had had a remarkable career, died at Lynn Workhouse.  He was educated at Eton, and was afterwards a Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge.  Ordained deacon and priest by Bishop Horsley, he officiated at St. James’s, Westminster, and went out to St. Petersburg as chaplain to the Embassy.  Subsequently he either threw off his gown or had it taken from him, and became a blacksmith and coach-spring maker in Norfolk Street, Lynn.  He was apprehended, tried, and transported for stealing iron, the property of Mr. Bottomley, of South Gates, in that town.  At the expiration of his term of transportation he returned to Lynn, made a settlement in the town, and was for several years an inmate of the Workhouse.  He died at the advanced age of 78 years.

12.—Died, at the age of 63, at his residence, the Close, Norwich, Mr. William Ollett, “who obtained justly-deserved eminence as a carver of wood for ecclesiastical purposes, and whose skill was called into requisition in most of the cathedrals of this kingdom.”

JUNE.

5.—The “members of Reffley” celebrated the 62nd anniversary of p. 6the building of their temple, “the society having existed before the memory of the oldest inhabitant” (of Lynn).

21.—The hand of a female was found in Miss Martineau’s plantation, Martineau’s Lane, Norwich, by a lad named Charles Johnson.  Other portions of human remains were discovered between this date and the end of the month, in various suburbs of the city, namely, at Lakenham, Hellesdon, Mile Cross, &c.  The remains were deposited at the Guildhall, where they were examined by Mr. Nichols, Mr. D. Dalrymple, and Mr. Norgate, surgeons, who pronounced them to be those of an adult female.  (See January, 1869.)

JULY.

12.—The Yarmouth magistrates issued a warrant “to apprehend the bodies of George Danby Palmer and James Cherry, charged on the oath of William Norton Burroughes with being about to commit a breach of the peace by fighting a duel.”  The incident arose out of an extraordinary scene at a public meeting, where “Mr. Palmer gave the lie to Mr. Cherry.”

14.—Died at Rackheath Hall, in his 83rd year, Sir Edward Hardinge John Stracey, second baronet.  He was born in India, came to this country as a boy, and was educated at Norwich Grammar School and Christ Church, Oxford.  He was subsequently called to the Bar, was for a time Clerk of the House of Commons, and succeeded his uncle, Mr. Hardinge Stracey, as counsel to the Chairmen of Committees of the House of Lords on Mr. Pitt’s appointment to office.  For several years he was Chairman of Quarter Sessions for Cheshire, and a magistrate for that county as well as for Norfolk and Suffolk.

26.—At the Norfolk Assizes, before Lord Chief Baron Pollock and a special jury, was tried the action, Baldry v. Ellis.  This was an issue directed to be tried by the late Master of the Rolls, and involved the disposal of a sum of about £25,000.  The jury had to decide whether one Bailey Bird, deceased, who contracted marriage in the year 1818, was competent to make that contract.  A large number of witnesses deposed that Bird was of perfectly sound mind at the time of his marriage; an equally large number, including several medical men, asserted that he was an idiot.  The jury were of opinion that Bird was not of sound mind at the time of the celebration of his marriage, and returned a verdict for the defendant.

28.—Henry Groom (42) was indicted at the Norfolk Assizes, before Mr. Justice Cresswell, for the murder of John Ayton, by shooting him with a pistol, at Burnham Thorpe, on July 4th.  He was executed on the Castle Hill, Norwich, on August 16th.

AUGUST.

8.—The steeple of St. Cuthbert’s, Thetford, fell upon the roof of the church, carrying away one of the arches and destroying the organ.

9.*—“A letter from Philadelphia, of the 16th ult., announces the death of Mr. Davenport, formerly lessee of the theatres on the Norwich circuit.  He had been making a successful tour in the United States with his talented daughter.  He died a few days before, at Cincinnati.”

p. 716.—On this date was published an extract from the “New York Express,” giving particulars of a confession of murder by a private named Thomson, belonging to the 1st Royals, then stationed at Halifax, North America.  He stated that when at Norwich eight years previously he was on terms of intimacy with a woman.  A quarrel had occurred between them, and he had thrown her into a canal.  The crime had so preyed upon his mind that he determined to give himself up to justice and allow the law to take its course.  On September 13th it was announced that Thomson had been brought to England and committed to Winchester Gaol, pending inquiries by the police of that city.  Two police-officers came to Norwich, investigated the affair, and elicited the following remarkable facts: Thomson was stationed in Norwich with the Carabineers in 1846, and afterwards exchanged to the 1st Royals, then in Canada.  A girl named Anna Barber was in the habit of frequenting the barracks, and became acquainted with Thomson, whom she appeared to have displeased.  In the month of August, 1846, a tailor named James Taylor was fishing for eels in the river near Blackfriars Bridge when he heard a scuffle, a shriek, a splash, and the sound of retreating footsteps.  He immediately rowed to the place and assisted out of the water a young woman, who refused to give him her name.  She went away, and no report was made to the police.  In 1850 Anna Barber was again seen in Norwich.  It was evident, therefore, that the remorse which impelled Thomson to make his confession was groundless.

28.—The Norwich Corporation adopted the Public Health Act of 1848, and appointed twenty members as a Local Board of Health.

29.—The church of St. Matthew, Thorpe Hamlet, was consecrated by the Bishop of Norwich.

SEPTEMBER.

10.—Sir James Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak, then on a visit to England, attended a dinner given at the Norfolk Hotel, Norwich, by members of the Valpeian Club, established in 1847.

25.—A severe gale occurred off the Norfolk coast, and did much damage to shipping at Yarmouth.

30.—The opening of the Norwich Waterworks was publicly celebrated.  The band of the Coldstream Guards played selections in the Market Place, 220 guests dined at the Assembly Rooms, under the presidency of Mr. Samuel Bignold, chairman of the Waterworks Company, and twenty thousand persons witnessed a display of fireworks in the Market Place.  The works were commenced by Messrs. Lucas Bros., the contractors, in February.  There were 20,000 yards of excavations, and 2,500,000 bricks, 15,000 yards of clay, 5,000 yards of filtering sand, 7,000 yards of filtering stone, 3,000 yards of concrete, and 40 tons of lead were used.  The rising main was 4,000 yards in length, and 15 inches in diameter.

OCTOBER.

4.—Died at Hampton Court, in his 80th year, George William Stafford Jerningham, Baron Stafford.  He inherited a baronetcy as p. 8Sir George Jerningham on his father’s death in 1809, and established his title to the barony, under letters patent of Charles I., through his great grandmother, after a reversal of the attainder of Sir William Howard, Viscount Stafford, in 1824.  He assumed the additional name of Stafford in 1826.  He was succeeded by his eldest son, Henry Valentine.

7.—Mr. George Cruikshank presided at the annual temperance festival held at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, and delivered an address.

16.—Bexfield’s oratorio, “Israel Restored,” was “brought out” at the Choral Concert, held at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich.  The principal vocalists were Miss Birch, Miss Williams, Mr. Benson, and Mr. H. Phillips.  Dr. Bexfield conducted his work, which “created the greatest interest throughout the musical world, and hundreds of applications for reserved places were received from all parts of the kingdom.”

26.—Died at Philadelphia, the United States of America, aged 62, Mr. Richard Cowling Taylor, F.G.S.  He was the author of many valuable works during his residence in Norwich The most important was his “Index Monasticus,” published in 1821.  Mr. Taylor was a member of several scientific societies in America.

30.—Mrs. Fanny Kemble gave a reading of “King John,” at the Assembly Room, Norwich, and on the 31st read “Much Ado about Nothing.”

NOVEMBER.

4.—A lecture on the “Bloomer costume” was delivered at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, by a Mrs. Knights.  “The large audience was composed for the most part of the male sex, shop assistants, and milliners’ apprentices.  The amount of money taken must have been considerable, and we regret that there should have been so many persons found in this city ready to be taken in with such nonsense.  Mrs. Knights was attired in Bloomer costume, an essentially ugly and unfeminine dress.  She was greeted with derisive laughter, applause, and hisses, and she left the orchestra amid a storm of groans and disapprobation.”

5.—A sculling match from Surlingham to the New Cut at Thorpe took place between Lett, of London, and R. Buttle, of Norwich, for £25 a side.  Lett’s boat was overturned soon after the start, and Buttle rowed over the course.  A second match, for £10 a side, was rowed on the 10th, between Bramerton Wood’s End and the New Cut, and was won easily by the Norwich man.

8.*—“Before the Lords Justices of Appeal was heard the case of the Attorney-General v. the Corporation of Norwich.  It arose on the question whether the Corporation have authority to apply the borough fund in soliciting a Bill in Parliament to enable them to improve the navigation of the River Wensum.  The information was filed at the relation of two of the ratepayers, and it prayed that the Corporation might be restrained from promoting and prosecuting a Bill in Parliament for this purpose and at their expense.  The appeal was dismissed, with costs.”

10.—Mr. Charles Winter was elected Mayor, and Mr. Robert Wiffin Blake appointed Sheriff of Norwich.

p. 910.—Mr. S. C. Marsh and Capt. Pearson (the retiring Mayor) were nominated for the Mayoralty of Yarmouth.  The voting being equal, Capt. Pearson gave the casting-vote in his own favour, and declared himself duly elected.

18.—Winter set in with great severity; snow fell to the depth of two or three feet, and a severe frost commenced.

DECEMBER.

6.—The Eastern Counties Association for obtaining Agricultural Relief held its first public meeting at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich.  Its principal objects were to obtain the repeal of the Malt-tax, a re-adjustment of the tithe system, security for tenants in making improvements, a reform in the management of county expenditure, and the abolition of the Game Laws.

11.—A coarse urn was turned up by a plough at Easton.  The vessel contained about 4,000 small brass coins of the Lower Empire.  The earliest amongst them were of the period of Gallienus, and there were about 2,500 of the Constantines; nearly 600 had the wolf and twins, and about 800 bore the victory with spear and shield.  Mr. Goddard Johnson made a descriptive list of the coins.

26.—Died, in his 38th year, at Malvern, Worcestershire, Mr. J. B. Wigham, son of Mr. Robert Wigham, of Norwich.  “He was a Fellow of the Royal Geological Society, and was well known as having personally collected one of the best cabinets of tertiary fossils in the kingdom.”

—Macarte’s Circus Company performed in a temporary building erected on the Castle Meadow, Norwich.

1852.

JANUARY.

5.—Died at Letheringsett, Johnson Jex, originally a blacksmith and afterwards a manufacturer of watches.  He was born at Billingford in or about the year 1778.  After the death of his mother, in about 1830, he led a life of complete solitude, and became a scientific anchorite.  “The first watch ever constructed by Jex was made after he had settled at Letheringsett, for his friend the Rev. T. Munnings, of Gorgate Hall, near East Dereham.  Every part of this watch, including the silver face, and every tool employed in its construction, was of Jex’s own making.”

10.*—“Dr. Woolley is resigning the head mastership of King Edward VI. Grammar School (Norwich), on his appointment as principal of the University College and professor of classical literature in the University of Sydney.”  He was succeeded by Dr. Vincent.

p. 1010.—Mr. Justice Patteson retired from the Bench.  With the exception of Barons Parke and Alderson, he was, in point of official service, the oldest judge on the Bench.

19.—After many delays, the statue of Lord Nelson, executed by Mr. Milnes, of London, arrived in Norwich, and was placed in St. Andrew’s Hall for public inspection.  The estimated cost of the statue was £700.  A public subscription was opened in Norwich in 1847; by 1848 £175 had been contributed; in October, 1849, the fund reached £268, and in October, 1851, £300.  “At present (1852) the whole amount subscribed, which is scarcely £400, will not repay the sculptor for the purchase of the block and his out-of-pocket expenses.”  (See March 24th, 1856.)

21.—Died in London, Lieut.-Col. John Smith, of Ellingham Hall, “a generous supporter of the trade and interests of the district.”  He served several years in India, in the 2nd Madras Light Cavalry, and resigned his commission shortly after succeeding to the Ellingham estate.  The funeral took place at Ellingham, on February 27th.

MARCH.

2.—A requisition, signed by one thousand persons, was presented to Mr. T. O. Springfield, soliciting him to offer himself as a candidate for the representation of Norwich.  Mr. Springfield declined the request, on the ground that Parliamentary duties would tend to the shortening of his life.

6.*—“Died, lately, on the West Coast of Africa, in the 19th year of his age, Charles, youngest son of Mr. Wood, of Morston.  He was a midshipman on board H.M.S. Sampson, and was put in charge, under Lieut. Gilbert Elliott, with twelve of the best seamen and one carpenter, in October last, of a slave felucca captured by the Sampson, and was last seen off the island of St. Thomas on the 31st, and departed on that day for Badajoz, a distance of five or six days’ sail; but although anxiously expected, and notwithstanding several ships of war having since passed over her track, she has never been heard of since.  Some heavy tornados are said to have occurred about the time she was missed.”

12.—A special meeting of the Norwich Town Council was held, “to take into consideration the recent gross insult to the citizens of Norwich in the person of their Chief Magistrate.”  The Conservative members, with one or two exceptions, abstained from attending.  It was resolved, “That the Mayor of Norwich for the time being is, by prescription and charter, the first citizen of Norwich, and by custom and courtesy has been always so esteemed in public and private; that the Council learn with regret that a gross insult has been offered to the Mayor in a place of public amusement, and it is the opinion of the Council that the conduct of the individual who offered the insult is derogatory to him as a magistrate and a citizen.”  The resolution was adopted, and it was further agreed “That a copy of the resolution with respect to the insult offered to the Mayor by Capt. Ives, with the seal of the Council affixed, be transmitted to the Secretary of State, to the Lord Lieutenant of the county, and to the Mayor.”  (No details were published.)

p. 1119.—At the Norfolk Assizes, before Mr. Serjeant Adams (sitting as Commissioner in place of Mr. Justice Crompton), Hannah Neale was indicted for the wilful murder of William Neale, her husband, by poisoning him, at Outwell, in July, 1851.  The jury acquitted the prisoner.

24.—Died at Woolwich, Col. Courtenay Cruttenden, R.A.  He served in the Army 48 years, and was present at the capture of Guadeloupe, in 1815.  For several years he was inspector of drills in the garrison at Woolwich.

27.*—“The late Edward Lombe, Esq., of Melton Hall, Wymondham, recently deceased at Florence, has left his personal property, subject to a life interest to his wife, to University College Hospital.  The property is estimated at more than £25,000.”

APRIL.

10.—A statement was published as to the proposed disposal of the sum of £1,263 4s. 5d. realised by the two concerts given by Jenny Lind in 1849.  It was her wish “that the money should be employed in founding and supporting some new charity, and, if possible, a lasting one, for the poor of Norwich.”  The committee, “feeling that no charity could be permanent which was not in a great measure self-supporting,” resolved to devote the money to establishing public baths and wash-houses.  A large malthouse in St. Stephen’s, formerly the property of Mr. Crawshay, was to be purchased for £700, and plans and specifications for converting the building into baths had been prepared by a London architect, “but unfortunately the lowest tenders exceed by a very large amount the sum at the disposal of the committee.  They find that unless they can raise £1,000 in addition to their present fund, they must entirely give up the undertaking.”  The Mayor was requested to convene a public meeting, which was held at the Guildhall on April 21st, when Mr. Samuel Bignold moved a resolution in favour of the adoption of the baths scheme.  Mr. Henry Browne strongly protested against the proposed misappropriation of the money, and the question was adjourned for a month.  Meanwhile several local charities made claims for assistance, and on May 27th a further adjournment was decided upon.  The matter was in abeyance until February 7th, 1853, when Dr. W. H. Ranking, in a letter to the Norfolk Chronicle, advocated “the endowment of an additional ward or wards in the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, to be appropriated to the treatment of diseases of children.”  On May 30th, 1853, a public meeting was held at the Guildhall, under the presidency of the Lord Bishop, “for the purpose of promoting the establishment of an institution for sick children.”  It was resolved, on the motion of Mr. J. G. Johnson, seconded by the Mayor (Mr. Coaks), “That an infirmary for the treatment of the diseases of sick children be established in Norwich, to be called the Jenny Lind Infirmary for Sick Children.”  The first meeting of the supporters of the new institution was held under the presidency of the Mayor (Mr. Samuel Bignold), “in the house in Pottergate Street taken for the Charity,” on December 16th, 1853.

17.*—“The premises of the old Waterworks Company have been purchased of the Corporation by the new company, who have liberally offered to give up their interest in Chapel Field to the Corporation on p. 12condition that the latter shall undertake to lay out the Field as a park and pleasure-ground, so as to render it an ornament to the city.  The Corporation will have a considerable surplus fund in hand when the company have paid the purchase-money for the Waterworks.  By a plan submitted by Mr. Lynore, engineer of the Waterworks, the Field will be enclosed by a dwarf wall and railings, with handsome entrance-gates at the Theatre Street, Crescent, and St. Giles’ corners, and a porter’s lodge at the latter.  The interior is to be laid out in the style of the London parks, the reservoir to be retained, but altered in shape, and the present tower to be ornamented and furnished with waiting-rooms, it is also proposed to place the Nelson statue on an elegant fountain pedestal in the centre of the reservoir.”

18.—Died, Mr. George Bennett, comedian, aged 76.

MAY.

1.—A detachment of the 4th (Queen’s Own) Light Dragoons arrived at Norwich Cavalry Barracks, to relieve the Queen’s Bays, who had marched for Manchester.

—*“We have now had ten weeks’ drought, the last wet day being the 18th of February.”

2.—Died, in his 49th year, at his residence, Grosvenor Street, London, Mr. John Dalrymple, F.R.S.  He was the eldest son of Mr. William Dalrymple, the distinguished Norwich surgeon.  After studying under his father and at Edinburgh University, Mr. Dalrymple passed his examination before the College of Surgeons in 1827, and commenced practice in Norwich.  In 1832 he was elected an assistant surgeon to the Royal London Ophthalmic Hospital, of which institution he became, in 1843, full surgeon.  In 1847 he was appointed consulting surgeon to the North London Infirmary, and in 1851 became a member of the Council of the College of Surgeons.  Mr. Dalrymple was one of the founders of the Royal College of Chemistry.

7.—In the Court of Queen’s Bench an important decision was given in the case of the Queen v. Robert Wiffin Blake, who had been required to show by what authority he had exercised the office of town councillor at Norwich.  At the previous municipal election Mr. Blake, who was then one of the six aldermen of the city, became a candidate for the office of councillor of the Fourth Ward.  Mr. Cundall, a Conservative, was his opponent.  Mr. Blake having a majority of five votes, the presiding alderman and assessor returned him as duly elected, notwithstanding that notice had been given of his ineligibility.  The Court decided that Mr. Blake could not be elected a councillor while holding the office of alderman.  The defendant filed a disclaimer of the office of town councillor, and therefore allowed judgment of ouster to pass against him, with costs.  (See November 23rd.)

8.—Died at Nice, in his 85th year, General Auguste De Bardelin.  For many years the deceased was a highly respected resident in Norwich.  A native of Aix, in Provence, and born of a noble family, he was appointed one of the garde du corps of Louis XVI., and was on duty at Versailles on October 6th, 1789, when the Royal palace was assailed by the insurrectionary mob of Paris, and the King and Queen were defended from assassination through the heroic sacrifice of life by p. 13many gentlemen of their bodyguard.  M. De Bardelin accompanied the French princes in their exile, and afterwards came to England and settled in Norwich.  There he remained about twenty-two years, supporting himself by teaching the French and Italian languages.  In 1814 he accompanied Louis XVIII. to Paris, and the Government of the Restoration being established, he resumed his military occupation.  After Bonaparte’s second abdication, he returned with has lawful Sovereign.  For ten years from that time M. De Bardelin continued to reside at the Royal chateau at St. Germains, in which a handsome suite of apartments was appropriated to his use, where he always delighted in welcoming the visits of his Norwich friends.  In 1830 he was promoted to be Général Maréchal de Camp.  In 1815 or 1816 the Chevalier married Miss Sutton, a lady well-known to Roman Catholic families of distinction in Norfolk and Suffolk.  Madame De Bardelin died in 1826.  In 1830 General De Bardelin resigned has command and resided in Paris till 1848, when the Republic being proclaimed, he went to his native province, and in the winter of 1851 sojourned at Nice.  “He always referred to his residence at Norwich as the best period of his life.  His pupils at Thurgar’s school were enquired after with affectionate interest; he remembered the hospitalities at Crown Point, where General Money gave him a second home, and he never could forget the day when he quitted Norwich by the mail coach from the Angel Inn, on the restoration of the Bourbons;—passengers, horses, and all were decorated with white cockades, and a host of friends assembled to cheer and bid him farewell in true old English style.”  The daughter of General De Bardelin became the Baroness de Fabry.

14.—St. Martin-at-Palace church, Norwich, was re-opened, after being restored and in great part rebuilt.  In August, 1851, while the church was undergoing repair, a portion of the roof fell in and brought down with it the eastern end of the north aisle.

23.—A serious fire took place at the Norfolk Hotel, Norwich.  The roof was entirely consumed, and a number of rooms destroyed.  The Watch Committee, on May 21st, held an inquiry into certain allegations regarding a deficiency in the water supply, and the inefficiency of the fire-engines.

31.—Kensington Gardens, Lakenham, were opened to the public, who “found amusement in the collections of animals and birds.”  During the Assize week “there was a pyrotechnic and scenic exhibition on the meadow side of the river, called, ‘The Storming of San Sebastian,’ being an imitation of the pyrotechnic display at Cremorne.”

JUNE.

5.—Election proceedings commenced in Norwich with the arrival of the Marquis of Douro and Lieut.-Col. Dickson, who had been adopted Conservative candidates.  The Whig-Radical candidates, Messrs. Peto and Warner, arrived at Wymondham on the 9th, and proceeded thence by road to Norwich.  At Mile End a procession was formed, headed by men carrying large and small loaves, labelled respectively “Free Trade” and “Protection.”  In the evening the candidates addressed a great meeting at St. Andrew’s Hall.  (See July 7th.)

—*“Through the exertions of several persons interested, the city and county magistrates have taken steps to put a stop to spring p. 14netting in the Wensum and Yare, and a fund is being raised to defray the expenses of protecting the rivers and prosecuting offenders.”

15.—A cricket match, between 22 of Lynn and 11 of All England, commenced at Lynn, and concluded on the 16th.  Lynn, 63—58; All England, 41—66.

19.—The Witton estate was purchased by Mr. John Penrice for £18,900.  “The Cromer Hall estate, the property of the Countess of Listowel, including the Gothic mansion, several farm-houses, and upwards of 1,200 acres of land, with several manors, has been purchased by private contract for £60,000, by Mr. Benjamin Bond Cabbell, M.P. for Boston.”

JULY.

2.—At the Norfolk Sessions the county justices received the resignation of Col. Richard Montague Oakes, Chief Constable.  Capt. Black was elected in his place on October 22nd.  Col. Oakes was presented, on October 23rd, with a silver vase, subscribed for by the superintendents and constables of the Norfolk constabulary.

7.—The nomination of candidates for the representation of Norwich took place at the Guildhall.  The show of hands was in favour of Messrs. Peto and Warner, and a poll was demanded on behalf of the Marquis of Douro and Col. Dickson.  The polling-booths were opened at eight o’clock on the morning of the 8th, and closed at four o’clock in the afternoon, and the result was officially declared at one o’clock on the 9th: Peto, 2,190; Warner, 2,145; Douro, 1,592; Dickson, 1,465.  The issues on which the election was fought were Free Trade and Protection.

—Mr. C. E. Rumbold and Sir E. Lacon, “Moderate Conservatives,” and Mr. W. T. M’Cullagh and Sir C. Napier, Whig-Radicals, were nominated Parliamentary candidates for Yarmouth.  The polling took place on the 8th: Lacon, 611; Rumbold; 547; M’Cullagh, 521; Napier, 486.

8.—Lynn election: Lord Jocelyn, 627; Lord Stanley, 551; Mr. Robert Pashley, Q.C., 383.  The two first-named were returned.

9.—The Hon. Francis Baring and the Earl of Euston were returned unopposed for the borough of Thetford.

12.—Mr. Edmond Wodehouse and Mr. Henry Negus Burroughes were returned unopposed as members for East Norfolk.

17.—The nomination of candidates for West Norfolk took place at Swaffham.  Mr. William Bagge and Mr. George Pierrepont Bentinck were the Conservative nominees, and Mr. Anthony Hamond the Liberal candidate.  “Mr. Hamond was formerly a Protectionist, and opposed Mr. Cobden at the Free Trade meeting at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, only a week before Sir Robert Peel proposed to repeal the Corn Laws.  Mr. Hamond now avows himself a Free Trader.”  He was nominated at the last moment to fill the vacancy occasioned by the retirement of the Hon. E. K. Coke.  The poll was opened on the 20th and 21st, and on the 23rd the result was declared as follows: Bagge, 3,421; Bentinck, 3,143; Hamond, 1,973.

p. 15AUGUST.

14.—A general meeting of the Deputy Lieutenants of the County was held at the Shirehall, Norwich, for the purpose of carrying into effect the provisions of the Act 15 and 16 Vic., for raising a force not exceeding 80,000 men, of which number 50,000 were to be raised in 1852, and 30,000 in 1855.  The Earl of Orford moved, and it was resolved, that the Lord Lieutenant be requested to apply to the Secretary of State to obtain her Majesty’s Order in Council for the subdivision districts to be made coterminous with the Superintendent Registrar’s districts; and to be furnished with a list of the number of men liable to serve in each subdivision and parish.  On September 18th measures were adopted for the enlistment of two regiments of Militia—612 men to serve in the Western Regiment, and a like number in the Eastern Regiment.  Sufficient numbers of men were forthcoming without having recourse to the Ballot Act.  (See April 19th, 1853.)

21.—Bylaugh Hall, the stately home of the Lombe family, was completed at about this date.  The mansion was erected under the provisions of the will of Sir John Lombe, Bart., who died in 1817.  The will directed “that so long as the house remained uncommenced the money should be invested and allowed to accumulate at compound interest.”  The new mansion was begun in 1849, under the supervision and control of the trustees in whom the building fund was vested.  It was erected from the designs of Messrs. Banks and Barry, of London, by Messrs. Piper, of Bishopsgate Street, whose contract amounted to £29,389.  The interior was decorated by Mr. Sang “and his German artists.”  (See July 4th, 1857.)

SEPTEMBER.

14.—Intelligence was received at Norwich of the death of the Duke of Wellington.  The muffled bells of the city churches were tolled for several hours.  On November 18th, the day of the funeral, the principal shops were closed, and the Mayor and Corporation and the military forces stationed in the city attended a special service at the Cathedral.

17.—Mr. S. Chambers, R.N., made a balloon ascent from the Vauxhall Gardens, Yarmouth, and descended on Mautby marshes.

18.—Died at Saham Toney, John Thurston, labourer, in the 105th year of his age.

21.—The Norfolk and Norwich Triennial Musical Festival commenced at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich.  The opening concert included selections from the works of classical composers, and a reading by Mrs. Fanny Kemble from the “Midsummer Night’s Dream,” with incidental music.  “Israel Restored” was performed at the morning concert on the 22nd, and selections by popular composers were given in the evening.  On the morning of the 23rd, “Jerusalem” (H. H. Pierson) was performed for the first time, and a miscellaneous concert took place in the evening.  “The Messiah” was rendered on the morning of the 24th, and a dress ball was held in the evening.  The principal vocalists were Madame Viardot Garcia, Madame Fiorentini, Miss Louisa Pyne, Miss Dolby, Miss Alleyne, Signor Gardoni, Mr. Sims Reeves, Mr. Lockey, Signor Belletti, Mr. Weiss, and Herr Formes.  Mr. p. 16Benedict conducted.  The gross receipts were £4,665 7s. 2d.; gross expenses, £4,171 17s. 1d.; surplus, £493 10s. 1d.

30.—Died, Rear-Admiral William Fisher, captain superintendent of Sheerness dockyard, and author of two naval novels, “The Petrel” and “The Albatross.”  He was the second son of Mr. John Fisher, of Yarmouth, and was born November 18th, 1780.  Admiral Fisher entered the Navy in 1795, and was engaged in many important services.  He married, in 1810, Elizabeth, sister of Sir James Rivett Carnac, Bart., Governor of Bombay.

OCTOBER.

5.—A prize-fight took place on St. Andrew’s Green, near Bungay, between James Perowne, of Norwich, and James High, of Ellingham.  “The former was seconded by a man named Mace,” and the other by Smith, of Ditchingham.  The police endeavoured to take possession of the ring, but were put to flight by the mob; and the men fighting to a finish, High was declared the victor.  Principals and seconds, with the exception of Mace, were subsequently committed for trial, and at Beccles Quarter Sessions, on October 18th, were bound over to keep the peace.  Jim Mace was apprehended at Litcham, on November 2nd, and at Beccles Quarter Sessions on January 3rd, 1853, was ordered to enter into his own recognisances to be of good behaviour.

6.—Died at Quebec, Stephen Codman, for thirty-six years organist of the cathedral church in that city.  He was a native of Norwich, where he received his musical education under Dr. Beckwith.

7.—The Priory Schools, Yarmouth, were opened by the Bishop of Norwich.  “The site of the schools originally formed the refectory of the Benedictine friars.  Many of the walls of the priory still remain, and the hall has been for many years used for the ignoble purposes of a stable.”

27.—A meeting was held at the Guildhall, Norwich, at which a public subscription was opened for the erection of a statue to the memory of the Duke of Wellington.  On October 4th, 1853, it was decided that the statue should be of bronze, and Mr. G. Adams was commissioned to prepare the model.  (See November 2nd, 1854.)

NOVEMBER.

6.—Died at Ormesby, near Yarmouth, in his 82nd year, Rear-Admiral Black, one of the oldest officers in the Navy.  He had seen much active service, and had been employed on the North-West coast of America.

9.—For the office of Mayor of Norwich two candidates were nominated—Mr. Samuel Bignold and Mr. Richard Coaks.  The voting was equal, and the Mayor giving his casting-vote in favour of the latter, Mr. Coaks was declared duly elected.  Mr. George Womack was appointed Sheriff.  (See November 23rd.)

22.—Election petitions were laid upon the table of the House of Commons, against the return of Messrs. Peto and Warner, as members for Norwich.  (See February 24th, 1853.)

p. 1723.—In the Court of Queen’s Bench a rule in the nature of a quo warranto was applied for, calling upon Mr. Coaks, Mayor of Norwich, to show by what authority he exercised that office.  The affidavits stated that on November 9th there were two candidates for the Mayoralty, Mr. Bignold and Mr. Coaks, and that the retiring Mayor refused to record the vote of Mr. Cundall in favour of Mr. Bignold.  Consequently the voting was even, and the retiring Mayor gave his casting-vote in favour of Mr. Coaks.  The affidavits further stated, in support of Mr. Cundall’s right to vote, that at the election of councillors on November 1st, 1851, Mr. Cundall was a candidate in opposition to Mr. Robert Wiffin Blake, then one of the aldermen of Norwich, and therefore ineligible to be elected a councillor; and that Mr. Cundall had, prior to the election, given notice of Mr. Blake’s disqualification, but that Mr. Blake was elected by a majority of five votes.  Subsequently, on a quo warranto being filed against him, judgment of ouster was obtained.  Mr. Cundall therefore made the required declaration before two councillors, and took his seat as a councillor at the late election of Mayor, and claimed to have his vote recorded for Mr. Bignold, which, if received, would have placed him in a majority of one over Mr. Coaks; but such vote was rejected by the retiring Mayor.  The Court granted the rule.  The Attorney-General showed cause against the rule on January 28th, 1853.  The Court was of opinion that Mr. Cundall had made out a clear prima facie case, and the rule for the quo warranto was made absolute.  Lord Campbell gave judgment in the case on January 21st, 1854.  He said it entirely depended on the right of Cundall to vote.  He held that on November 9th, 1852, Cundall was a member of the Council, and had a right to vote for Mr. Bignold, and if he had so voted Mr. Bignold would have been duly elected Mayor.  Mr. Coaks had usurped that office, and the quo warranto had been properly issued.  Mr. Justice Crompton was of the same opinion.  Judgment for the Crown.

DECEMBER.

11.*—“The long-continued rains have increased the floods in the valleys of the Eastern division of the county.  Throughout the valley of the Yare, a large extent of land has been for some time under water, on either side of the river, for a distance of thirty miles.”  At Southery and Feltwell about 8,000 acres were flooded, and upwards of one hundred poor families were compelled to leave their habitations.  The estimated loss to the district was between £25,000 and £30,000, and a public subscription was opened for the relief of the sufferers.

21.—The Public Library and Museums Act Committee reported to the Norwich Town Council that it was desirable to hire the Museum for the use of the public for two days in the week, and to erect a building for the purposes of a free library, and that, in compliance with the Act, a rate of one halfpenny in the pound be levied, one-third to be devoted to the former object, and two-thirds to the latter.  The principle of the rate was affirmed, and its application postponed for further consideration.  (See September 13th, 1854.)

24.*—“Died at Reedham, a few days since, at the advanced age of 103, Mr. John Softly.  He retained his faculties and was an active man up to the time of his death.”

p. 1826.—One of the most terrific storms of wind and rain ever remembered at Norwich occurred on this date.  In the rural districts many stacks were blown down and scattered in all directions.

1853.

JANUARY.

8.—M.  Gompertz’s panorama of the invasion of British India by the Sikh Army of the Punjaub was exhibited at the Assembly Rooms, Norwich.  One of the scenic attractions was a representation of “the crypt of the Holy Sepulchre, under three distinct aspects,” a dioramic illusion which forms a popular feature in similar entertainments at the present day.

13.—A miraculous escape was recorded at Swaffham.  A drunken man named Edward Horsepool went into the yard of the Angel public-house, at three o’clock in the morning, with the intention of lying down in a shed.  By mistake he opened the door of the covering of a disused well, and stepping in, fell to the bottom, a depth of 117 feet.  A tramp sleeping in the shed was awakened by the man’s cries, and gave an alarm.  Mr. William Laxon, collar maker, procured ropes, and Horsepool was rescued uninjured, after having been half an hour in 20 feet of water.  He had kept his head above the surface by clinging to the broken sides of the well.

22.—In the Prerogative Court, before Sir J. Dodson, was tried the action Gilbert (administratrix of Woolner) v. Hammond.  It had reference to granting administration, with will annexed, to the goods of Miss Margaret Creak, of Norwich, who died on June 5th, 1850, possessed of personal property of about £30,000 and realty of the estimated value of £500 per annum.  The will bore date January 13th, 1844, and its effect was to leave, with some trifling exceptions, the personal property to Mr. Woolner, a chemist and druggist, who was also appointed executor.  The will was originally propounded by Woolner, who afterwards committed suicide, and his sister, Mrs. Gilbert, now applied for probate, as his administratrix, which was, in the first instance, opposed by Mrs. Hammond, a cousin-german and one of the next-of-kin of the deceased, but she died during the pendency of the suit, and her husband subsequently took up the case.  When the disposition of the property became known, a great many rumours were put in circulation, imputing foul play to Mr. Woolner, which was the cause of his committing suicide.  Judgment was pronounced, on Feb. 4th, in favour of the will.  The Judge said the relatives had a right to inquire into the transaction, and had they confined themselves within due limits would have been entitled to costs out of the estate; but they had persisted down to the close of the argument in charges which they had failed to prove, and, therefore, in decreeing probate of the will to Mrs. Gilbert, he must accompany it with the condemnation of Mr. Hammond in £100 costs, nomine expensarum.

p. 19FEBRUARY.

17.—Mr. C. J. Palmer, at a meeting of the Yarmouth Town Council, called attention to the unsatisfactory condition of the Corporation records, and stated that many of the documents in existence in Manship’s time no longer existed, whilst several others belonging to the town were in the hands of private individuals in Norwich.  A committee was appointed to examine and schedule the charters and rolls, and to avail themselves of the services of Mr. Henry Harrod, of Norwich, “for their better elucidation and classification,” at an expense not exceeding £20.

18.—The first snowfall of the season occurred on this date, and was heavier than had been known for several years.  The mails were delayed, and great inconvenience occasioned.  The morning train from London was detained for fourteen hours at Lakenheath.  At Lynn, on the 23rd, the tide rose to a great height, and the low-lying parts of the town were under water.  A breach occurred in the river bank near Magdalene, and occasioned the loss of much live stock and farm property.

21.—Died at Leeds, aged 69, the Rev. Robert Fountaine Elwin, rector of Wilby-with-Hargham.  He was well known in Norwich for the active part he had taken in the Musical Festivals from their commencement.  A few years before his death he retired to Leeds, where he resided with his only daughter, Mrs. Hyde.  Mr. Elwin not only possessed fine musical taste, but was skilled in mechanics, and an excellent connoisseur of the fine arts.  “Whether in the company of the great, presiding at the Choral Society’s meetings, or lecturing to mechanics, it was always delightful and instructive to listen to him.”  Mr. Elwin’s paternal grandfather married a granddaughter of Oliver Cromwell.

24.—In the House of Commons, Capt. Baldero presented a petition from certain electors at Norwich, who had petitioned the House against the return of the sitting members, complaining that their petition had been withdrawn without their consent, and praying that the order discharging the petition might again be put on the orders of the House.  Mr. T. Duncombe presented a protest from Col. Dickson, complaining of the withdrawal of the petition.  It was alleged that Mr. Brown, the Parliamentary agent, had been guilty of a breach of privilege by withdrawing the petition.  A motion for printing the petition was agreed to.  On March 2nd a Select Committee was appointed to inquire into the matter.  The investigation commenced on March 10th, and concluded on March 17th, on which day Mr. Duncombe brought up the report of the Committee.  They were of opinion that Mr. Brown had received no instructions to withdraw the petition, but as they could find no precedent as to the proper mode of proceeding under the circumstances, they left it to the House to determine whether it could comply with the prayer of the petitioner.  On March 12th a great Liberal meeting was held at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, under the presidency of the Mayor (Mr. Coaks), at which resolutions were adopted expressing indignation at the allegations made before the Select Committee with regard to Messrs. Peto and Warner.  A duel was to have been fought between Col. Dickson and Col. Forester (a witness before the Committee) on March 19th, but “at the eleventh hour the matter p. 20was fortunately adjusted by the friendly interposition of an hon. member who sits on the opposite side of the House.  Mr. Culpepper represented Col. Dickson, and Mr. Craven Berkeley, M.P., was the friend of Col. Forester.”  It subsequently transpired that the withdrawal of the petition formed part of an arrangement and compromise entered into between Mr. Henry Edward Brown and Mr. James Coppock, solicitor, in pursuance of which eight petitions were simultaneously withdrawn, as implicating the seats of ten members of the House, namely, Norwich, 2; Kidderminster, 1; Gloucester, 1; Middlesex, 1; Youghal, 1; County Down, 2; and West Norfolk, 2.

24.—At Norwich Quarter Sessions, before the Recorder, Mr. Prendergast, the appeal case, Colman v. Clarke, was heard.  Mr. Evans and Mr. Palmer were for the appellants, and Mr. Hawkins and Mr. Bulwer for the respondent.  It was proved that in the early part of May, 1852, Messrs. Colman established at Carrow a business for the manufacture of cake from refuse rice, and it was alleged that after the process had been carried on for a short time offensive smells were observed in the neighbourhood.  The firm were summoned before the magistrates for permitting a nuisance, and were fined.  They now appealed against the conviction, on the ground of informalities in the original proceedings, and of want of jurisdiction on the part of the magistrates.  The conviction was quashed.

28.—Hengler’s Circus and Roman Amphitheatre, Castle Meadow, Norwich, was opened with the production of a grand equestrian spectacle, entitled, “Kenilworth Castle.”

MARCH.

9.—Died at his residence, Great Stanhope Street, London, in his 78th year, General Sir Edward Kerrison, Bart., K.C.B., G.C.H.  He entered the Army in 1796, as Cornet in the 6th Dragoons, and received the rank of General in 1851.  He served at the Helder in 1799, and in 1808 took part in the campaign of Sir John Moore, and was present at the battle of Corunna.  As Colonel Kerrison, he commanded the 7th Hussars from 1813 to 1815, through various campaigns.  At the battle of Orthes he received a severe wound, and he was again wounded in the battle of Waterloo, where his horse was shot under him.  Sir Edward Kerrison received his baronetcy in 1821, when he was nominated a G.C.H., and in 1840 a K.C.B.  In 1830 he was appointed to the colonelcy of the 14th Light Dragoons.  For forty years he was member of Parliament for Eye.  He married a daughter of Mr. Alexander Ellice, and left a son and three daughters.

12.—Died at Pulham, Mr. Cornelius Whur, the author of several volumes of poems.  He was known as “the Suffolk Poet.”

19.—The Rev. William Beauchamp was driving down the hill into Trowse when his horse ran away and upset the gig.  In his fall he sustained a severe fracture of the skull and died instantly.  Mr. Beauchamp, who was the second son of Sir William Beauchamp Proctor, Bart., of Langley-park, was 35 years of age, and had been rector of Chedgrave about ten years.  He left a widow and five young children.

p. 2121.—Three hundred members of the Manchester Unity of Oddfellows dined at the Royal Hotel, Norwich, and presented to Mr. Samuel Daynes, Past Grand Master of the Unity, a purse of 133 sovs., in recognition of his exertions in promoting the interests and extension of the Order during his year of office.

29.—A vessel named the Reindeer, belonging to the port of Yarmouth, owned by Mrs. King, of Gorleston, and commanded by Captain Wilson, was on her voyage from Valparaiso to Monte Video when the crew mutinied, and murdered the captain, steward, and two Roman Catholic priests (passengers).  The mutineers then launched a boat, filled it with the most valuable portion of the cargo, and scuttled the ship.

APRIL.

4.—A fire occurred at Hunstanton Hall.  The rooms were quickly cleared of the paintings and furniture, which were safely deposited in the school house.  There being no possibility of saving the south and west sides, great efforts were made to preserve the north and east sides, with which object the communicating portions of the building were broken down, and the flames thus prevented from extending.  In a few hours the roof of the west side fell in.  “The bed in which it is generally believed Queen Elizabeth slept was not injured in the slightest degree.”  The damage to the hall was estimated at £10,000.

7.—Intelligence was received at Norwich of the birth of a Prince (Prince Leopold), at Buckingham Palace.  Flags were hoisted on the public buildings, and peals rung upon the bells of St. Peter Mancroft.

19.—The men enrolled to serve in the First or West Norfolk Regiment of Militia assembled at Norwich for twenty-eight days’ training.  The officers were: Col. the Earl of Orford, Lieut.-Col. Nelthorpe, Major William E. Lytton Bulwer, Captains Hamilton F. Custance, Charles Bedingfeld, the Hon. Fred. Walpole, George A. Marsham, Mordaunt Glasse, H. L. Styleman le Strange; Lieutenants M. Gooda, Gordon Calthrop, Thomas S. Clarke, H. D. Walff, C. Girling, Chas. E. Bignold, John Edwin Day, A. W. Smith, Robert G. Hawtayne; Ensign Thomas Edward Baker; Adjutant and Acting Paymaster and Acting Quartermaster A. W. Smith; Surgeon Thomas W. Crosse; Assistant Surgeon T. E. Baker.  The mess was at the Swan Hotel.  “The corps consists of 612 men, and notwithstanding the vulgar sneers, reproaches, ridicule, and even hooting which they experienced from the rabble on their first appearance in the streets, in no instance was this conduct resented.  We are glad that the conduct of our Liberals, by publicly parading disgusting flags, and the Peace Society in circulating exciting and seditious handbills, with the view to holding up this force to contempt and ridicule, has signally failed.”  The East Norfolk Militia assembled at Yarmouth on the same date.  “Their appearance was much more respectable than might have been expected, and many of those who were prepared to ridicule them acknowledged that they were a much better class than they expected.”  The officers were: Col. the Hon. Berkeley Wodehouse; Lieut.-Col. William Mason; Major Sir E. K. Lacon; Captains John Longe, the Hon. Bertram Wodehouse, John Marcon, Henry Cormick, George Grenville Glover, John Gay; Lieutenants William Robert Freeman, Richard Hall, Henry Thomas p. 22Knapman, William Danby Palmer, Richard Lee Mayhew, William Reed, Frederick John Reyne, George Chester Wood, Alexander Robert Chamberlin; Adjutant William P. K. Browne; Surgeon John Capern Smith; Assistant-Surgeon Spencer Thomas Smyth.  Of the 612 men enrolled, 571 appeared on parade.  The Earl of Leicester, as Lord Lieutenant of the county, inspected the East Norfolk Regiment at Yarmouth on May 12th, and the West Norfolk Regiment at Norwich on the 13th.  The men of the latter corps were entertained at dinner at St. Andrew’s Hall after the inspection.  The cost of the entertainment was defrayed by public subscription.

26.—The foundation-stone of the Wayland Hall, Watton, was laid by Lady Walsingham.  The hall was opened on November 3rd, on the occasion of the annual meeting of the Wayland Society, at which Lord Walsingham presided.

27.—A fine schooner, named the Ocean Child, was launched from the ship-yard of Mr. Southgate, at Wells-next-the-Sea.

30.*—“Died lately at Bergh Apton, at an advanced age, Mr. John Dawson, deputy registrar for the Loddon Union.  He was likewise known as an active peace officer.  Previous to the establishment of the police force, the whole business of thief-taking devolved upon petty constables, but as the requisite tact and intelligence was not found in every parish, what was called a running constable was usually appointed in each petty sessional division, who was considered the detective-officer of the district.  Mr. Dawson was justly considered one of the first of his profession.  Upon the formation of the new force these hitherto indispensable functionaries were entirely superseded, and Dawson, among others, found his occupation gone.”

MAY.

20.—There were no prisoners in Lynn gaol.  To celebrate the unique circumstance the prison doors were thrown open, and the Mayor entertained the whole of the police force and borough officials to a dinner, served within the building.

JUNE.

7.—The Norwich Diocesan Training Institution for school-mistresses was removed to spacious premises in St. George’s Colegate.  The Institution was founded in 1840.

9.—A cricket match between eighteen of Norwich and eleven of All England, commenced on the new Cricket Ground, Newmarket Road, Norwich, and concluded on the 11th.  Norwich, 110—46; All England, 58—70.

14.—The City of Norwich Waterworks New Bill received the Royal assent.  “By this Bill power is given to the Corporation of Norwich to convert Chapel Field into a public pleasure garden.”

18.—Announcement was made of the resignation of Superintendent Dunne, of the Norwich police “on the ground that he had been so much obstructed by those who ought to have assisted him in the p. 23discharge of his duties, that no alternative had been left him but to resign.”  On July 6th Mr. Stephen English, of Pontefract, was elected to the post.

25.—Died, at Doughty’s Hospital, Norwich, in her 81st year, Miss Tubby, “well-known as box-keeper at our Theatre for many years, and highly respected.”  She possessed a remarkable fund of information upon local theatrical matters, and for nearly half a century “Miss Tubby’s night” was one of the principal events in the Norwich season.

28.—The new cult of “table-turning” or spiritualism was introduced in Norwich for the first time at a séance given at St. Andrew’s Hall by a Mr. King.

—The first piles of the Wellington Pier at Yarmouth were driven by the Mayor (Mr. S. C. Marsh), Mr. D. Waddington, chairman of the United Norfolk and Eastern Counties’ Railway Companies and of the Pier directors, and by the Mayoress.  A dinner was held at the Victoria Hotel in celebration of the event.  The Pier was opened by the Mayor on October 31st.

JULY.

1.—At the Norfolk Quarter Sessions it was reported that the Secretary of State for the Home Department had ordered the formation of a corps of Artillery Militia for the county.

9.—A thunderstorm of great severity occurred at Norwich.  The main sewer in London Street burst from the enormous pressure upon it, and its contents inundated the adjacent business premises.  Every house at the bottom of Exchange Street was flooded, and fire-engines were afterwards employed to pump the water from the cellars.  The weather continued to be very stormy during the succeeding week.  The newly-completed tower and spire of Mundham church were wrecked and became a heap of ruins.

23.—Three troops of the 6th Dragoon Guards (Carabineers), under the command of Capt. Sawyer, marched into Norwich from Chobham Camp.  The headquarters were stationed at Ipswich.

25.—Miss Fanny Vining appeared at Norwich Theatre as Margaret Elmore in “Love’s Sacrifice.”

30.—The Norfolk Chronicle announced the repeal of the advertisement duty and of the duty upon newspaper supplements.

31.*—Died at Shoreditch Workhouse, London, Benjamin Reeder, of Helhoughton, who was in many respects a very remarkable character.  He had served sixteen years as a private in the 2nd Dragoon Guards.  “Altho’ of an obtuse and somewhat forbidding appearance, he possessed an uncommon faculty for mathematical attainments.  He had Euclid at his finger ends, while his knowledge of algebra and logarithms enabled him to solve in a few minutes the most difficult questions.  He once had the management of a school, but his irregularities reduced him to the level of a common labourer, and eventually he ended his days in the union house.”

p. 24SEPTEMBER.

3.*—“The degree of Doctor of Music has been recently conferred on Mr. Buck, organist of Norwich Cathedral, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, in the exercise of the privilege possessed by his Grace as Primate of bestowing that and other degrees in divinity and arts upon persons of merit in any of those faculties.”

4.—An interesting ceremony took place in the tower of the dilapidated church of Eccles-next-the-Sea.  The Rev. Edward Evans, of St. Stephen’s, Norwich, who had recently been presented to the vicarage, read himself in, and preached to a congregation of about 200 persons.  “Owing to the want of the church, which has been destroyed upwards of 200 years by the encroachments of the ocean, this is a sinecure benefice, and the inhabitants use the neighbouring church of Hempstead.  The tower of the church in which the ceremony took place is embedded in sand to the height of the former walls of the church.”

8.—George Borrow performed an intrepid act on Yarmouth beach.  “The sea raged frantically, and a ship’s boat, endeavouring to land for water, was upset, and the men were engulfed in a wave some 30 feet high, and struggling with it in vain.  The moment was an awful one, when George Borrow, the well-known author of ‘Lavengro’ and ‘The Bible in Spain,’ dashed into the surf and saved one life, and through his instrumentality the others were saved.  We ourselves have known this brave and gifted man for years, and daring as was his deed, we have known him more than once risk his life for others.”

17*.—“If the rivalry of the different railway companies in this district has been agreeable to the public it has been attended with fearful loss to the shareholders.  Excursionists are not expected to object to being carried from Norwich to London for half a crown, but we should suppose that the proprietors in the Eastern Union will have a decided objection to the great increase of their working expenses to 60 per cent. by the process.  The ruinous competition now going on can only be terminated by a union of interests, and it appears, from the reports of the Eastern Counties’ and Eastern Union Companies, that an amalgamation is proposed.”

—The kitchen floor of a house, occupied by Mr. Bunting, on St. Giles’ Hill (near St. Giles’ Gates?), Norwich, suddenly gave way, and Mrs. and Miss Bunting, who were in the apartment, were precipitated with the chairs, table, and other furniture, into a funnel-shaped hole 27 feet in depth.  When rescued they were insensible but uninjured.  “Caves were some time since cut through the hill in different directions and of considerable length, and the whole of the hill has been at various periods excavated for chalk.  Some of the caves were used for wine vaults, and it appears that one of these caves passed under the back of Mr. Bunting’s house.  A water-pipe had been leaking for a long time, and it is supposed that the water descending through the soil caused the roof of the cave to give way, and the whole of the earth above to fall with it.”

24.—A young man named E. Elson completed the task of walking from Lynn to Dereham and back, a distance of 60 miles, for six successive days.

26.—A violent hurricane of wind and rain did great damage in the county.  “The injury to orchards and gardens has been immense, p. 25and the apple crop, which was an abundant one, has been reduced probably one-half.”  On the coast there were many shipping casualties, attended by loss of life.

OCTOBER.

10.—The hand-loom weavers in Norwich struck for a rise of wages.  A memorial was presented to the manufacturers, asking for an advance of twopence per dozen on all finished fabrics.

16.—Died at Liverpool, aged 70, Admiral Bell, C.B., son of Mr. J. Barker Bell, of Gorleston, Yarmouth.  He entered the Navy in 1796, and distinguished himself in many actions against the enemy.  He attained to flag rank in October, 1846.

26.—A public demonstration took place at Lynn in honour of Lieut. S. Gurney Cresswell, the bearer of the despatches from Commander M’Clure, relating to the expedition in search of Sir John Franklin.  Lieut. Cresswell was presented with a congratulatory address at a meeting held at the Guildhall, and afterwards entertained at dinner at the Assembly Rooms.  He was third son of Mr. Francis Cresswell, a partner in the banking firm of Gurney, Cresswell, and Co., King’s Lynn, and a native of the borough, where he was born in 1827.  Not only was he the bearer of the despatches announcing the discovery of the North-West passage, but he had taken an active and important part in the expedition.

29.—Died at his residence, Monmouth Road, Bayswater, Dr. Bexfield.  He was born in Norwich on April 27th, 1824, and at seven years of age became a chorister at the Cathedral.  At the age of eleven he composed an anthem in eight parts, which fully satisfied Mr. Buck that he possessed extraordinary talent.  On the expiration of his articles in his 21st year, he was elected organist of Boston parish church, and in the same year graduated Mus. Bac. at Cambridge.  He afterwards published his Concert Fugues for the organ, which were played during the Great Exhibition.  In 1847 he composed his “Six Songs,” and earned for himself the popular distinction of “the Poet-Musician.”  He was appointed, out of thirty-five candidates, organist at St. Helen’s, Bishopsgate, London.  At about this time he published a collection of pieces under the title of “Musica di Camera,” and at the age of twenty-four took the degree of Mus. Doc.  Dr. Bexfield was the author of a volume of “Church Anthems,” which formed part of the repertoire of most English cathedrals.  In 1850 he married a daughter of Mr. J. B. Millington, solicitor of Boston.  The work on which his reputation mainly depended was his oratorio “Israel Restored,” which on two occasions he conducted at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, viz., at its first production at the Choral Society’s concert in October, 1851, and at the Musical Festival in 1852.  A benefit concert was given at St. Andrew’s Hall on December 16th for his widow and family.  The sum of £500, including a donation of 20 guineas from the Queen, was realised.

NOVEMBER.

6.—Died at St. Leonard’s-on-Sea, the Right Hon. Lord Charles Vere Ferrars Townshend, of Rainham Hall and Tamworth Castle.  p. 26He was born in 1783, and in 1812 married his cousin, the eldest daughter of General William Loftus.  The funeral took place at Rainham on November 24th.  He was succeeded in his estates by his nephew, Capt. John Townshend, R.N., member for Tamworth, who also became heir to the marquisate.

9.—Mr. J. R. Gough, of America, delivered a temperance oration at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich.  He also addressed meetings on the 10th and 11th.

—Mr. Samuel Bignold was elected Mayor, and Mr. Henry Birkbeck appointed Sheriff of Norwich.

11.—A new church was opened at Wootton.  It was built on the site of the old church at the sole expense of the Hon. Mrs. Howard.  It cost nearly £6000.

13.—The announcement was published that Mr. David Fisher, the actor, who was so well known and highly respected in Norwich and Norfolk, had made a successful début at the Princess’s Theatre, London.

DECEMBER.

1.—In the Vice-Chancellor’s Court application was made in the suit Jermy v. Jermy for the administration of the estate of the late Mr. Jermy, of Stanfield Hall.  The only question that arose was about certain timber growing on the estate and fines of copyholds.  But a difficulty of a novel character had occurred.  Since the murder the mansion had been untenanted.  Although many persons were willing to take it they could not procure servants who would live in the house, so great was the superstitious feeling which existed.  It was stated that the parties were willing to allow the house to be occupied for two years for nothing, in order to overcome the prejudice.  The Vice-Chancellor said that Mrs. Jermy Jermy was entitled to a third of the timber and fines, and he expressed surprise that such prejudices existed against the house.

3.—Died, at her residence on the Castle Meadow, Norwich, in her 85th year, Amelia Opie, widow of John Opie, R.A., and only daughter of Dr. James Alderson.  After her marriage with Opie in 1798 her numerous literary productions gained her considerable reputation, and as a novelist she moved in the highest literary circles.  Her works included “Father and Daughter,” “Simple Tales,” 4 vols. (1806); “New Tales,” 4 vols. (1818); “Temper, or Domestic Scenes,” 3 vols.; “Tales of the Heart,” 4 vols.; “Detraction Displayed” (moral treatise); “Illustrations of Lying,” “Lays of the Dead,” and other poems.  Mrs. Opie was a member of the Society of Friends, and her remains were interred in the Quakers’ Burial Ground, Gildencroft, on December 9th.

17.—The provision of a time-ball connected by electric telegraph with Greenwich Observatory, and exhibited in a prominent position in Norwich Market Place, was, in consequence of the irregularities of the public clocks, advocated in the Norfolk Chronicle on this date.

20.—A meeting of the landowners, farmers, and tradesmen of Harleston and the district was held at the Corn Hall in that town, to consider the desirability of promoting the construction of a railway p. 27from Tivetshall station on the Eastern Union line.  In 1851 an Act of Incorporation was obtained for making a railway from Tivetshall to Bungay, but from various causes, chiefly from the depression in the railway world, no further steps were at that time taken.

22.—Died, at the house of his son-in-law at Cambridge, aged 69, Mr. Seth William Stevenson, F.S.A., one of the proprietors of the Norfolk Chronicle.  He was elected Sheriff of Norwich in 1828, he became alderman in the same year, and in 1832 served the office of Mayor.  Literary pursuits, especially of an antiquarian character, engrossed his leisure.  In early life Mr. Stevenson made several Continental tours.  The year after the battle of Waterloo, he, in company with Capt. Money, visited the scene of the struggle, and afterwards published “A Journal of a Tour through part of France, Flanders and Holland, including a Visit to Paris and a Walk over the Field of Waterloo in the Summer of 1816.”  The work was dedicated to the Norwich United Friars Society, of which literary body he was almost the last surviving member.  In 1828 appeared the account of a second tour in Italy, Switzerland, Germany, and the Netherlands.  The book to which he devoted no inconsiderable portion of the last ten years of his life was the complete “Dictionary of Roman Coins.”

24*.—“We have received from Mr. Garthon, one of the district surgeons of Norwich, a return in a tabular form showing the extraordinary number of 96 cases of small-pox in Heigham and St. Benedict’s, during the last three months.  These arose from the strong prejudice still existing amongst ignorant and poor people against the only preventive—vaccination.”

—The funeral of the Marchioness of Wellesley took place at Costessey Hall, whither the remains had been removed from Hampton Court.  “In accordance with the good old charitable practice a dole of bread was given to the poor of Costessey on the occasion of the funeral.”

26.—Mr. Joseph Clarence produced at Norwich Theatre his grand Christmas pantomime, entitled, “Harlequin Prince Bluecap and the King of the Silver Waters, or the Three Kingdoms, Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral.”

1854.

JANUARY.

1.—Died at his residence, Thickthorn, near Norwich, in his 71st year, Mr. Richard Hanbury Gurney.  He was the son of Mr. Richard Gurney, of Keswick, and in early life was a member of the Society of Friends.  In 1818 Mr. Gurney was elected member for Norwich in conjunction with Mr. W. Smith; he was re-elected in 1820, in 1830, and in 1831.  At the General Election in 1832 he and the other Liberal candidate, Mr. Ker, were, after a very severe contest, defeated p. 28by Lord Viscount Stormont and Sir James Scarlett.  Mr. Gurney was a patron of the Turf and a genuine lover of old English sports, but he was never known to bet.  His remains were interred, on January 9th, at the Rosary Burial-ground, Norwich.

3.—A heavy snowstorm, accompanied by a severe gale from the north, passed over the Eastern district.  The snow was deeper than had been known for many years previously; all the roads were blocked, and railway communication between Yarmouth and London was stopped.  The telegraph poles were blown down, and the wires broken.  A train which left Fakenham at 6 a.m. did not reach Norwich till 5.15 p.m.  At the Norfolk Quarter Sessions, at Norwich, on the 4th, it was found impossible to form a grand jury, in consequence of the non-attendance of those who had been summoned.  All travelling by road was suspended for some days; the port of Lynn was frozen up, and several ships were driven ashore at Yarmouth.

5.—A serious collision occurred on the line near Thetford.  A train conveying sixty navvies, who were employed to clear away the snowdrifts, ran into the down train from London.  “The engines rose up into the air, and two men on them were instantly killed; two others in the train from Norwich were also killed by the tender being driven through the carriage in which they were seated.”  The Rev. Joseph Bell, of Barningham, a passenger in the London train, died on the 8th from the injuries he received, and Mr. Thomas Ellison, of Dove Street, Norwich, another passenger, succumbed on the 14th.  The Coroner’s jury, after repeated adjournments, returned, on February 6th, a verdict of manslaughter against Mr. Peter Ashcroft, superintendent of the permanent way, and Mr. John Latham, locomotive superintendent, who, it was alleged, had acted contrary to the orders of Mr. King, station-master at Harling Road.  At the Norfolk Assizes, on March 24th, before Lord Chief Baron Pollock, the jury, without hearing the defence, acquitted the defendants.

15.—Died at Heigham Hall (private lunatic asylum), Norwich, aged 84, Mr. Cockle, “the original proprietor of the antibilious pill which goes by his name, and who some years ago sold the recipe for several thousand pounds.”

21.*—“An invention calculated to prove of great national benefit has been recently patented by Mr. Samuel Rainbird, carpenter, of Norwich.  It is described in the specifications as an apparatus for grappling and raising sunken vessels and other submerged bodies.”

—A meeting of the Deputy Lieutenants of the county decided, by 25 votes to three, that Yarmouth was the most suitable place in the district at which to centre the three regiments of Norfolk Militia.  At another meeting, held on February 25th, the former resolution was rescinded, and it was agreed “that the present Committee be empowered to receive estimates and tenders for building barracks for one regiment of Militia at Norwich, and for one regiment of Militia and one regiment of artillery at Yarmouth, on such plans as they may think best suited for the purpose.”

27.—Died near Holston River, in Knox County, East Tennessee, North America, Mr. William Forster, of Earlham Road, Norwich, in his 70th year.  He was a member of the Society of Friends, and a brother-in-law of Mr. Fowell Buxton.  He went out in the autumn of 1853 to p. 29carry petitions to the slave States of the Union, on behalf of the oppressed Africans.

MARCH.

8.—At a meeting convened by the Mayor (Mr. Bignold), and held at the Guildhall, Norwich, petitions to both Houses of Parliament were adopted in favour of an Act “for the legal prohibition of the sale of intoxicating drink during the whole of Sunday (except to bona fide travellers).”  A committee was appointed to make arrangements for forming a Sunday Closing Association.

10.—A troop of the Carabineers marched from Norwich Barracks, to join the headquarters at Ipswich.  The remaining troop left on May 1st.

—In the Rolls Court, before the Master of the Rolls, was heard the case, the Attorney-General v. Hudson, in re the Grammar School and Hospital at Norwich.  This was an information filed by the Attorney-General, at the relation of certain inhabitants of the city, against the trustees appointed under the Corporation Act, of two charities called the Free Grammar School and the Great Hospital.  The object of the information was to show that the Grammar School had not received a fair amount of the funds of the charity, and that undue preference had been given to the Hospital in their distribution.  A decree was made, directing a scheme to be settled in Chambers.  On December 18th it was stated in the Rolls Court that when the case was in Chambers a deed of covenant, contemporaneous with the letters patent of King Edward VI., and to which the Corporation were parties, had been found, by which the whole surplus, after the stipulated payments, was to be applied to the sustentation of the poor.  The question then before the Court was how far this varied the case.  It was contended that the Hospital and the poor were entitled to the entire surplus.  The Master of the Rolls was of opinion that the deed did not control the letters patent, that no predominance or priority was given to one part of the charity over the other, and that the surplus rents should be equally divided, and in such a way as would be most consistent with the intentions of the founder.  The case was taken before the Chief Clerk to the Master of the Rolls on February 6th, 1855.  “The result is that upwards of £1,000 per annum in addition to the property comprised in the charter will be secured for the general benefit of the charity, including, of course, the School.  The matter now stands over, in order that a scheme may be prepared for the general administration of the charity under the sanction of the Attorney-General.”  On April 7th, 1855, it was announced that the following proposal had been made on the part of the “promoters of the new Grammar School” as to the future division of the funds “hitherto belonging to the Great Hospital”: “That the present salary of the chaplain of the said Hospital be increased £100 per annum, he having at present £200 per annum besides his residence; that one moiety of the net income of the charity be annually applied for the benefit of the School and the objects thereof, and that the other moiety be applied for the benefit of the poor in the Hospital; and that no further election of inmates shall be allowed to take place until the number shall by death or other causes be reduced to 100, p. 30and that until the numbers shall be so reduced, the expenses occasioned thereby shall be provided for out of the savings of the trust and now invested in the sum of £11,500 Consols, or out of any other monies in the hands of the defendants.”  Another meeting was held in Chambers on May 9th, 1855, when the trustees strongly opposed the heads of the scheme; thereupon it was proposed that the Chief Clerk should proceed to Norwich and hold an inquiry.  The trustees claimed the right to appeal against his decision, if necessary, and the Chief Clerk then declined to accede to the proposal.  The trustees were invited to carry in the counter claim, but refused to do so.  (See June 16th, 1857.)

13.—Henry Russell gave his entertainments, “The Far West,” and “Negro Life,” in the presence of between 2,000 and 3,000 persons, at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich.

16.—A meeting of the citizens was held at the Guildhall, Norwich, presided over by the Mayor (Mr. S. Bignold), at which it was agreed “that the wives and children of the Army of England called at this time on the service of their country to the seat of war, claim the sympathy of the British public, and that a subscription be forthwith commenced to relieve all such women and children as may be left in destitution and want.”  Similar funds were raised in other parts of the county.

23.—At the Norfolk Assizes, before Lord Chief Baron Parke, William Thompson, aged 21, was charged with the murder of Lorenzi Beha, at Tittleshall, on November 18th, 1853.  Mr. Evans prosecuted, and Mr. Carlos Cooper defended.  The prisoner was found guilty, and sentenced to death.  The execution took place on the Castle Hill, Norwich, on April 8th.  “The criminal’s struggles continued five minutes.”  The lowest and most degraded classes in the city and county assembled on the Hill, “and more scenes of drunkenness and immorality were exhibited than had been seen for a long time previously in Norwich.”

25.*—“At the Walsingham Quarter Sessions, the Grand Jury, in making their presentment, called the attention of the Court to the prevailing nuisance occasioned by carts drawn by dogs, and to the facilities thus afforded for the commission of felonies.  They recommended that some decisive steps be taken to procure an extension of the Act providing against this evil in and around London.”  The provisions of the Act in force in the Metropolitan district were extended to the United Kingdom, and came into force on January 1st, 1855.

31.—Died at Haddiscoe, Edward Constance, aged 68, “well known for his sporting tastes, and for a considerable period a pedestrian follower of the hounds of the late Lord Berners, distinguished for his industrious habits and his ardent love of the chase.”

APRIL.

1.*—“An order has been received from the Home Secretary, calling upon the churchwardens of every parish in Norwich to discontinue forthwith the burials in the inside of their respective churches, and to discontinue those in the churchyards from and after February 1st, 1855.  Burial Boards are about to be formed for the purpose of providing a suitable ground for interment in the vicinity.”

p. 318.—Mr. G. V. Brooke concluded a week’s engagement at Lynn Theatre.  He appeared in the parts of Othello, Master Walter (“The Hunchback”), Sir Giles Overreach, Claude Melnot, and Hamlet.

11.—A public meeting, held at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, with the view of promoting the abolition of capital punishment, resolved to petition the House of Commons in favour of such abolition.

19.—An address to the Queen was adopted at a special meeting of the Norwich Town Council, assuring her Majesty “that she had their unqualified support in the prosecution of the war.”

22.—That remarkable character, Philip Coots, better known as “Philip the Pieman,” and the “Drum-boy,” died at Norwich, aged 49.

—Died at Yarmouth, Eleanor Warrant, aged 102.

25.—The West Norfolk Militia, 1,000 strong, assembled at Norwich for a month’s training.  The East Norfolk Militia and the Norfolk Artillery Militia commenced their training at Yarmouth on the same date.  The East Norfolk Regiment was, on May 16th, presented with colours by the Lord Lieutenant.

26.—This date was observed as a day of humiliation.  In Norwich shops were closed, all business suspended, and the Mayor and Corporation attended service at the Cathedral, where “the Almighty’s blessing was implored upon the war.”  The day was similarly observed at Lynn and Yarmouth.

27.—Died at Mount Street, Grosvenor Square, London, Lieut.-Col. Nelthorpe, of the West Norfolk Militia, in his 83rd year.  He was succeeded in the lieutenant-colonelcy by Major Custance.

MAY.

3.—At her Majesty’s Levée, Mr. Samuel Bignold, Mayor of Norwich, was presented and received the honour of knighthood.  On the 17th the portrait of Sir Samuel was placed in St. Andrew’s Hall.  It was painted by J. P. Knight, R.A., in 1850, exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1851, and afterwards engraved by Jackson.

21.—Died at Bethel Street, Norwich, aged 70, Robert Forster, formerly bandmaster of the 33rd (Duke of Wellington’s Own) Regiment.  “At Waterloo he received a ball in his knee, which had never been extracted.  He was a native of Norwich, and the only survivor of the band of the regiment, the whole having fallen by his side at Waterloo.”

JUNE.

30.—The Eastern Counties (Amalgamation of Railways) Bill was read a third time in the House of Commons and passed.  One of the clauses was to the following effect: “That it shall not be lawful for the company to close or discontinue the Victoria Station at Norwich, now belonging to the Eastern Union Railway Company.”

JULY.

3.—Foot-racing was revived on the Old Cricket Ground at Norwich, p. 32by Mr. Thomas Sapey, a local sportsman.  A one mile handicap, open to all England, brought twenty-four competitors, among whom were Thomas Horspool, of Sheffield (holder of the one mile champion belt); C. Welton, of Gateshead; William Newman, of London; Robert Bunn, John Brighton (“The Milk Boy”), Richard Fromow, Jim Mace (pugilist), William (“Cock”) Blyth, &c.  The meeting was continued on the 4th.

7.—The first meeting of the Norwich Photographic Society (established on June 23rd) was held at Mr. W. Freeman’s, London Street.  The objects of the society were the reading of original papers, the discussion of different photographic processes, the collection of pictures, and the formation of a photographic library.

20.—A dinner was held at the Town Hall, Yarmouth, to celebrate the inauguration of Lord Sondes as High Steward of that borough.

22.—Norwich Theatre was opened for the Assize week, under the management of Messrs. C. Gill and William Sidney, lessees of the Theatres Royal, Leicester, Portsmouth, Leamington, and Jersey.  They also had the management of Yarmouth Theatre.  The winter season commenced on November 11th.  The new managers endeavoured to restore at Norwich the old style and prices of the entertainments.  “On each Friday night the prices will be as they were a few years since, and on these occasions the pieces selected will consist of standard plays and comedies, concluding with a really funny farce.”  The company was a good one, and “the starring system, which sacrifices every supposed subordinate character to two or three leading ones,” was “studiously ignored.”  Mr. Gill (who was afterwards for several years manager of Lynn Theatre) withdrew from the partnership in 1855, and on December 10th in that year the winter season commenced under the sole management of Mr. Sidney.

AUGUST.

12.—Died at the residence of Lord Palmerston, in Carlton Gardens, London, Viscount Jocelyn, M.P.  His lordship contracted Asiatic cholera while performing military duty at the Tower of London as Colonel of the Essex Rifles.  The eldest son of the Earl of Roden, he was born on February 20th, 1816, and served on the staff of Lord Saltoun in the China Expedition in 1842.  He was the author of a work entitled, “Six Months in China.”  In February, 1842, on the appointment of Sir Stratford Canning as Ambassador at Constantinople, a new writ was issued for King’s Lynn, when Lord Jocelyn was returned for that borough as a Liberal-Conservative, and continued to represent it until his death.  During the last two years of Sir Robert Peel’s Administration he held office as Secretary to the India Board.

15.—A whale of the “beak” species, measuring 29 feet in length and 21 feet in girth, and weighing nearly nine tons, was captured on Snetttisham beach.  “When boiled, although the operation was unskilful, it produced 120 gallons of oil.”

16.—Lynn Athenæum, erected at the cost of £4,150, was inaugurated by addresses delivered by the President (Mr. H. Edwards) and Lord Stanley.  The architects were Messrs. Cruso and Maberly and the contractors Messrs. J. and W. Purdy.

p. 3320.—A portion of a building at Lynn, originally a chapel-of-ease to St. Margaret’s church, and utilised as a workhouse, fell, killing a clockmaker named Andrews, and John Cana, a pauper.  Fissures had been observed in the walls of the building, and measures had been taken to remove the inmates to another part of the premises, otherwise the loss of life would have been appalling.  The first stone of the new Workhouse was laid on July 16th, 1855, by the Rev. J. Bransley, chairman of the Board of Guardians.

24.—A shocking accident occurred on the River Yare, near the Alder Car at Trowse Hythe, Thorpe.  Mrs. Palmer (wife of Mr. T. H. Palmer, chief clerk at the Norwich County Court), her son, about six years old; Matilda Hubbard, a nursemaid; and William Plow, a lad, were drowned by the overturning of a pleasure-boat which had gone foul of a wherry.

SEPTEMBER.

8.—The first harvest thanksgiving festival held in the county took place at Brooke.  It was the result of an attempt made by the vicar, the Rev. Dr. Beal, “to put a stop to the disgraceful scenes which too often characterise the close of harvest, and to the system of largess, which gives rise to cases of the grossest description.”  After service at the church, men, women, and children had dinner on the vicarage lawn.  “The Times” observed: “The attempt to put an end to the system of public-house harvest feasts, in which neither wives nor children can join, appears in this instance to have been eminently successful.”  Many other villages in Norfolk, after the harvest of 1855, followed the example set by Brooke.

10.—The great west window at Norwich Cathedral, designed as a memorial to Bishop Stanley, was submitted to public inspection.  It cost £1,500, and was designed and executed by Mr. George Hedgeland, of London.

11.—At the Norwich Police Court, the Rev. Henry Herring, formerly curate of North Pickenham, was charged with begging, under peculiar circumstances, on the previous day (Sunday), in the Cathedral Close.  The prisoner, “with his gown on his back,” stationed himself in front of the great west door and exhibited a placard bearing the following inscription: “The law ordained that they which preach the Gospel should live by the Gospel.  The Church of England withholds from me the justice of that tribunal which the civil law grants to the common murderer.  Such is the spirit of that Church which professedly invites even a prodigal to repentance; I have spent £1,800 in her service, and have been driven to pass three nights in the streets of Norwich, and six nights in a lock-up (a hole where there is only straw to lie upon on a stone floor), solely for the want of better and proper accommodation.  The Mayor and magistrates have encouraged me to apply to everyone that has a heart to feel for the miseries of a fellow-creature.  I earnestly solicit the sympathy and charity of an enlightened public to enable me to live day by day and to defend myself by law from the tyranny and persecution of the Bishop of Norwich.—Henry Herring, late curate of North Pickenham, Norfolk.  Norwich Streets, September 9th.”  Superintendent English stated that he had p. 34offered to send the defendant to a situation in Yorkshire, or to Australia, where his brothers resided; but he had declined to avail himself of either.  Mr. Herring promised not to repeat his behaviour, and was discharged.

12.—The opening concert of the Norfolk and Norwich Triennial Musical Festival took place at St. Andrew’s Hall.  The programme included Rossini’s “Stabat Mater,” a selection of sacred music, and (for the first time) “The Ninety-First Psalm.”  In the evening there was a miscellaneous concert, including parts 1 and 2 of “Acis and Galatea.”  On Wednesday morning (13th) Beethoven’s “Service in C” and “The Creation” were performed; at the miscellaneous concert in the evening selections from the works of Weber and Spohr were rendered.  At Thursday morning’s concert (14th) “Elijah” was given, and at the evening concert miscellaneous items and selections from the works of Mozart.  “The Messiah” was performed on Friday morning (15th), and in the evening a grand dress ball was given at the Assembly Rooms, with music by Weippert’s Royal Quadrille Band.  The Festival artistes were Madame Angiolina Bosio, Madame Clara Novello, Madame Anaido Castellan, Madame Weiss, Miss Dolby, Signor Gardoni, Herr Reichardt, Mr. Sims Reeves, Signor Bolletti, Mr. Weiss, and Signor Lablache.  The instrumental solo performers were Mons. Sainton, violinist to her Majesty, and Mr. H. Blagrove, violins; Herr Hausmann, violoncello.  Mr. Benedict was conductor.  The gross receipts amounted to £4,244 5s. 2d., and the gross expenses and liabilities to £4,347 14s. 7d.; deficit, £103 9s. 5d.

13.—The foundation-stone of the Norwich Free Library was laid by the Mayor (Sir Samuel Bignold).  Addresses were delivered by the Duke of Wellington, the Rev. Edward Sidney, Sir Morton Peto, M.P., Sir John Boileau, Sir Fitzroy Kelly, Mr. W. J. Utten Browne, and Mr. J. H. Tillett.  (See March 16th, 1857.)

16.—Mr. J. H. Gurney was elected unopposed to fill the vacancy in the representation of King’s Lynn, created by the death of Lord Jocelyn.

23.*—“An attempt has been made at the Boar’s Head Inn, Surrey Street, Norwich, to originate a place of entertainment of a similar kind to Evans’ or Johnson’s, in the Metropolis.  A room capable of seating upwards of 200 visitors has been very tastefully fitted up by the proprietor, the walls being adorned by a series of Norwich views exceedingly well painted by our scenic artist for many years, Mr. Thorne, and every evening there is a vocal and instrumental concert by parties of London professionals, who are almost weekly changed, so as to secure as large an amount of novelty as possible.  Another new feature in this city is the introduction of the imperial measure for wine at the old rate of 2s. 6d. per pint.”  This place, known as “The Shades,” was managed by Mr. Fred Phillips, and was the first music hall or variety entertainment in the city.  The venture was not of a successful character.

25.—A meeting of the Norwich licensed victuallers was held at the Boar’s Head Inn, to protest against the Bill for “Regulating the Sale of Beer and other Liquors on the Lord’s Day,” which sought to prohibit the opening of public-houses between the hours of 2. 30 and six o’clock, and after ten o’clock on Sunday.  The meeting decided to petition Parliament in opposition to the measure.  At this meeting p. 35was formed a society called the Norwich Licensed Victuallers’ Association, of which Mr. Fred Phillips was elected president, Mr. Plane vice-president, Mr. Cushing treasurer, and Mr. S. Daynes secretary.

OCTOBER.

1.—Intelligence was received at Norwich of the victory of the allied armies at the Alma on September 20th.  The bells of St. Peter Mancroft were rung after service in the afternoon.  A fictitious message reached Norwich on the same day (Sunday), announcing the fall of Sebastopol, and the tricolour was hoisted on St. Peter’s steeple.  Regret was afterwards expressed that facilities existed “for circulating such hasty and erroneous despatches.”

7.—Died, at Brandon Parva, aged 100, Mary Goward, widow.

17.—A remarkable discussion arose at Norwich Quarter Sessions as to certain irregularities which were said to have occurred at Heigham Hall private lunatic asylum.  The minutes of the proceedings of the visiting justices at an inquiry held by them on June 22nd were read.  Dr. Hull alleged that the Rev. ---, then acting as chaplain at the Asylum, had been wrongly admitted as a patient.  In his evidence he stated that in June, 1852, Mr. Nichols informed him that a country clergyman, a member of a high county family, had committed a rape, that his family wished to make him out to be mad, and that, in order to save him from a criminal prosecution, they desired to get him into a mad-house.  Mr. Nichols requested Dr. Hull to grant a second medical certificate.  Dr. Hull refused to comply.  Mr. Nichols emphatically denied that he had used the expressions attributed to him by Dr. Hull.  The justices came to the conclusion: “(1) That the Rev. Mr. ---, by being placed in the asylum under the circumstances disclosed in the inquiry, was rescued from the grip of the law on a criminal charge; (2) that the order and medical certificates upon which he was admitted into the asylum were regular and in the form prescribed by the Act of Parliament; (3) that in the opinion of the visitors the Rev. Mr. --- is not a proper person to have been appointed or to continue to officiate as chaplain to the asylum.”  A letter from the office of the Commissioners in Lunacy was read, in which they stated they were satisfied that when the Rev. Mr. --- was admitted he was a proper person to be placed under medical care in the asylum.  It was also asserted that the Commissioners had recognised him as the chaplain of the asylum.  Mr. Palmer, who had moved that the licence to Heigham Hall be refused, ultimately withdrew his motion, and the incident terminated.  At a meeting of the city magistrates in December, a memorial was addressed to the Secretary of State, asking that a “searching investigation be made, with power to call before the Commissioners all parties who may be able to give evidence upon the various points embraced in the case.”  (No further action was taken.)

18.—The new bridge at Yarmouth was opened by the chairman and members of the Haven and Pier Commission.  The contract price for the work of construction was £24,500, but the total cost, including the sums paid for property in the vicinity of the bridge, was estimated at £60,000.

p. 3619.—In an “extraordinary edition” of the Norfolk Chronicle, published on this date, was given a “nominal return of the casualties among officers in the action on the River Alma.”  “1st Division—Scots Fusilier Guards: Captain W. G. Bulwer, wounded severely.”

25.—The first detachment of the V Battery Royal Artillery arrived at Norwich; and the second detachment marched in on the 26th.  “The last time artillery were stationed in this city was in 1813, and they were then commanded by General Cockburn, father of Major Cockburn, of Bracondale.”

—At a public meeting held at the Guildhall, Norwich, a committee was appointed to carry out the objects of the Patriotic Fund, in accordance with the terms of the Royal Commission.

—Killed at Balaclava, Lieut. Henry Astley Sparke, 4th Light Dragoons, eldest son of the Rev. J. H. Sparke, of Gunthorpe Hall, and nephew of Lord Hastings.

NOVEMBER.

2.—The Wellington statue, erected in Norwich Market Place, was unveiled by the Mayor (Sir Samuel Bignold) in the presence of 20,000 spectators.  The band of the West Norfolk Militia played the National Anthem, and the Royal Artillery fired a salute on the Castle Hill.  At the luncheon given at the Guildhall, speeches were delivered by the Earl of Orford, Lord Ranelagh, Sir John Boileau, Lord Royston, and Mr. H. J. S. Stracey.  The statue cost about £1,000.  “The hero is represented in the identical boots, cloak, and some other portions of dress actually worn by him at Waterloo, which were placed at the service of Mr. Adams, the sculptor, when he was modelling the figure.  Mr. Adams has placed a copy of last Saturday’s Norfolk Chronicle in a small space chiselled for the purpose under the foot of the statue.”

8.—Swaffham Coursing Meeting, which had greatly degenerated, was held, but owing to the small number of entries, the sport concluded early in the afternoon.  “Although it does not appear that in other places coursing meetings have declined, it is clear that the glories of the Swaffham one have departed.  The loss of Mr. Richard Gurney struck a blow at it almost fatal.  This was followed by the withdrawal of Mr. Hamond and others, leaving the club originally consisting of all the letters of the alphabet reduced to two members.  Although disappointed by the curtailment of the sports of the field, it was determined that the ladies should have the assembly as usual.  It was held on Tuesday (the 7th), but it was known that none of the Club would be there to meet them as heretofore.”  The fortunes of the Club could only be restored, it was said, by throwing the meeting open to all England.

9.—Mr. Robert Chamberlin was elected Mayor, and Mr. R. J. H. Harvey appointed Sheriff of Norwich.

11.—Mr. J. H. Tillett, it was announced on this date, had resigned his seat in the Norwich Town Council, in consequence of the Liberal candidate for the Seventh Ward “being forced upon the reluctant electors by bribery.”  Mr. Tillett wrote: “A due regard to that peace of mind which is essential to a man’s happiness compels me to separate myself at once and for ever in the most decided and unequivocal p. 37manner possible from any association with those who are not prepared in public matters to adhere to a right and honest course.”

18.—Died at his residence, Pedestal House, Southtown, Yarmouth in his 89th year, Captain Manby, F.R.S., the inventor of the apparatus for saving the lives of shipwrecked mariners.  “His life for the last fifty years had been spent in serving his country, and his name will be revered by thousands who would have been widows and orphans but for the successful application of science which was perfected by his untiring industry and perseverance.”  His remains were buried at Hilgay on November 24th.

20.—Mrs. Fanny Kemble commenced a series of Shakesperian readings at the Assembly Rooms, Norwich.

DECEMBER.

8.—A writ was received at Norwich for the election of a member to supply the vacancy caused by the resignation of Mr. Peto, M.P., “in consequence of the opinion of the law officers of the Crown that though he had consented to construct a railway in the Crimea without profit to himself, he would be liable to heavy penalties if he continued to sit in the House of Commons.”  (See December 27th.)

9.—A description was published of the new Corn Hall at Diss, erected by a public-spirited resident, Mr. T. L. Taylor.  The building was designed by Mr. George Atkins, jun.  “Mr. Taylor intends vesting it in trustees for the purposes of a corn market at a nominal rental, and he further intends appropriating a spacious apartment for a reading-room and library.”

16.—Wombwell’s Menagerie arrived at Norwich, and was advertised under its new title, “Edmonds’, late Wombwell’s.”  The exhibition was removed from its usual quarters on Castle Meadow to the Market Place.

22.—Died at his residence in Berkeley Square, Mr. William Howe Windham, of Felbrigg Hall.  He was one of the representatives of the Eastern Division of Norfolk in 1832, when he was returned with the Hon. George Keppel, their opponents being Lord Henry Cholmondeley and Mr. Nathaniel Peach.  In 1835 he came forward with Mr. R. H. Gurney, in opposition to Mr. Edmond Wodehouse and Lord Walpole, when the two last named were returned.  In 1837 another election occurred, when Lord Walpole having retired, Mr. H. N. Burroughes was brought forward in conjunction with Mr. Wodehouse.  Mr. Windham and Mr. Gurney, who opposed them, were again unsuccessful.  Mr. Windham, who was a staunch Whig, was the oldest son of Vice-Admiral Windham (formerly Lukin), who took the name and arms in pursuance of the will of his uncle, the Right Hon. William Windham, in 1824, on succeeding to the estate on the death of Mrs. Windham.  On the decease of his father, the Admiral, Mr. Windham succeeded to the Felbrigg property.  He married, in 1835, Lady Sophia Hervey, daughter of the Marquis of Bristol, by whom he had one son, then in his fourteenth year.  Mr. Windham died at the age of 53.

26.—Mr. J. F. Young, who for many years afterwards was a favourite actor in Norwich, made his first appearance at the Theatre Royal, in p. 38the character of Sir Edward Mortimer (“The Iron Chest”).  The play was followed by a pantomime, entitled, “Harlequin St. George, or the Geni Czarnickholdofallhecan and the Fairy of Contentment.”

27.—The West Norfolk Militia assembled at Norwich for the annual training.  The East Norfolk Militia were embodied on the same day, at Yarmouth.

—Sir Samuel Bignold and Mr. Anthony Hamond, of Westacre, were nominated candidates at the election at Norwich rendered necessary by the retirement of Mr. Peto.  A poll, demanded on behalf of Mr. Hamond, took place on the 28th, and the result was officially declared on the 29th, as follows: Bignold, 1,901; Hamond, 1,635.  After this election were published, for the first time, the expenses of the respective candidates.  In Mr. Hamond’s accounts, under the heading, “hire of horses and carriages,” was the item, “W. Slaughter, Sedan chair, 15s.”

—Died, the Rev. Sir George Stracey, Bart., rector of Rackheath.  “It is rather a singular circumstance that there has been but one presentation to the living of Rackheath during a period of 115 years.  The late rector held the living from 1796, and his predecessor was presented to it in 1739.”

30.—A serious railway accident occurred between Thetford and Brandon.  The up mail from Norwich, which left Thetford soon after 11 p.m., was detained two and a half miles beyond the station by a breakdown of the engine.  Twenty-three minutes later a cattle train, travelling at full speed, dashed into the rear of the mail train.  The engine-driver of the mail, John Burton, who was at work beneath his engine, was killed instantly, and three passengers in the rear carriage seriously injured.  One, Mr. Meagher, a London undertaker, who had been attending the funeral of Mr. Windham, afterwards died.  At the inquest, on January 15th, 1855, the jury found that the accident resulted from the inefficiency of the railway company’s rules in allowing a heavily-laden cattle train to follow a mail train at unlimited speed without telegraphic communication from the preceding station.

1855.

JANUARY.

1.—The railways from Reedham to Yarmouth and Lowestoft were flooded, owing to the high tides in the rivers.  The metals were displaced, and on the 2nd traffic was stopped.  At Yarmouth the water rose above the quayhead.

9.—Lynn Corn Exchange was opened for business.  It was built from designs by Mr. Maberley, at the cost of £2,450.

—A “farewell festival” was held at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, “as a mark of respect and sympathy” to the Right Rev. Dr. Colenso, prior to his return to the diocese of Natal.  Dr. Colenso, who was p. 39present had spent the greater part of the previous year in organizing means for carrying on his work in South Africa.

20.—Died in Victoria Street, Norwich, aged 67, William Laws, one of the proprietors of the Norwich Telegraph coach, which he had driven for upwards of twenty years.

23.—The Norfolk Artillery Militia were embodied at Yarmouth.  The corps, on March 7th, proceeded to Eastbourne, for garrison duty, and returned to Yarmouth on April 25th.  In the following month it was determined to increase the strength from 200 to 400 men and to appoint a lieutenant-colonel.

29.—Father Gavazzi, the popular Italian preacher and reformer, gave the first of a series of “Protestant orations” at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich.

FEBRUARY.

10.*—“Died last week, at Lincoln, Mr. Benjamin Whall, Cathedral organist of that city, in his 75th year.  He was a native of Norwich, and at an early age was distinguished for his splendid voice.  At 19 he was appointed master of the choristers of Lincoln Cathedral, and subsequently organist, and held this situation for 56 years.  He was distinguished as an organist, and was celebrated for his pure style of playing the old ecclesiastical compositions.”

20.—In consequence of the high price of provisions, the inclemency of the weather, and the want of employment, it was decided, at a meeting held at the Guildhall, Norwich, to start a public subscription to aid the District Visiting Society in the relief of the poor.

24.—The dignity of a baronetcy was conferred on Mr. Peto, in appreciation of his services, “and more especially of his disinterested and patriotic conduct in retiring from the representation of Norwich to carry out the construction of the railway from Balaclava, originated by the Duke of Newcastle.”

26.—Died at Downham Green, Wymondham, Mr. James Neave, aged 68, “chairman of the market table at the Norfolk Hotel, Norwich.”  When hundreds of small farmers in the county were threatened with ruin after the great hailstorm, in August, 1842, Mr. Neave suggested to his brother agriculturists the introduction of a voluntary rate, by which about £10,000 was raised for the relief of the sufferers.  Subsequently was established the Norwich Hailstorm Society, of which Mr. Neave was an active promoter.

MARCH.

9.—The Norwich police appeared in a new uniform.  “The principal alteration in the clothing consists in the substitution of a frock-coat for the unsightly long-tailed coat, which is certainly a most becoming uniform for a civil force.”

21.—This day was observed as one of solemn fasting and humiliation, in accordance with Royal Proclamation.  The Mayor and Corporation of Norwich attended service at the Cathedral, and there were numerous congregations at other places of worship.

p. 4022.—At the Norfolk Assizes, before Lord Chief Baron Pollock and a special jury, was tried the libel action, Waldron, clerk, v. Bates, clerk.  The Rev. Frederick William Waldron was a clergyman of the Church of England, and had been chaplain on board H.M. frigate Amazon, lying off the East India and China stations.  On his return to England he became curate to the Rev. William Bates, rector of Burnham.  After two years’ service, plaintiff gave the defendant three months’ notice of resignation.  Mr. Bates supplied plaintiff with testimonials, by which he obtained the appointment of headmaster of a public school at Wymondham, in Leicestershire.  In subsequent correspondence with the trustees of the school, the defendant stated he had “irrefragable proofs of the exceeding wickedness” of the plaintiff’s character, and, he added, “I call upon you, in the name of all that is holy and good, to dismiss him instantly from his employment.”  After a trial extending over two days, the jury gave a verdict for the defendant.

26.—The battery of Royal Artillery marched from Norwich Barracks for Woolwich, whence they proceeded to the Crimea for active service.  They were replaced, on April 4th, by the D battery, from Chatham, commanded by Capt. Mountain.

29.—At the Norwich Assizes, before Mr. Justice Wightman, Mary Ann Fisher, aged 28, was indicted for the wilful murder of her husband, George Wright, at Norwich, on November 28th, by poisoning him.  The jury acquitted the prisoner.

—Died at Cambridge, James Rattee, who was born at Fundenhall in 1820.  After serving his apprenticeship with Mr. Ollett, carver, of Norwich, he commenced business for himself at Cambridge, at the age of 22.  He was associated with Mr. Pugin in restoring the choir of Jesus College Chapel.  Most of the designs were made by Rattee himself, and submitted to Pugin before execution.  He carried out Mr. G. G. Scott’s designs for the carvings in Ely Cathedral, and by the advice of that gentleman spent part of the year 1852 on the Continent, where he studied the carved woodwork and artistic wrought ironwork and sculptured stone of Quintin Matsy and the other master spirits of Louvain and neighbouring cities.  Returning to England, he constructed at Ely the reredos composed of choice stone and alabaster, highly enriched with delicate carving and inlaid with gold and gems, forming the most glorious piece of art workmanship executed since the Reformation.  His work is to be found in churches in every county in England.

31.—Capt. Wodehouse was backed to run one mile in six minutes, on the Earlham Road, Norwich.  In the presence of a large number of spectators, he ran the first half mile in less than three minutes, and accomplished the second half in 2 minutes 56 seconds.  He was attended by Jim Mace.  On the 31st Capt. Wodehouse performed the feat of walking one mile in 8 mins. 16 sees.

APRIL.

1.—The remains of Richard Peck, an agricultural labourer, aged 69, were buried in Docking churchyard.  “The deceased had worked for forty-two years on the Choseley Farm, an extra-parochial place, and p. 41cottage property, distant from Docking two and a half miles, where he was obliged to reside, no labourers being permitted to live at Choseley.  Thus he walked to and from his work five miles per day, 30 miles per week, 1,560 miles per year, and the extraordinary number of 65,520 miles during his forty-two years’ employment.  This circumstance might be multiplied by numbers in England in general, and West Norfolk in particular, showing cogent reasons for Mr. Baines’ Poor-law Bill being made the law of the land.”

6.—Died at her residence, St. Martin-at-Palace, Norwich, aged 38, Harriet Gurney Gordon, many years a favourite actress at Norwich and at different metropolitan and provincial theatres.

16.—Mrs. Fanny Kemble commenced a course of Shakesperian readings at the Assembly Rooms, Norwich.

28.*—“Mr. Clare Sewell Read, son of Mr. George Read, of Plumstead, near Norwich, has been awarded by the Royal Agricultural Society the prize for the best essay on the farming of Buckinghamshire.  Mr. Read obtained last year the society’s prize for his essay on Oxfordshire, and had also been a successful competitor in a former year for his essay on farming in South Wales.”

29.—Died, aged 86, Mr. J. Watts, of Yarmouth, for many years coachman of the Telegraph coach running between Norwich and Yarmouth.

MAY.

3.—A dinner to celebrate the freeing of Duke’s Palace Bridge, Norwich, was held at the Duke’s Palace Inn, under the presidency of the Mayor (Mr. Robert Chamberlin).  “Upwards of twelve years have elapsed since the abolition of the above toll-bridge was first mooted, and the citizens are to be congratulated on the removal of the toll.”

15.—A public meeting was held in the hall of the Bazaar (Victoria Hall), Norwich, presided over by the Mayor, in furtherance of the movement in favour of administrative reform.  An address was delivered by Mr. W. S. Lindsay, M.P., and a resolution was adopted affirming “that, without wishing to exclude the aristocratic class from the position in the public service to which their talents and patriotism may entitle them to assert, merit is the only principle by which appointments to public offices should be attained.”

18.—Among the officers who received the Crimean medal on this date at the hands of her Majesty were Capt. Bulwer, Capt. Bathurst, Capt. Micklethwaite, Lieut. Cator, and Lieut. Cresswell.

24.—Yarmouth Waterworks were opened, with great public festivity.

29.—The Norfolk coast was visited by a violent gale, which caused considerable destruction to life and property.  Off Yarmouth the smack Ruby was lost, with her crew of nine men and a boy.

JUNE.

6.—An exhibition of the Norfolk and Norwich Fine Arts Association was opened at Norwich.  The collection included works by O. Short, p. 42J. B. Ladbrooke, C. J. W. Winter, H. B. Willis, Frederick Howes, C. L. Nursey, F. R. Pickersgill, R.A., John Wilson, Alfred Cooper, D. Hodgson, J. Stark, M. E. Cotman, J. J. Cotman, Mrs. J. Stannard, &c.

13.—Colours were presented to the West Norfolk Militia, on the Cricket Ground, Norwich, by the Countess of Albemarle.  Lord Orford, as colonel of the regiment, received the colours, and the consecration prayers were read by the Rev. C. W. Madden, “who wore the Waterloo medal on his breast.”  The non-commissioned officers and men were entertained at dinner, provided by public subscription, at St. Andrew’s Hall.  The Mayor (Mr. Chamberlin) presided, and Lord and Lady Albemarle, Lady Augusta Keppel, and other distinguished visitors were present.

23.—Notice was given that on and after June 30th the new Newspaper Act would be in operation, and stamped and unstamped editions of the Norfolk Chronicle would be published.  “In compliance with the request of the Postmaster-General, we would remind such of our subscribers as may desire to send the stamped edition through the post that the paper must be folded so that the whole stamp denoting the duty shall be distinctly visible on the outside.  Such papers must be posted within 15 days of publication.”

—The Norton Subcourse and Raveningham estate was sold by Mr. George W. Salter, at the Norfolk Hotel, Norwich, for £16,632.

JULY.

2.—A ten mile match, for £20 a side, was run at the Green Hill Gardens, between Robert Bunn, of Norwich, and John Lovett, of London.  The first-named won; time, 58 minutes.

3.—The West Norfolk Militia, under the command of Lieut.-Col. Custance, left Norwich for Aldershot.  In December the regiment was transferred to Dublin.

—Great festivities took place at Ellingham Hall, in celebration of the coming of age of Mr. Henry Smith, son and heir of Lieut.-Col. Smith.  A dinner, at which 160 guests were present, was followed by sports, and in the evening dancing was opened upon the lawn by Mr. Smith and Miss Foster in a “Sir Roger de Coverley.”

5.—The marriage took place at East Dereham, of Captain William Earle Gascoyne Bulwer, late Scots Fusilier Guards, eldest son of Mr. William E. Lytton Bulwer, of Heydon Hall, and Mary Anne Dering, only daughter of Mr. William Wilson Lee Warner, of Quebec House.  The officiating clergy were the Rev. G. Dashwood, rector of Stow Bardolph, and the Rev. B. J. Armstrong, vicar of East Dereham.

7.—Mr. Edmond Wodehouse, M.P., announced that it was his intention to retire from the representation of East Norfolk, in consequence of his continued ill-health.  Mr. Henry Josiah Stracey was adopted as the Conservative candidate, and was returned unopposed on the 17th.

8.—Died at Ems, Sir William Edward Parry, R.N., Lieut.-Governor of Greenwich Hospital.  He was an LL.D. of Oxford, a F.R.S. of London and Edinburgh, a member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburg, and author of a work entitled, “Thoughts on the p. 43Parental Character of God.”  He married first, on October 23rd, 1826, Isabella Louisa, fourth daughter of Lord Stanley of Alderley, by whom he had issue two sons and two daughters.  She died on May 13th, 1839.  On June 29th, 1841, he married, secondly, Catherine Edwards, daughter of the Rev. R. Hankinson, of Walpole, and widow of Mr. Samuel Hoare, jun., of Hampstead, by whom he had issue two daughters.  Sir William was an honorary freeman of the city of Norwich.  He had commanded four Arctic expeditions, in all of which he gained high professional renown.  For these services he received the honour of knighthood, and was presented by the Government with £1,000, his portion of a reward for reaching the meridian of 110 degs. W. within the Arctic circle.

18.—Died, at an advanced age, at Norwich, John Osborne.  “He was a well-known character, and for many years drove the Yarmouth coach, and for some time the mail coach between Norwich and Ipswich.  The railway, however, put an end to his vocation.  Every morning he attended service at the Cathedral.  Even when he was the driver of the coach to Yarmouth he stipulated he should have his Sunday, in order that he might be in his accustomed place at the Cathedral.”

26.—At the Norfolk Assizes, before Mr. Baron Parke and a special jury, was tried the action, Fisher v. Nisbett.  This was a will case, which excited considerable interest on account of the large amount of property in dispute and the number of persons concerned.  The plaintiff was Miss Mary Ann Fisher, and the nominal defendant Mr. Philip Blundell Nisbett.  The actual defendant was Mr. Richard Blundell Nisbett.  The question at issue was the validity of the will of a lady named Nisbett.  The amount in dispute was between £20,000 and £30,000 in real property, and a larger amount in personal property.  The father of Mrs. Nisbett was a Mr. Fisher, a banker, of Yarmouth.  Mary Ann Fisher, the plaintiff, was one of his daughters.  All the children were dead in 1854 with the exception of Mary Ann Fisher.  In the year 1811, when the deceased Mrs. Nisbett married, her father settled on her the sum of £10,000, and gave her during life an annuity of £500, while all that Mr. Nisbett brought was the sum of £7,000.  In 1824 Mr. Nisbett died.  Of the marriage there were three sons; two had died, and at the time of the trial the only one living was the eldest, Philip Blundell Nisbett, a confirmed lunatic.  In the year 1835 Mr. Fisher died, leaving property to the amount of about £100,000.  Mrs. Nisbett, after her father’s death, left the bulk of the property to Philip Blundell Nisbett.  There now appeared on the scene Mr. Richard Blundell Nisbett, a son of Mr. Nisbett’s brother, and nephew by marriage to Mrs. Nesbitt.  He took out a commission of lunacy against Philip, who was found to be a lunatic and incapable of managing his own affairs.  Then he endeavoured to get a commission of lunacy against Mrs. Nisbett, but the Lord Chancellor, on receiving the report of the medical men who examined her, dismissed the petition, with costs.  As soon as Mrs. Nisbett discovered the course that Richard was pursuing, she made a new will, the effect of which was that the property went to Miss Fisher, the plaintiff, for life, and after her death to blood relations.  On November 10th, 1854, Mrs. Nisbett died suddenly, and these legal proceedings commenced.  After evidence had been given by medical men and others, the Attorney-General (Sir Alexander Cockburn) who p. 44appeared for the defendant, unexpectedly withdrew from the case, and a verdict was entered for the plaintiff.

AUGUST.

1.—Died at Malta, of wounds received before Sebastopol, on June 18th, in the attack upon the Redan, Lieut. Charles A. P. Boileau, of the Rifle Brigade, aged 19, fourth son of Sir John P. Boileau, Bart., and Lady Catherine Boileau, of Ketteringham Park.

15.—Stalham Corn Hall, erected at the cost of £300, raised by 82 shares of £5 each, was opened.

16.—A public dinner was held at Fakenham, under the presidency of Sir Willoughby Jones, Bart., to celebrate the opening of the Corn Hall.  A capital of £4,000 was raised in 160 shares of £25 each.  The building was designed by Mr. Brown, architect, of Norwich, and built by Mr. Pettitt, of Ipswich, for £3,000.

20.—Mr. Charles Mathews commenced a two nights’ engagement at Norwich Theatre.  His characters were Sir Charles Coldstream (“Used Up”), Mr. Affable Hawk (“The Game of Speculation”), and Captain Patter (“Patter versus Clatter”).  For these two nights the Theatre was under the management of Mr. John Coleman, formerly of the Norwich Company.

21.—Died at Thorpe, in his 72nd year, Mr. Edmond Wodehouse.  He was a son of Mr. Thomas Wodehouse, by a daughter of Mr. Pryce Campbell, of Stackpole Court, Pembrokeshire.  In 1809 he married his cousin, Lucy, daughter of the Rev. Philip Wodehouse, by whom he had four children, two sons and two daughters.  In 1817 he offered himself as candidate for Norfolk, in opposition to Mr. Pratt; he was returned, and retained his seat until the General Election in 1830.  At that time the excitement of the Reform agitation was at its height, which, with other circumstances, induced him to decline a contest.  In that year Mr. T. W. Coke (afterwards Earl of Leicester) was returned with Sir W. J. H. B. ffolkes.  In 1832 Mr. Keppel and Mr. Windham were returned.  When the political excitement of the former period had subsided, Mr. Wodehouse again appeared before the constituency, and at the General Election in 1835 he and Lord Walpole were returned, in opposition to Mr. Windham and Mr. Richard Hanbury Gurney.  Another General Election took place in 1837, and Mr. Wodehouse was returned with Mr. Henry Negus Burroughes, in opposition to the same Liberal candidates.  In 1842 Mr. Wodehouse and Mr. Burroughes were again elected; Sir W. J. H. B. ffolkes, who was abroad at the time, was nominated without his consent as the Liberal candidate.  Both Conservative candidates were re-elected without opposition in 1847.  Mr. Wodehouse sat in Parliament about forty years.  He was a Conservative of the old school, a Protectionist, and a zealous supporter of Sir Robert Peel until he introduced his Free Trade measures.  His remains were interred at Norwich Cathedral on August 28th.

—At the Norwich Police Court, Mr. John Coleman, tragedian, and temporary manager of the Theatre, preferred a complaint against Inspector Amis, of the city police.  On the previous evening, he stated, a number of persons presented themselves at the dress-box entrance p. 45and demanded admission with, silver tickets.  He informed them that the majority of places had been taken by those who had paid, but the upper circle was open to silver ticket holders.  Some noise and disturbance ensued.  Sir William Foster came up and endeavoured to gain an entrance, Mr. Coleman tried to prevent him, a scuffle ensued, and the police were sent for by both parties.  Inspector Amis came, and Mr. Coleman directed his attention to a notice on the play-bill that no one would be admitted to the dress circle without a reserved seat ticket.  Mr. Coleman asked the inspector to remove the persons who were seeking to gain an entrance; and they, in turn, requested the inspector to remove Mr. Coleman.  The officer, it was asserted, made an unprovoked and violent assault upon Mr. Coleman, who denied that silver ticket holders had the privilege to enter the house, and told them that they must legally prove their right.  He had taken the Theatre for two nights only, at a heavy rental, there was no arrangement in the agreement with the manager as to the proprietors of silver tickets, and that was why he had put the notice on the bills.  Mr. Hudson (a magistrate) remarked that the owners of silver tickets were owners of the Theatre, and had a right to go in when they pleased.  Sir William Foster attended the Court, and stated that unless Mr. Coleman apologised he would take proceedings against him.  Mr. Coleman said he was sorry if Sir William Foster had been injured (his waistcoat was torn to ribbons), but beyond that he should make no apology.  The case against Amis was dismissed.  Silver ticket holders were admitted without opposition on the evening of the 21st.

23.—Died at Norwich, in his 87th year, Mr. John Francis, manufacturer, who served the office of Sheriff in 1837.

24.—The foundation-stone of a new chapel on Hempton Green, Fakenham, was laid.  The building was designed by Mr. J. H. Hakewell, architect to the Church Building Society.  “Hempton has been without a church or clergyman since the Reformation, when the ancient priory church was demolished.”  (See October 6th, 1856.)

SEPTEMBER.

4.—Died at Brighton, Mr. Henry Dover, of Caston, who, in the previous July, resigned the office he had long held as a chairman of the Court of Norfolk Quarter Sessions.

10.—A telegraphic message announcing the fall of Sebastopol was exhibited at the window of the Norfolk Chronicle Office, at six p.m.  Thousands of citizens crowded into the Market Place, and the office was besieged by persons anxious to obtain copies of the dispatch.  Peals were rung upon the bells of St. Peter Mancroft, bands paraded the streets, and the citizens sang in chorus the National Anthem and “Rule, Britannia.”  A bonfire was lighted in the Market Place, followed by a display of fireworks.  There were great rejoicings in every town and village in the county.  Sunday, the 29th, was observed as a day of special thanksgiving.

18.—Mr. Walter Montgomery, at the Assembly Rooms, Norwich, “repeated from memory his recital of ‘Othello.’”  “Mr. Montgomery is the son of a respectable Norwich citizen, and has gained much provincial celebrity for his impersonation of Shakesperian characters.”

p. 4623.—A fire occurred at the Steam Flour Mills, Lower Westwick Street, Norwich.  The large building, much valuable machinery, and 200 sacks of flour were destroyed.  The loss to the owner (Mr. F. W. Waters) was estimated at £4,000.

OCTOBER.

19.—At a meeting of the county magistrates, the following resolution was adopted, on the motion of Mr. T. J. Birch: “That the magistrates of the county of Norfolk, in Quarter Sessions assembled, take this, the earliest opportunity, of conveying to Major-General Charles Ash Windham, their sincere congratulations on his providential escape from the perils attendant on the assault of the great Redan of Sebastopol on the 8th of September, 1855, of expressing to him their sense of admiration of his long-enduring gallantry, of his courage, constancy, self-devotion, and self-possession, which may be equalled, but cannot be surpassed, and of tendering to him their warmest and most cordial thanks for the example he has thus held out to the British soldier.”  A “Windham Testimonial Fund” was afterwards opened.  (See August 1st, 1856.)

NOVEMBER.

3.—The Norfolk coast was visited by a severe gale, which did enormous damage to the shipping.

9.—Mr. J. Godwin Johnson was elected Mayor, and Mr. Timothy Steward appointed Sheriff of Norwich.

28.—At a meeting of the Norwich Town Council, the unsatisfactory state of the railway communication between Norwich and London was considered.  It was stated that an apprehension existed on the part of the public, on account of delays and obstructions, that the Eastern Counties Railway was insecure.  A committee was appointed to inquire into and define the grievances of the citizens.  On December 7th the Committee reported upon the alleged insecurity of the permanent way; the irregularity and inconvenience in the working of the line; and the arrangements for the conveyance of the mails.  The Board of Trade made an inspection of the line, and in January, 1856, reported upon its insecure and dangerous state between Norwich and Cambridge.

DECEMBER.

8.*—“The Queen has been pleased to grant unto Joseph Stonehewer Scott, of Thursford and Pinckney, in the county of Norfolk, eldest son of Mr. Joseph Scott, of Colney Hall, license and authority that he and his issue may use the surname of Chad in addition to and after the surname of Scott, and bear the arms of Chad quarterly with the family arms of Scott.”

—*“Of late years some improvements have been made in various parts of Norwich by widening the streets, but by far the most important and expensive has been that in London Street.  The improvement was badly designed, and has cost almost as much already as the cost would have been of pulling down one side of the street entirely.  p. 47From first to last at least £20,000 has been expended, and the whole street is a bungle after all.  The lower part of the street remains as bad as ever, and in the upper part years have been required to make a fourteen feet passage.”

19.—Mr. W. L. Mendham was elected Town Clerk of Norwich, in succession to Mr. J. R. Staff, who, since 1836, had held that office with the appointment of Clerk of the Peace.  Mr. A. Dalrymple was elected to the latter office.

20.—Died at Dorking, Mr. T. Cubitt, who was well known by reason of the many important building contracts he had undertaken in London.  He was born at Buxton, near Norwich, on February 25th, 1788.  When working as a journeyman carpenter, he, in his nineteenth year, made a voyage to India, as a ship’s joiner.  On his return to London two years afterwards, he commenced as a builder in a small way of business.  Later he erected the London Institution, Moorfields, and about the year 1824 entered into an engagement with the Duke of Bedford and Lord Southampton for contracts on the ground on which Tavistock Square, Gordon Square, Woburn Place, and the neighbouring streets now stand.  Towards the close of the same year and the beginning of 1825 he engaged with the Marquis of Westminster and Mr. Lowndes to cover portions of the Five Fields and grounds adjacent, and of this engagement Belgrave Square, Lowndes Square, Chatham Place, and other ranges of houses resulted.  He built upon the vast open district lying between Eton Square and the Thames, now known as South Belgravia, and carried out similar extensive operations in Clapham, Kemp-town, Brighton, and other places.  Mr. Cubitt had two brothers, Mr. Alderman Cubitt, M.P. for Andover, and Mr. Lewis Cubitt, the architect of the Great Northern Railway terminus.

26.—The title of the Christmas pantomime produced at Norwich Theatre was “King Goggle-eyed Greedy Gobble and the Fairy of the Enchanted Lake.”  Mr. Sidney was complimented upon the excellence of the production.

27.—Died, in his 80th year, Mr. W. Shalders, who was for many years a leather merchant in Norwich.  He was the originator and patentee of the far-famed Norwich invention known as the “fountain pump.”

1856.

JANUARY.

21.—Mr. John Coleman, lessee of the Worcester circuit, appeared at Norwich Theatre, in the character of Claude Melnotte.  His other impersonations included Evelyn (“Money”), Hamlet, Richelieu, and Ingomar.

FEBRUARY.

5.—Madame Jenny Goldschmidt-Lind sang at a performance of “The Messiah,” at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich and on the 7th took p. 48part in a concert at which a miscellaneous programme was presented.  The other performers included Mr. Lockey, Mr. Weiss, Miss Bassano.  M. Otto Goldschmidt, and Mr. Swift.  The total receipts amounted to £2,400, of which £351 was paid to the account of the Jenny Lind Infirmary.

11.—The first performance of modern burlesque, “The Yellow Gnome,” by J. R. Planché, was given at Norwich Theatre on this date.

19.—Mr. Henry Russell appeared at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, in his entertainment, entitled, “The Far West, or life in America,” illustrated by a series of views “showing the different scenes of a transit from Liverpool to the American Continent.”

23.*—“At the present time there are about forty manufacturers in Norwich, ten of them being producers of textile fabrics of various kinds.  Altogether they now employ several thousand operatives in spinning yarns or in the production of immense quantities of goods composed of materials of that description.”

27.—The Lord Bishop of the Diocese consecrated the new Cemetery at Norwich.  Thirty-five acres of land were purchased by the Board of Health of Mr. John Cater, but only twenty-three acres were at first utilised.  The buildings were erected by Messrs. Ling and Balls, from designs by Mr. Benest, city surveyor, for £1,990.

MARCH.

12.—Mr. George Dawson, of Birmingham, delivered an address at the Lecture Hall, St. Andrew’s, Norwich, on “Martin Luther: his private life and character.”  On the 17th he lectured on “Old Books: their uses, beauties, and peculiarities.”

13.—Mrs. Fred Philips, for several years a favourite actress on the Norwich circuit, took her final leave of the stage at Norwich Theatre.  The house was crowded, and between 300 and 400 persons were refused admission.

22.—Hoffman’s “Organophonic Band, or Human Voice Orchestra,” with Mr. Thurton, “the living Valentine Vox,” gave an entertainment at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich.  The performance was repeated on the 24th and 25th, and the company made a return visit in April.

24.—Mr. Walter Montgomery, a native of the city, commenced a six nights’ engagement at Norwich Theatre, during which he appeared as Virginius, Macbeth, Richard the Third, &c.

—At a meeting of the Norwich Town Council, a letter was received from Mr. J. B. Morgan, hon. secretary to the Nelson Statue Committee, stating that it was proposed, on the suggestion of Sir Richard Westmacott, R.A., Professor of Sculpture, to remove the statue from the site it had occupied during the preceding eighteen months, in the Market Place, opposite the entrance to Dove Street, to a new site in the Upper Close, immediately facing the Grammar School.  The statue was removed, on April 16th, to the site it now occupies.

30.—Intelligence was received in Norwich of the signing of the Treaty of Peace.  On the 31st (Monday) the bells of St. Peter Mancroft were rung, and flags hoisted upon the tower.  In the evening fireworks p. 49were discharged in the Market Place, and, contrary to police regulations, a bonfire was lighted.  It was extinguished by the constables, whereupon the mob broke many windows in the Market Place, and proceeded to the Castle Meadow, where a squib was thrown upon a waggon loaded with straw.  When the fire brigade attempted to put out the flames, the firemen were stoned by the rioters, some of whom were apprehended, and punished next day by the magistrates.  Peace was proclaimed on May 1st by the Mayor (Mr. J. G. Johnson) and the Sheriff (Mr. T. Steward), who were attended by the Town Clerk and Under-Sheriff.  From an open carriage the Mayor read her Majesty’s Proclamation in the Market Place “and the other accustomed spots for such announcements.”  Peace was celebrated on May 27th.  The Royal Artillery paraded on Mousehold and fired a salute, and at one o’clock dinner was provided at St. Andrew’s Hall for the non-commissioned officers and men of the Artillery stationed in the city, for the recruiting and Militia staffs, for soldiers and sailors residing in the city who had been engaged in the war, and for the fathers, sons, and brothers of soldiers and sailors who had fallen in the war or who were then on active service.  Upwards of 8,000 children assembled in Chapel Field, and walked in procession to the Market Place, where the National Anthem was sung, and immediately afterwards proceeded to Victoria Station, where they had tea.  In the evening the Guildhall, Ethelbert Gate, St. Andrew’s Hall, the Shirehall, St. Giles’ church, Erpingham Gate, the gate at the Bishop’s Palace, and the Wellington and Nelson statues were illuminated.  There were displays of fireworks in the Market Place and on Castle Meadow, where also a bonfire was lighted.  On the 28th a ball was given at the Assembly Rooms.  Similar celebrations took place at Yarmouth, Lynn, and other towns.

APRIL.

13.—A serious gas explosion took place at Gurney’s Bank, Norwich.  A clerk, named Utting, who detected an escape of gas, entered with a lighted candle the office of Mr. Mottram.  A tremendous explosion followed.  The walls were rent, the windows blown out, and the ceiling raised so that the gas escaped to the rooms above.

—Died at his residence, Redwell Street, Norwich, Dr. Robert Hull, in his 62nd year.  He was for many years upon the Commission of the Peace for the city, and was one of the physicians of the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, a post which he resigned a short time before his death.

23.—Miss Cushman, the celebrated actress, appeared at Norwich Theatre as Meg Merrilies.  On the 25th she performed the part of Romeo, to the Juliet of Mrs. Sidney.

25.—The coming of age of Mr. William Amherst Tyssen Amhurst was celebrated at Didlington Park.  Lord Berners formerly owned the estate, and in 1849 sold it to Lord William Powlett, from whom it passed by purchase to Mr. George Tyssen Amhurst, who effected many improvements upon the property.  The celebration was carried out upon a scale of great liberality.  A fine bullock, weighing 80 stones, was killed on the 21st, steamed on the 23rd, and roasted whole on the 25th in a temporary kitchen specially erected by Mr. Plowright, of p. 50Swaffham.  A sheep of six stones weight was also roasted whole, and the total weight of the plum-puddings was 700 lbs.  Immense quantities of beef, mutton, and pork were cooked in joints.  Three tents, each 130 ft. in length, were provided for the accommodation of the guests, who numbered upwards of 550.  The toast of “Miss Mitford, the future Mrs. Amhurst,” was drunk with great enthusiasm, and a series of athletic sports concluded the festivities.  [Note: The spelling of the names in the original paragraph is adhered to.  William G. T. Daniel Tyssen by licence exchanged the name of Daniel Tyssen for Tyssen-Amhurst: his son, by a second licence, altered it to William Amhurst Tyssen-Amherst.]

MAY.

5.—The close of the season at Norwich Theatre was marked by the public presentation to Mr. William Sidney of a handsome silver salver and vase, “in recognition of his judicious management as lessee.”  It was one of the most successful seasons that had been recorded for many years.

7.—Died at her house in Green Park Buildings, Bath, aged 76, Lady Betty, widow of Rear-Admiral Sir Edward Berry, Bart., K.C.B., and eldest daughter of Dr. Forster, formerly headmaster of the Norwich Free Grammar School.

11.—The centenary of the opening of the Octagon Chapel, Norwich, was celebrated.  A dinner was held at the Royal Hotel on the 13th, under the presidency of Mr. John Taylor, F.R.S.

31.—A fire took place on the premises of Mr. Ineson, rag and bone merchant, St. Andrew’s, Norwich.  In addition to the total destruction of Mr. Ineson’s property, the workshops of Mr. Fisher, builder, and the paint shop of Mr. Turner were burnt down.

—In the Rolls Courts Sir John Romilly gave judgment in the case of the Norwich Yarn Company, which came before the Court upon appeal from the Master’s certificate.  The question was whether the directors of the company were entitled to levy contributions upon shareholders, in order to pay certain sums advanced or borrowed by them for carrying on the business of the company, which had become insolvent.  Originally projected in 1833, with the view of relieving the distress which at that time affected the poor of Norwich, the company struggled on with increasing difficulties for sixteen years, until in 1850 it was wound up by order of the Court.  His lordship now discharged altogether a question of fraud on the part of the directors.  He was of opinion that the directors were entitled to be allowed all sums advanced by them, with simple interest at five per cent., and to be repaid that amount as far as the sum in Court would extend, with payment of the costs, and afterwards by a surplus raised by a call from the contributors in proportion to the number of shares held by them respectively, and that the cost of the proceedings must be borne by the estate of the company.

JUNE.

3.—The Rev. J. Alexander was presented with a purse containing £500, and a clock, on the occasion of his entering the fortieth year of p. 51his ministry at Prince’s Street Independent chapel, Norwich.  The Rev. S. Titlow and other clergymen of the Church of England were present.

7.—A male specimen of Savi’s warbler, the rarest of British marsh warblers, was shot near Brundall.  “This is the only bird of the species obtained in the county since 1842, when a pair were killed at South Walsham, which, with one in the Norwich Museum, are all that are known to have occurred in Norfolk.  The one in the Museum was obtained by the Rev. James Brown, at Limpenhoe, in the early part of the century.”

21.—At a meeting held at the Norfolk Hotel, Norwich, it was decided to establish a pack of foxhounds in Norfolk, and to invite Lord Suffield to become master.  The first meet of the pack took place at Melton Constable Park, on November 25th.

23.—A panorama, with the present form of variety entertainment, was exhibited for the first time at the Assembly Rooms, Norwich, by Mr. J. Batchelder.  The views were illustrative of a tour in Southern Africa.

25.—The left wing of the West Norfolk Militia arrived at Norwich from Fermoy, co. Cork; the right wing reached the city on the 26th.  An influential deputation of the inhabitants of Fermoy, prior to the departure of the regiment, presented to the colonel a farewell address, in which they congratulated him upon having the command of “so highly respectable and well disciplined a corps.”

JULY.

5.—A fine brig of 200 tons was launched from Mr. J. S. Southgate’s shipyard at Wells-next-the-Sea.  She was christened the Rambler, by Miss Ellen Rump.  From Mr. Henry Tyrrell’s yard at Wells, on September 3rd, was launched a new schooner, called the Gem.

11.—The Testerton estate, near Fakenham, comprising a residence and 676a. 3r. 6p. of arable and pasture land, let on lease to Mr. Thomas Henry Case, at a rental of £1,105 per annum, was sold at the Royal Hotel, Norwich, by Mr. Butcher, for £34,500, exclusive of timber.  The purchasers were the trustees of Mr. John Morse, deceased.

16.—Building sites in London Street, Norwich, were offered for sale by Mr. F. Clowes.  “The highest price made was at the rate of 9s. 0½d. per square foot, or £20,000 per acre.”

—The new cemetery at Yarmouth was consecrated by the Right Rev. Bishop Spencer, acting for the Lord Bishop of the Diocese.

21.—An inquiry was opened at Yarmouth by Mr. W. D. Boase, one of her Majesty’s Charity Commissioners, “into the present circumstances and administration of the various endowed charities existing in the borough, with the view of hearing any complaints that might be made, and to suggest improvements in the disposition of the funds.”  The inquiry concluded on the 24th.

23.—A performance of Costa’s “Eli” was given by the Norwich Choral Society, at St. Andrew’s Hall.  The principal vocalists were Madame Rudersdorff, Miss Dolby, Mr. George Perren, Mr. A. Mann, Mr. Weiss, and Mr. Thomas.  A performance of the same oratorio, p. 52under the personal direction of the composer, had already been advertised by Mr. Gedge, of Heigham Grove.  The Mayor (Mr. J. G. Johnson) had given permission for the use of the hall, and his action was sharply criticised at the meetings of the Town Council and in letters to the newspapers.  The following announcement was published on July 19th: “‘Eli,’ for the benefit of the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, under the direction of Mr. Costa.  Postponed.  Mr. Gedge respectfully informs the public of the county and city that, as the Town Council has thought fit to set aside the Mayor’s prerogative and fixing a day for the performance in opposition to the one he announced under the early sanction and promise of the Mayor for the Assize week, in St. Andrew’s Hall, and as the Council thought fit, at their last meeting, to determine on other restrictive demands, of which he received a legal notice this day, he has resolved to postpone ‘Eli,’ under Mr. Costa’s direction, until a future opportunity, when he trusts he shall be able to benefit the charities and at the same time to gratify the public.”

26.—On this date was published a report of the action, Beaven v. Lord Hastings, heard before the Vice-Chancellor, Sir W. P. Wood.  This was a bill by a bond creditor of Edward Astley, deceased, praying an account of the sum due for principal and interest upon his bond, and a decree for payment against the defendant, Lord Hastings, on the ground that he had made himself personally liable to pay the debt without regard to a sufficiency of the assets of the late Edward Astley.  The bill also brought the declaration that the defendant had constituted himself executor de son tort of the intestate Edward Astley, and was accountable on that footing to the plaintiff as the rightful administrator of the intestate.  Mr. Astley, who resided at Eneilles, in Belgium, having borrowed £1040 from the plaintiff, gave his bond, dated July 3rd, 1845, by which he became bound to the plaintiff in the penal sum of £2,080, with the condition for defeasance upon payment on July 3rd, 1847, of £1,040 with interest at 5 per cent.  A warrant of attorney at even date was executed by Edward Astley, but no judgment was ever actually entered up under the warrant.  In April, 1846, the dead body of Edward Astley was found, with marks of violence upon it, in the River Ourthe in Belgium.  Lord Hastings and his mother, Dame Hester Astley, his sole next-of-kin, proceeded to Eneilles with his solicitor, and applied to the Juges de Paix to remove the seals and give him possession of his brother’s property.  A procès verbal having been signed, possession of the property, “without description or inventory,” was delivered to Lord Hastings, who, by thus taking possession pur et simple became personally liable, according to the Belgian law, to pay the debts of the intestate, without reference to the value of assets.  The Vice-Chancellor dismissed the bill, on the ground that the defendant, who had legally received the property in Belgium, could not be sued in England as executor de son tort.

AUGUST.

1.—General Windham was received in Norwich with a great demonstration of welcome, on his return to his native county.  The hero of the Redan travelled from London by the Eastern Union line, and was presented with congratulatory addresses at various stations along the p. 53route.  At Victoria Station he was met by the Mayor and Corporation of Norwich, the Earl of Albemarle, Lord Hastings, Lord Bury, &c., and escorted by the Royal Artillery, proceeded to the Guildhall, where he was presented with an address.  A banquet, attended by officers of the Army and Navy connected with Norfolk and Norwich who had served in the Crimea, was given in honour of the General, at St. Andrew’s Hall.  The Earl of Albemarle presided, and on behalf of the subscribers to the Windham Testimonial Fund, presented the General with a service sword and a dress sword.

2.—Several deaths were reported to have occurred from small-pox at Lynn.  “In no instance has death ensued here after vaccination.”

9.—It was reported that at the Suffolk Assizes, at Ipswich, an action was brought by the Commissioners of Yarmouth Harbour, in the name of their clerk (Mr. Preston), pursuant to the direction of the Master of the Rolls, against the Norfolk and Eastern Counties Railway Company.  The plaintiff complained that the defendants had wrongfully diverted and obstructed the waters of the Yare, the Wensum, and the Waveney, which of right ought to flow into and through Yarmouth Harbour, and had turned them into Lake Lothing, and thence into the sea through Lowestoft Harbour.  The Eastern Union, the Norfolk, and the Eastern Counties Railways, had entered into an agreement for amalgamation, by virtue of which the latter company assumed the entire control over the network of railways constructed by those companies and the East Anglian Company, and, among other matters, they undertook the duties created by the Norwich and Lowestoft Navigation Act, one of which was the maintenance of Mutford Bridge where Lake Lothing joined Oulton Broad, for the double purpose of keeping in the fresh waters of the Yare and Waveney and preserving them for the use of Yarmouth Harbour, and of keeping out the waters of the sea, which would otherwise flood all the low lands at high water.  These duties had not been discharged to the satisfaction of the plaintiffs.  After discussion, terms of reference to Mr. B. Andrew, Q.C., were arranged, the defendants undertaking to repair the locks at once, the plaintiffs being let in to complain of acts of omission as well as of commission on the part of the defendants.  A verdict was then taken for the plaintiffs, subject to a special case.  (See January 26th, 1858.)

15.—Lieut.-Col. Edwin Wodehouse, C.B., Royal Artillery, on revisiting his former home at Hingham, after his return from the Crimea, was presented with an address by the inhabitants of the town.  He was the eldest son of Admiral Wodehouse.  At Inkerman a battery called “Wodehouse’s Battery” was furiously attacked and nearly all the men cut down by overpowering numbers of the enemy.  By heroic courage and determination he rescued from the enemy the three guns lost early in the action.  Two slugs passed through his cloak, and one, if not two, horses were killed under him.

18.—The London Grand Opera Company commenced a season at the Theatre Royal, Norwich.  The artistes included Miss Rebecca Isaacs, Miss Fanny Reeves, Mr. Borrani, Mr. Oliver Summers, Mr. J. B. Bowler, and Mr. Elliott Galer.  Among the operas produced were “La Somnambula,” “The Bohemian Girl,” “Maritana,” “Lucia Di Lammermoor,’” “Fra Diavolo,” “Norma,” and “Daughter of the Regiment.”  The company came direct from Drury Lane Theatre, on the termination of the season there.

p. 5424.—Died at Blofield, Captain Onslow, R.N., in his 61st year.  He entered the Navy in 1810, saw much active service, and returned to Portsmouth from Rio de Janeiro with upwards of 888,000 dollars on June 3rd, 1833.  He was advanced to post rank on August 27th, 1834, and was lastly, from July 23rd, 1842, until paid out of commission in the early part of 1847, employed in the Pacific, on board the Daphne, 18.

26.—At a meeting of the Norwich Town Council, the Paving Committee reported in favour of a scheme for draining the northern part of the city, at the total cost of £7,893, according to plans prepared by Mr. E. E. Benest, city surveyor.  The Council declined to adopt the scheme, on the ground that the city could not afford to undertake it.

SEPTEMBER.

1.—A storm of great severity occurred.  The district in which it was most felt was across the track of marsh land lying between Bungay and Ormesby.  At Yarmouth the outbreak began at six p.m., and lasted till midnight.  Several cottages were flooded, and one fell, in consequence of its being undermined by the water.

—The first meeting of the provisional committee for erecting the Britannia Pier, Yarmouth, was held at the Angel Hotel, under the presidency of Sir E. H. K. Lacon, Bart., M.P.  The estimated cost was £3,900.  The pier was opened on July 13th, 1858.

14.—A white stork was shot in the plantation of Mr. R. H. Saye, at North Pickenham.  Its wings measured 6 ft. 3 in. from tip to tip, it was 4 ft. in length, and weighed 8 lbs.  The bird was preserved by Mr. T. Ellis, of Swaffham.

23.—Mdlle. Piccolomini gave a concert at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich.  Among the artistes from Her Majesty’s Theatre who accompanied her were Mdlle. Firioli, Signor Belletti, Mr. Charles Braham, Signor Beneventano, and Signor Pilotti.

27.*—“During the past fortnight the catch of herrings at Yarmouth has been almost unprecedented in the annals of the fisheries.  In many instances the boats have entered the harbour so heavily laden that their gunwales were almost level with the water.  In the last ten days it is computed that the quantity of herrings brought in and landed here from the various boats has reached the enormous daily average of 100 lasts, or 1,320,000 fish.  From £12 10s. to £14 per last has been realised; but in some cases this abundance of fish has proved most disastrous to the owners, entailing the loss of the boats’ nets, stores, &c.  Mr. J. T. Frosdick has sustained in this way the entire loss of the nets of two boats, to the serious extent of £450, for, owing to the enormous catch of fish, the men were quite unable to draw the nets on board, and ultimately the weight proved so great that they sunk the nets and all to the bottom of the sea.”

30.—The festival of the Choir Benevolent Fund was held at Norwich Cathedral.  In addition to those of Norwich, choirs from London, Ely, Cambridge, Rochester, Peterborough, and Canterbury took part.  The total sum accruing from the festival amounted to £273 0s. 9d.

p. 55OCTOBER.

1.—Died, in his 83rd year, the Rev. James Brown, B.D., Hon. Canon of Norwich, and for fifty years vicar of St. Andrew’s, Norwich.  “For more than twenty years chaplain of the county prison, he was one of the earliest advocates of educational efforts being directed towards prisoners, and in his practical suggestions may be traced the germ of much that is valuable in our reformatory institutions.  He lived long enough to see similar views generally adopted and made compulsory by the State.  His duties as chaplain were performed during a period when capital punishments were much more frequent than now, and this gave him the opportunity of seeing vice in its most degrading forms, and to hear from the lips of its victims the repentance which the certain approach of death and judgment generally extracted from them.”

6.—The church of the Holy Trinity, Hempton Green, was opened by the Bishop of Norwich.

—The corner-stone of the new Corn Hall at Aylsham was laid by the Marquis of Lothian.

7.—Died at Calais, aged 60, Capt. Charles Thurtell, R.N., son of Mr. Thomas Thurtell, of Lakenham.

16.—The Earl of Albemarle addressed a large meeting of the industrial class at the Corn Hall, Diss, upon the subject of “Benefit Clubs.”  In the course of his remarks, he asserted “the Manchester Unity of Oddfellows is humbug from beginning to end.”  The action of his lordship evoked a large amount of newspaper correspondence, and on November 6th Mr. Samuel Daynes, a former “Grand Master” of the Unity, introduced at Diss a Mr. Reeve, who delivered an address to rebut the assertions of Lord Albemarle.

20.—Mr. Fred Phillips’ dramatised version of Mrs. Beecher Stowe’s romance of “Dred” was produced at the Surrey Theatre, and was favourably noticed by the critics.  At the same theatre, on January 19th, 1857, was produced the comedy, “A Bird in the Hand is worth Two in the Bush,” by the same author.

29.—At a meeting held at Yarmouth, it was resolved to take the necessary steps towards placing the Nelson column in a proper state of repair.

NOVEMBER.

1.—Mr. T. D. Eaton, president of the Choral Society, was presented by the members, at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, with a silver snuff-box and silver inkstand.  “Mr. H. Pierson, the author of the oratorio ‘Jerusalem,’ and of the opera ‘Faust,’ was present, and wrote a drinking song for the occasion, dedicating it to the president.”

5.—Died at Liverpool, Mr. Charles Hodgson, formerly of Norwich.  He was one of the mathematical tutors at Norwich Free Grammar School during the headmastership of the Rev. Edward Valpy, and nearly the last surviving member of the Norwich Society of Artists, established in 1803.

p. 569.—The down parliamentary train was on its way from Thetford to Harling when the engine left the metals, mounted the bank by the side of the line, and, after running forty yards, turned over upon its side, crushing the driver to death.  The accident was occasioned by the breaking of the tire of the leading wheel of the engine.  A few minutes after the accident a goods up-train ran into the tender of the disabled engine, but only a slight collision resulted.

10.—Mr. Robert Chamberlin was elected Mayor, and Mr. Robert Seaman appointed Sheriff of Norwich.

13.—A sculling match, for £100, between Henry Kelly, of Fulham, and Richard Buttle, of Norwich, was rowed on the Thames, from Putney to Mortlake.  Kelly won, by little more than half a boat’s length.  Time, 25 minutes.  The return match was fixed to take place on the Yare, from Surlingham to Thorpe, on November 25th, but owing to a dispute as to the appointment of referee, the race was postponed until the 26th, when Kelly, who rowed the distance, about 4½ miles, in 37½ minutes, won easily.

19.—Died, the Right Hon. Julia Barbara, Lady Stafford, wife of Henry Valentine, 9th Baron Stafford, daughter of Edward Howard, of Glossop.  Her ladyship was born in 1807.  The interment took place at the private chapel at Costessey, on November 27th.

29.—Snow began to fall, and soon reached a greater depth than had been recorded in Norfolk for many years previously.  At nine o’clock on the morning of December 4th the thermometer stood at 16 deg.; the reading of the same instrument, in the same place, at eleven a.m. on December 6th was 60 deg.  In thirty-six hours from ten to twelve inches of snow had disappeared, and the weather thenceforth was very mild.

DECEMBER.

2.—At the Norwich Police Court, George Holl and Stephen Gilbert, of Magdalen Road, were charged by the Commissioners of Inland Revenue with having an illicit still.  Holl was fined £50, and Gilbert £200.

3.—The “exercise” written by Mr. Edward Bunnett, of Norwich, “to qualify himself for taking the degree of Bachelor of Music, was performed with great success in the chapel of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.”

25.—Died, in St. Peter Mancroft, Norwich, Mrs. Ann Jean, widow of Mr. Roger Jean, artist, in her 74th year.

26.—Boxing Day was, for the first time, observed in Norwich as a general holiday, “none of the shops being opened in the Market Place or principal streets.”  The pantomime of “Bluebeard, or the Demon Curiosity,” was produced at the Theatre, and the other amusements included Brown’s Circus, with the spectacles, “St. George and the Dragon,” and “Mazeppa”; and Wombwell’s Menagerie on Castle Meadow.

p. 571857.

JANUARY.

4.—During a violent gale from the north, several ships went ashore at Yarmouth.  “The beach presented a melancholy appearance, from the number of vessels upon it.”

8.—The Rev. A. C. Copeman was elected minister of the parish of St. Andrew, Norwich.  The Revs. T. Rust, J. W. Cobb, and R. Wade withdrew from the contest, and Mr. Copeman defeated the remaining candidate, the Rev. J. W. Evans, by 96 votes to 33.

19.—The D Battery, Field Artillery, commanded by Major Strange, marched from the Cavalry Barracks, Norwich, en route for Aldershot.  P Field Battery arrived from Woolwich on the 21st, under the command of Major Hoste.

23.—A sea eagle was shot at Winterton.  It measured from its beak to its tail 3 feet, and from tip to tip of its wings 8 feet.

27.—A dinner was held at the Angel Inn, North Walsham, to celebrate the restoration of the Market Cross.

—Died at his residence, Park Crescent, London, in his 70th year, the Hon. Sir Edward Hall Alderson, Baron of her Majesty’s Court of Exchequer.  He was the eldest son of Mr. Robert Alderson, barrister-at-law, and Recorder of Norwich, by the daughter of Mr. Samuel Hurry, of Great Yarmouth, where he was born in 1787.  He received his early education at the Charter House and at Caius College, Cambridge.  Elected a Fellow of his college, he, in 1812, proceeded M.A.  On being called to the Bar, he went the Northern Circuit.  In conjunction with Mr. Barnewell, he edited five volumes of reports of cases heard in the Court of King’s Bench between 1815 and 1820.  In 1830, though still wearing the stuff gown, he was promoted an additional puisne judge in the Court of Common Pleas, and received the honour of knighthood.  In 1834 he was transferred from that Court to a puisne judgeship in the Court of Exchequer, where for many years he was second to Baron Parke.  Baron Alderson was a careful, learned, and conscientious judge, though his mind was naturally inclined to take a rather hard and dry view of the question at issue, and to strip it, almost to a fault, of extraneous matter.

28.—A singular action for defamation of character was tried before Mr. Justice Williams and a special jury in the Court of Common Pleas.  Mr. Stephen English, Chief Constable of Norwich, was the plaintiff, and Capt. Black, Chief Constable of Norfolk, the defendant.  The damages were laid at £3,000.  According to the opening statement of Mr. Serjeant Byles, Capt. Black felt himself aggrieved that Mr. English should be styled Chief Constable of Norwich, and wrote to the Watch Committee several letters upon the subject, stating that Mr. English’s assumed title, instead of his proper title, “superintendent of police,” had caused him (Capt. Black) obstruction and official inconvenience in the discharge of his duties.  These letters had no effect, and Capt. Black then published handbills reflecting upon the p. 58personal character of Mr. English.  He stated that the antecedents of Mr. English in relation to other county forces were so disreputable as to cause his expulsion from more than one of them.  This was the defamatory statement complained of.  Many witnesses were examined on both sides, and on the 29th the jury returned a verdict for the plaintiff, damages £50.  On February 13th Sir Henry Stracey, M.P., in Committee on the Chief Constables Bill, moved to insert in clause 4, “And whereas disputes having arisen as to the title of Chief Constable, for avoiding the same the title of Chief Constable shall be exclusively applicable to and borne by the officer appointed by the justices of any county in General or Quarter Sessions assembled, and the title Head Constable by the officer appointed by the Watch Committees of boroughs and cities.”

FEBRUARY.

4.—A servant girl, named Belinda Wilson, aged 18, was charged at the County Police Station, Norwich, with stealing, on January 3rd the sum of £90, in bank notes, the property of her master, Mr. William Claxton, farmer, of Stoke Holy Cross.  After taking the money, Wilson attired herself in the clothes of a manservant, and starting from Flordon railway station, proceeded to Edinburgh, where she had some difficulty in obtaining change, as English notes were not in general circulation there.  She obtained a new suit of clothes of sporting cut, and travelled from place to place “like a fast young man.”  At the end of January she was again in the Eastern Counties, and took up her abode at Yarmouth.  During a visit to Wombwell’s Menagerie, she was recognised by an old schoolfellow, through whom information was given to the police, who apprehended her at the Waterloo Tavern, St. Peter’s Road, where she was posing as “a lively-looking youth, and smoking a cigar.”  She gave the name of James Smith.  The prisoner was committed for trial, and at the Norfolk Quarter Sessions in March pleaded guilty, and was sentenced by Sir Willoughby Jones to two years’ imprisonment, with hard labour.

11.—The new Corn Hall at East Dereham, erected on the sites of old shambles and slaughter-houses, was opened.  A company of 250 guests assembled at dinner in the hall, under the presidency of Lord Sondes, who was supported by the Earl of Leicester, Lord Walsingham, Lord Hastings, Lord Suffield, the Hon. and Rev. E. S. Keppel, Mr. W. Bagge, M.P., Mr. G. P. Bentinck, M.P., Mr. E. Fellowes, M.P., the Mayor and Sheriff of Norwich, &c.  The hall was built by a company, with a capital of £3,000.  Its cost was about £1,800; Mr. J. B. Goggs, of Swaffham, was the architect, and Mr. Hubbard, of Dereham, the builder.  (See July 29th, 1857.)

14.*—“A few days since Mr. Wolton, grocer, of Norwich, received by the London post a letter enclosing the halves of notes to the amount of £140, with the intimation, written in a disguised hand, that about 14 years ago the writer, being in a place of trust in his establishment, had appropriated to himself this amount in a dishonest manner, and taken the present opportunity of returning it.  On Friday morning came the other halves of the notes, with the request that the rest of the money might be acknowledged in the ‘Daily News.’”

p. 5920.—An amateur dramatic performance was given at Norwich Theatre, “by a number of distinguished amateurs, most of whom had formed port of the corps dramatique during the late campaign in the Crimea.”  The pieces were “The Black Book,” a three-act drama by J. Palgrave Simpson; “The Thumping Legacy,” and “The Critic.”  The performers appeared under fictitious names.

—A singular action was tried at the Yarmouth County Court, before Mr. T. J. Birch.  Mr. John Cobb sued Mr. G. D. Palmer and Mr. W. N. Burroughes for the recovery of certain money paid by the plaintiff at the request of the defendants for expenses incurred in contesting an election of councillors for the Market Ward in that borough on November 1st, 1851.  Mr. Cobb was induced, on the solicitation of the defendants, who were leaders of the Liberal party, to offer himself as a candidate for the Market Ward.  He was not anxious to become a councillor, but the defendants promised to “see him through,” and on the night before the election distinctly guaranteed him that he should be reimbursed any outlay incurred beyond the sum of £10.  Mr. Cobb was defeated at the poll.  It was not denied that the guarantee was given, but it was contended that, in order to render it valid to support the action, it should have been in writing, which it was not.  The Judge concurred, and nonsuited the plaintiff.  It was admitted, in the course of the hearing, that the money was applied “to bribery, vulgarly so-called.”

MARCH.

11.—A conference was held at the Guildhall, Norwich, as to certain complaints respecting the management of the Eastern Counties lines of railway.  The Mayor presided, and deputations were present representing the Eastern Counties Railway Company, the Norwich Corporation, and the town of East Dereham.  The principal complaints, as stated by Mr. Tillett, had reference to unequal charges for the transit of goods, and the alteration in the price of market tickets.  Mr. Love, the chairman of the company, assured the meeting that any communication made to the company would receive consideration.

16.—The Norwich Free Library was thrown open for the use of the citizens.  There was no formal ceremony, but in the evening the Rev. A. Bath Power delivered an inaugural address on the advantages of the study of literature and science.  The building was erected at the total cost of £5,958, and the internal fittings increased the amount to £6,500.

19.—At a meeting of the Conservative party in the Eastern Division of Norfolk, held at Norwich, it was decided that Mr. H. N. Burroughes and Sir Henry Stracey, Bart., should withdraw from contesting the return of General Windham and Sir E. N. Buxton.  In West Norfolk, Mr. Bagge, “from private reasons, and from a desire not to disturb the peace of the county,” retired from the representation, and a compromise was effected whereby both parties concurred to support Mr. Brampton Gurdon, of Letton, and Mr. G. Bentinck, the sitting member.

21.—The Bishop of Norwich issued an address to the clergy of the diocese, announcing that it was his intention to resign the duties of the episcopate.  On April 21st the Corporation of Norwich voted an address to Dr. Samuel Hinds, “late Bishop of the Diocese.”

p. 6027.—The nomination of Sir Samuel Bignold, Viscount Bury, and Mr. Henry William Schneider, as candidates for the representation of Norwich took place at the Guildhall.  A poll was demanded on behalf of Mr. Schneider, and was opened on the 28th.  The result was officially declared on the 30th: Viscount Bury, 2,227; Schneider, 2,235; Bignold, 1,631.

—The Hon. F. Baring and the Earl of Euston were returned unopposed for the borough of Thetford.

—The nomination of candidates for the representation of Great Yarmouth took place.  Sir Edmund Lacon.  Mr. McCullagh, Mr. Watkin, and Col. Vereker were proposed.  The poll was opened on the 28th, and resulted in the return of the Liberal candidates: McCullagh, 609; Watkin, 590; Lacon, 521; Vereker, 451.  (See July 24th, 1857.)

—Lord Stanley and Mr. J. H. Gurney were re-elected, unopposed, members for King’s Lynn.

29.—Died at Hackford Hall, aged 80, the Ven. John Bedingfeld Collyer, archdeacon of Norwich, and vicar of Wroxham with Salhouse.  He was the second son of the Rev. Daniel Collyer, of Wroxham Hall and of Necton, by Catherine, one of the daughters and co-heiress of John Bedingfeld, of Caston Castle and of Beeston.  Educated at the Charter House, under Dr. Matthew Raines, he proceeded to Clare Hall, Cambridge, and after taking holy orders he married, in 1800, Catherine, daughter of William Alexander, eldest brother of the first Earl of Caledon, and granddaughter of Dr. Messenger Monsey, of Chelsea Hospital.  In 1806–7, upon the threatened invasion of this country by Bonaparte, Mr. Collyer received a commission as a major of Volunteers, and acted with great energy and decision.  In recognition of his services in his military capacity, he was made a deputy-lieutenant of the county and placed upon the commission of the peace.  Throughout his life he was uniformly attached to Whig principles.  He was succeeded in the archdeaconry by the Rev. R. E. Hankinson.

30.—Mr. G. P. Bentinck and Mr. Brampton Gurdon were, at the Shirehall, Swaffham, nominated and returned unopposed as members for West Norfolk.

31.—At the Norwich Assizes, before Mr. Justice Erle, the Grand Jury returned a bill of indictment against Jacob, Baron Hastings, for a misdemeanour “in endeavouring to incite Jacob Henry Tillett to fight a duel.”  On the application of Mr. Power, a bench warrant for his lordship’s apprehension was issued.  On April 1st Mr. Kent, solicitor, appeared on behalf of Lord Hastings, and applied for bail.  His lordship was admitted to bail, himself in £200 and two sureties of £100 each.  The Earl of Leicester and Lord Suffield were his sureties.  The case was traversed to the next Assizes.  Further proceedings were, however, withdrawn, after an interview between Lieut.-Col. Astley and Mr. Tillett.  “His lordship,” it was stated “had no intention of sending a threatening or offensive message to Mr. Tillett, and he felt that an article published by Mr. Tillett on November 29th, 1856, was an unjustifiable attack upon him, which led to the warmth exhibited by his lordship in his interview with Mr. Tillett, for which his lordship expresses regret and withdraws his offensive epithets.  Mr. Tillett, upon his lordship’s disavowal, withdraws any remarks offensive to his lordship is the article above alluded to, and expresses his regret that p. 61any unpleasantness should have arisen between Lord Hastings and himself.”

APRIL.

6.—General Charles Ash Windham and Sir Edmund North Buxton were, at the Shirehall, Norwich, nominated and returned unopposed members for East Norfolk.

9.—At a vestry meeting held at East Dereham, it was resolved that the Bath House, an unsightly building in the churchyard, be removed.  “By the removal of this building, the burial-place of St. Withburga, an object of great local interest, will no longer be hidden to view.”

14.—Intelligence was received in Norwich of the birth of a Princess (Princess Beatrice).

17.—Mr. David Fisher, of the Princess’s Theatre, London, appeared at Norwich Theatre as John Mildmay (“Still Waters Run Deep”).

18.—It was announced that the Hon. and Rev. John Thomas Pelham was to succeed Dr. Samuel Hinds as Bishop of Norwich.  Mr. Pelham, who was the second son of the second Earl of Chichester, was born in 1811, and graduated at Oxford.  In 1845 he married a daughter of Mr. Thomas William Tatten, and was appointed chaplain to the Queen in 1847.  Shortly afterwards he was presented to the rectory of Berghapton, by the Earl of Abergavenny.  In 1852 he removed to Christ Church, Hampstead, and in 1854 was nominated by the Crown to the rectory of St. Marylebone, on the death of Dr. Spry.  On May 9th a special meeting of the Dean and Chapter was held at the Deanery, Norwich, when the congé d’élire, declaring the vacancy of the bishopric “and recommending to the Dean and Chapter the Hon. and Rev. John Thomas Pelham, M.A., to be by them elected Bishop of the See of Norwich,” was read, and Mr. Pelham was elected accordingly.  The ceremony of confirming the election took place in the College of Advocates in Doctors’ Commons, on June 6th, and his lordship was consecrated at the parish church of St. Marylebone on June 11th, by the Archbishop of Canterbury.  The installation took place at Norwich Cathedral on June 26th, and addresses were afterwards presented to his lordship by the Corporations of Norwich and Yarmouth.

25.*—“Lord Hastings has had an interesting addition to his collection of foreign animals in two wapiti deer, which are among the largest known of their species in North America.  He has also an increase in a young kangaroo and three young nylgaus having been born the week before last at Melton Constable.”

—The chancel of East Dereham church was re-opened, after “additional embellishment, through the liberality of the sinecure rector, the Rev. W. C. Wollaston.”  The open roof was displayed by the removal of an unsightly ceiling, early English windows were substituted for those of more debased style, and a window by Wailes, as a memorial to Mrs. Wollaston, completed the series of stained glass windows.  The reredos was illuminated by Messrs. King, of Norwich.

27.—At Docking Petty Sessions it was stated, during the hearing of a case of assault, that the quarrel had its origin in a belief in witchcraft, “unfortunately too prevalent in most of the country villages.”  The witnesses “displayed a great amount of ignorance and superstition, p. 62showing how the husband of the complainant had been bewitched and unable to move for twelve months, but was cured in two days by a witch doctor in the neighbourhood.”

27.—The Yarmouth School of Navigation and Art was established at a house on the South Quay, formerly occupied by Mr. Paget.

MAY.

7.—The adaptation of steam power to ploughing was exhibited in a field belonging to Mr. Craske Roper, of Croxton Park, near Thetford.  Two engines, fitted with an “endless railway,” were built by Mr. Burrell, of Thetford, and both were shown at work.  “The new engine is like a railway locomotive, but with the addition of an apparatus, which answers the purpose of a railway, attached to the wheels.  The endless railway consists of a series of flat boards, six in number, plated with iron on both sides of each wheel, equal in length to the radius of the wheel, and from 10 to 16 inches in width, loosely attached to the felloe of the wheel in such a manner that they are carried round with it as it revolves.  Each in succession is laid flat on the ground in front of the wheel, and lifted up in its rear as soon as passed over.  On the surface of the boards next the periphery of the wheel an iron rail is fixed, on which the wheel runs, the boards thus corresponding to the sleepers of an ordinary railway, so that the wheels carry their own rails and sleepers with them, laying down a literally endless railway whenever they are set in motion.”

11.—A meeting was held in the old Library Room, St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, “to take into consideration the expediency of forming a society to prevent persons from taking and destroying fish by illegal practices.”  It was resolved, “That an anglers’ society be established in Norwich, with the view of aiding the authorities in preventing illegal fishing, and also for promoting the rational recreation of the members.”  The society was called “The Norwich and Norfolk Anglers’ Society,” and Mr. Skippon was appointed honorary secretary.

13.—Mr. Thackeray gave the first of two lectures at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich.  The subject was, “George the Third.”  The second lecture was delivered on the 15th, and was entitled, “George the Fourth.”  “A very general feeling of disappointment is expressed at the style and manner of the lecturer, and at the very high prices charged (4s. and 2s. 6d.).  We have reason to believe that in some instances those who paid for tickets for the second evening intentionally absented themselves.”  Letters were published in the Norfolk Chronicle expressing strong disapproval of Thackeray’s strictures upon the personal characters of the Georges.

18.—The polling for the election of a Coroner for the Lynn district, to fill the vacancy occasioned by the death of Mr. George Sayle, commenced at Lynn.  The candidates were Mr. Jeffery and Mr. Wilkin.  “An extraordinary degree of energy was displayed in bringing up the voters in all parts of the district, and the expenses incurred in paying railway and coach fares, breakfasts, and dinners for the voters and hangers on (to say nothing of the sum of money lavished in other ways to obtain their suffrages, added to the usual outlay upon a contested election), must have amounted to something enormous, p. 63considering the pecuniary value of the office at stake, probably at the best averaging £25 or £30 a year.”  The poll closed on the 19th, when Mr. Wilkin was declared elected.

18.—Mr. and Mrs. Charles Dillon commenced a three nights’ engagement at Norwich Theatre in “Othello,” “Belphegor,” and “Faint Heart Never Won Fair Lady.”

—A meeting was held at the Lecture Hall, Norwich, at which resolutions were passed condemning the Law of Settlement, and advocating the introduction of a national rate.  Another meeting was held at St. Andrew’s Hall on the 20th, at which similar resolutions were agreed to.

19.—A sculling match, for £40, was rowed on the Yare, from Surlingham to Whitlingham (3½ miles), between Stephen Wright, of Norwich, aged 22, and J. H. Clasper, of Newcastle, aged 18.  The former was trained by John Britcher, and the latter by his father.  Clasper’s boat was the lighter by several pounds, and in length exceeded the Norwich man’s craft by about four feet.  Wright had the better of the start, but in ten strokes Clasper led by a quarter of a length.  At Bramerton, however, Wright obtained a clear lead, and at Wood’s End led by four lengths.  Clasper made a desperate spurt, and got nearly abreast of his antagonist, who won by a length, in 23½ minutes.  The Newcastle man suffered severely from exhaustion, and was lifted from his boat in a helpless condition.  The return match was rowed on the Tyne, on July 24th, when Wright again won.

24.—The yacht Zoe, 170 tons, belonging to the Earl of Yarborough, struck at midnight on the Lemon Sand, off Happisburgh, while on a voyage from the Isle of Wight to Grimsby.  Lord Yarborough, with the captain and crew, took to the boats, and landed at Happisburgh Hill House.

26.—Mr. George Dawson lectured at the Assembly Room, Norwich, on “Daniel Defoe.”

30.*—“Lord Orford has addressed the following letter to the editor of the ‘Morning Post’:—‘Sir, I enclose you a paragraph which appeared in your paper of the 21st inst., to the truth of which I desire you to give the most emphatic denial.  It is a rechauffé of the lie circulated some thirty years since in a London journal as a hoax, I presume, on the editor.  At the time I did not think it worthy of contradiction, nor at my age should I deem it worthy of any such contradiction now, but am solely induced to do so for the satisfaction of those most justly dear to me.—Yours, &c., Orford.  May 26th, 1857.’”  (The paragraph here alluded to is the much-quoted reply purported to have been sent by the noble lord to the secretary of the Norwich Bible Society.  It originally appeared in the “Freemen’s Journal,” Dublin.)

31.—Died at his residence, Brighton, Mr. Charles Edmund Rumbold, of Preston Candover, Hants., aged 69.  He represented for more than 37 years the borough of Great Yarmouth, for which he was first returned in 1818.

JUNE.

1.—The Annual Moveable Committee of the Manchester Unity of Oddfellows commenced its sittings at Norwich.  There were 110 p. 64delegates present, and Mr. Cox (“Grand Master”) presided.  The meetings, which were held daily at the Bazaar (afterwards known as Victoria Hall), concluded on the 6th.  The dinner, held at St. Andrew’s Hall on the 3rd, was presided over by Sir Samuel Bignold, and in the course of the proceedings, Mr. Samuel Daynes was presented with a gift of 160gs., in recognition of the valuable work he had done for the Order.

1.—Died at Costessey, aged 88, Mr. John Culley, one of the leading agriculturists of the county.  “It was to him and a few others that the farmers in this locality are indebted for the establishment of the Hail Storm Society, and the subscriptions which followed the memorable hailstorm in this county a few years since.”  Mr. Culley took a prominent part in the movement for the erection of the Norwich Corn Exchange.

11.—A familiar object, known as the “Bassingham Gateway,” in London Street, Norwich, was sold by auction.  The purchaser was Mr. William Wilde, and the price £12.  The hope was expressed that this relic of antiquity would not be removed from the city.  On September 5th it was announced: “The Bassingham Gateway has been erected at the magistrates’ entrance at the Guildhall, where it is quite out of character with the building, or, at any rate, that part of it.  Above the gate are the arms of Henry VII., the arms of the Goldsmiths’ Company, to which its builder, Mr. John Bassingham, belonged, and of the city of Norwich.  Having been cleaned, the carved work is brought out in bold relief.”

—An amateur sculling match took place for £10, from Bramerton to Whitlingham (about three miles), between Mr. Henry Watling and Mr. Henry Balls.  A foul resulted, Mr. Watling claimed stakes, and the referee, Mr. Vyall, decided in his favour.

13.*—“The Marine Parade (Yarmouth) may now be looked upon as completed, and certainly in almost every particular it has exceeded the expectations formed of it.  It was planned and carried out under the immediate superintendence of the Town Surveyor, Mr. A. W. Morant, and the cost will not exceed the sum estimated, £1,700.”

16.—At a special meeting of the Norwich Town Council, the Grammar School Committee reported that the hearing took place, before the Master of the Rolls, on June 10th, of the suit, the Attorney-General v. Hudson, when the principal differences which had existed in reference to the new scheme for the administration of the School and Hospital had been amicably adjusted.  The sum of £1,000 per annum, exclusive of the cost of buildings, was to be taken from the Great Hospital funds and appropriated, under the management of separate trustees, to the purposes of education.  Two schools were to be established—a Grammar School and a Commercial School.  The course of instruction in the Grammar School would embrace English, Latin, French, and German, &c., and in the Commercial School, English, French, and the rudiments of Latin, &c.  Prizes and scholarships were to be given to both schools, and the boy who obtained an upper class scholarship in the Commercial School would be entitled to education in the Grammar School without cost.  The payments for boys educated in the Grammar School were to range from 6 gs. to 8 gs. per year, and in the Commercial School 30s. per year.  The masters were to be paid a fixed salary, besides which their p. 65stipends would be augmented in the Grammar School by four-sixths of the money received from the pupils, and in the Commercial School by three-sixths.  (See March 23rd, 1858.)

17.—A revival of the Dereham Race Meeting attracted thousands of spectators to the Common.  The subscriptions amounted to £150, and horses were run by Lord Suffield and other sportsmen of the county.

18.—Workmen engaged in deepening a dry dock belonging to Mr. Ambrose Palmer, at Yarmouth, turned up in one spadeful from 700 to 1,000 silver pennies of Edward I. and of Alexander III., the contemporary King of Scotland.  The coins were discovered 17 feet beneath the level of the quay.

23.—Mr. A. A. H. Beckwith, Governor of the Norwich Court of Guardians, performed the ceremony of turning the first sod upon the line marked out for the main front of the new Norwich Workhouse.

24.—Mr. Spurgeon, “the celebrated revivalist,” preached two sermons at the Corn Exchange, Lynn, in aid of a fund for repairing the local Baptist chapel.  Two thousand six hundred tickets were issued, and the collections amounted to £110 15s.

27.—Died of cholera, at Kurnaul, aged 59, Major-General the Hon. George Anson, Commander-in-Chief of the troops in India.  He was the second son of Thomas, first Viscount Anson, and brother of the first Earl of Lichfield, served in the Scots Fusilier Guards, and was present at the battle of Waterloo.  In 1818 he was returned for Yarmouth, and represented the borough in several Parliaments before and after the passing of the Reform Bill.  By hereditary descent and by personal conviction he was a Liberal in politics, and invariably sided with the leaders of the Whig party.  He became Major-General on November 11th, 1851.  He was a zealous patron of the Turf, on which he was better known as Colonel Anson.

JULY.

1.—A reformatory was established at Catton, by Mr. Wright, as an offshoot of a similar institution at Buxton.

4.—Application was made in the Court of Chancery, before the Lord Chancellor, for a re-hearing of the case, Lombe v. Stoughton, which was decided in the year 1841, by the then Vice-Chancellor.  The testator, Sir John Lombe, had left a large fund, to be applied to the purpose of building a mansion on his estate in Norfolk, with a direction that the fund should accumulate until the house was finished.  Considerable delay took place in completing the house, and the fund increased to a very large amount, leaving a surplus of about £20,000.  The Vice-Chancellor directed the fund to be applied to building purposes at a time when it was not known that the surplus would be so large, but the order was made without prejudice to any question as to the surplus.  This surplus was now claimed by the representatives of the successive tenants for life, on the ground that they (the tenants for life) had been deprived of the enjoyment of the house, and were, therefore, entitled to the fund by way of compensation.  The Lord Chancellor gave leave for the Vice-Chancellor to re-hear the case, if he found himself fettered by the wording of p. 66the decree.  The Vice-Chancellor, on July 31st, ruled that what had been done was according to the intention of the testator, and held that the surplus must be considered as capital, and not income.

7.—The Bishop of Norwich laid the first stone of the new church of St. John the Evangelist, erected at Yarmouth for the use of beachmen and sailors.  (See April 22nd, 1858.)

8.—Mr. Arthur Preston, hon. secretary of the Norfolk and Norwich Horticultural Society, was, at a dinner held at the Bell Hotel, under the presidency of the Mayor of Norwich, presented with a piece of plate, in recognition of his valuable services to the society.

17.—The Mayor of Norwich (Mr. R. Chamberlin) was presented with a silver epergne, valued at 200 gs., “in recognition of the strict impartiality, sound judgment, and munificent hospitality which distinguished his official career as Mayor in 1854–5.”

24.—A Committee of the House of Commons commenced the hearing of a petition lodged by Mr. Richard Ferrier, the elder, and Mr. E. H. L. Preston, against the return for Yarmouth of the sitting members, Messrs. M’Cullagh and Watkin.  Bribery, treating, and undue influence were alleged.  The inquiry lasted five days.  On July 29th the Committee found that Messrs. M’Cullagh and Watkin were, by their agents, guilty of bribery, that they were not duly elected burgesses to serve in Parliament, that the election was a void election, and bribes had been paid.  On August 10th, Mr. Adolphus William Young and Mr. John Mellor, Q.C., Liberals, were returned without opposition.

29.—At the Norfolk Assizes, before Lord Chief Justice Campbell, an indictment was preferred against the East Dereham Corn Exchange Company, for obstructing a certain highway over Lion Hill in that town by the erection of the hall, and further for obstructing Quebec Street and certain fairs and markets.  The jury, after a long hearing, returned a verdict for the Crown, with the rider: “We find that there was a public highway over Lion Hill, and we find that there is an obstruction of that part occupied by the Corn Exchange Company, but we find that the public are materially benefited by the alteration, and on the second count we find for the defendants.”  (See May 5th, 1858.)

AUGUST.

6.—Robert Bunn, “the celebrated pedestrian,” on the Ipswich Road, Norwich, ran a mile against time for a wager of £25.  “The wager was that he would not cover the distance in 4 minutes 45 secs.  He accomplished the feat in 4 minutes 30 secs.”

13.—A dinner was given in honour of General Windham, at the Corn Hall, North Walsham, on the eve of his departure for India, on the outbreak of the Mutiny.

15.*—“A report is going the round of the papers, copied from the Australian journals, regarding the death of the person known to our readers as Emily Sandford.  We are assured by a gentleman who interested himself in her behalf in 1849 that Miss Sandford is not in Australia.  She married a highly respectable merchant in 1850, with whom and their children she returned to Europe in 1855.”

p. 6720.—The battery of Royal Artillery marched from the Cavalry Barracks, Norwich, for Shorncliffe, to hold themselves in readiness for India.

24.—The annual congress of the British Archæological Association was opened at Norwich, under the presidency of the Earl of Albemarle.  The proceedings ended on the 28th.  Caistor Camp, Lynn, Yarmouth, and Burgh Castle were among the places visited.

25.—An extraordinary leap was made by a horse ridden by Mr. William Feek, horse trainer, of Norwich.  “Mr. Feek, in the presence of a number of gentlemen, to show the power of the animal, jumped it over a high fence on Newmarket Road, without touching it, making a spring from point to point of 34 feet.”

SEPTEMBER.

1.—Died at his residence in King Street, Norwich, Mr. Anthony Hudson, banker, aged 75.  In early life he enjoyed the friendship of the Right Hon. William Windham, and had since been on intimate terms with the Windham family.  For many years he took an active part in the management of the bank of Messrs. Harveys and Hudsons.  After the passing of the Municipal Reform Bill, he was appointed a magistrate of the city, and for more than twenty years was a constant attendant on the Bench.  He was chairman both of the “Church” and “General” list of Charity Trustees, a governor of the Bethel Hospital, and President of the Board of Directors of the Norwich Union Fire Office.

4.—A troop of the 15th Light Dragoons (Hussars), under the command of Major Knox, arrived at the Cavalry Barracks, Norwich.  The headquarters followed, under the command of Colonel Key.

10.—A public meeting of the citizens, convened by the Mayor and Sheriff, was held at the Guildhall, Norwich, “to take into consideration the best means of affording relief to the suffering Europeans in India whose lives have not been taken by the mutineers, but by whose conduct they are rendered entirely destitute.”  It was decided to open a public subscription.

15.—The Norfolk and Norwich Triennial Musical Festival commenced with a miscellaneous concert at St. Andrew’s Hall.  Spohr’s sacred cantata, “God, Thou art Great,” Mendelssohn’s “Hymn of Praise,” and Mozart’s “Requiem” were performed on the morning of the 16th, and in the evening a miscellaneous concert was given.  Beethoven’s “Mount of Olives” and Haydn’s “Seasons” were rendered on the morning of the 17th, and a miscellaneous programme was submitted at the evening concert.  “The Messiah” was the attraction on the morning of the 18th, and the Festival concluded with a fancy dress ball at St. Andrew’s Hall in the evening.  The vocalists engaged for the Festival were Madame Clara Novello, Mdlle. Leonhardi (her first appearance in England), Madame Weiss, Mrs. Lockey, Mdlle. Piccolomini, Signor Gardoni, Signor Guiglini, Mr. Lockey, Mr. Miranda, Mr. Weiss, and Signor Belletti.  The receipts amounted to £4,348, and the expenses to £3,997.

23.—The first exhibition of the Wayland Agricultural Society was held at Watton under the presidency of Lord Walsingham.

p. 68OCTOBER.

7.—By Royal Proclamation this day was observed as one of humiliation and prayer.  At Norwich all the principal shops were closed, and services were held morning and evening at the parish churches.  Collections were made on behalf of the sufferers by the Indian Mutiny.

22.—Mr. W. H. Russell, LL.D., the special correspondent of “The Times” during the Crimean War, delivered, at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, a lecture on the principal events of the campaign.  He gave a second lecture on the 23rd.

—A terrible storm raged on the Norfolk coast.  The brig Ontario, of South Shield’s, from Newcastle to Suez with coals (Capt., Balfour), foundered on the Barber Sand off Yarmouth, and drifting to the Cockle Gatway, was lost.  The captain, his wife and son, and the crew of 24 hands perished.  The chief mate, William Coates Robinson, alone escaped.  The Zillah, of Whitby, from Hartlepool to London, commanded by Capt. Watson, was lost off Winterton, and five men, including the master, were drowned, out of the crew of eight hands.  Upon the Norfolk coast between forty and fifty lives were lost.  It was asserted that many lives would have been saved had the lifeboats and apparatus been in an ordinarily effective condition.  The strictures made upon the life-saving service led to negotiations for the amalgamation with the National Society of the Norfolk Association for Saving the Lives of Shipwrecked Mariners.

NOVEMBER.

2.—A troop of the 15th Hussars left Norwich for Coventry.

7.—Mr. Cadge was elected surgeon of the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, in succession to Mr. B. H. Norgate, resigned.  Mr. T. W. Crosse succeeded Mr. Cadge as assistant-surgeon.

9.—Mr. Edward Field was elected Mayor, and Mr. Charles Crawshay appointed Sheriff of Norwich.

11.—Intelligence was received in Norwich of the relief of Lucknow and the capture of Delhi.

20.—Miss P. Horton (Mrs. German Reed) and Mr. T. German Reed gave their entertainment at the Assembly Rooms, Norwich.

28.—Norwich Theatre was opened for the winter season.  Mr. Sidney doubled the prices of admission to pit and gallery, and increased the prices of the dress and upper boxes.  Tuesdays and Fridays were set apart as “subscription nights,” for the production of high-class plays and dramas.  The manager intimated that the hire of silver tickets was illegal, “the Theatre deed requiring legal transfer and register with the proprietors’ solicitor to be available for admission.”  A printed circular had been issued by a speculator, offering silver tickets for hire for the night, week, or the whole season, “on the usual terms.”

30.—An alarming accident occurred in a building erected for equestrian performances at the Orchard Gardens, Norwich.  Soon after the commencement of the entertainment, the supports of the gallery gave way, and the structure fell, with between 300 and 400 p. 69persons.  “The whole mass of timber fell under the people, who, with their seats, were thrown outwards, rolling over one another.  Strange to say, nobody was killed, no legs or arms broken, and nobody seriously hurt.”

DECEMBER.

1.—The Wells and Fakenham Railway was opened.  In 1853 the company was formed, with a capital of £70,000, £14,000 of which was contributed by the inhabitants of Wells, £10,000 by the Earl of Leicester, and £30,000 by the Norfolk Railway Company.  Mr. G. Berkeley, of Great George Street, Westminster, was the engineer, and Mr. Solomon Treadwell the contractor.  The opening-day was observed in the district as a general holiday.  A special train was run over the nine and a half miles of line, the Earl of Leicester entertained a large party at Holkham, and in the evening his lordship presided over a public dinner, held at the Crown Inn, Wells.

5.*—“Norwich manufactures at present may be said to be almost at a standstill.  There has not been so complete a state of stagnation for some years past.  Hundreds of operatives who are usually employed at this season in the production of spring goods are now out of work.”

9.—Mr. Alexander Hugh Baring was returned without opposition member of Parliament for the borough of Thetford, on the retirement of his father from the representation of the constituency.

14.—A sculling match, for £10 a side, was rowed from Postwick Hall to Whitlingham Point, between John Wright and Lancaster.  The former won easily.

22.—The Norwich Town Council adopted a motion in favour of the erection of a new Fishmarket.

23.—The West Norfolk Militia, which assembled on November 10th, 600 strong, left Norwich by rail for garrison duty.  The headquarters and three companies, under the command of Lieut.-Col. Custance, proceeded to Chester; three companies, commanded by Major Bedingfeld, to Liverpool; and two companies, commanded by Capt. Marsham, to Stockport.  The regiment returned to Norwich on April 23rd, 1858.

26.—The pantomime at Norwich Theatre was entitled, “Harlequin Sinbad the Sailor, or the Princess with the Diamond Eyes and the Fairy of the Island of Jewels.”

1858.

JANUARY.

1.—A fire, involving the destruction of several dwelling-houses and a large amount of other property, originated on the premises of Mr. W. Colby, fish merchant, St. James’s Place, South End, Yarmouth.

p. 705.—The premises of Mr. H. F. Butcher, paper and mill-board manufacturer, St. Martin-at-Palace, Norwich, were destroyed by fire.  On the same day a fire occurred at Mr. Orfeur’s timber-yard, St. Edmund’s; and on the 6th an outbreak took place at the soap manufactory of Messrs. Andrews and French, in Fishgate Street.  The loss occasioned by the three fires amounted to upwards of £6,000.

7.—Intelligence was received at Norwich of the defeat of General Windham and his division by the Gwalier mutineers, near Cawnpore, on November 27th.

8.—Miss P. Horton and Mr. T. German Reed appeared at the Assembly Rooms, Norwich.  These favourite performers made a return visit on October 27th, with their entertainments, “After the Ball” and “The Unfinished Opera.”

19.—At a meeting of the Norwich Town Council, Mr. J. H. Tillett moved, “That an inquiry be held respecting the manner in which appointments to the city magistracy are made, and also the manner in which the magisterial business of this city is conducted, with the view to the adoption of any measures which may appear likely to promote the better administration of justice.”  The motion was adopted.  The committee of inquiry reported in February that they considered “the mode in which the magistracy is appointed in cities and boroughs is highly objectionable, the appointments being the result of party influence,” and recommended for the magistracy “those gentlemen who have served the office of Mayor to the satisfaction of the Council.”  Complaints were made that from excitement or infirmity of temper certain gentlemen made use of language derogatory to their position, and tending to lower the respect of the Bench, and these complaints the Committee found were not groundless.  On March 16th the Town Council adopted a series of resolutions, requesting the Mayor to address a letter to those gentlemen whose names appeared in the report as having never attended petty sessions, or as having rarely or sometimes attended, requiring them to take upon themselves to discharge the duties of their office; that a rota of attendance be established; and that, “in relation to the unseemly proceedings which have taken place in the Sword Room, the Council forbear to memorialise the Lord Chancellor on the subject, in the hope that similar proceedings will not occur again.”

25.—The marriage of the Princess Royal was celebrated in Norwich by the ringing of the bells of St. Peter Mancroft, and by public dinners at the Royal Hotel.  A ball took place in the evening, at St. Andrew’s Hall.  The day was similarly observed at Yarmouth, Lynn, and other towns in the county, and addresses of congratulation were afterwards sent to the Queen by the respective Corporations.

26.—The long-pending case, Preston v. the Eastern Counties and Norfolk Railway Companies, was before the Court of Exchequer, and Mr. Baron Watson delivered judgment.  The first count of the declaration charged the defendants with diverting and obstructing the waters of the rivers, and the second with omitting to repair certain locks, whereby the water escaped.  Judgment was given against the Eastern Counties Railway Company for 40s. on all issues, and for the Norfolk Railway Company on their plea of not guilty, but against them on all other issues.  Finally the case was before the Rolls Court on June 8th, and was entered as the Attorney-General v. the Norfolk p. 71and Eastern Counties Railway Companies.  The object of the information was to have it declared that the defendants were not by their Acts of Parliament empowered to divert or obstruct any of the waters of the Rivers Yare and Waveney, or other waters connected with them, except Lake Lothing, for the purpose of supplying the entrance out between Lake Lothing and the sea with water.  The Court made the injunction already granted perpetual against the Eastern Counties Railway Company, and ordered the company to pay the costs incurred in equity.

29.—The Norwich Town Council accepted contracts amounting to over £9,000 for draining the northern portion of the city.

FEBRUARY.

5.—A special meeting of the Norwich Court of Guardians, attended by Lord Bury, M.P., and Mr. Schneider, M.P., was held to consider the subject of a national poor-rate.  It was stated that Norwich paid £20,000 a year more in poor relief than it would if the principle of a national rate were adapted as the law of the land.  Both members of Parliament expressed themselves in favour of national rating.

8.—Mr. Thomas Barnes, R.G.S., was presented by the Corporation of King’s Lynn with an “honorary address,” in lieu of the freedom of the borough, “disallowed by the Municipal Reform Act.”  Mr. Baines, the son of a ship captain of the town, was a self-taught artist, who achieved for himself a very honourable position by his own enterprise and industry.  He was serving as a volunteer at the Cape when he was selected as artist to accompany the North Australian Exploring Expedition, under Mr. Gregory.  At the time of the presentation he was about to join Livingstone, on his expedition into the heart of Africa.  Mr. Baines had already received considerable honours from the Royal Geographical Society, of which he was a member, and from other learned bodies.

12.—A public meeting was held at the Guildhall, Norwich, to consider a Bill then before Parliament introduced for the purpose of amalgamating the Norwich Gas Company with the British Gas Company.  A resolution was adopted affirming that the operation of the proposed Bill would be very prejudicial to the interests of the ratepayers and inhabitants, by placing the future management of the gas supply in the hands of a company which had no local connection or sympathy with the interests of Norwich, and over whom the rate-payers and inhabitants would have no control.  The meeting having heard the report of the Special Committee appointed by the Corporation, cordially approved the course adopted by the Committee, and pledged itself to use every effort to oppose the passing of the Bill.  A petition was addressed to the House of Commons against the Bill, and on the 16th the Town Council adopted the same petition.  The House of Commons Committee on Private Bills sat on April 20th, for the purpose of hearing objections to the measure.  The proceedings closed on the 23rd, when the Bill was ordered to be reported to the House.

27.*—“Sir Henry Stracey, of Rackheath Hall, has obtained provisional protection for a cartridge which, by a very simple contrivance, p. 72gets rid of the necessity of biting off the end, a proceeding which is always objectionable.”

MARCH.

4.—Lord Stanley was re-elected member of Parliament for the borough of King’s Lynn, on his appointment as Secretary to the Colonial Department.  On June 5th his lordship was again re-elected, on accepting the presidency of the Board of Control, vacated by Lord Ellenborough.

—Died at his residence, South Quay, Yarmouth, Sir Eaton Stanley Travers.  A son of Mr. John Travers, of Hethyfield Grange, co. Cork, he was born in 1782, and entered the Navy September 15th, 1798, as midshipman, on board the Juno.  He saw much active service, and was nine times mentioned in despatches.  He was nominated K.H. on February 4th, 1834, and on March 5th in the same year had conferred upon him the honour of knighthood.  Sir Eaton Travers was a Deputy Lieutenant of Norfolk.  He married in April, 1815, Anne, eldest daughter of William Steward, of Yarmouth, by whom he had issue five sons and two daughters.

6.*—“Within the last few days a stone has been placed in the churchyard at East Dereham, in memory of Jean de Narde, a French prisoner of war, who, in the year 1796 while en route from Yarmouth to Norman Cross prison, was lodged in the lower chamber of the bell tower of the church, and escaped therefrom.  He was pursued by the guard, and, after some search, was espied in a tree on the Scarning Road, and when summoned by a soldier to descend and surrender he did not comply.  His non-compliance forfeited his life, for he was shot off it like a crow.  The stone was erected by the vicar and two other gentlemen.”

8.—Miss Vandenhoff, tragic actress, from Drury Lane and Haymarket Theatres, commenced an engagement at Norwich Theatre, in her play, “Woman’s Heart.”  She also appeared in “Love’s Sacrifice,” “Ingomar,” “Macbeth,” and “The Stranger.”

22.—In the House of Lords, Lord Sondes presented a petition from the Town Council and certain magistrates of Yarmouth, praying for an inquiry into a recent appointment of justices for that borough.  It was stated that the magistrates were constant in their attendance upon the Bench, and were sufficiently numerous.  The borough contained 31,000 inhabitants, there were 31 magistrates, and 31 policemen.  Upon the Bench every shade of political feeling was represented, but all the newly-appointed magistrates were of one political party.  The Mayor of Yarmouth had interviewed the Lord Chancellor, and his lordship had intimated that it was his intention to persist in the appointment, and, moreover, he felt it his duty to appoint new magistrates of one particular party.  The action of the Lord Chancellor had excited much feeling in the borough.  Lord Cranworth now informed the House that he felt bound to put the magistracy in a position in which justice should not be partially administered, and if an inquiry were instituted it should have his entire concurrence.  No further action resulted.

p. 7323.—At a special meeting of the Norwich Town Council, a resolution was adopted expressing surprise and indignation that a covert attempt had been made to pervert the Grammar School and the Commercial School proposed to be established into exclusive institutions, which would not only deprive a large proportion of the inhabitants of the advantage of the schools, but would condemn them in public estimation, and tend to the frustration and utter subversion of the proposed scheme.  The Charity Trustees were requested to resist this proceeding, to ascertain at whose instance the suggestion was made, and to consider whether recent complaints did not imperatively demand that a searching inquiry should be instituted into the conduct and management of the Grammar School.  The Master of the Rolls, on July 17th, gave his decision upon the Grammar School case, which had long been before the Courts.  It was ordered that twenty-one governors be appointed; the sum of £1,000 per annum derived from land and house property was to be appropriated to the maintenance of the Grammar School and Commercial School; the benefits of the Grammar School were to be open to all England; and all the expenses to which the Corporation and those who represented Norwich had been put were to be paid by the Charity Trustees.  On December 4th the Norfolk Chronicle made the following remarkable statement in relation to the treatment of boys at the Grammar School: “We have recently been informed of a circumstance connected with the Grammar School which we could scarcely have credited but for the authority upon which we have received it.  It is that there exists in that school a form of punishment which ought long since to have been unknown in a civilised country, amounting very nearly to bodily torture.  We have been assured that for offences of a not very serious character boys are placed for hours between shelves so constructed that they cannot stand upright, but are obliged to stoop until the head is brought nearly level with the knees.”  At a meeting of the Governors of the School, on December 8th, it was resolved, “That in consequence of the informant declining to come to the Governors and substantiate the charge referred to in the Chronicle newspaper of last Saturday, we proceed no further in the matter; but that we intimate to Dr. Vincent that we strongly disapprove of the mode of punishment alluded to in that newspaper, and if it has been practised, we request it may be discontinued.”  The accusation was not denied, either by Dr. Vincent or by anyone on his behalf.  On December 27th Dr. Vincent resigned his appointment as headmaster.

25.—Died at Hempnall, John Holmes, aged 104.  “The deceased leaves behind him a son, Thomas, aged 87 years, and a grandson, aged 60 years, the latter himself being a great-grandfather, thus presenting the remarkable fact of a man living to witness the sixth generation, and to see his great-grandson become a grandfather.”

30.—The first annual dinner of the Norfolk and Norwich Anglers’ Society was held at the Bell Hotel, Norwich, under the presidency of Mr. R. N. Bacon.

APRIL.

3.—Mr. R. Rising, of Costessey, rode his horse for a wager over nine consecutive single hurdles set up in the centre of a field.  “This was p. 74performed in excellent style, coming back also over the same ground, and not refusing one.  The spectators were rather astonished to see Mr. Rising repeat the feat with cap in hand.  The judge of the bet, one of the first riders in the Norfolk Hunt, asked permission to ride the horse himself, saying he had ridden many good horses, but never one that would take a single hurdle.  Upon Mr. Rising consenting, he rode the same round, thus making the animal in all leap 54 single hurdles.”

11.—Died, in his 82nd year, Mr. John Venning, of Surrey House, Norwich.  A native of Totnos, Devonshire, he spent several years in Russia, as the representative of a firm of merchants.  He became a member of the church at which the Rev. R. Knill officiated in St. Petersburg, and devoted his time and means to improving the wretched condition of the neglected and depraved populace of the Russian metropolis.  He founded a school on the Lancasterian system for poor Russian children, a free school for the children of foreigners, a refuge for the reception and care of the helpless and destitute, a lunatic asylum in which the best modes of treatment were introduced, the Litofsky prison, constructed to admit of the classification and separation of prisoners; and he remodelled the great hospital for the reception of invalids.  Mr. Venning gained the esteem of the Emperors Alexander and Nicholas, and the hearty co-operation of the Empress Dowager, as well as of other members of the Imperial family.  Through his instrumentality all exiles starting for Siberia were furnished with copies of the Scriptures.  When the destructive inundation of November, 1824, overwhelmed the city with the waters of the Neva, the Grand Duke Michael sent General Politica with 20,000 roubles to Mr. Venning to distribute among the suffering populace.  “Throughout his long life Mr. Venning was a conscientious Dissenter—an Independent—but he saw without regret his nearest and dearest relations staunch members of the Church of England.”  He married a daughter of Mr. Meybohm, of St. Petersburg, by whom he was survived.

22.—St. John’s church, Yarmouth, erected at the estimated cost of £1,700, was consecrated by the Bishop of Norwich.

24.—Died, in his 77th year, Mr. Thomas Osborn Springfield, one of the magistrates of Norwich, and head of the firm of Springfield, Son, and Nephew, of St. Mary’s, Norwich, and Coleman Street, London.  Born in a comparatively humble sphere, he rose from the position of a small tradesman to a large silk merchant, “and during his career won and lost several fortunes, in consequence of the fluctuations of the silk markets.”  His business career ended prosperously.  He took an active part in all local matters, from the election of a parish beadle to that of a member of Parliament, ranging himself on the side called Radical.  As he himself avowed, whenever he engaged in a contest he went in to win, and many of his victories were, doubtless, most costly.  In 1827 he was elected one of the Sheriffs, and in 1829 Mayor of the city.  After the passing of the Municipal Reform Act, he was, in 1836, selected to be the first Chief Magistrate under the new order of things.  With a majority of one only of elected councillors, the Liberals were able to add sixteen aldermen to their number.  This power they then exercised to the fullest extent, selecting men of their own party only, a one-sided system which was pursued without a break to the day of Mr. Springfield’s death.  In 1852 p. 75he was solicited by requisition to become a candidate for the representation of the city, and if he had been inclined to accede there is little doubt that he would have secured his election.  In private life Mr. Springfield exhibited many good traits; he was never unamiable nor ungenerous, and there were not a few persons in the city who could trace their first advancement in life to his assistance.

MAY.

5.—The action in relation to the East Dereham Corn Exchange came before the Vice-Chancellor’s Court.  An order was made upon the Corn Exchange Company to pay the costs of the suit, except so far as they were incurred by the inquiries raised as to the user of the site occupied by the Corn Exchange, for the purpose of fairs and markets, and that they also pay the costs of the proceedings by way of indictment on the several counts upon which a verdict had been found for the Crown.  The case was then ordered to stand over until after the Trinity term, for the consideration of the Attorney-General as to what further decree or order, if any, he might think right to apply for.  The Vice-Chancellor declined to order the building to be pulled down as asked for by the relators, because it was a great public improvement.  On June 26th the final decision was announced, namely, that upon payment by the proprietors of the new Corn Exchange of the costs awarded by the Court of Chancery and of £100 to the East Dereham Corn Market Company, the suit would be withdrawn, and in case of any indictment laid a nolle prosequi be entered.  “These proceedings are, therefore, terminated.  The hall is to remain, and the payment for admission will continue as heretofore.”  (See February 16th, 1866.)

JUNE.

2.—Mountjoy the pedestrian, then in his 58th year, started from Lynn to Wisbech for his task of walking sixty-seven miles a day for four successive days.  On August 16th he began a walk from Norwich to Dereham and back twice every day, but on the 17th was stopped on his way to Norwich, by order of the magistrates, because of the obstruction caused by the number of persons who assembled on the roads in the vicinity of the city.  Mountjoy was apprehended in Norwich on September 11th, for leaving his wife and family chargeable to the funds of the St. Pancras Union; and on the same night attempted to commit suicide in his cell at the Guildhall by strangling himself with a pockethandkerchief.

11.—Died at Colne House, Cromer, aged 46, Sir Edward North Buxton, Bart., M.P.  He was son of Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, first baronet, by the fifth daughter of Mr. John Gurney, of Earlham Hall, where he was born in 1812, and married in 1836 the second daughter of Mr. Samuel Gurney, of Ham House, Essex.  He succeeded to the title on the death of his father, in 1845.  From 1847 to 1852 he represented South Essex in Parliament, and in 1857 was returned unopposed with General Windham as member for East Norfolk.  He was succeeded in the title by his son, Thomas Fowell, born in 1837.

p. 7613.—The Bishop of Oxford preached at Norwich Cathedral and at St. Peter Mancroft, on behalf of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel.  His lordship, with Sir James Brooke, K.C.B., attended the annual meeting at St. Andrew’s Hall, on the 14th.

15.—A dinner of the Valpeian Club was held at the Royal Hotel, Norwich, under the presidency of Sir James Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak.  The guest of the evening was Major-General Sir Archdale Wilson, Bart., K.C.B., the conqueror of Delhi.  General Wilson, who was an old boy of Norwich Grammar School, was presented with a dress sword, “in commemoration of his distinguished services in India, 1857–8, and as a memento of old friendships.”

20.—Died at Lee Cottage, Old Brompton, Mr. Dawson Turner, F.R.S., F.S.A., formerly of Great Yarmouth.  He was in his 83rd year.

21.—The London Grand Opera Company appeared at Norwich Theatre.  It included Miss Fanny Reeves, Miss Ethel Thirlwall, Miss Raymond, Mr. Henry Corri, Mr. J. B. Bowler, Mr. O. Summers, and Mr. Elliot Galer.  Among the productions were “La Somnambula,” “Maritana,” “The Bohemian Girl,” and “Il Trovatore.”

26.—The nomination of candidates to fill the vacancy in the representation of East Norfolk caused by the death of Sir E. N. Buxton took place at the Shirehall, Norwich.  Sir Henry Josias Stracey was nominated by the Conservatives, and Major Coke by the Liberals.  The polling took place on the 29th,—the first time in twenty years,—and on July 1st the result was officially declared as follows: Coke, 2,933; Stracey, 2,720.

JULY.

5.—A largely advertised “monstre fête and fancy fair,” under the management of Mr. J. W. Hoffman, was held on the old Cricket Ground, Norwich, under the patronage of the Mayor and Sheriff, the officers of the 15th Hussars, &c.  Hoffman, who had already visited Norwich as the manager of an “organophonic” band, announced himself as the representative of “the Society for the Promotion of Public Amusements”—an entirely fictitious organization.  Business was suspended in Norwich, the railway companies ran excursion trains, and the streets were thronged by many thousands of persons anxious to witness the “grand Middle-age pageant.”  This consisted of a procession of between thirty and forty persons on foot and one horseman.  It was everywhere received with groans and hisses.  Ten thousand persons were present on the Cricket Ground to witness the “Old English Sports”; every item in the programme resulted in failure, and a bal champêtre was described as “a disgraceful affair, which ended in indiscriminate fighting among the blackguards on the ground.”  For many years afterwards this “fête” was popularly known in Norwich as “Hoffman’s Humbug.”

7.—The headquarters of the 15th Hussars marched from Norwich, and were replaced, on Sept. 11th, by a detachment of Royal Horse Artillery, under the command of Major Brandling, C.B.

30.—A cricket match, Norfolk and Norwich v. Oxford and Cambridge Universities, was played on the Norwich ground.  Norfolk and p. 77Norwich, 148—79; Oxford and Cambridge (1st innings), 122.  The return match was played at Gunton Park on August 9th.  Universities, 96—45; Norfolk and Norwich (first innings), 138.

AUGUST.

3.—The Mayor and Corporation of Lynn claimed, under the privileges extended by ancient charter, their right to a sturgeon weighing twelve stones, captured on the previous day by a fisherman named Norris.  The man compounded with the Mayor by payment of the nominal sum of one penny.

5.—The residence of the Rev. Sir George Stracey, Bart., deceased, with eleven acres of land, at Thorpe, was sold by Messrs. Spelman, at the Norfolk Hotel, Norwich, for £6,035.

7.*—“The date of the present harvest will be remembered as the year in which reaping machines were fully established in Norfolk.  It was only last year that they were introduced, for although there had been one or two in the county previously, they were not of the right sort, and it was not until M’Cormick’s reaper, as now made by Burgess and Key, that their number increased or their merits were appreciated by Norfolk farmers.  The fact that the chief part of the Hussey machines, with their back delivery, have been returned or laid aside, and that on most large farms there was one of Burgess and Key’s last year there are two this harvest, will at once point out which machine is best adapted to Norfolk agriculture.”

16.—Died at Oulton Hall, Suffolk, Ann Borrow, widow of Captain Thomas Borrow, aged 87.

18.—Violent thunderstorms occurred in various parts of the county.  The barn and other buildings at Newfoundland Farm, Cringleford, occupied by Mr. Drane, were destroyed by fire, with the loss of 340 coombs of barley, &c.  A house was burnt down at Kenninghall, and horses were killed by lightning at Holt.

20.—Died at Woodbridge, Mr. David Fisher, aged 70.  “He was a highly talented and respectable public character, and had resided at Woodbridge since his retirement from the stage twenty years previously.  He belonged to a class much more numerous half a century since than at the present day.  He was not only an actor, as nine-tenths of those who now strut their hour upon the stage are, by profession, but by intuition.  Mr. Fisher was blessed with very rare histrionic and musical attainments.  When he appeared at Drury Lane, as the contemporary and rival of Edmund Kean, it was felt to be the nearest approximation then or since seen to the overtowering abilities of that great dramatic luminary.  Mr. Fisher, his father and family, made greater efforts than any other family ever did to establish and cultivate in the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk a taste for the drama, at a time when this amusement was more calculated to serve the highest office of the stage than in the present degenerate days.  Mr. Fisher built himself theatres at Bungay, Beccles, Halesworth, Wells, North Walsham, Dereham, Lowestoft, Eye, and other towns, entirely at his own cost.  He generally used to feel his way by sending a company in advance for a few seasons, who located themselves in such buildings as were available for their temporary p. 78purposes, and then, having whetted the appetites of the dwellers in rural districts for one of the most intellectual of all amusements, he summoned up courage to build a theatre, generally one of the best structures in the town.  For very many years these speculations proved remunerative, even though the season did not last more than two or three months, and at intervals generally of two years.  It is rarely that a good actor makes a good manager, but Mr. Fisher was an honourable exception to this rule—indeed, it was difficult to say what department this distinguished gentleman could not fill, and fill well, too.  He was a first-rate musician, and for a considerable time was leader at our choral concerts, and occupied a good position at our first and early Festivals.  So versatile was his genius that he has been known to play in the overture, then to appear in almost every act of the tragedy of ‘Hamlet,’ and subsequently re-appear as Dr. O’Toole in the farce of ‘The Irish Tutor.’  He was also an admirable scene painter.  During the latter years of his management he was much assisted by his two brothers, Charles and George.  Finding that the palmy days of the drama were fast fading away, Mr. Fisher retired from public life when about 50 years of age, and before all the little reserve fund he had accumulated was too much wasted to enjoy the evening of life in a quiet and unostentatious privacy.  He was very much esteemed where he lived and died.”

24.—The Thorpe Grove estate, formerly the property of Mr. George Harvey, deceased, was sold for £11,390, about £2,000 in excess of the valuation sent in previous to the auction.

25.—Died at his residence, Crown Point, Norwich, Lieut.-General Money, C.B., K.C., Colonel of the 2nd Regiment of Dragoons.  He entered the Army in 1794, was promoted Lieutenant the same year, and Captain in May, 1800; Major, December, 1809; Lieut.-Colonel, June 4th, 1814; Colonel, January 10th, 1837; Major-General, Nov. 9th, 1846; and Lieut.-General, June 20th, 1854.  He served twenty-five years in the 11th Dragoons, and was in Flanders and Holland in 1794–95, and in the latter year saw service in Germany.  He took part in the attack on the French lines, was present at their defeats on the heights of Cateau and near Tournay, and was at the battles of Roubaix, Launey, and other engagements.  Under Sir Ralph Abercromby, he commanded a detachment of his regiment at Leghorn, Minorca, at the expedition to Cadiz in 1800, in Egypt in 1801, and was at the capture of Grand Cairo and Alexandria.  In the Peninsula campaigns of 1811 and 1812 he was present at the siege of Badajoz, the battle of Salamanca, and the affair of cavalry near the Tormes on the following day, when three French battalions were taken.  He was at the cavalry affairs of Callada Camino and Fenta de Poso.  He served also in the campaign of 1815, and was at the battles of Quatre Bras and Waterloo; towards the close of the latter the command of the 11th Dragoons devolved upon him.  General Money married, in 1841, Lady Annetta Laura Maria Waldegrave, daughter of the sixth Earl of Waldegrave.  She died in 1856, leaving two daughters.

SEPTEMBER.

6.—The stone statue above the entrance to the Corn Exchange at East Dereham was inaugurated on this date.  Mr. W. Freeman, of p. 79Swanton, was the principal promoter of the public fund with which the statue was purchased.  It weighed upwards of three tons, and was cut out of a solid block of stone weighing over seven tons, taken from the Isle of Portland.  Mr. Butler, of London, was the sculptor.  The luncheon in celebration of the inauguration was presided over by Lord Sondes.

11.—Donati’s Comet was viewed with interest by thousands of the citizens of Norwich.  “The extreme heat of the present month has impressed many that the comet has something to do with it.”

28.—A public testimonial, consisting of a piece of plate and a portrait of himself, painted by Mr. Boxall, of London, was presented by the inhabitants of Diss to Mr. Thomas Lombe Taylor, in recognition of his munificence in building, at his own expense, a Corn Hall for the use of the town, at the cost of £7,000.  The presentation took place at the Corn Hall, where dinner was served, under the presidency of the Earl of Albemarle.

30.—The Congregational chapel, Chapel Field, Norwich, was opened for public worship.  The special preacher was the Rev. Newman Hall, LL.B.  The chapel was erected at the cost of £3,000, by Mr. Horace Sexton, from the plans of Mr. Joseph James, architect, Furnival’s Inn.  It was intended to accommodate one thousand persons.

OCTOBER.

2.—The theft was reported, from the nave of St. Michael-at-Coslany, Norwich, of a brass which measured 14 in. by 5½ in., and had engraved upon it five lines of Latin verse, commemorating Richard Wallour, and bearing date 1505.

5.—A meeting was held at the Assembly Rooms, Norwich, to initiate measures for insuring to schools in Norfolk the advantages afforded by the Cambridge Middle Class examinations.  Sir J. P. Boileau presided.  The first examination was held at the Free Library, on December 14th, by Mr. H. M. Butler, when 31 boys were presented.

15.—Died at Sprowston, Mr. John Stracey, in his 86th year.  He was born at Fort William, on November 26th, 1772, and was fifth son of the first baronet.  In 1790 he went to India as a cadet in the Civil Service, and rose afterwards to be a judge, an appointment which he held for several years.  On his return to England he took an active part in the business of the county, and was instrumental in obtaining the Act of Parliament for the removal of the Lent Assizes from Thetford to Norwich.  He was twice married, and left three children—Col. Edward Stracey, of the Scots Fusilier Guards; the Rev. William Stracey, rector of Buxton and Oxnead; and Emma, widow of Mr. Arckwright.

23.—Died at his residence, Heigham Lodge, Norwich, Mr. Timothy Steward, aged 64.  Early in life he came from Yarmouth, where he was born, to take a leading part in one of the largest commercial establishments of the city—the Pockthorpe Brewery.  A member of the old Whig party, he was elected, after the passing of the Municipal Reform Act, to the Town Council, but after three years had expired be declined to offer himself for re-election, and retired from municipal p. 80duties with the Gurneys, Birkbecks, and Geldarts.  In 1855, however, he was unexpectedly called upon to discharge the duties of the Shrievalty.  He was a director of the East of England Bank and of the Norwich Union Fire Office, and was vice-president of the Norwich Union Life Office.

31.—The William Corry and Reliance steam vessels, with the North of Europe submarine cable on board, arrived off Weybourne and commenced laying the cable to the island of Borkum, at the mouth of the Ems, whence it was continued to Emden, in Hanover.  The work was completed on November 4th.  A line of telegraph was erected between Weybourne and Norwich, and continued along the old coach road, viâ Newmarket to London.

NOVEMBER.

3.—The Gresham Grammar School, at Holt, founded in 1554 by Sir John Gresham, was re-opened by the Fishmongers’ Company, of London, the trustees of the foundation.  The new building was erected from designs by Mr. Suter, the architect to the Company, by Mr. Orman, of Ipswich.  A commemoration service was held at the parish church, and luncheon was served in the school-house, under the presidency of the Prime Warden, Mr. Thomas Boddington.

9.—Mr. George Middleton was elected Mayor, and Mr. H. S. Patteson appointed Sheriff of Norwich.

20.—A meeting of agriculturists and merchants was held at the Royal Hotel, Norwich, presided over by the Mayor, with the object of raising a fund for the erection of a new Corn Exchange, “upon a site next London Street and Exchange Street,” at the cost of £20,000.  (See February 3rd, 1859.)

DECEMBER.

2.—Died at Bedford Place, Camden Hill, Kensington, aged 27, Robert Howlett, “well known by his successful applications of photography.”  He was a son of the Rev. Robert Howlett, of Longham, where he spent his early days.  He determined to devote himself to the scientific application of photography to the illustration and advancement of the fine arts.  He had just perfected a method of transferring microscopic views of minute dissections to photographic agency without the necessity of intermediate drawings.  The Queen and the Prince Consort were among his distinguished patrons.

21.—Mr. T. Townsend, M.P. for Greenwich, appeared at Norwich Theatre, in the character of Shylock.  He also performed the parts of Hamlet and Richard the Third.  He was announced “to address the public, giving he reasons for a Parliamentary orator adopting the stage as a profession.”

27.—The Christmas pantomime at Norwich Theatre was written by Mr. J. B. Buckstone, and entitled, “The Sleeping Beauty in the Wood, or Harlequin and the Spiteful Ogress and the Seven Fairy Godmothers from the Realm of Golden Flowers.”  The other Christmas amusements p. 81were Brown’s “Royal Cirque Unique,” on the Castle Meadow, and Wombwell’s Menagerie.

27.—Mr. Fiddaman’s ch. g. Tinker, under 14 hands high, “very cleverly performed, with some time to spare,” twenty miles in an hour on the turnpike road between Lynn and Narborough.

29.—Died at Wolterton Park, Horatio, Earl of Orford, in his 76th year.  He was son of the second earl by his first wife, daughter of Mr. Charles Churchill, and granddaughter maternally of Sir Robert Walpole, first Earl of Orford.  Born in Whitehall, in 1783, he married the eldest daughter of Mr. William Augustus Fawkner, one of the clerks of the Privy Council, and succeeded his father in 1822.  From July, 1812, to April, 1825, he was attached to the Embassy at St. Petersburg, and was subsequently a Lord of the Admiralty and a Commissioner for the affairs of India.  He was elected member of Parliament for King’s Lynn in March, 1809, represented the constituency till June, 1822, and was in 1852 appointed a Deputy Lieutenant of Norfolk.  For many years he held a distinguished position in the county as an influential leader on the Conservative side, and was a warm patron of the Turf.  He was Colonel of the West Norfolk Militia, and Lord High Steward of the borough of King’s Lynn.  The deceased earl was succeeded by his son, Horatio William, Lord Walpole, born in Belton Row in 1813, who married, in 1841, the only daughter of the Hon. Sir Fleetwood Pellew.

1859.

JANUARY.

6.—At the Norwich Police Court, Mr. H. Brown, proprietor of the “Cirque Unique,” Castle Meadow, appeared to answer an information preferred by Mr. William Sidney, manager of Norwich Theatre, charging him with performing a stage play without licence from the Lord Chamberlain.  It was contended by the prosecution that the equestrian spectacle of “Mazeppa,” as presented at the Circus, was a stage play within the meaning of the Act to Regulate Theatres.  The magistrates held that there was no contravention of the Act, and dismissed the case.

12.—A public meeting was held at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, under the presidency of the Sheriff, to promote the objects of “The Metropolitan and County Association for the Equalization of the Poor Rates.”  A resolution was adopted, affirming that as the poor rates generally of the County of Norfolk were unequally levied, some parishes paying less than one penny and others more than four shillings in the pound, and as the city suffered from this inequality and great discontent was caused among the ratepayers, it was the opinion of the meeting that the rates should be equalised by establishing a county rate.

p. 8231.—The Norwich Court of Guardians presented an illuminated address to Mr. A. A. H. Beckwith, on his retirement from the office of Governor of the Court, after a service of upwards of a quarter of a century.

FEBRUARY.

3.—The Norwich Corn Exchange Bill was before the examiner of private Bills in the House of Commons.  The Standing Orders of the House were declared to have been complied with.  The Bill passed through its remaining stages, and on August 1st received the Royal assent.  (See November 9th, 1861.)

5.*—“Several primroses were gathered in the hedges near Ormesby a few days ago.  The weather is exceedingly mild in this locality, which is not a little remarkable for this, almost the easternmost, part of England.”

10.—Mr. Gough, the celebrated temperance advocate, made his second appearance at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich.

12.—Died at Buxton Vicarage, in his 79th year, Lieut.-General James Claud Bourchier, Colonel of the 3rd Dragoon Guards.  He served under Sir Ralph Abercrombie in the expedition against Cadiz, in 1800, in the campaign in Egypt in 1801, and in the campaigns of 1811–12–15.  He was present at the siege of Badajoz, the battle of Salamanca, the cavalry affairs at Callada de Carino and Venta de Toso, the battles of Quatre Bras and Waterloo, and the capture of Paris.

14.—Mr. Barnum, the celebrated showman, lectured at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, on “Money-making and the Art of Humbug.”  The lecture was described as “a strange medley—a most anomalous production.”

MARCH.

6.—East Dereham church was, for the first time, lighted with gas, through the munificence of an anonymous parishioner.  Evening services were held from this date.

8.—The Norwich New Street Bill, the object of which was to acquire powers for constructing what is now known as the Prince of Wales Road, was before a Select Committee of the House of Lords.  It was stated that a number of Norwich gentlemen had formed themselves into a company to construct a new roadway and street, and to buy the land fronting the said street to the depth of about 108 feet, leading from a point near the Eastern Counties Railway Station to King street, near Harveys and Hudsons’ Bank, a distance of something less than 500 yards.  Rose Lane at that time formed the only approach from the station to the city.  The Committee decided in favour of the Bill, leaving the question of compensation to be determined by a jury.  The Bill was considered by a Select Committee of the House of Commons on June 28th, when the whole of the clauses were passed.  (See June 19th, 1860.)

20.—Died at his residence, Highgate Rise, London, Mr. M. Prendergast, Q.C., Recorder of Norwich, and Judge of the City of London p. 83Sheriff’s Court.  He was called to the Bar in 1820, and was appointed Recorder of Norwich on the death of Mr. Jermy, in 1848.  He was succeeded in the Recordership by Mr. Peter Frederick O’Malley, Q.C.

24.—Supt. Robert Hitchman, of Devonport, was appointed Chief Constable of Norwich, in place of Mr. English.

31.—The first fall of snow during the winter, which had been very mild, occurred on this date.  On April 6th and 7th the thermometer recorded 90 deg. in the sun.

APRIL.

6.—The celebrated dwarf, “General Tom Thumb,” held a series of “levées” at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, commencing on this date.  “The General left the Hall daily in his miniature carriage, drawn by the smallest ponies in the world, and attended by an African coachman and footman in livery.”

19.—A clipper barque named the Athelstan, of 500 tons burthen, was launched from the yard of Messrs. H. Fellows and Son, Yarmouth.

29.—The General Election, consequent upon the defeat of the Derby Ministry on the Reform Bill and the Dissolution of Parliament on April 23rd, commenced in Norfolk on this date.  At Yarmouth Sir Edmund Lacon (C) and Sir H. Stracey (C) were returned, with 699 and 659 votes respectively.  The Liberal candidates were Mr. A. W. Young, 536, and Mr. E. W. Watkin, 568.

—The nomination of candidates for the representation of Norwich took place at the Guildhall.  The Conservative candidates were Sir Samuel Bignold and Mr. Charles Manners Lushington; and the Liberal candidates Mr. W. H. Schneider and Lord Bury.  The Mayor announced at the Police-Court that, having received information that probable attempts would be made to prevent voters from exercising their rights, he had obtained the assistance of a large body of county police, and had telegraphed to Sir Richard Mayne to supply a strong party of Metropolitan constables.  The poll was opened on the 30th, and the election resulted as follows: Bury, 2,154; Schneider, 2,138; Bignold, 1,966; Lushington, 1,900.  (See June 17th.)

—The Earl of Euston and Mr. Baring were returned without opposition as members of Parliament for Thetford.  Mr. J. J. Colman, of Norwich, had been invited to become a candidate in the Liberal interest, but declined.  The register contained the names of 220 electors.

—Lord Stanley (C) and Mr. J. H. Gurney (L) were returned unopposed for King’s Lynn.

MAY.

2.—Mr. Edward Howes (C) and Col. Wenman C. W. Coke (L) were returned unopposed for the division of East Norfolk.

4.—The Governors elected the Rev. Augustus Jessopp, of St. John’s College, Cambridge, head master of Helston Grammar School, to be head master of Norwich Grammar School.

p. 846.—Mr. George William Pierrepont Bentinck (C) and Mr. Brampton Gurdon (L) were returned without opposition members for West Norfolk.

16.—The Mayor of Norwich, in compliance with a requisition, convened a Common Hall, at which a loyal address to the Queen was adopted, praying that there should be no interference in the war which had arisen on the Continent, but at the same time assuring her Majesty of the readiness of the citizens of Norwich to uphold the honour and dignity of her Crown under any circumstances that might arise.

17.—At a meeting of the Norwich Town Council, Mr. J. H. Tillett moved that a petition be presented to Parliament praying for a full, searching, and impartial inquiry into corrupt and illegal practices at elections for members of Parliament for Norwich.  The motion was adopted, and a committee appointed to draft the petition, which was presented for the approval of the Council on June 21st.  It asserted that extensive and systematic bribery was practised; that it was rumoured a fund was raised in London prior to the last General Election for election purposes, and a considerable contribution from that fund was sent down to Norwich for the purpose of being used at the late election; and that a large sum of money had been subscribed in Norwich for the same purpose.  The Council adopted the petition, and requested Mr. J. Bright, M.P., to present it to the House of Commons.  The petition was presented on July 11th, and was ordered to lie upon the table.  At a meeting of the Town Council on July 19th, it was agreed “That it be referred to a special committee to consider the propriety and expediency of applying in the next Session of Parliament for an Act for better regulating the election of members to serve in Parliament.”  The Special Committee reported on August 8th, and recommended the Council to resolve that as soon as it should be known that an election for a member or members was to take place, the candidates with their influential and active supporters, to the number of not less than twenty on each side, be called upon to sign a declaration pledging themselves to abstain, both directly and indirectly, from and to discountenance treating and every form of corrupt or illegal practice or expenditure, and also engaging not to practice canvassing; that in case of infraction of the above-named, it be referred to the Right Hon. William E. Gladstone, M.P., and the Right Hon. Spencer Horatio Walpole, M.P., as referees, or to such third person as they might name, to determine whether the understanding had been honourably carried out or not, and the member or members returned should be bound to abide by such decision and to resign his or their seats if it were adjudged that his or their election was secured or promoted by the violation of such understanding, and that the other candidates and parties subscribing such declaration should also abide by the decision of such referees or umpire.  The report was adopted, and a committee appointed to give effect to it.  On October 29th a meeting was held at the Guildhall, convened by the following circular, issued by the Mayor (Mr. Middleton) and the Deputy-Mayor (Mr. Field): “Having heard from various quarters that an unusual effort will be made by each political party to secure the majority at the approaching municipal elections, we take upon ourselves the responsibility of asking our fellow-citizens to meet . . . with the view of saving the city, if possible, from a repetition of p. 85those disgraceful proceedings which have recently taken place in Norwich.”  At the meeting the Deputy-Mayor moved the following resolution: “That, in the opinion of this meeting, the business of the Town Council and the Corporation of Guardians ought henceforth to be conducted without reference to political interests, but alone with the view of promoting the best interests of the citizens.”  The discussion showed that the principle of the resolution was not agreeable to the meeting, whereupon Mr. Field withdrew it, and the proceedings ended.

23.—Miss Goddard, a tragic actress of some repute, appeared at Norwich Theatre, in the character of Hamlet.  “Hamlet is now played by a woman,” wrote the critic, “infinitely better than it has been played by almost any of the opposite sex who have ever attempted it.”

24.—The Queen’s birthday was celebrated in Norwich by the entertainment at dinner at St. Andrew’s Hall, of nearly 700 of the poor of the city, at the joint expense of the Mayor and Sheriff.

26.—A déjeuner was given at the Town Hall, Yarmouth, in honour of the Bight Rev. Dr. Hills, Bishop of Columbia, and formerly incumbent of the parish, who was presented with an address and several gifts by the townspeople.

—The Volunteer movement commenced in Norfolk on this date.  A public meeting, convened by the Mayor of Norwich, by request of the Lord Lieutenant of the county, was held at the Shirehall.  It was decided that the inhabitants of the city and neighbourhood be invited to enrol themselves as active and honorary members of the Norwich Rifle Corps Club.  All members were to provide their own uniform, the expense of which was not to exceed £3 or £4, and if the Government did not provide arms, the Committee would assist in individual cases to such an extent as the funds would permit.  Honorary members were to pay an annual subscription of one guinea.  The drill required from active members was not to exceed two hours a day on three days a week, and they were assured that “on no occasion could they be called from Norwich except in case of actual invasion or rebellion.”  Many Volunteers were enrolled at the conclusion of the meeting.  Similar meetings were held in all the towns of the county, and the movement soon became general.  At an adjourned meeting, held at the Shirehall, Norwich, on July 2nd, and presided over by Lieut.-Col. FitzRoy, “to consider the best patterns for the clothing and accoutrements of the Rifle Corps in the towns throughout the county,” it was resolved, “That the uniform for the city of Norwich and the boroughs in the county be a gray cloth tunic coat with black mohair braid and buttons down the centre, with a low, upright collar, and trousers of the same colour and material, and with a shako of hair cloth of the same colour as the uniform, that a plume be worn, and that the appointments be a patent leather black waistbelt, with pouch bags; the officers’ dress to be distinguished by some embroidery above the cuff of the coat and by a pouch-belt, with bronzed whistle and chain, and a slung waistbelt, with sword and steel scabbard.”  A general meeting of the members of the three companies formed in Norwich—the Mayor’s Company, the Sheriff’s Company, and Mr. Hay Gurney’s Company—was held at the Guildhall, on July 5th, when the officers were elected as follows: For the Mayor’s Company, Mr. R. Seaman p. 86lieutenant, and Mr. A. J. Cresswell ensign.  For the Sheriff’s Company, Mr. Henry Morgan lieutenant, and Mr. Charles Foster ensign.  For Mr. Hay Gurney’s Company, Mr. Croker lieutenant, and Mr. Charles Henry Gurney ensign.  The captains were respectively Mr. Middleton (Mayor), Mr. H. S. Patteson (Sheriff), and Mr. Hay Gurney.  In the month of September two additional companies were formed, one commanded by Mr. J. H. Orde, with Mr. E. P. Youell as lieutenant and Mr. J. Tomlinson as ensign; and the other by Mr. William Swatman (brevet colonel), with Mr. F. J. Cresswell as lieutenant.  The first public parade of the corps took place on October 7th, when the muster was 220, and “Capt. Black, an honorary member of the corps, kindly consented to put them through their evolutions on the Cricket Field.”  Mr. Simms Reeve, the honorary secretary, announced on November 5th that long Enfield rifles had been supplied by Government free of cost; and on December 5th, at a general meeting of the corps, Major Brett was elected Major Commandant.

JUNE.

17.—A petition against the return of Lord Bury and Mr. Schneider as members of Parliament for Norwich, was presented in the House of Commons.  Bribery and other corrupt and illegal practices were alleged.  The Special Committee appointed to inquire into the petition sat on July 29th, and on July 30th decided “That the election of Lord Bury and Mr. Schneider was a void election, and that both, by their agents, were guilty of bribery.”  Sir Samuel Bignold, on his return from London, on the 30th, was welcomed by an immense crowd at Thorpe Station, and, escorted by a torch-light procession headed by a band of music, his carriage was dragged in triumph to his residence in Surrey Street.

23.—A writ was issued for the election of a member of Parliament for Norwich, in consequence of a vacancy caused in the representation of the city by the acceptance of the appointment of Comptroller of Her Majesty’s Household by Viscount Bury.  The nomination took place at the Guildhall, on the 28th, when the candidates were Viscount Bury, Sir Samuel Bignold, and Col. Henry George Baldero.  The show of hands was in favour of Lord Bury, and a poll was demanded on behalf of Sir Samuel Bignold and Col. Baldero.  The poll was opened on the 29th, and declared on the 30th, as follows: Bury, 1,922; Bignold, 1,561; Baldero, 39.  Lord Bury was declared elected.  (See March 9th, 1860.)

JULY.

3.—Died in London, in his 90th year, the Right Rev. Dr. Maltby, formerly Bishop of Durham.  He was born in the parish of St. George Tombland, Norwich, on April 9th, 1770, and at the age of nine years was sent to the Free Grammar School, then under the mastership of Dr. Parr.  On the resignation of Dr. Parr, Maltby, who was then head boy, proceeded to Winchester, and entering Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, he there gained a University scholarship.  He was seventh p. 87or eighth wrangler and first medallist, and obtained a prize for Greek epigrams.  Maltby afterwards became domestic chaplain to the Bishop of Lincoln.  He was author of “Sermons on the Christian Religion,” and editor of Morell’s “Thesaurus,” and wrote a very learned and judicious book on “Divinity.”  He held one of the prebends of Lincoln Cathedral and the living of Brickdon.  In 1831 he was consecrated Bishop of Chichester, and was translated to Durham in 1836.  Under Act of Parliament he resigned the latter see in September, 1856, and was allowed an annuity of £4,500.

7.—Died at Roydon Rectory, the Rev. Temple Frere, canon of Westminster and rector of Roydon, aged 78.  He was son of Mr. John Frere, for some years member of Parliament for Norwich, and took his B.A. degree at Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1802, as eighth junior optime, migrating afterwards to Downing College.  Ordained deacon in 1804 and priest in 1805, he was presented, in 1820, to the family living of Roydon (valued at £400), which he held until his death.  He owned the greater part of Diss, and was an active magistrate in that division of the county.  Having served some time as chaplain of the House of Commons, he was gazetted to a canonry in Westminster Abbey in 1838.  Canon Frere was remarkable for his businesslike habits, and is said to have considerably improved in value the Abbey estates.

12.—The new “marine promenade” at Wells-next-the-Sea, for which the town was indebted to the Earl of Leicester, was opened on this date.  The work of construction was commenced in March, 1857.  The length of the embankment is 1 mile 132 yards, and its height at the highest part 22 ft. 6 in.

14.—A fire occurred on the premises of Mr. Noble, organ builder, Pottergate Street, Norwich.  The entire stock was destroyed.  The building adjoined the hospital for invalids of the West Norfolk Militia.  “Ten sick Militiamen escaped from the house in great alarm, and only partially dressed.”

18.—Messrs. Butcher, of Norwich, commenced the sale of the Earl of Orford’s estates; the proceedings concluded on the 21st.  The Tivetshall estate realised £73,775; the Saxthorpe estate, £99,740; the Briston and Corpusty estate, £8,427; and the Burnham and Weybourne estate, £6,182.

AUGUST.

3.—Mr. Spurgeon made his first appearance in Norwich, on his mission for procuring funds to erect a “monstre tabernacle in London to accommodate the immense congregations drawn together by his peculiar pulpit oratory.”  About 2,500 persons assembled at St. Andrew’s Hall to hear his sermon.  In the evening Mr. Spurgeon preached in the open air, in Chapel Field, to a congregation of more than 10,000.  “The collection at the afternoon service amounted to £28, which Mr. Spurgeon took occasion to say, in introducing another collection in the evening, was the shabbiest collection he had ever had.”  In the evening £23 was contributed.

12.—The Donegal Militia, 300 strong, arrived at Yarmouth, in the ss. Himalaya.  Lieut.-Col. Lord Claud Hamilton was in command of the regiment, which relieved the Louth Rifles (Militia).

p. 8813.—A meeting of landowners and others interested in a proposed line of railway from Norwich to Aylsham and Cromer was held at the Royal Hotel, Norwich, under the presidency of Sir Henry Stracey, Bart., M.P.  The meeting favoured the scheme, and appointed a provisional committee.

18.—The first recorded angling match took place on this date, at Limpenhoe Reach, on the Yare, for prizes given by Mr. C. J. Greene, of Rose Lane, Norwich.  The total weight of fish taken by the 28 competitors in the course of eight hours was 16 st. 7 lbs. 1 oz.  Mr. G. Harman secured first prize, with a catch of 33 lbs. 3 ozs.

28.—A remarkable case of protracted abstinence from food was discovered at St. Faith’s.  A man, who gave the name of William Watling, of Felmingham, aged 60, was found in a prostrate and apparently dying condition in a plantation.  His statement was to the effect that five weeks previously, when tramping the country, he was overcome with heat and crawled into the plantation.  From that spot, he declared, he had not moved for five weeks, and although persons passed very near the wood, he failed, in consequence of physical exhaustion, to attract their attention.  He had neither food nor drink during the whole time, and ate nothing but the grass and leaves around him, and a few blackberries.  “His bones almost protruded through his skin, and his flesh was nearly all dried up.”  The medical opinion was that he would not recover, but there is no further record of the case.

31.—The ceremony of laying the first stone of the new church of Holy Trinity, Norwich, was performed by the Mayor (Mr. Middleton).  A special service was held at St. Peter Mancroft, when the sermon was preached by the Ven. Archdeacon Bouverie, and, after the laying of the stone, a large gathering was held in a temporary building adjoining the site.  (See August 8th, 1861.)

SEPTEMBER.

2.—Died Mrs. Sarah Bickersteth, widow of the Rev. Edward Bickersteth, rector of Watton, Herts.  She was the eldest daughter of Mr. Thomas Bignold, of Norwich, and sister of Sir Samuel Bignold.  Born on October 3rd, 1788, she married, on May 5th, 1812, Mr. Edward Bickersteth, who was then a solicitor practising in Norwich.  Two years afterwards, at the call of the Rev. Josiah Pratt, he gave up a lucrative business for the laborious post of co-secretary in the Church Missionary House, and visited the missions on the West Coast of Africa.  Four fourteen years Mrs. Bickersteth shared all his toils, until 1830, when he was presented to the living of Watton, by Mr. Abel Smith, M.P.  He died in February, 1850, and Mrs. Bickersteth, for the last nine years of her life, divided her time among her children.  She spent the last month with her son, the incumbent of Christ church, Hampstead.

15.—The church of Framingham Pigot, built through the munificence of Mr. G. H. Christie, at a cost exceeding £5,000, was consecrated by the Bishop of Norwich.

OCTOBER.

8.—Died, in the 100th year of her age, Mary Tallowin, of Bowthorpe.

p. 8911.—Charles Dickens gave a reading, at St. Andrew’s Hall, of the “Christmas Carol” and the trial scene from “The Pickwick Papers,” and on the 12th read the story of Little Dombey and of Mrs. Gamp.  “The reception of Mr. Dickens, on his first appearing in front of a very artistically arranged screen, was cordial and enthusiastic.  His voice was far from powerful, but he had remarkable expression and the power of exhibiting this in face as well as in voice.  As a pecuniary speculation, it must have been highly profitable to Mr. Dickens.”

17.—The town of Attleborough was, for the first time, lighted with gas, an event which was celebrated by a public dinner at the New Inn.

20.—At the Norwich Quarter Sessions, John Plummer (25), shoemaker, was indicted for stealing a model of a gold nugget, the property of the trustees of the Norfolk and Norwich Museum.  Mr. Reeve, the curator of the Museum, stated that the model was worth only a few shillings, but it was an attractive object, and generally supposed by visitors, and no doubt by the prisoner, to be a piece of genuine gold.  The prisoner was sentenced to seven years’ penal servitude.

21.—At the Norfolk Quarter Sessions, the Police Committee called attention to an Act of Parliament passed in the previous month of August, empowering the substitution of policemen for javelin men at the Assizes, and recommending that the Chief Constable be authorised, on the application of the High Sheriff, to employ a sufficient number of constables for that purpose, the High Sheriff engaging to pay such sum as would, in the estimation of the Chief Constable, be sufficient to meet the additional expense of such employment.  The matter was adjourned for further consideration.  (See January 5th, 1860.)

—Mr. R. M. Phipson was elected County Surveyor.

24.—A singular question came before the Norwich Town Council, in relation to the right of the Corporation to the property of convicts.  The Police Committee reported they had been informed by the Chief Constable that on the apprehension of one George Valentine, on a charge of felony, a large sum of money was found in his possession.  Valentine having been tried and convicted at the Quarter Sessions, the Town Clerk had stated that the city was entitled to the convict’s money.  The Chief Constable wished to know how he should dispose of the money.  The Committee were advised that, after the conviction, the city had become entitled to the money under a Royal charter granted during the reign of Henry IV.  The Council ordered that the money remain in the hands of the City Treasurer, pending further inquiry.  The question was again considered by the Council on May 12th, 1863, when the Town Clerk reported that after Valentine’s conviction it was found that, in addition to the sum in question (£90), he had £60 deposited in a savings bank in London.  The Town Clerk had given notice to the bank directors that the Corporation claimed the money, but since the liberation of the prisoner he had been pressed to withdraw the notices, and had refused to do so without the sanction of the Corporation.  The difficulty under which the Corporation laboured was that the money was out of their jurisdiction, and they had no control over it beyond the notice that had been given.  If further steps were taken the question would arise whether it was a forfeiture to the Corporation or to the Crown, but as this would involve an inquisition, the cost of which would probably exhaust the p. 90money enquired about, it was for the Council to say whether, the man, having served his term of three years’ penal servitude, and having petitioned for some relief from the fund to place him in a position to gain an honest livelihood, they would authorise the withdrawal of the notice.  It was agreed that the notice be withdrawn.

25.—A severe storm occurred off the Norfolk coast.  At Winterton two vessels were wrecked and thirteen lives lost.  At Yarmouth there were several wrecks, and for miles the shore was strewn with remains of cargoes and portions of vessels.  The sloop James and Jessie drifted on to the Britannia Pier, and severed the structure into two parts.

26.—Mr. and Mrs. German Reed gave, at the Assembly Rooms, Norwich, their entertainment entitled, “Seaside Studies.”

NOVEMBER.

9.—At a meeting of the Norwich Town Council, Mr. J. H. Tillett was elected Mayor, and Mr. Joseph Underwood appointed Sheriff.

—Mr. Tillett, on taking his seat as Mayor of Norwich, informed the Town Council that an attempt had been made to bribe one of the Councillors.  Mr. Joel Fox, the member in question, produced the halves of three £100 bank notes, which, he alleged, the Conservatives had handed to him to induce him to vote for eight Conservative Aldermen.  After the vote had been recorded the payment was to be completed.  Amid much excitement, a Special Committee was appointed to investigate the case.  On November 12th, before the Committee had presented their report, criminal proceedings were instituted against Mr. Albert John Collins, solicitor, a member of the firm of Beckwith and Collins, who was charged at the Police Court with conspiring with Henry Croxford, stationer and others, to bribe Joel Fox, Town Councillor, by promising and offering him a sum of money to vote for certain Aldermen.  Croxford, the other defendant, had absconded.  Fox alleged that he went to Croxford’s house, where he was shown the halves of three £100 notes and four £50 notes, which were offered to him by Croxford, on behalf of Collins, on condition that he voted for the Conservative Aldermen.  After formal evidence, the case was adjourned.  On the 16th the Committee of the Council asked for full power and authority to proceed with the investigation, and to take such steps as might be necessary for the prosecution of the offenders.  The Council granted the application.  The magisterial proceedings were resumed on the 17th, when Mr. Power, Q.C. (instructed by the Town Clerk, Mr. Mendham), appeared for the prosecution, and Mr. Serjeant Ballantine for the defendant Collins.  After further evidence had been taken, the case was again adjourned.  Meanwhile informations had been laid against William Wilde, William Wilde, the younger, William George Wilde, James Stowers, and Sir William Foster, members of the Liberal party, for conspiring to bribe at the last General Election for the city.  By way of reprisal, the Liberals obtained summonses, through William Randell Lacey, against Sir Samuel Bignold, the Rev. F. S. Bignold, J. H. Bignold, James Hardy, Capt. Ives, and G. Priest, for unlawfully conspiring by bribery and other illegal means to return Sir Samuel Bignold and Mr. Charles Lushington at the last election of members of Parliament.  On Nov. p. 9119th the magistrates decided to hear all the cases on December 8th.  A special meeting of the Town Council was held on December 6th, to consider the following motion by Mr. Simms Reeve: “That it is the opinion of this Council that the peace and welfare of the city will be best promoted by the cessation of political strife, and, with the view to the attainment of that object, the resolution of the Council of the 16th November last, with reference to the charge of bribery made by Mr. Councillor Fox, be cancelled, and that all further legal proceedings against Henry Croxford and Albert John Collins and others for conspiracy be stayed.”  The motion was seconded by Mr. Field.  Mr. C. M. Gibson moved, as an amendment, “That the due administration of justice is essential to the peace and welfare of the city, and it is therefore the opinion of the Council that the resolution of the 16th November . . . should be again confirmed.”  The motion was carried by 28 votes against 19.  On December 8th, when the magisterial proceedings were resumed, the Town Clerk said he had no instructions from the Town Council to proceed with the prosecution.  After he had formally withdrawn, Mr. R. N. Bacon, Mr. J. J. Colman, Mr. J. Youngs, Mr. J. Newbegin, Mr. C. N. Bolingbroke, the Rev. G. Gould, the Rev. J. Crompton, Mr. E. C. Holland, and Mr. John Pymar appeared as prosecutors, and Mr. Power claimed to be heard as their counsel.  The Bench decided that there was no prima facie case against Collins, who was discharged on giving sureties to answer any charge that might be made against him at the Assizes.  Serjeant Ballantine thereupon said that he would offer no evidence in the charges against the Messrs. Wilde, and Mr. S. H. Asker, who appeared for the complainant Lacey, withdrew the summons issued on his information.

12.—Mr. Louth, landlord of the Rampant Horse Hotel, Norwich, received fatal injuries by the overturning of his vehicle in London Street.  His father, by whom he was accompanied, also sustained severe wounds, from which he died on the 18th.

30.—The foundation-stone of the St. Andrew’s Wherrymen’s chapel, at Yarmouth, was laid by the Mayor (Mr. W. Worship).  The building, which was erected at the cost of £1,050, by Mr. Stanley, of Yarmouth, from plans by Mr. C. E. Giles, of London, was consecrated by the Bishop of Norwich on October 9th, 1860.

DECEMBER.

1.—The Norwich Operatic Union gave its first concert, from Verdi’s “Il Trovatore,” at St. Andrew’s Hall.  The principal vocalists were Miss Theresa Jefferys, Mr. Angus Braham, Miss Laura Baxter, and Mr. Durand.  The band and chorus of 80 performers were conducted by Mr. Bunnett, B.M., Mr. Alfred Bowles was instrumental leader, and Mr. Henry Rudd choral director.

—A fatal accident occurred on the works in progress at the new Fishmarket, Norwich, by the falling in of three of the arches beneath the “promenade.”  A workman, named William Powley, of Necton, was killed, and another workman sustained a broken leg.  At the adjourned inquest, on December 15th, the jury returned a verdict of accidental death, with the rider: “They consider, from the evidence p. 92of eminent architects of London and builders of Norwich, that the buildings are in an unsafe condition, and require the immediate attention of the Corporation, in order to insure the perfect safety of the public.”

10.—Died at Sydenham, Col. the Hon. John Walpole, of 18, Jermyn Street, Piccadilly, aged 73.  He was son of the second Earl of Orford, served with the Guards in the Peninsula War, and was severely wounded at the siege of Burgos.  From 1827 to 1831 he was member of Parliament for King’s Lynn; from 1830 to 1833 private secretary to Lord Palmerston; from 1833 to 1841 Consul-General in Chili; and from 1841 to 1849 chargé d’affaires there.

17.—A heavy fall of snow and a frost of great severity were recorded.  “In the course of the 17th, the thermometer fell to 14 degrees, and on the 18th to 9 degrees, or 27 degrees below freezing-point.”

26.—The pantomime at Norwich Theatre was “founded on the celebrated and world-known Norfolk ballad,” and entitled, “The Babes in the Wood, and Harlequin and the Cruel Uncle, or the Forest Queen of the Fairy Dell.”  The other Christmas attraction was Mander’s Menagerie.

27.—Died, Jacob Astley, Lord Hastings, of Melton Constable and of Seaton Delaval, Northumberland.  He was son of Sir Jacob Henry Astley, fifth baronet, by the youngest daughter and co-heiress of Samuel Browne, of King’s Lynn.  His lordship was born in 1797, married in March, 1819, the youngest daughter of Sir Henry Watkin Dashwood, Bart., and succeeded his father in the baronetcy in 1817.  As one of the heirs of Sir John de Hastings, who sat in the Parliament of 18th Edward I., he was summoned to the House of Peers in 1841.  He was appointed first Captain and Commandant of the Norfolk Militia Artillery in 1853, and Hon. Colonel in 1856.  From 1832 to 1837 he represented West Norfolk in Parliament.  His lordship was succeeded by his son, the Hon. Jacob Henry Delaval Astley, born in 1822.

1860.

JANUARY.

5.—At the County Sessions, at Norwich, the Committee appointed at the previous Sessions recommended that the Chief Constable, on the application of the High Sheriff, be allowed to supply police-constables for keeping order in the Assize Courts, in place of the javelin men previously employed, the High Sheriff engaging to pay the additional expense.  The Chairman (Sir Willoughby Jones) remarked that theoretically the javelin men kept the Courts, but practically they kept the neighbouring public-houses.  The recommendation was agreed to.  On March 27th, Mr. Justice Williams was received at Victoria Station by the High Sheriff (Mr. Henry Birkbeck) and a posse of policemen, “in the place of the time-honoured body which had long p. 93constituted a conspicuous part of the pomp and circumstance of our Assizes, having at length succumbed to the utilitarian tyranny of the age.  His arrival at the Shirehall and Guildhall was signalised, however, by the customary fanfaronade on a couple of inharmonious trumpets.”

15.—St. Giles’ church, Norwich, was for the first time lighted with gas, and evening services were held there from this date.

17.—Mr. E. E. Benest, City Surveyor, tendered his resignation to the Norwich Town Council, after eight years’ service.  He was succeeded, on March 14th, by Mr. Thomas D. Barry.

20.—Lord Sondes was presented by his Norfolk tenantry with a piece of plate, of the value of 140 gs., as a birthday gift and as a testimony of the esteem in which he was held by them as a landlord and nobleman.

FEBRUARY.

7.—A fire occurred on the premises of Mr. W. C. Aberdein, pastry cook, Dove Street, Norwich.  The outbreak itself was not of a serious character, but in a room upon the adjoining premises of Mr. Cubitt, ironmonger, was stored upwards of 400 lbs. of gunpowder, which was safely removed in wet blankets.  The circumstance caused much sensation, and the practicability of establishing a public powder magazine was discussed by the magistrates.

20.—Died at King’s Lynn, Mr. J. F. Reddie, many years organist at St. Margaret’s church, in that town.

24.—A petition against the return of Sir Edmund Lacon and Sir H. Stracey, as members of Parliament for Great Yarmouth, in April, 1859, commenced before a Special Committee of the House of Commons.  The petitioners, Mr. Joseph Bayly, surgeon, and Mr. Robert Pilgrim, linen draper, alleged bribery, undue influence, treating, and intimidation.  On March 1st the Committee declared the members to have been duly elected, and were of opinion that one of the witnesses, Henry Fayerman, had been guilty of wilful and corrupt perjury.  The members were received with great enthusiasm on their return to Yarmouth, and were entertained at a public dinner, given at the Theatre, on April 12th.  At the Westminster Police Court, on June 11th, Fayerman was committed for trial on the charge of perjury, but at the Old Bailey, on July 12th, the jury gave a verdict of acquittal.

28.—A terrible gale raged throughout the country.  At Norwich, between ten o’clock and noon, the thermometer rose from 36 degrees to 47 degrees; at two o’clock it registered 45 degrees.  The wind blew from the west, veering occasionally to the north and to w.n.w., but during the height of the gale it blew west by north.  Great damage was done to buildings, trees were uprooted, and “locomotion was extremely difficult and laborious, and, indeed, quite out of the question to those of the fair sex whose fashionable expanded dresses, assuming the properties of parachutes, compelled them to undertake a species of aerial voyage for a distance of a few yards, or exposed them to the still more unpleasant predicament of having their parachute p. 94garments inverted.”  There were many disasters along the coast, and several lives were lost.

MARCH.

9.—A Special Committee of the House of Commons sat to decide various questions arising out of the elections at Norwich in 1859.  The first point to be decided was whether Lord Bury’s claim, by virtue of the election in July, was not nullified by the bribery which was proved to have been made by his agents when he was returned with Mr. Schneider in April; and secondly, whether, in the event of such disqualification, Sir Samuel Bignold or Colonel Boldero had a valid claim.  There were three petitions: (1) against the return of Lord Bury and the qualification of Sir Samuel Bignold, on the ground that both had been guilty of bribery at the April election, and the seat was, therefore, claimed for Colonel Boldero (signed by Josiah Fletcher, S. Jarrold, and J. J. Kempster); (2) alleging the disqualification of Lord Bury, and claiming the seat for Sir Samuel Bignold (signed by J. G. Johnson and R. Kerrison); and (3) alleging the disqualification of both Lord Bury and Sir Samuel Bignold, and claiming the seat for Colonel Boldero (signed by P. Back and G. C. Stevens).  No appearance was put in in support of the first petition.  The Committee declared that Lord Bury was not merely disqualified from sitting in the House of Commons during the then Parliament, but the last election was void, in consequence of his lordship having been found, since that return, guilty of bribery by his agents.  A writ was then issued for another election, and on March 28th the following candidates were nominated: Mr. W. Forlonge (C), Aynhoe Park, Northamptonshire; Mr. W. D. Lewis, Q.C. (C); Sir William Russell (L), and Mr. Edward Warner (L).  The polling took place on the 29th, and the result was officially declared on the 30th, as follows: Warner, 2,083; Russell, 2,045; Forlonge, 1,636; Lewis, 1,631.

24.—Died at his residence, Hillington Hall, aged 73, Sir William John Henry Browne ffolkes, Bart.  He represented the county, and afterwards the Western Division, as a supporter of Liberal principles from 1830 through the Reform era, but lost the seat on the redaction of the Conservative party in 1837, when Mr. Bagge and Mr. Chute were returned.  As a magistrate, country gentleman, and landlord, Sir William was highly esteemed.  He was Chairman of Quarter Sessions at Swaffham, and chairman of the Norfolk Estuary Company.  He was succeeded by his grandson, William Howell, then in his twelfth year, and eldest son of Martin Brown ffolkes, who was killed by lightning in July, 1849.

24.—The Rev. J. W. L. Heaviside was installed Canon of Norwich Cathedral, in succession to Canon Wodehouse, resigned.  Mr. Heaviside was a professor at Haileybury College, an examiner in mathematics for the University of London and for the Council of Military Education, and a brother of Mr. Heaviside, formerly master of the Norwich School of Art.

29.—At the Norwich Assizes, before Lord Chief Justice Cockburn and a special jury, was tried a libel action, in which Mr. Samuel B. Cory, solicitor, Yarmouth, was the plaintiff, and Mr. T. W. Bond, p. 95publisher of the “Norfolk News,” Norwich, the defendant.  The libel was contained in a letter written to the newspaper by a Mr. Fabb, who alleged, among other things, that Mr. Cory had laid informations in certain game cases, with the object of putting the fees into his own pocket.  Mr. Fabb, it was understood, had indemnified the “Norfolk News.”  The jury returned a verdict for the plaintiff, with one farthing damages, as to that part of the libel above quoted, and for the defendant as to other portions of the libel, on the ground that they had been justified as true.  The effect of the verdict was that plaintiff had to pay his own costs and half the costs of the defendant.  In a second action, Mr. Fabb sued Mr. Cory for malicious prosecution, and obtained a verdict for £30 damages.

30.—Died, in her 63rd year, at Cheltenham, while on a visit to her son-in-law, the Rev. J. F. Fenn, Lady Bignold, wife of Sir Samuel Bignold.

APRIL.

2.—An important will case, Wright v. Wilkin, commenced at the Norfolk Assizes, before Lord Chief Justice Cockburn and a special jury.  It was brought in the form of an action for ejectment to recover possession of certain tenements and lands held by the defendant, Thomas Martin Wilkin, solicitor, of Lynn, under the will of an old lady named Mary Mann.  The plaintiff, who was heir-at-law, alleged that the will was obtained from an infirm and weak-minded person by fraudulent practices and contrivances.  The will had already been disputed, and in that trial a verdict was given in favour of Mr. Wilkin; this action was brought because there had come to the knowledge of the plaintiff facts and circumstances which had been entirely withheld from the former jury.  The trial lasted until the afternoon of the 3rd, when the jury found for the defendant, subject to argument upon certain points reserved.  These were stated in the Court of Queen’s Bench on April 9th, and were to the effect that the devise to the defendant was defeated by his neglect to comply with a condition of the will, namely, that the devise was conditional on the devisee paying off certain legacies within twelvemonths in case the personal estate should be insufficient for that purpose.  It transpired that the personal estate was insufficient, but the defendant did not pay one of the legacies within the time stipulated.  It was also contended for the plaintiff that the devise to the defendant was void, inasmuch as it was a contrivance to defeat the Statute of Mortmain, several of the legacies being for charitable purposes, and that the defendant had misled the testatrix by not telling her that, under 43rd George III., she could leave as much as five acres of land for the repair of the church.  Lord Chief Justice Cockburn granted a rule nisi.  In the Court of Queen’s Bench, on November 27th, the Lord Chief Justice said the rule must be discharged, as the words in the will were not intended to impose a condition, the non-observance of which would involve forfeiture.  Mr. Justice Crompton and Mr. Justice Blackburn concurred.  The rule was discharged.

MAY.

24.—The Queen’s birthday was celebrated at Norwich by a parade p. 96on Mousehold of the Royal Horse Artillery, the West Norfolk Militia, and the Rifle Volunteers.  The Mayor afterwards entertained the officers at luncheon at the Guildhall, and in the evening the Volunteers dined at St. Andrew’s Hall, under the presidency of Major Brett.

28.—A violent gale from the north-west did extensive damage in Norwich and throughout the county.  Terrible disasters were reported on the coast.  Twenty vessels belonging to Yarmouth and Lowestoft were lost, 200 men and boys perished, and 240 women and children were left in a state of destitution.  On the 29th an inquiry was held at Yarmouth into certain allegations as to the conduct of the beachmen and crew of the lifeboat.  It was stated that, in consequence of differences which had arisen, much valuable time was lost in launching the lifeboat, and a resolution expressing regret at the delay was adopted.  A public fund was raised for the destitute families of the local fishermen.  During the gale, the north-east pinnacle of St. Peter’s church, Yarmouth, was dislodged, the windows of Cromer church were blown in, and at Blickling 247 oaks were uprooted in the Great Wood, 216 in Hercules Wood, and 190 in other portions of the park.  It was estimated that 1,500 trees were levelled on the estate.

—The American horse tamer, Rarey, gave an exhibition of his system of training, in the riding school at the Cavalry Barracks, Norwich.

JUNE.

4.—The Royal Horse Artillery marched from the Cavalry Barracks, Norwich, en route to Woolwich, and were escorted to the city boundary by the Rifle Volunteers.

9.—An extraordinary case, arising out of the sudden disappearance of a lad named Vansittart, came before the Norwich magistrates.  The lad was a son of Mr. Vansittart, member of Parliament for Windsor, and had been placed at school under the care of the Rev. F. H. S. Hodgson, rector of Rackheath.  At Brighton, some time previously, he had developed Roman Catholic tendencies, and his friends were anxious to remove him from the sphere of such influences.  Mr. Hodgson, while engaged in parochial duties, missed the youth, and gave information to the police at Norwich, who found him at the house of a Roman Catholic jeweller, named Beha.  The lad made a very singular statement, to the effect that an Italian priest, attired in a long blue cloak, had persuaded him to leave school and join the Roman Catholics in London; that he had gone to Norwich and met Canon Dalton, the priest at St. John Maddermarket Roman Catholic chapel, to whom he had shown a watch belonging to a school-fellow; that Canon Dalton had advanced him six shillings, and recommended him to take the watch to Beha, for the purpose of raising sufficient money to pay the balance of his railway fare to London; and that he was preparing to start for town when he was detained by the police.  Canon Dalton declared that he had not seen the lad prior to his coming to St. John Maddermarket.  The matter was adjourned for further inquiry, and on the 11th Canon Dalton, Jacob Beha, Matthew Beha, and Thomas Foulsham were required to attend before the magistrates, when the proceedings were deferred until the 18th, the persons p. 97named protesting against the course adopted by the Bench, and urging that no charge had at present been preferred against them.  Another adjournment took place until the 25th, when Mr. Serjeant Ballantine appeared for the prosecution, and preferred a charge of conspiracy against Canon Dalton and the Behas.  The boy Vansittart gave evidence, and, in cross-examination by Mr. Woollett, counsel for the defence, admitted that he had told “a tissue of lies,” and that the main points of his story were entirely invented by himself.  The magistrates dismissed the case, but expressed the opinion that the conduct of Canon Dalton was exceedingly reprehensible in not advising the lad to return to his father.

18.—Died at his residence, at Thorpe, General Sir Robert J. Harvey, C.B., K.T.S., Knight Commander of the Order of St. Bento d’Avis, F.R.S., F.A.S.  Sir Robert, who was in his 75th year, saw much active service during his military career.  He was present at the battles of the Douro and Busaco, the battle of Salamanca, the siege of Burgos, and at Vittoria, the Pyrenees (where he was wounded in the thigh by a musket shot), Nivelle, Nive, Orthes, and Toulouse.  The long-protracted war having been brought to a close in 1815 by the crowning victory at Waterloo, on the anniversary of which he died, he returned to Norwich and became an acting partner in the bank of Harveys and Hudson, and was head of the firm at the time of his death.  He was a magistrate and a Deputy Lieutenant of Norfolk, president of the Norwich Union Life Office and the Norwich Union Fire Insurance Society, chairman of the General Reversionary Interest Society in London, and founder of several other important institutions of a kindred character.  In politics he was a Conservative, but took no prominent part in local affairs.  Sir Robert married a daughter of Mr. Robert Harvey, of Walton, Suffolk, a distant relative, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Mr. R. J. H. Harvey.  The will of the deceased was proved on February 21st, 1861, when the personalty was sworn under £350,000.  “Mr. R. J. H. Harvey has purchased all his brother’s (Mr. E. K. Harvey’s) interest under the will, so that he is now in possession of the whole of the real and personal property of his late father, subject to Lady Harvey’s life interest in the Mousehold estates and to the annuities named in the will.”

19.—At a special meeting of the Norwich Town Council, it was agreed, “That the Lords of the Treasury having sanctioned the sale to the New Street Company of the property required by them belonging to the Corporation for the sum of £3,260, and having required to be informed of the purpose to which the Corporation propose to apply such purchase-money, this Council agrees, with the sanction of the Lords of the Treasury, to apply £2,000 towards the making of the new street, which, on its completion, will be vested in the Corporation, and, the remaining £1,260 towards the widening of the present approach to the Cattle Market by Rose Lane.”

30.—The Channel Fleet, under the command of Admiral Sir C. Fremantle, K.C.B., arrived in Yarmouth Roads.  Since the year 1814 no two ships of the line had been moored at the same time off Yarmouth.  The fleet consisted of nine ships of the line, two frigates, a corvette, and a tender.  The Mayor and Corporation of the borough waited upon the Admiral and invited the officers to a ball, but orders came for the fleet to sail early on the morning of July 2nd.

p. 98JULY.

9.—Mousehold Rifle Range was used for the first time by the Norwich Volunteers.  The first prize-meeting took place on September 17th, when there were twelve competitors from the city and twenty-four from the county.

23.—The Donegal Militia left Yarmouth.

27.—At the Norfolk Assizes, before Chief Baron Pollock and a special jury, an action, Gillings v. Manders, was tried.  The plaintiff was a carpenter at Yarmouth, and the defendant the proprietor of a travelling menagerie.  One of the attractions of the show was the performance of a Zulu named Maccomo, who was styled a “Lion King,” and fired off pistols and carbines in a cage containing half a dozen lions and lionesses.  In a performance given at Yarmouth, Maccomo, instead of firing his pistol to the top of the cage, discharged it among the spectators, and the wad entering the plaintiff’s eyes destroyed it.  Muccomo said it was the result of an accident.  One of his lions attacked him in a fit of temper, and the trigger, catching in the beast’s mane, was prematurely discharged.  The jury found for the plaintiff, damages £150.

31.—In the Norwich Episcopal Consistory Court, Mr. Chancellor Evans gave judgment in a protracted case, Archdeacon Bouverie v. the Rev. W. L. Barnes.  The suit was instituted by the Archdeacon of Norfolk, against the rector of Knapton, for procurations for the years 1856–57–58–59.  The plaintiff alleged, in his libels, that he was entitled to receive from the rector the sum of 7s. 7½d., due at Michaelmas every year, by reason of his visiting, of his archidiaconal dignity, or by custom.  Mr. Barnes required the Archdeacon to prove such parts of his case as were not admitted, and, further, he said that, supposing the case as stated in the libels were proved, the Archdeacon was not entitled to be paid his procurations for the years 1857–58–59, because he did not in those years hold a parochial visitation at Knapton.  The Court decreed in favour of the Archdeacon, with costs, and Mr. Barnes gave notice that he should appeal against the judgment.  No further proceedings, however, were taken.

AUGUST.

27.—Died at Hampstead Marshall, Newbury, Berks., the Right Hon. Louisa, Dowager Countess of Craven, aged 78.  She was a daughter of Mr. John Brunton, manager of Norwich Theatre, and half a century before her death was a favourite actress upon the Norwich and the London stage.  She married the Earl of Craven in 1807, and of the marriage there were three sons and a daughter.

28.—The first festival of the associated choirs belonging to the Norfolk and Suffolk Church Choral Association, established in October, 1859, was hold at Norwich Cathedral.

30.—Died at her residence in Kentish Town, aged 61, Elizabeth, widow of Frederick Yates, formerly of the Adelphi Theatre.  She was a daughter of John Brunton, the younger, of Norwich and a niece of the Dowager Countess of Craven.  She made her début at King’s Lynn, p. 99in the character of Desdemona, and her first appearance in London at Covent Garden Theatre, on Sept. 12th, 1817, as Letitia Hardy.  At Covent Garden she continued to play leading high comedy until 1824, when she married Mr. Frederick Yates, who died in 1842, leaving an only son, born in 1831.  After the death of her husband, Mrs. Yates remained at the Adelphi with Mr. Webster, played for one season at the Lyceum with Madame Vestris, and finally retired from the stage in 1849.

SEPTEMBER.

17.—The Norfolk and Norwich Triennial Musical Festival commenced at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, with an evening performance of “The Creation.”  The morning performances were as follow: On the 19th, the “Dettingen Te Deum” and “The Last Judgment”; on the 20th, “Abraham” and “As the hart pants”; and on the 21st “The Messiah.”  Miscellaneous programmes were performed on the evenings of the 19th and 20th.  The principal vocalists were Madame Clara Novello (her farewell appearance), Mdlle. Titiens (her first appearance), Madame Weiss, Miss Palmer, Madame Borghi Mamo (her first appearance), Mr. Sims Reeves, Signor Giulini, Mr. Willye Cooper, Mr. Santley, Mr. Weiss, Signor Belletti; solo pianoforte, Miss Arabella Goddard; leaders of the band, Mr. Sainton and Mr. H. Blagrove; solo violon-cello, Signor Piatti; organist, Mr. Harcourt; chorus master, Mr. J. F. Hill; conductor, Mr. Benedict.  A “fancy dress ball” was announced for the evening of the 21st.  “Only three individuals appeared in fancy dress—costumes which, from their quality, would have far more fitted a masquerade at the Baronial Hall than an elegant assembly like that of Friday evening.  The wearers of them evidently felt ill at ease, and, after enduring the rather marked observation that they attracted for some time, were glad to call a fly and take their departure.”  The total receipts of the Festival amounted to £5,095 16s., and the disbursements to £4,179 12s. 1d.

18.—The Earl of Leicester, as Lord Lieutenant of Norfolk, and Major-General Wood, C.B., reviewed 1,200 Volunteers of the city and county on Mousehold Heath, Norwich.

20.—Prince Jerome Bonaparte, with his suite, consisting of an aide-de-camp and six members of the French Ministry, visited Gressenhall Workhouse and made particular enquiries into the management of the institution.

28.—Died at Upper Harley Street, London, in his 85th year, Mr. Charles Lombe, of Great Melton.  He was a son of Dr. Beevor, of Norwich, and succeeded to the entailed estate on the death of his nephew, Mr. Edward Lombe, son of the first Mr. Lombe.  Mr. Charles Lombe was succeeded by Mr. Edward Evans, eldest son of Mr. T. B. Evans, formerly of Norwich.  (See November 10th.)

30.—The headquarters of the 10th Hussars, commanded by Lieut.-Col. Baker, arrived at the Cavalry Barracks, Norwich.

OCTOBER.

10.—Mr. and Mrs. Charles Kean gave a farewell performance at p. 100Norwich Theatre, prior to their departure for America.  “One of the largest and most fashionable audiences which have ever assembled at the Theatre was brought together, at twice the ordinary playhouse prices in Norwich.”  Mr. Kean appeared as Sir Walter Amyott, and Mrs. Kean as Lady Amyott, in “The Wife’s Secret.”  On the 13th they performed in “Louis XI.,” and afterwards appeared at Yarmouth Theatre.

10.—An inquest was held at the Bethlehem Hospital, London, on the body of Anthony Abel, a criminal lunatic, who had been removed from Norwich after being acquitted of a charge of murder on the ground of insanity.  He had been an inmate of the establishment since June 18th, 1817.  When 25 years of age he was indicted for the murder of his uncle near Thetford.  “For many years he was considered so violent and dangerous that he was confined in a strong room, and under the old régime then in use in the establishment, he had a strong belt and gloves, and was put into irons.”

22.—Mr. George Dawson lectured at the Free Library, Norwich, on “Pepys’ Diary.”

—Norwich Theatre was opened for a brief season by Mr. Charles Dillon and Miss Gomersal.

24.—Mr. Henry Villebois, master of the Norfolk Fox Hounds, was presented with his portrait, subscribed for by 400 gentlemen, “in appreciation of his untiring and successful efforts to promote field sports in the county of Norfolk.”  Lord Sondes presided at the dinner held at the Town Hall, Lynn, and presented the portrait, which was painted by F. Grant, R.A.

29.—At a meeting of the Norwich Town Council, the resignations of Aldermen Sir W. Foster and Gibson were accepted, and Mr. R. J. H. Harvey and Mr. Fred Brown were elected to fill the vacancies.  “The abolition of political ascendancy in the Town Council has been accomplished by the general consent of the influential men of each party, and duplicate agreements have been signed by at least three-fourths of the Corporation.  To the Mayor (Mr. J. H. Tillett) belongs the honour of having taken the initiative in this laudable effort.”

NOVEMBER.

3.—A description was published of an iron lighthouse, completed by Messrs. Barnard, Bishop, and Barnards, of the Norfolk Iron Works, Norwich, for the Brazilian Government.  It was designed by Messrs. Bramwell and Reynolds, of Westminster, for erection on the island of Abrolhos, on the coast of Brazil.  Made in sections, it was temporarily erected by the riverside near St. George’s Bridge.  The tower was circular in form, and constructed of 144 iron plates.  Its base was 17 ft. in diameter, it was 46 ft. in height, and the lantern at the summit was 16 ft. high.

—A fearful boiler explosion occurred on the steamship Tonning, off Yarmouth, by which eight persons were blown out of the vessel and never again seen, three subsequently died, and several were seriously injured.  The Tonning was an iron vessel of 734 tons register, belonging originally to the North of Europe Steam Navigation Company, p. 101and was afterwards employed in the conveyance of cattle and passengers between England and the Continent.

9.—Mr. W. J. Utten Browne was elected Mayor, and Dr. Dalrymple appointed Sheriff of Norwich.

10.*—“The Queen has been pleased to grant unto Edward Evans, of Great Melton and of Bylaugh, clerk, her Royal licence and authority that he may, in compliance with a proviso contained in the will of his great uncle, Sir John Lombe, henceforth take and use the surname of Lombe only, and use and bear the arms of Lombe in lieu of his present surname and arms of Evans.”

—*“Mr. George Allen, of St. Stephen’s, has introduced to Norwich the manufacture of elastic cloth, a fine material which has hitherto only been made in the West of England.”

17.—During a strong gale from the n.n.w., several vessels lying off Yarmouth parted from their anchors and were driven ashore and wrecked.  Several lives were lost.

DECEMBER.

1.—A gunpowder explosion occurred at the shop of Mr. Marrison, gun maker, Little Orford Street, Norwich.  The entire shop front was wrecked, as also was that of the adjoining shop, occupied by Mr. Frankland, photographer and dealer in art materials.  Two lives were lost.  Mrs. Dady, sister of Mr. Frankland, was sitting in a room over Mr. Marrison’s shop, and was dashed by the force of the explosion to the ceiling.  She fell through the chasm in the floor to the burning ruins beneath, where she was fearfully injured.  Charles Hill, a shop boy in the employment of Mr. Marrison, was killed outright, and terribly mangled.  The force of the explosion shattered the windows of the Bell Hotel and of other houses in the vicinity.  At the Norwich Assizes on March 26th, 1861, before Chief Baron Pollock, Mr. Marrison brought an action against the London Union Fire Office, for the recovery of £300 under a policy of insurance on his stock and furniture.  The plaintiff had been offered and had refused £100 in settlement of the claim.  The company then proved that the plaintiff had kept more gunpowder on his premises than was allowed by the terms of his contract, whereupon the judge ordered a non-suit.

3.—Died at Brighton, in his 61st year, Capt. Frederick Loftus, formerly of the 17th Lancers, youngest son of General and Lady Elizabeth Loftus, and grandson of George, first Marquis Townshend and Charlotte, Baroness De Ferrars and Compton.  His remains were interred at Rainham, on December 11th.

5.—The suit, Gurney v. Gurney and Taylor, came before the Divorce Court, Westminster.  The husband sought dissolution of marriage, on the ground of misconduct by the wife.  A petition had been presented for the settlement of property then vested in the wife in favour of the children, the issue of the marriage, and the Solicitor-General applied for a rule nisi calling on the respondent, Mrs. Gurney, to show cause why a plea or a pleading in the nature of or intended to be a plea should not be taken off the file, and why the petition for settlement should not be treated as unanswered or unopposed.  Sir p. 102C. Cresswell granted a rule nisi.  Evidence was given in the case on January 22nd, 1861, and the decree was made absolute on May 22nd.

11.—In the Vice-Chancellor’s Court was heard the action, Berney v. the Norfolk and Eastern Counties Railway Company.  By an agreement dated June 6th, 1843, the plaintiff sold certain land to the Norwich and Yarmouth Railway Company, and it was provided that such company should establish and for ever maintain a station in connection with their railway at Reedham, on part of the land sold to them by plaintiff.  Nothing was said in the agreement in reference to stopping trains at the station.  In 1844 the Norwich and Yarmouth railway was completed, and a station was constructed in accordance with the agreement, and called the Barney Arms Station, at which certain trains stopped.  In 1845 the Norwich and Yarmouth Company was incorporated with the Norfolk Railway Company, and trains continued to stop at the station until 1850, when the Norfolk Company discontinued the practice.  The plaintiff thereupon instituted this suit, praying for a specific performance of the agreement of June, 1843, and an injunction to restrain the Norfolk Company from permitting the trains on their railway to pass the Berney Arms Station without stopping thereat, which was, in effect, to compel the company to stop the trains at that station.  The motion for the injunction did not come on, in consequence of an arrangement whereby the Norfolk Company agreed to stop at Berney Arms Station one train from Norwich and one from Yarmouth on every Monday, Wednesday, and Saturday.  The Norfolk Railway was now worked by the Eastern Counties Railway on an agreement dated in 1854, which had received the sanction of the Legislature.  The Eastern Counties Company were then made parties to the suit.  Although the trains then stopped in a manner satisfactory to the plaintiff, there was no security that they would continue to do so.  The Vice-Chancellor said there must be a specific performance of the agreement of June, 1843, and an order that one train from Norwich and one from Yarmouth should stop at Berney Arms Station on Monday, Wednesday, and Saturday in every week; but he should also order that each of the companies should pay £100 to the plaintiff by way of costs.  But for the plaintiff’s forbearance in this respect, it would be difficult to say whether the Eastern Counties Company would have escaped from the litigation with having nothing else to pay than the plaintiff’s ordinary costs.

14.—The Norwich Operatic Union gave its second concert, at St. Andrew’s Hall.  The programme included “Norma” and selections from “Il Trovatore.”  The principal vocalists were Mdlle. Paripa, Mdlle. Vaneri, Mr. Santley, and Mr. Swift.  Mr. Bunnett, B.M., conducted.

16.—The first of a series of special services was conducted at Norwich Theatre, by the Rev. T. B. Stephenson, Wesleyan minister.  “The boxes were reserved for the most respectable-looking, and the unmitigated plebs. were relegated to the pit and gallery.  The occupants of the gallery conducted themselves as the gods usually do, and were rebuked by the preacher, who took up his position on the stage in front of the drop scene, surrounded by a number of persons of both sexes.”

25.—This was the coldest Christmas that had been experienced for at least a century.  “At the Literary Institute at Norwich the minimum p. 103registered was 3 degrees above zero.  At Costessey the register was 7 degrees below zero, or 39 degrees lower than the point at which water freezes.  A peculiarity of the temperature on Christmas-day was the fact of its being colder in the morning than during the night.  The coldest register was between 7 a.m. and 10 a.m., and there was scarcely any appreciable variation till after two o’clock.  Ice was about four inches thick.”

26.—The pantomime at Norwich Theatre was entitled, “Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper and the Fairy Godmother from the Realms of Golden Palms.”  Wombwell’s Menagerie was stationed on the Castle Meadow, and performances were given at the Royal Crystal Palace Amphitheatre, Golden Ball Street, under the management of Messrs. Emidy and Moffatt.  The lessee was Mr. C. Testar.

27.—Died at 36, Berkeley Square, London, in his 57th year, Dr. Edward Rigby.  He was the eldest son of the celebrated Dr. Rigby, of Norwich, and was educated at the Grammar School, under Dr. Valpy.  He graduated at Edinburgh, and subsequently commenced practice in London, where he gradually raised himself to the very highest branches of his profession.

1861.

JANUARY.

5.—At the annual meeting of the Norfolk Agricultural Association, held at the Swan Hotel, Norwich, Mr. Clare Sewell Read moved that the annual show for 1861 be held at East Dereham, instead of at Swaffham.  This effort to abolish the system of holding the exhibitions alternately at Norwich and Swaffham was defeated by 19 votes to 15.

6.—The frost continued with unusual intensity, and on this day snowstorms, which covered the ground to the depth of twelve inches, occurred.  On the 10th a public meeting was held at Norwich, under the presidency of the Mayor (Mr. W. J. Utten Browne), at which a fund was inaugurated to relieve the distresses of the poor.  In a few days the sum of £4,139 12s. 11d. was subscribed.  The river was frozen from Norwich to Yarmouth, and on the 16th a large party of ladies and gentlemen assembled on the ice on Breydon and “skated” quadrilles.  The frost continued for more than five weeks, during the whole of which period the ground was covered with snow.

11.—Walsingham Quarter Sessions were held for the last time.  Sir Willoughby Jones, who presided, informed the Grand Jury that the Sessions would be removed part to Swaffham and part to Norwich, “on account of the expenses being so great in proportion to the number of prisoners for trial.”  On March lst the Bridewell ceased to be used as a house of correction, and the prisoners were removed to Norwich Castle.

p. 10416.—Died, aged 85, Mr. Kinnebrook, for many years a proprietor of the “Norwich Mercury.”

18.—Died, in his 60th year, Mr. Thomas Lound, for 35 years confidential clerk at King Street Old Brewery, Norwich.  “As an artist, but principally as a painter in water-colours, he had maintained a high reputation for many years.  The local river and rural scenery afforded materials for a large proportion of his works.  He occasionally painted street scenes and monastic ruins, and of late years he made excursions into Wales and Yorkshire, bringing home with him a vast variety of subjects.”  In addition to his own collection, he left many water-colour drawings by Bright, Thirtle, Cox, and others, some of them of considerable value.

26.—At Norwich Castle, James Blomfield Rush, aged 30, “eldest son of the Rush,” was committed for trial on the charge of breaking into the dwelling-house of Mr. Abraham Cannell, farmer, Cringleford, on the night of January 12th.  At the Norfolk Assizes, on March 27th, before Chief Baron Pollock, the prisoner was acquitted.  At subsequent dates he was twice acquitted for housebreaking, but at the Norfolk Quarter Sessions on March 11th, 1862, was sentenced to four years’ penal servitude for breaking into a house at North Tuddenham.

FEBRUARY.

13.—In the Court of Queen’s Bench, before the Lord Chief Justice and a special jury, an action was brought by Mr. Costerton, solicitor, of Yarmouth, against Sir Edmund Lacon, M.P., for a scandalous attack made upon the plaintiff by the defendant in the course of an election speech.  The jury returned a verdict for the plaintiff, damages 40s.

25.—Judgment was given by the Barons of the Exchequer in the cause Morant v. Chamberlin.  It was an action between the Corporation of Yarmouth and Mr. G. D. Palmer, who claimed a right to a portion of the south end of the public quays.  Judgment was for the plaintiff, damages £5 5s.  “This decision thus settles this long-pending dispute, now nearly three years from its commencement, and decides the right of the Corporation to the soil of the quays and the right of the public to the free use of the same without any of the inconveniences which for so long a time prevented the proper enjoyment of the part in dispute.  The verdict gives the plaintiffs the costs of this heavy litigation, except on two unimportant issues.  The defendant will have to pay somewhere about £2,800.”

MARCH.

16.—On this date was published the announcement that the First Norfolk Mounted Rifle Volunteer Corps had been attached to the City of Norwich Rifle Volunteer Corps for administrative purposes.  The mounted corps, which numbered 50, was commanded by Capt. F. Hay Gurney.  The uniform consisted of scarlet tunic with blue facings, white cross belt, white breeches, and Napoleon boots.  The head-dress was a busby with blue bag; the forage-cap was blue trimmed with white.

p. 10516.—Intelligence was received at Norwich of the death, of the Duchess of Kent.  On the 17th (Sunday) special references were made to the melancholy event at the religious services in the city, and at intervals the age of the deceased was tolled upon the muffled bells of the Cathedral and St. Peter Mancroft church.  The Town Council, on April 5th, adopted an address of sympathy with the Queen.

—The Surlingham estate was sold by Messrs. Butcher, at the Royal Hotel, Norwich, for £16,895.

26.—At the Norfolk Assizes, before Chief Baron Pollock and a special jury, was tried the libel action, Cufaude v. Cory.  The plaintiff and defendant had taken different sides at the election of a vestry clerk at Yarmouth, and the libel was contained in a handbill issued during the contest by the defendant, who referred to the printed statement of the income and expenditure of the Guardians, to which body the plaintiff was clerk, as “cooked,” and left the sum of £779 unaccounted for.  The special jury returned a verdict for plaintiff, damages £500.  In the Court of Queen’s Bench, on April 17th, Mr. Lush moved for a rule to set aside the verdict, on the ground of excessive damages.  A rule was granted.  Mr. Cufaude subsequently consented to a reduction of damages from £500 to £300, “much against the advice of his counsel.”

APRIL.

2.—The High Sheriff of Norfolk (Mr. J. T. Mott) delivered a lecture at Noverre’s Rooms, Norwich, on “The Paston Letters.”

10.—The 10th Hussars Steeplechases took place at Crostwick.

23.—A vessel, named the Harmony, built by Messrs. Fellows and Son, of Yarmouth, for the Moravian mission in Labrador, was launched.

MAY.

18.—The census returns were published on this date.  In Norwich the number of inhabited houses was 17,012; uninhabited, 786; building, 97.  The population consisted of 33,717 males, and 40,697 females; total, 74,414.

20.—A serious military riot took place at Yarmouth, between men of the Royal Artillery and of the East Norfolk Militia.  Belts and stones were freely used.  A party of 200 Artillerymen, armed with swords and knives, issued from the arsenal, and were going to the assistance of their comrades, when Mr. R. Steward, by persuasion and threats, kept the greater portion from proceeding further.  Officers of both corps exerted themselves to quell the disturbance, and strong pickets were stationed at the bridge, to prevent the Artillery from entering Yarmouth and the Militia from crossing to Southtown.

JUNE.

13.—The Norwich Grammar School athletic sports were held for the first time.

p. 10618.—A memorial was presented to the Norwich Town Council, by farmers, graziers, dealers, &c., praying the Corporation to enlarge the Cattle Market.  The Market Committee recommended the Council to adopt in its entirety a plan for executing the work, at a cost not exceeding £20,000.  This scheme involved the demolition of the notorious locality known as Pump Street.

20.—Mr. and Mrs. Ringer, of Walcot Green, near Diss, left their house in charge of a servant, named Susan Garrod, and on their return in the evening found her suffering from several gunshot wounds in the head and face, inflicted by a man named Charles Sheldrake, a returned convict, employed as a groom and gardener by Mr. Ringer.  Sheldrake, after committing the deed, secreted himself in a wood.  On being called on by the police to surrender, he placed the muzzle of a double-barrelled gun to his mouth and blew out his brains.  At the inquest the jury returned a verdict of felo de se, and the Coroner gave a warrant for the interment of the body between the hours of nine and twelve o’clock.  “The body was accordingly buried at ten o’clock at night, under one of the paths in the churchyard.”

24.—The London Royal English Opera Company commenced a week’s engagement at Norwich Theatre.  The repertory included “four new successful operas never before performed in Norwich,” namely, Balfe’s “The Rose of Castille,” Loder’s “The Night Dancers,” Macfarren’s “Robin Hood,” and Balfe’s “Satanella, or the Power of Love.”  In addition to the above-named works, “Il Trovatore,” “Martha,” and “Maritana” were produced.  The artistes included Miss Fanny Ternan, Miss Bronte, Miss Angel, Miss Fanny Reeves, Mr. Edmund Rosenthal, Mr. J. Manley, Mr. E. D. Corri, Mr. Oliver Summers, and Mr. Elliott Galer.  Mr. W. Meyer Lutz was the conductor.  The performances received very inadequate public support.  The company revisited Norwich for six nights, commencing on September 9th.

—Herr Kolisch, the celebrated chess-player, contested, at the Rampant Horse Hotel, Norwich, 13 games simultaneously against some of the best players in the neighbourhood.  He won eight games, lost three, and two were drawn.

28.—Died, at Feniton Court, Devonshire, the Right Hon. Sir John Patteson.  The second son of the Rev. Henry Patteson, and nephew of Mr. John Patteson, who for some time represented Norwich in Parliament, he was born in that city on February 11th, 1790.  He was educated at Eton and King’s College, Cambridge, and, after talking his degree, removed to London and entered at the Middle Temple.  On being called to the Bar, he went the Northern Circuit.  “He had been only nine years a barrister, he had not a silk gown, he had never led a cause or once addressed a jury,” when he was appointed to the Queen’s Bench, and from that time to February 11th, 1852, continued to discharge the duties of his high office with a reputation for industry, learning, and integrity.

JULY.

20.*—“The first number of the Norfolk Chronicle was published on the 18th of July, 1761.  We are, therefore, as journalists, exactly 100 years old. . . .  The difference between the newspapers of p. 107the last and present century is, perhaps, more conspicuous in the quantity of space occupied than in any other respect, and the present sheet is at least four times the size of our first publication.”

27.*—“The repairs at St. Gregory’s church, Norwich, the interior of which has been undergoing general restoration, have brought to light an interesting fresco, representing the renowned fight between St. George and the Dragon, a subject which has a local association, St. George being the titular saint of the city and patron of a once flourishing civic company.  The painting, which, in all probability, is of a date of the middle of the fifteenth century, was discovered on the removal of the organ at the west end of the north aisle, for the purpose of cleaning the wall.  The figures are life-size, and the colours and drawing exceedingly good.”

—At the Norfolk Assizes, before Chief Justice Erle and a special jury, a libel action, Lane v. the Yarmouth Free Press and Printing Company, Limited, was tried.  Damages were laid at £300.  The declaration alleged that the defendants published in a paper called the “Yarmouth Independent,” certain reflections upon the plaintiff in his capacity as collector of market tolls.  The defendants contended that, at the request of and by agreement with the plaintiff, they had inserted in the newspaper a paragraph explaining the alleged libel, and had exonerated him from the imputations made against his character, and plaintiff had accepted it as satisfaction.  The case ended with the withdrawal of a juror.

AUGUST.

1.—Died at the residence of his son-in-law, 48, Elgin Crescent, Notting Hill, in his 84th year, Philip John Money, formerly captain of the 17th Regiment.  He was a magistrate of Norwich, and served the office of Mayor in 1839.

2.—The celebrated tight-rope walker, Blondin, made his first appearance at Norwich.  The rope was fixed at an altitude of about 60 feet, in a field on Newmarket Road.  “It is a very fortunate circumstance for M. Blondin that he crossed Niagara and had the Prince of Wales for a spectator, for it has added a much greater interest to has performances than they would otherwise have acquired, and even, if we may judge from what we saw here, they deserved.”

4.—Mr. Edward Casson, aged 33, medical superintendent of the County Lunatic Asylum at Thorpe St. Andrew, committed suicide by poisoning himself.

8.—Holy Trinity church, Norwich, was consecrated by the Lord Bishop of the Diocese.  “The ceremony should have taken place three weeks previously, but at the eleventh hour the Bishop requested that a capital fund of about £300 should be provided prior to the consecration.  As the committee were then about £1,000 in debt, it was felt to be indiscreet to increase their risk, and consequently it was determined to delay the opening of the church until they had received nearly all that they required.  In less than three weeks more than £1,200 had been subscribed out of the £1,300 then supposed to be needed.”  The consecration was attended by the Mayor (Mr. W. J. Utten Browne) and several members of the Corporation.

p. 10829.—A troop of the 15th Hussars left Norwich, en route to York; the remainder of the regiment marched on September 3rd.

SEPTEMBER.

12.—A great review of the whole of the Volunteer Companies in the county and city, with the Norwich Mounted Volunteers and the Yarmouth Artillery, was held at Holkham Park, by Major-General Sir Archdale Wilson, Bart., K.C.B.  This was the first occasion on which the corps had been brigaded since their formation.  The review was fixed for eleven o’clock, but in consequence of a breakdown in the railway arrangements, and the consequent detention of companies on their way to the rendezvous, the parade was not formed until 2.15 p.m.  The troops numbered upwards of 1,700, and were divided into two brigades, commanded respectively by Lieut.-Col. Custance and Major the Hon. F. Walpole, West Norfolk Militia.  The railway company displayed the same incompetency in conveying the corps from Holkham as in taking them there, and the Norwich men did not reach the city until six o’clock on the morning of the 13th.

28.—The headquarters of the 5th Dragoon Guards arrived at Norwich Cavalry Barracks, from Aldershot.  “It is known in the service as the ‘Green Horse,’ being the only cavalry regiment which wears green facings.”

OCTOBER.

13.—Died, Sir William Cubitt, the eminent engineer.  Born in Norfolk, in 1785, he was apprenticed to a joiner, and, becoming a very superior handicraftsman, he rapidly took a prominent position as a maker of agricultural implements.  Within a short time he became a millwright, and about 1807 invented self-regulating windmill sails, and ultimately became connected with Messrs. Ransome and Son, of Ipswich.  He was the inventor also of the treadmill for gaols and houses of correction.  His reputation increasing his engagements, it became necessary for him to remove to the Metropolis in 1826, and after that period there was scarcely a port, harbour, dock, navigable river, or canal in the United Kingdom with which he was not in some way engaged.  The South-Eastern Railway from London to Dover was designed and executed by him.  He undertook the bold project of blowing away the face of the Round Down cliff, which he successfully executed by exploding 18,000 lbs. of gunpowder in one blast, and precipitated one million tons of chalk cliff into the sea.  The great landing-stage at Liverpool, the deck of which was nearly one acre in extent, was a unique example of his work.  As consulting engineer of the Great Northern Railway, he materially contributed to the production of one of the best lines in England.  One of his last public works was the superintendence of the construction of the palace for the Great Exhibition in Hyde Park in 1851, which he undertook at the pressing instance of his coadjutors on the Royal Commission, and his services were recognised in a marked manner by the Queen and the Prince Consort.

p. 10922.—The Mayor of Norwich (Mr. W. J. Utten Browne) delivered a lecture to the members of the parochial library, Lakenham, on “The Times of King Charles the First.”

24.—Died, suddenly, of apoplexy, at his residence, West Parade, Earlham Road, Norwich, in his 46th year, Mr. Edward Garrod, editor of the Norfolk Chronicle.

28.—Charles Dickens gave the former of two readings at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich.  The work selected was “David Copperfield.”  On the 29th he read “Nicholas Nickleby at Mr. Squeer’s School,” and the Trial scene from the “Pickwick Papers.”  “Our opinion is,” the Norfolk Chronicle remarked, “that Mr. Dickens as a reader fails to do justice to himself as an author.”

NOVEMBER.

6.—Norwich Theatre was opened, under the management of Mr. George Owen.  Mr. Sidney, however, retained the lesseeship.

8.—Died at Hingham, in her 100th year, Mrs. Rebecca Houchen.

9.—The new Corn Hall at Norwich was opened for business.  The contractors for the building were Messrs. Ling and Balls, of Norwich, and for the roof Messrs. Barnard, Bishop, and Barnards.  The total cost was about £8,000.  The work was executed from the designs of Mr. Barry, of Norwich, and Mr. H. Butcher, of 37, Bedford Row, London; and the roofs were adapted and carried into detail from the design of the architects by Mr. E. A. Cowper, C.E., of Westminster.  The first brick of the new building was laid on May 1st, 1861.

—Mr. John Oddin Taylor was elected Mayor, and Mr. Addison John Cresswell appointed Sheriff of Norwich.

10.—Died at North Runcton Rectory, in his 85th year, the Rev. James Cumming, M.A., professor of chemistry in the University of Cambridge, to which office he was elected in 1815.  He was a Fellow of Trinity College, and had held the living of North Runcton for more than forty years.

22.—In the Court of the Lords Justices in Lincoln’s Inn, a petition was presented by Major-General Charles Ash Windham, Capt. Windham, the Marquis of Bristol, Lord Alfred Hervey, M.P., Lord Listowel, and others, praying that a writ de lunatico inquirendo might issue against William Frederick Windham.  In support of the petition, affidavits were read which alleged a variety of eccentricities and extravagances on the part of William Frederick Windham, and laid great stress upon a marriage he had contracted with one Agnes Ann Rogers, better known by the name of Agnes Willoughby.  The judges, after hearing the affidavits on the other side, considered that a prima facie case had been made out, and allowed the prayer of the petition.  On December 4th, in the Vice-Chancellor’s Court, a motion was heard for the committal of Mr. James Bowen May for contempt of court, in having, during the infancy of William Frederick Windham, and without the knowledge of his guardian or the sanction of the Court, drawn or sided and abetted in drawing the said William Frederick Windham into a promise of marriage with Agues Rogers or Willoughby, in which promises had been made of settlements or dispositions of his property p. 110in her favour.  The motion was refused, with costs.  On December 11th the Court of Chancery granted leave to William Frederick Windham to raise as a mortgage charge on his property the sum of £2,000, in order that he might defend himself before the Commission.  The Commission held its first sitting in the Court of Exchequer, Westminster, on December 16th, under the presidency of Mr. Samuel Warren, Q.C., one of the Masters in Lunacy.  Mr. Windham was the only son of Mr. Howe Windham, who died in 1854, and the great-grandson of Mr. Windham, the great politician.  He became of age on August 9th, 1861, when he succeeded to the Felbrigg Hall estate, worth upwards of £1,200 a year, and to other properties in which he had a life interest, and which, in the year 1869, would yield him £9,000 a year more.  During his minority he was under the guardianship of his uncle, General Windham, and of his mother, Lady Sophia Hervey.  He married a woman of loose character, upon whom he bestowed jewellery of the value of £1,200 or £1,400, and upon whom he settled a present annuity of £800, with a further annuity of £1,500 contingent upon his coming in to the whole of his property in 1869.  It was also alleged that he sold, in a wild and reckless way, and upon terms of the utmost disadvantage, the whole of the timber, ornamental as well as useful, on the Felbrigg estate.  The inquiry lasted thirty-four days, and upwards of 150 witnesses were examined.  It is said to have cost something like £160 per hour, or nearly £3 per minute, for all the leading talent of the Bar of England was engaged in the case.  On January 30th, 1862, the jury returned the following verdict: “That the said Mr. William Frederick Windham, at the time of taking this inquisition, was a person of sound mind, so as to be sufficient for the government of himself, his manners, his messuages, his lands, his tenements, his goods, and his chattels.”  The moment the verdict was uttered a loud and enthusiastic cheer rose from the audience, and was repeated again and again.  When Mr. Windham left the Court he was received outside with the shouts of an admiring crowd, who almost carried him to the cab in which he drove away, amid a deafening cheer.  In the Court of Equity, on April 23rd, 1862, the Lords Justices refused to exonerate the alleged lunatic from the payment of the whole of the costs, amounting to £20,000, consequent upon the enquiry.

30.*—“The portrait of Mr. J. H. Gurney, M.P., President of the Norfolk and Norwich Museum, has this week been placed on the walls of that institution.  It was painted by F. Grant, R.A., at the cost of 200 guineas.”

DECEMBER.

7.—Died, in his 73rd year, Mr. Charles Turner, who was Sheriff of Norwich in 1824, elected Alderman in 1832, and was Mayor in 1834.  He was the last Mayor who served the full term of office under the old Corporation.

9.—A six miles race for £50 was run at the Green Hill Gardens, Norwich, between Deerfoot, the celebrated Seneca Indian, Brighten, the “Norwich Milk Boy,” and Long, of Middlesbrough.  This was one of the so-called matches run during a provincial tour by these pedestrians.  Deerfoot wore his Indian costume, decorated with shells p. 111and feathers.  He stood 5 ft. 11 in., was of muscular frame, but not well knitted, and his limbs were long and loose, contrasting badly with the neat, compact figure of the “Milk Boy.”  Among the spectators of the “match,” which was, of course, won by the Indian, were the Duke of Wellington and Sir Samuel Bignold.

15.—Intelligence was received in Norwich of the death of the Prince Consort.  Early on the following morning (Monday) the Mayor requested the citizens to partially close their business establishments until after the funeral.  On the day of the funeral (December 23rd), business was entirely suspended, and the Mayor and Corporation, accompanied by the Rifle Volunteers, attended service at the Cathedral.  The Nonconformist bodies held a united service at St. Andrew’s Hall, at which the Rev. John Alexander delivered an address.  Addresses of condolence with the Queen were voted by the Norwich Town Council, on December 30th, and by a county meeting, held at the Shirehall, under the presidency of the High Sheriff (Mr. J. T. Mott), on January 18th, 1862.

26.—Mr. George Owen produced the Christmas pantomime, “Puss in Boots,” at the Theatre Royal, Norwich; and Mander’s Royal Menagerie was exhibited on the Castle Meadow.  The African “lion tamer,” Maccomo, whilst performing at the latter show, on the 28th, was severely attacked by a young lion, and narrowly escaped with his life.

1862.

JANUARY.

2.—Mr. Thomas Richmond Pinder, head master of Hingham Endowed School, was elected head master of the new Commercial School, built on the site of the old Workhouse, adjoining St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, at the cost of about £1,500.  The school was designed by Mr. James S. Benest, architect to the trustees, and built by Messrs. Ling and Balls.  It was opened as King Edward the Sixth’s Commercial School, on July 28th.

19.—An alarming fire occurred in the centre wing of Swaffham prison.  The inmates of the cells, who were greatly terrified, were safely removed, and afterwards conveyed to Norwich Castle.  The roof of the new portion of the prison was completely destroyed, with three looms and a considerable quantity of stock in raw materials and manufactured articles.

28.—Died at Swainsthorpe, Eleanor Harrison, widow, aged 101.

30.—A rifle match, between eleven Norfolk and a like number of Northamptonshire Volunteers, took place at the seat of Earl Spencer, Althorp Park.  The teams were under the respective commands of Lord Bury and Earl Spencer.  Northamptonshire won by 170 points against 164 made by their opponents.  The return match, which took place on the Mousehold Range, Norwich, on September 27th, was also won by Northamptonshire, by 17 points.

p. 112FEBRUARY.

1.*—“A private named Thomas Nelson, attached to one of the troops of the 5th Dragoon Guards, now stationed in Norwich, is said to have become the possessor of a fortune of £70,000, besides a fine estate near Liverpool, of the value of £9,000 per annum.”

3.—H.R.H. the Prince of Wales visited Norfolk, “for the purpose of inspecting the Sandringham Hall estate, with the view of purchasing it for shooting purposes, for which it is well adapted.”  On the 22nd it was announced that his Royal Highness had concluded the purchase for £220,000, and, it was added, “Norfolk people entertain strong hopes that they shall see a good deal of their future Sovereign.”

15.—The subject of the proposed amalgamation of the Eastern Counties, the Norfolk, the Eastern Union, the East Anglian, and other railways’ communicating with Norwich obtained publicity on this date.  The Norwich Town Council, on the 21st, decided to petition Parliament against the Railway Amalgamation Bill, on the ground that the amalgamation was calculated to injuriously affect the citizens by depriving them of the advantages of competition in railway transit.

MARCH.

1.—Died at his house at Charlton, Kent, aged 86, Professor Peter Barlow, F.R.S.  He was born in the parish of St. Simon, Norwich, in October, 1776.  Related to one of the leading manufacturing families in the city, the Columbines, his early life was passed in their warehouse.  He continued there about three years, and during that period acquired, by his own industry, a considerable knowledge of algebra, geometry, trigonometry, navigation, and French.  Subsequently he obtained a situation in a school in Essex, and afterwards proceeded to Shipdham, when, the master dying, he succeeded to the school, and married a Shipdham lady.  He commenced a regular correspondence with the “Ladies’ Diary,” then under the management of Dr. Hutton, professor of mathematics at Woolwich, whose attention was favourably attracted by the contributions furnished by Mr. Barlow.  Dr. Hutton recommended him as candidate, in 1801, for the post of additional master at the Royal Military Academy, and he was successful.  In 1811 he published his first work, “The Theory of Numbers,” in 1813, “The Mathematical Dictionary,” and in the same year his “Mathematical Tables.”  In 1817 his work, “The Strength of Materials,” was published.  In 1819 he turned his attention to magnetic experiments, in which he was very successful in developing the laws of action and in the application of those laws to the correction of a long-standing error in navigation.  For this discovery he received several honorary and pecuniary rewards.  His “Essay on Magnetic Attraction” was published in 1819.

25.—The new Poor Removal Act came into force.  It materially altered the law of settlement, and made new regulations as to the manner in which parishes contributed their share to the common fund charges of the unions.

31.—An accident occurred at a circus building at St. Stephen’s Gates, Norwich, hired by Mace and King, the pugilists, for the purposes p. 113of a benefit performance.  The rows of seats elevated one above the other and forming the pit were densely crowded with spectators, whose weight broke the frail supports, with the result that the centre of the pit fall with its load of human beings.  Many were severely bruised and shaken, and one man, suffering from a broken leg, was removed to the Hospital.

APRIL.

10.—Madame Jenny Lind Goldschmidt appeared at a miscellaneous concert, given at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, and on the 11th sang in Haydn’s oratorio, “The Creation.”  The other artistes included Mr. Sims Reeves, Signor Belletti, Mr. H. Blagrove (solo violin), Signor Patti (solo violoncello), and Mr. Otto Goldschmidt (pianoforte).  The chorus for the oratorio was composed of members of the Cathedral choir and of the Norwich Choral Society.

21.—Tom Sayers, “the pugilistic ex-champion,” visited Norwich with his circus, “exhibited his belts, medals, and the diamond ring presented to him by the students of Oxford, and set-to with young Hicks, of Birmingham.”  Heenan, the American pugilist, brought a circus to Norwich on September 11th, and “apologised to the spectators for not sparring, as the authorities had forbidden him, and it was only on giving this promise that he was allowed to erect his tent on the Castle Hill.”  Mace’s circus visited the city on October 6th.  “The spectators were disappointed at the non-appearance of Mace, the magistrates having forbidden him to give an illustration of his noble art.”

MAY.

3.*—“Died last week, at Rackheath, Phœbe Clayburn, at the advanced age of 103 years.  She had 22 children, and her eldest son is now living at Bramerton, aged 80 years; her grandchild is 50; her great-grandchild is 20, and her great-great-grandchild is now two years of age.”

4.—The large tract of land known as the Middle Level of the Fens, which had been greatly improved by the construction of the Middle Level Drain, a small river which collected the waters of the district and discharged them into the Ouse near Wiggenhall St. German’s, was inundated, in consequence of a breach in the sluice erected at the point where the two streams joined.  The tide, no longer confined to the channel of the Ouse, rushed up the drain, broke through the bank on the west side at two places, and, in a wild torrent, overspread the adjacent lands.  Efforts were at once made to strengthen the dams, by placing vast quantities of clinch and gravel at the foot of the piles.  On June 20th, a meeting of the owners and occupiers of land was held at the Globe Hotel, Lynn, under the presidency of the Rev. Henry ffolkes, at which resolutions were passed requiring the Middle Level Commissioners to take prompt and efficient measures to prevent the recurrence of such a disaster.  It was also agreed that more satisfactory means for redress for damage should be given than were afforded by the Middle Level Act, and that application be made to p. 114Parliament for the insertion in the Middle Level Bill then before the House of Lords of necessary provisions for securing both objects.  At the Norfolk Assizes, on July 29th, before Lord Chief Justice Cockburn, commenced the long course of litigation resulting from the inundation.  Mr. William Mason, lessee of 18 acres of land at Tilney All Saints, within the Marshland Fen district, sued Mr. Wise, clerk to the Middle Level Commissioners, for the recovery of £500 damages sustained through the alleged negligence of the Commissioners in making and maintaining the Middle Level Sluice and Drain.  Leave was given to both sides to move in the Common Pleas or Queen’s Bench for the removal of the trial to London.  On August 16th it was announced that the expenses incident to the disaster were estimated at about £25,000, to meet which £20,000 had been taken up by way of temporary loan.  A second disaster occurred on October 4th.  One of the outfall sluices of the Marshland Smeeth and Fen Drain, an important arterial drain running into the Ouse about 200 or 300 yards northward of the ruined Middle Level Sluice, gave way, and again a wide extent of country was submerged.  Four hundred navvies were at once set to work to form a dam of many thousands of sacks filled with earth.  On the 5th the temporary dam gave way bodily, and the entire mass having been carried a score yards up the drain, sank out of sight.  The tidal water having overcome the obstacle, went with a rush and a roar on its work of devastation, carrying with it great quantities of earth and timber.  About 1,000 acres were flooded; 4,000 acres were under water before the completion of another temporary dam on the 8th.  After that the water was removed by means of huge syphons.  On November 10th the Court of Common Pleas refused a rule for the changing of the venue of the trial of the action, Mason v. Wise, from Norfolk to Surrey, and with this decision ended the first stage of the legal proceedings.  (See January 31st, 1863.)

5.—The Braham Grand English Opera Company commenced a six nights’ engagement at Norwich Theatre, with the performance of “Il Trovatore.”  The other operas produced during the engagement included “The Bohemian Girl,” “Robin Hood,” “The Daughter of the Regiment,” “Der Freischutz,” “Cinderella,” and “Lucia Di Lammermoor.”  Among the principals were Miss Fanny Ternan, Miss Maria Ternan, Mdlle. A. Kemp, Mr. Brookhouse Bowler, and Mr. Hamilton Braham.

24.—The Norfolk Volunteer Service Association was formed at a meeting held at the Shirehall, Norwich, under the chairmanship of the Lord Lieutenant, who was elected president.  Its objects were, “the promotion of rifle shooting and giving permanence to the Volunteer corps throughout the county.”  The first prize-meeting was held on the Mousehold Range, Norwich, from September 8th to 11th.

27.—The Channel Squadron, under the command of Rear-Admiral Robert Smart, arrived in Yarmouth Roads, and on June 1st was joined by the St. George, with H.R.H. Prince Alfred on board.  The Squadron sailed for the Downs on the 4th.

JUNE.

11.—In the Divorce Court, before Sir C. Cresswell, judgement was p. 115given in the action, Burroughs v. Burroughs and Silcock.  This was a cross suit.  Mrs. Burroughs prayed for the restitution of conjugal rights, and her husband, in his answer, charged her with adultery, and prayed for a judicial separation.  In the second case Mr. Burroughs prayed for a dissolution of marriage, on the ground of his wife’s misconduct.  The second case had been tried by a common jury on March 6th, 7th, 8th, and 13th, and terminated in a verdict that neither the petitioner, the respondent, nor the co-respondent had been guilty of adultery.  His lordship had deferred judgment in the first suit, in order that his opinion might not affect the opinion of the jury in the second suit, which had not then been tried.  He now said he thought Mrs. Burroughs had misconducted herself, and he could not order her husband to take her home again.  He, therefore, dismissed her petition for restitution.  He refused, however, to pronounce a decree of judicial separation, on the ground that as the parties themselves had been examined, he could not treat the husband’s answer as a counter petition.

16.—At Swaffham County Court, a jury was engaged in the trial of an action, Green v. Sayers.  The plaintiff, a shoemaker, sought to recover £25 damages for an assault by the defendant, described as “a circus proprietor, but better known as the ex-champion of England.”  The case excited great local interest.  “The defendant,” it was said, “conducted himself with a degree of modesty, propriety, and decorum that caused no little feeling in his favour.”  The assault arose out of a dispute as to the withholding of change alleged to be due to the plaintiff on money tendered for admission to the defendant’s show, and the jury gave a verdict for Green, damages £5.

19.—A great Volunteer review took place at Yarmouth.  The first brigade of 910 men was commanded by Lieut.-Col. Astley, Norfolk Artillery; the second (1,230 men) by Lieut.-Col. Sir E. Lacon, Bart., M.P., and the third (350 men) by Lieut.-Col. Custance.  The reviewing officer was Col. Guy, C.B., and the proceedings were witnessed by many thousands of spectators.

24.—Died, in the Workhouse of the Loddon and Clavering Union, in her 105th year, Mary, widow of Samuel Lock, of Loddon.

—An extraordinary fight took place between a bull and a stallion, both the property of Mr. James Coker.  The animals were grazing in a field near the Chase at King’s Lynn, and became engaged in a deadly combat, which ended in the bull disembowelling the horse with its horns.  The stallion was valued at £60.

JULY.

1.—The marriage of H.R.H. Princess Alice and the Grand Duke of Hesse was celebrated throughout the county with great rejoicing.  The day was observed at Norwich as a public holiday; at a special meeting of the Town Council a congratulatory address to the Queen was adopted; the Mayor gave a luncheon at St. Andrew’s Hall, and in the evening a firework display was given in the Market Place.

—At the Norwich Quarter Sessions, before the Recorder (Mr. O’Malley, Q.C.), Edward Durrant (27), grocer, surrendered to his p. 116bail on the charge of “having by fraud in playing with cards won the sum of 14s., the money of Samuel Boughton, at the Star Inn, Haymarket, Norwich.”  There were other counts, charging the defendant with defrauding other persons by the same means.  Mr. Serjeant Ballantyne, specially retained, succeeded in obtaining a verdict of not guilty.  The Recorder observed: “Well, prisoner, you have had a most merciful jury; that is all I can say.”  The defendant was cheered as he left the Court.

9.—The first of the peripatetic shows of the Norfolk Agricultural Association was held at East Dereham.  “The cautious and timid members of the Norfolk Association who prophesied that so many dark and dreadful events would happen to the society if absolved from her marriage vow which wedded her entirely to Norwich, and Swaffham, must have been pleasantly surprised by the entire success of the Dereham meeting.”  So great was the rush to the show-ground that more than once the barrier was broken down.  The sum of £230 was taken in admission money, whereas it had never before amounted to £150, and rarely exceeded £80.

17.—Mr. Henry Stevenson, one of the proprietors of the Norfolk Chronicle, was driving through Upper Surrey Street, Norwich, with his wife, when the horse started off at full speed in the direction of All Saints’ church, where the phaeton was upset, and Mrs. Stevenson sustained injuries from which she died an hour afterwards.

27.—Died, in St. John de Sepulchre, Norwich, the Widow Rumsby, aged 100 years.

—Died, in London, Mr. H. L. Styleman le Strange.  He was the only son of Mr. Henry Styleman, of Snettisham Hall, where he was born in 1815.  Educated at Eton and at Christchurch, Oxford, he travelled, on the completion of his University career, in Egypt, and, returning home in 1836, his majority was celebrated at Hunstanton Hall, the ancient residence of the le Stranges.  In 1839 he procured the Royal licence to assume the patronymic surname of le Strange, in addition to that of Styleman, and in the same year married Jamesina Joice Ellen, daughter of Mr. John Stewart, of Balladrum, Inverness, by whom he left issue two sons and three daughters.  Mr. le Strange, acceding to the request of the Conservative party, stood for the Western division of the county, and was defeated by a small majority.  He left the hustings with the promise that at the next election he would again offer himself; he kept his promise, but eventually withdrew, and retired from politics.  He then commenced his great work of painting the roof of Ely Cathedral, on the design and execution of which he bestowed many years of hard toil.  At his death the work was about half completed, and he had only recently received recognition of his artistic talents by being appointed a member of a commission for investigating the state of the frescoes in the new Houses of Parliament.  Hunstanton church is a monument to his taste and skill.  Mr. le Strange was senior co-heir to the baronies of Hastings and Foliot, and co-heir to those of Camoys and Strathbolgie.  He had served the office of High Sheriff of Norfolk, was a magistrate and deputy lieutenant, and a director of the Lynn and Hunstanton Railway Company.

30.—Mr. Simmons, of Lydney, Gloucestershire, made a balloon ascent from the Orchard Gardens, Norwich, and, after attaining an altitude p. 117of 5,000 feet, descended in Spixworth Park.  There he lightened the balloon by landing a fellow-passenger, and having re-ascended to the height of 12,000 feet, finally came to earth in Mr. Trafford’s park at Wroxham.  Mr. Simmons made another ascent from the Orchard Gardens on September 8th, and descended at Little Plumstead; and after re-ascending, came down among the ruins of St. Benet’s Abbey.

AUGUST.

28.—A cricket match, between twenty-two of Norfolk and Norwich and eleven of United All England commenced on the Cricket Ground, Norwich, and concluded on the 29th.  Norfolk and Norwich, 73—75; United All England, 119—31.

SEPTEMBER.

8.—A trial of McCormick’s new reaper took place on Mr. Clare Sewell Read’s farm at Little Plumstead.  The experiments were conducted by Mr. McCormick, the inventor, and Mr. Burgess, the manufacturer of the machine, in the presence of Baron Ricasoli, ex-Prime Minister of Italy, and of several other foreigners of distinction.

11.—Three troops of the 5th Royal Irish Lancers, with headquarters and band, arrived at Norwich.  “Although the regiment has been formed only five years, the principal portion of the non-commissioned officers and many of the privates were engaged at Balaclava, being Volunteers from other regiments to assist in training the present regiment.”

12.—A great Volunteer fête, given at Crown Point, by the High Sheriff of Norfolk (Mr. Harvey), was attended by many thousands of spectators from all parts of the county.  The city and county corps, in two brigades, commanded respectively by Lieut.-Col. Custance and Lieut.-Col. Astley, with the Norwich Light Horse, under Lieut. Hay Gurney, were reviewed by Major-General Sir Archdale Wilson, K.C.B.  The Norwich Cadet Corps, recently organized by Mr. Noverre, and the Grammar School Cadet Corps, were also in attendance.  After the review the troops were entertained at dinner, a balloon ascent was made by Mr. Simmons, and military and other sports followed.

17.—The foundation-stone of a new church at Hautbois Magna was laid by Lord Suffield.  The new building, which was designed to supplement the old parish church, was erected mainly by the exertions of the rector (the Rev. J. C. Girling), who gave the site.  The cost was estimated at from £800 to £900.  The church was consecrated by the Bishop of Norwich on May 26th, 1864.

OCTOBER.

6.—Died at his house, Belitha Villas, Barnsbury Park, London, Mr. John Curtis, F.L.S., aged 72.  Mr. Curtis was a native of Norwich, where he resided many years.  He was author of the celebrated work, “British Entomology,” on the completion of which Sir Robert Peel awarded him a pension for life.

p. 11813.—A ten miles race, between the Indian Deerfoot and Brighten, “the Norwich Milk Boy,” for a silver cup of the value of £30, took place on Figg’s Cricket Ground, Newmarket Road, Norwich.  Previous performances of Brighten and Deerfoot had given rise to suspicion as to the genuineness of these contests, but on this occasion it was announced that “Deerfoot’s career in England being about to terminate,” the race would be a legitimate trial of speed.  Brighten won by 30 yards, in 54 minutes, 30 sees.

17.—A severe storm occurred at Yarmouth, and numerous shipping casualties were reported.

19.—A fire took place on the premises of Messrs. Tillyard and Howlett, wholesale boot and shoe manufacturers, Water Lane, St. George’s Colegate, Norwich, and damage was done to the amount of £2000.

29.—Died at St. Leonard’s-on-Sea, the Dowager Lady Stafford.  Her ladyship was an American by birth, one of four daughters of Mr. C. Caton, of Baltimore.  So remarkable were the sisters for their personal charms, that they were known as “the beauties of Baltimore,” a reputation which had the effect of securing for three of them British coronets, one as the Duchess of Leeds, another as the Marchioness Wellesley, and the third as the Baroness Stafford.  She became the second wife of the 8th Lord Stafford in 1837.

NOVEMBER.

10.—Mr. Henry Staniforth Patteson was elected Mayor, and Mr. J. J. Colman appointed Sheriff of Norwich.

18.—The Norwich Town Council adopted an address to the Queen, congratulating her Majesty upon the attainment of his majority by H.R.H. the Prince of Wales.  The county magistrates adopted a similar address on January 8th, 1863.

19.—Died, suddenly, aged 50, Mr. John Wodderspoon, sub-editor of the “Norwich Mercury.”  He had resided in Norwich about fourteen years, and had previously been connected with the “Suffolk Chronicle,” at Ipswich.  Mr. Wodderspoon devoted his leisure time to the pursuit of the fine arts, and had achieved considerable proficiency as an amateur artist, a talent which assisted him materially in his other favourite study, archæology.  He was an active member of the Norfolk and Norwich Archæological Society, and whilst resident at Ipswich, wrote, “Memorials of Ipswich” and “Historic Sites of Suffolk.”  His death occurred under painful circumstances.  On the previous day a summons had been served upon him for threatening, it was alleged, a reporter on the “Mercury” staff.  When giving instructions to Mr. Bugg, his solicitor in the case, Mr. Wodderspoon fell down and instantly expired.

22.*—“The Queen has been pleased to grant unto Henry Evans, the elder, of Lyng and of Bylaugh, clerk, and to his eldest son, Henry Evans, the younger, of Elmswell, in Suffolk, clerk, her Royal licence and authority that they and their respective heirs may, in compliance with a proviso contained in the last will and testament of Sir John Lombe, late of Great Melton, baronet, deceased, respectively take and henceforth use the surname of Lombe only, and use and bear the arms of Lombe in lieu of their present surname and arms of Evans.”

p. 119DECEMBER.

1.—Father Gavazzi lectured at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, on “Italy, Victor Emanuel, Garibaldi, and the Pope,” and on the 2nd on “The Progress of the Gospel in Italy.”

10.—Mr. Charles Mathews appeared at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, in his entertainment, “Personal Reminiscences, in Eight Chapters.”  The entertainment was repeated on December 13th.

13.—Died at his residence, Elmsfield, Harrow, Lieut.-Col. Richard Montague Oakes, formerly of the 1st Life Guards, and Chief Constable of Norfolk, aged 71.

18.—A gale of great severity commenced at Yarmouth, and continued until the 22nd.  “The lifeboats were suffered to lie quiescent on the beach, their crews (of the Young and Diamond Company) standing stolidly by, indifferent even to the signals of distress which from time to time came over the raging waters from vessels in great danger.”  There was no loss of life.  An inquiry was opened on January 6th, 1863, as to the conduct of the lifeboat crew, and adjourned to the 12th, when a resolution was adopted exonerating them from blame.

20.—Died at his residence, Norton Lodge, Freshwater, Isle of Wight, Admiral of the Fleet Sir Graham E. Hamond, Bart., G.C.B.  He was the only son of Captain Sir Andrew Snape Hamond, R.N., created baronet in 1783, and was born December 30th, 1779.  On the death of his father, at the advanced age of 90, in September, 1828, he succeeded to the baronetcy.  He commenced his naval career in 1793, as midshipman in the Phaeton 38, under the command of his cousin, Sir A. S. Douglas; he then removed to the Queen Charlotte, 100, the flagship of Admiral Lord Howe, under whom he shared the honour and took part in the victory of “the glorious first of June.”  Joining the Britannia, 100, the flagship of Admiral Hotham, he served in the Mediterranean, and witnessed the destruction of L’Alcide 74, taken in the action of July 13th.  After constant active service on the Lisbon and home stations, during which he assisted at the capture of several French privateers and at the blockade of Malta and the siege of La Valette, he was appointed to the command of the Blanche, 36, in which ship he participated in the battle of Copenhagen.  In 1804 he was appointed to the Lively, 38, in which frigate he captured, off Cape St. Mary, three Spanish frigates laden with treasure, and destroyed a fourth; during a subsequent cruise off Cape St. Vincent he captured the San Miguel, and the same day, in company with the Polyphemus, 64, took the Santa Gertruyda, 36, laden with a valuable cargo of 11,215,000 dollars in specie.  In December, 1808, he was appointed to the command of the Victorious, 74, in which he assisted at the reduction of Flushing in 1809.  He was appointed commander-in-chief of the South African station in September, 1834.  Sir Graham was a magistrate and deputy lieutenant for the county of Norfolk.

21.—The sea broke over the sandhills at Wells and flooded about 700 acres of the west marshes, which had been reclaimed from the ocean by the Earl of Leicester.  The damage was estimated at £10,000.

p. 12026.—The Christmas pantomime at Norwich Theatre, produced under the management of Mr. Sidney, was entitled “Jack the Giant-Killer.”  Wombwell’s Menagerie was exhibited on the Castle Meadow.

1863.

JANUARY.

21.—Died at his residence, Thorpe Hamlet, aged 82, Mr. John Skipper, who had filled several offices under the old Corporation of Norwich, including those of Speaker and Chamberlain.

24.—Died at Trumpington Street, Cambridge, Mr. S. D. Colkett, artist, formerly of Norwich.

31.—The litigation arising from the inundation in Marshland commenced on this date with the hearing, in the Vice-Chancellor’s Court, of an application for a mandamus to compel the Middle Level Commissioners to restore the paling path over the breach made by the inundations.  At the suggestion of the Court, it was agreed that the only question in dispute, that of legal liability, should be raised as a special case.  At the Norfolk Assizes, on April 1st, before Lord Chief Justice Erle, two actions, Mason v. Wise and Coe v. Wise (clerk to the Middle Level Commissioners), were down for trial by special jury.  It was understood that these cases, which were brought for the recovery of damages consequent upon the inundation, were selected out of a total of 107 causes in which writs had been issued.  In the action Coe v. Wise, the declaration alleged that by a certain Act of Parliament the Middle Level Commissioners were bound to make and maintain a certain cut, bank, and sluices; it was complained that, in consequence of their negligence, the tidal waters burst through them and flooded the lands of the plaintiff.  The defendant entered a plea of not guilty, and alleged that the plaintiff was not possessed of the lands.  The hearing of the case occupied four days.  The Judge, in summing up, directed the jury to decide whether the damage was caused to the plaintiff by the absence of due care and skill on the part of the defendants, (1) in respect of the making of the sluice; (2) in respect of maintaining the sluice; (3) in respect of providing remedies against mishap after the sluice was destroyed; and (4) was damage caused to the plaintiff by reason that no puddled wall was made along both banks of the cut?  The jury found for the defendant on the first point, and for the plaintiff on the other three points.  In the Court of Queen’s Bench, on April 18th, Mr. Fitzroy Kelly moved for a rule calling upon plaintiff to show cause why the verdict should not be set aside and entered for the defendant, on the ground of misdirection, and that the verdict was against the evidence.  Lord Chief Justice Cockburn said the Court would grant a rule upon the question of law involved, but not as regarded the evidence, because their lordships found that Lord Chief Justice Erle was satisfied with the verdict.  The case was again before the Court of Queen’s Bench on November 19th, and, alter two days’ argument, was ordered to stand over until the next term.  (See January 21st, 1864.)

p. 121FEBRUARY.

16.—Charles Mower, the Dereham pedestrian, ran a one-mile match for £50 a side, with Edward Mills, of London, the six miles champion, on the Brampton Pedestrian Ground.  Mower was a runner of considerable repute.  His best performance was at Salford, in December, 1860, when he defeated Allison for the champion cup, running the mile in 4 minutes 24 seconds, the ground at the time being covered with snow.  In his match with Mills he was beaten by 20 yards, in 4 minutes 34 seconds.

MARCH.

3.—The Norwich Poor-law Amendment Bill was considered by a Committee of the House of Commons.  Its object was to repeal the Act passed in 1831, “for the better management of the several parishes and hamlets of the city and county of the city of Norwich”; to substitute another body for the Incorporation of Guardians; and to introduce certain clauses for the equalisation of the rates between the city and hamlets; and for the inclusion of the Cathedral Close, which was not then within the jurisdiction of the Guardians.  The Bill passed through Committee on March 12th, and was directed to be reported to the House.  The last meeting of the old Court of Guardians was held at the Guildhall, Norwich, on October 6th, and its existence as a corporate body expired on the 22nd, when the new Board was elected.  Prior to the election, a meeting, presided over by the Mayor (Mr. Patteson), was held, at which was passed a resolution to the effect that, “considering the excessive poor-rates which have pressed upon this city for so many years, and the abuses which have sprung up in the administration of the Poor-law, it is incumbent upon the ratepayers to sink party and other differences and co-operate for carrying out the new Act with integrity and impartiality.”

10.—Great rejoicings took place in city and county, in celebration of the marriage of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales.  The streets of Norwich were gaily decorated, and the day was observed as a general holiday.  A parade of the troops, namely, the 5th Royal Irish Lancers, the 1st Norfolk Light Horse, the enrolled pensioners, the staff of the West Norfolk Militia, and the Norwich Battalion of Rifle Volunteers, took place on Major Middleton’s field on Ipswich Road.  “All the troops wore wedding favours of uniform pattern.”  After the review a feu de joie was fired in the Market Place, where the members of the Choral Society sang, “God Bless the Prince of Wales.”  The military were entertained at luncheon in a marquee erected on the parade-ground at the Militia Barracks; the Sheriff (Mr. Colman) gave a dinner to the aged poor, at St. Andrew’s Hall, and 14,403 Sunday school children were entertained.  At night the city was illuminated, a firework display took place on the Castle Meadow, and the proceedings concluded with the lighting of a huge bonfire opposite the Shirehall.  Similar celebrations took place at Yarmouth and Lynn, and festivities were held in all the smaller towns and villages in the county.  At a special meeting of the Norwich Town Council on the 12th, congratulatory addresses were voted to the Queen and to the Prince and p. 122Princess of Wales, and it was announced that many of the textile manufacturers had decided to present to her Royal Highness articles of home manufacture.  The citizens gave the famous “Norwich Gates” exhibited at the Great Exhibition, which were purchased by public subscription and afterwards erected at Sandringham.  A county meeting was held at the Shirehall on the 14th, and congratulatory addresses adopted.  Their Royal Highnesses arrived at their Norfolk home on March 28th.  At Lynn railway station the Mayor (Mr. L. W. Jarvis) presented an address, and from Wolferton station to Sandringham the Prince and Princess were escorted by the Norfolk Light Horse, commanded by Capt. Hay Gurney, and by a large body of mounted tenantry.

12.—Died at Brentwood, Mr. Edward Taylor, professor of music at Gresham College, London, aged 79.  He was a native of Norwich, and a son of Mr. John Taylor, who occupied a prominent position in the city as a wool and yarn factor, and displayed considerable literary and musical abilities.  Mr. Edward Taylor had been many years resident in London, but he constantly attended the Norwich Musical Festivals, in the establishment of which he took a leading part, and was a frequent vocal performer.  He was a pleasing composer, and some of his songs met with deserved appreciation.

16.—Professor J. H. Pepper lectured at Noverre’s Rooms, Norwich, on “Optical Illusions,” and for the first time exhibited in the city the now well-known illusion, “Pepper’s Ghost.”

19.—The Yarmouth Gas Bill, the object of which was to incorporate the Great Yarmouth Gas Company and to make further provision for lighting the town and certain neighbouring places with gas, was considered by a Committee of the House of Lords.  The Bill was read a third time in that House on the 24th, and passed.

29.—Died at Wakefield Lodge, Northamptonshire, his Grace the Duke of Grafton.  He was the eldest son of George Henry, fourth Duke, by Charlotte Maria Waldegrave, second daughter of James, second Earl Waldegrave and Maria, who afterwards became Duchess of Gloucester.  Born on February 10th, 1790, he married, on June 20th, 1812, Mary Caroline, third daughter of Admiral the Hon. Sir George Cranfield Berkeley.  He represented Bury St. Edmund’s from 1826 to 1830, and had a seat in the Lower House for Thetford from 1834 to September, 1844.  By his death, his eldest son, the Earl of Euston, M.P. for Thetford since 1847, inherited the family honours.

31.—A remarkable charge of abduction was tried at the Norfolk Assizes, before Mr. Justice Williams.  Frederick Burrell (21), a clerk employed at the Royal Arsenal, was indicted “for having, from motives of lucre, fraudulently allured, taken away, and detained Jane Burrell, a person under 21 years of age, she having a present legal interest in certain real estates in Norfolk, out of the possession and against the will of her mother, Mary Ann Hyder, and her guardian, William Silver Hyder, with intent to marry her, on January 20th, 1863.”  Henry Richard Burrell, his brother, was indicted for aiding and abetting.  The defendants were uncles of the girl, who was the daughter of the eldest son of one Daniel Burrell, who died without a will.  As the eldest son died during Daniel Burrell’s lifetime, the daughter became possessed of all his freehold property.  The girl left school at Norwich at Christmas, and went to Fakenham, but instead p. 123of staying with her mother and stepfather, went to the house of Henry Burrell, and on January 19th left for London with Frederick Burrell.  The next day they were married at Plumstead, near Woolwich, the marriage licence obtained by Frederick Burrell being, it was alleged, “full of the grossest perjury.”  The jury returned a verdict of guilty, but sentence was deferred, pending the argument of certain points before the Court for the consideration of Crown cases reserved.  The defendants, on April 25th, appealed against their conviction, and the Court, after hearing arguments, reserved judgment.  The case came before the Court for the consideration of Crown cases reserved, on November 24th.  Their lordships were divided in opinion, not upon any question of law, but upon the facts of the case.  Judgment was delivered upon the opinion of the majority, who held that the facts did not bear out that which was necessary to sustain a prosecution, and therefore, “with very great regret,” they quashed the conviction.

APRIL.

5.—Died at Chester Terrace, Regent’s Park, London, Mr. John Taylor, F.R.S.  Born at Norwich on August 22nd, 1779, he was trained as a land surveyor and engineer, and in 1798 was invited to take the management of a mine near Tavistock.  It proved very profitable.  In 1803 he projected and commenced the Tavistock Canal, of which about three miles were tunnelled through a granite hill.  The execution of this work led to the discovery of two other mines, which produced large quantities of copper, and yielded considerable profits.  The success of these and other mines in the neighbourhood of Tavistock, in Cornwall, and in the North of England, brought Mr. Taylor into great repute as a mining engineer.  He was the author of several useful papers on mining, and one of the first to propose the formation of a Mining School; he was, too, one of the earliest Fellows of the Geological Society, and for many years acted as treasurer and vice-president.  In 1825 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, and was one of the founders of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, of which organization he was treasurer until 1862.  An excellent portrait of Mr. Taylor was painted by Sir Thomas Lawrence in 1825, and afterwards engraved by Charles Turner.  Another portrait was painted in 1861, by Mr. Sydney Hodges.

6.—Madame Celeste commenced, at Norwich Theatre, a short season, during which she appeared in a round of her favourite characters.

20.—The nomination of candidates to contest the seat rendered vacant by the elevation of the Earl of Euston to the House of Lords took place at Thetford.  Lord Frederick John FitzRoy and Mr. Robert John Harvey Harvey were proposed.  The poll was opened on the 21st, and resulted as follows: FitzRoy, 93; Harvey, 81.  There had been no contest at Thetford for twenty-two years previously.

MAY.

1.—Died at his residence, Newmarket Road, Norwich, aged 63, Mr. Isaac Wiseman, who served the office of Sheriff in 1830.

p. 1246.—The Mayor of Norwich (Mr. H. S. Patteson), as captain of the Second Company, Norwich Battalion Rifle Volunteers, was presented by the members of the company with Mr. Claude L. Nursey’s original painting, “The Officers of the Norwich Battalion,” in recognition of “his zeal in the Volunteer cause and of his courtesy to those under his command.”

9.*—“Challenge: Thomas Jessup, of East Harling, now in his 102nd year, is willing to walk against ‘Father Time’ or any other man of the same age as himself now living in England or elsewhere, a fair toe and heel match, without the aid of stick, crutch, or other auxiliary.  The one doing the greatest distance in one day (or in a month, if preferred) to be entitled to the stakes, which can be made for any sum not exceeding £50 a side.”

11.—At Norwich Police Court, Mr. Edward Manning, of London Street, and Mr. William Edwards, of Sprowston, were summoned for assaulting Jonas Dye, of Pockthorpe, in contesting the question of common rights on Mousehold Heath.  According to Mr. Simms Reeve, who appeared for the prosecution, the Dean and Chapter of Norwich owned the Heath, and the people of Pockthorpe, whether they had the right or not, claimed common rights.  The Dean and Chapter did not dispute those rights, and the people not only used the Heath themselves, but let it to others to graze their cattle, to take turf at so much per hundred, and gravel at so much per load.  The revenue formed a common fund, managed by a committee elected each year at a public meeting, at which the clergyman of the parish presided.  The defendants contested these rights, and liberated stock which had been impounded.  The Town Clerk (Mr. Mendham) objected to the magistrates’ jurisdiction, under 6th and 7th Vic., cap. 30, which provided that no justice of the peace “should hear and determine any case of assault or battery in which any question should arise as to the title of any lands, tenements, or hereditaments, or the interest accruing therefrom.”  The magistrates dismissed the case.

26.—A dreadful accident occurred at Yarmouth.  Two negro vocalists, named Charles Marsh and Henry Wharton, attended the Whit-Tuesday sports on the South Denes, when the former proposed that they should ascend the Nelson Monument.  The other agreed, and the ascent commenced, Marsh performing “God Save the Queen” upon his violin, and Wharton playing a banjo accompaniment.  Arrived at the summit, Marsh, who added to his other accomplishments that of a posturer, scaled the stone fence on the platform, and, seizing the lightning conductor, climbed upon the emblematic figure of Britannia and there remained for ten minutes, singing and waving his hands to the crowd beneath.  In descending, he was compelled to stoop head foremost to grasp the handle of Britannia’s trident.  From some cause he slipped, fell upon the plinth, and thence rebounded into space, falling with arms outstretched to the base of the column, a depth of 144 feet.  His death was instantaneous.

27.—The official celebration of the Queen’s birthday at Norwich was observed as a half-holiday.  A review of the military took place on Mousehold Heath, when colours, given by Mr. R. N. Bacon, were presented to the Norwich Battalion of Rifle Volunteers by the Hon. Mrs. F. Walpole.  The regimental colour was received by Ensign Steward, and the Union Jack by Ensign Hansell, after which there p. 125was a consecration ceremony by the Rev. T. Clarke.  The first-named colour bore the motto, Gloria virtutis umbra, in the centre, with the city arms and the name of the corps—1st City of Norwich Rifle Volunteers.  The groundwork of the flag was green, and the armorial bearings and inscriptions were encircled by a floral border in gilt.

28.—Died at Edinburgh, aged 52, Mr. Archibald Dalrymple, F.R.C.S., formerly surgeon to the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital.

JUNE.

4.—Four specimens of Pallas’s sand grouse—one male and three females—were shot at Waxham, by the Rev. Mr. Wheeler and Mr. Gibbs.  On the 8th a fine male specimen was shot on Yarmouth Denes, near the old battery; and on the 9th and 10th a flock of about forty of the birds appeared upon Horsey beach.  A pair was killed on Titchwell beach on the 10th, and another pair at about the same date in the adjoining parish of Brancaster.  Altogether twenty-six specimens of these rare visitants from the Kirghis steppes of Tartary were procured in the county, and all were found either basking in the sands or feeding in grass fields close to the sea shore.

13.—At the sale of the Rev. John Gilbert’s property, by Messrs. Spelman, at the Norfolk Hotel, Norwich, a farm of forty acres realised £2,600, and the Church Farm, of forty-nine acres, at Heckingham, was sold for £2,000.

17.—The show of the Norfolk Agricultural Association took place at Yarmouth, and was the most successful of the exhibitions yet held.

22.—The 5th Royal Irish Lancers marched from the Cavalry Barracks, Norwich, for Aldershot, and a few weeks later sailed for India.

JULY.

1.—A fine barque of 410 tons, named the Egbert, was launched from the shipyard of Messrs. Fellows and Son, Southtown, Great Yarmouth.

2.—The Second Administrative Battalion of Norfolk Rifle Volunteers, numbering 22 officers, 30 non-commissioned officers, and 260 rank and file, encamped at Langley Park, the seat of the Colonel-Commandant, Sir Thomas Proctor Beauchamp, Bart.  This was the first Volunteer camp formed in the county.  “Fifty camp tents, borrowed from the War Office for the occasion, were pitched in rows beyond the parade-ground, and in these the Volunteers encamped for the night, a plentiful supply of straw being provided for them.”  The First Administrative Battalion encamped at Gunton Park, from July 22nd to 25th, and the Dereham and Wymondham Companies formed a camp at Letton Park, on September 22nd.

6.—A shocking accident occurred at Burgh Water Frolic.  A large wherry, named the Ruby, belonging to Mr. England, of Limpenhoe, had been chartered for the day by a Yarmouth publican, and was crowded with passengers both above and below the hatches.  The craft was sailing to the rendezvous, and when between the Dickey-walk and the Cross-stakes, the Red Rover, a famous yacht, was sighted p. 126coming full sail down the river.  The passengers rushed hurriedly from the larboard to the starboard side of the wherry, to watch her progress, and those beneath the hatches protruded their heads and necks over the gunwale.  The stanchions, unable to resist the sudden strain, gave way, and the hatches falling, came with terrific force upon the heads and bodies of the persons below.  Two men, named Charles Aldis Rushmer and James Tripp, had their necks dislocated and skulls fractured, several persons sustained minor injuries, and others were thrown into the water, but were rescued by boats.

14.—The Channel Fleet of eight ships of war, under the command of Rear-Admiral Dacres, arrived in Yarmouth Roads.  The total number of men on board was 4,800.  The Fleet weighed anchor on the 18th, and sailed for the Downs.

15.—The Maharajah Duleep Singh, the new owner of the Elveden estate, arrived at Thetford for the purpose of inspecting the property.  The church bells were rung in honour of the illustrious visitor.  On November 21st it was announced that the Maharajah made almost daily excursions in pursuit of his favourite sport of hawking, and that a pack of hounds had also arrived at Elveden.

16.—A serious fire occurred at East Dereham, on the premises of Mr. William Hubbard, builder.  It resulted in the total destruction of the large workshops, and entailed a loss of about £2,000.  An adjacent warehouse was stored with £400 worth of goods belonging to Mr. E. Smith was also destroyed.  Furniture and goods were hastily removed from adjoining houses and placed in the Corn Hall; the tenants of Mrs. Dingle’s cottages suffered great loss from their articles being broken or stolen.  A public subscription was made to recoup Mr. Hubbard’s workmen the loss of their trade tools, valued at about £130; and on August 10th, at a meeting of the townspeople, a fire brigade was organized.  The origin of the fire was never discovered.  A groom in the employment of Mr. Hubbard was apprehended upon suspicion, but was discharged for want of evidence.

30.—Died at his residence, Town Close, Norwich, Mr. Samuel Shalders Bears, aged 76.  He was for many years prominently connected with Norwich, both as a man of business and as a member of most of the leading institutions, charitable, literary, and political.  In 1829, under the old Corporation, he was elected Sheriff, and in 1837, under the new régime, he served the office of Mayor.  Mr. Beare was senior magistrate on the Norwich Bench, and was upon the commission of the peace for the county of Suffolk.

AUGUST.

3.—A dreadful railway accident took place upon the newly-opened line between Lynn and Hunstanton, by which five persons were killed and between twenty and thirty seriously injured.  The accident was caused by the over-running of a bullock which had strayed upon the line.  At the inquest, on August 13th, the jury returned a verdict of accidental death, and called attention to the insufficiency of the fences provided by the Great Eastern Railway Company.  The amount paid by the company in claims and compensation exceeded, it was stated, the sum of £10,000.

p. 12712.—The completion of the restoration of St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, was celebrated by a dinner given at the hall by the Mayor (Mr. Patteson).  The work of renovation was carried out by Mr. J. W. Lacey, from designs by Mr. Barry, the City Surveyor.  The cost, about £1,500, was defrayed by public subscription.

19.—Three troops of the 18th Hussars, with headquarters, marched into Norwich, under the command of Lieut.-Col. Knox, formerly Major in the 15th Hussars.

—A great archery fête was held at Crown Point, Norwich.  The societies represented were the Norfolk and Norwich Archery Club, the East Norfolk, West Norfolk, East Suffolk, West Suffolk, Westwick, Long Melford, Waveney Borderers, Waveney Valley, Yarmouth, and Copdock Archers.

31.—Died at his residence, the South Quay, Great Yarmouth, Mr. Samuel Charles Marsh, aged 53.  He occupied for many years a conspicuous public position in the borough, and twice served the office of Mayor—in 1844 and 1852.

SEPTEMBER.

10.—Died at Raynham Hall, his Norfolk seat, Rear-Admiral the Marquis Townshend.  His lordship was riding in the park on the 9th, when he was seized with a paralytic stroke.  John Townshend was son of Lord John Townshend, second son of George, first Marquis Townshend.  He was born March 28th, 1798, and succeeded to the family honours on the death of his cousin, George Ferrars, third Marquis, in December, 1855.  He married, August 18th, 1825, Elizabeth Jane, eldest daughter of Rear-Admiral Lord George Stuart, who survived him, and left issue an only son, John Villiers Stuart, Viscount Rainham, M.P., and three daughters.  He entered the Navy as midshipman in 1814, but his services, owing to the peace of 1815, were not distinguished.  Before his accession to the House of Lords he was elected member for Tamworth.  In politics he was a pronounced Liberal, “being in advance of the political party to which he professed to belong, for he had voted in favour of the ballot, and was also for the admission of Jews into Parliament and the removal of all religious disabilities.”

14.—The Earl of Leicester, as Lord Lieutenant of the county, reviewed the Volunteers of Norfolk and Norwich, on Mousehold Heath.  Upwards of 2,000 were on parade, and were inspected by Col. McMurdo, Inspector-General of the Volunteer Forces.  The troops were afterwards entertained at dinner at the Corn Hall.  The Mayor (Mr. Patteson) presided, supported by the Lord Lieutenant and many distinguished guests.

—The Norfolk and Norwich Triennial Musical Festival commenced with an evening performance of “Judas Maccabæus.”  On the evenings of the 15th, 16th, and 17th, miscellaneous concerts were given.  “Joash” (E. Silas), conducted by the composer, was produced on the morning of the 16th, followed by “Scene at the Gates of Nain,” from “Emmanuel,” and a portion of the “Stabat Mater”; “Elijah” on the morning of the 17th, and “The Messiah” on the morning of the 18th.  The principal performers were Mdlle. p. 128Tietjens, Madame Lemmens Sherrington, Madame Weiss, Miss Wilkinson, Miss Palmer, Mdlle. Trebelli, Mr. Sims Reeves, Signor Bettini, Mr. Montem Smith, Mr. Santley, Signor Bossi, and Mr. Weiss.  Mr. Benedict conducted.  A “full dress” ball was held on the night of the 18th.

21.—James Naylor, of Elsing, aged 51, murdered his wife, Charlotte Naylor, aged 81.  “From the time he was committed to Norwich Castle to take his trial at the Assizes, he endeavoured to lead people to imagine that he was not of sound mind.”  He died in prison on November 23rd, from cancer in the stomach.

30.—At a dinner held at St. Nicholas’ Hall, East Dereham, Capt. Bulwer, the commanding-officer of the 15th Norfolk Rifle Volunteers, was presented with an album containing photographs of every member of the company, “in recognition of his valuable services in promoting the success and efficiency of the corps.”  A presentation was also made to Mrs. Bulwer.

OCTOBER.

2.—Died in London, Sir William Bellairs, of Mulbarton Lodge, in his 70th year.  From 1811 to 1819 he served in the 15th Hussars, and went through the campaigns of 1813 and 1814.  He was present at Vittoria, the Pyrenees, Orthes, Tarbes, Toulouse, and other engagements, and also served in the campaign of 1815, had a horse killed under him in the retreat from Quatre Bras, and received two wounds at the battle of Waterloo.  In 1837 he was appointed exon of the Yeomen of the Guard, which he held up to 1849.  He married, in 1822, Miss Hooke, daughter and heiress of Mr. Edmund Hooke, of Mulbarton Lodge.

10.—Died at his residence, St. Catherine’s Cottage, Norwich, in his 62nd year, Mr. William Matchett, senior proprietor of the Norfolk Chronicle.  He was the second son of Mr. Jonathan Matchett, a former proprietor of the journal.  Educated at Norwich Grammar School, under the Rev. Dr. Valpy, he became a partner in the establishment in 1827, from which time until his death he took an active share in its management.  “In former days, before the science of shorthand writing had become a business in itself, Mr. Matchett, like his school-fellow and contemporary, Mr. R. N. Bacon, performed for this newspaper all those duties which the exigencies of the present age require should be distributed amongst a ‘staff of reporters,’ and as the representative of the Chronicle attended most of the principal meetings in the city and county, the proceedings at which were ably condensed for the public eye by the aid of his brief notes and singularly retentive memory.  Under the old Corporation, and for a short period under the new régime, Mr. Matchett was connected with the Norwich Town Council for upwards of eight years, and at all times took a warm interest in the welfare and improvement of his native city.

27.—Elihu Burritt, “the Learned Blacksmith,” delivered a lecture to the Norwich Young Men’s Christian Association, on “The Higher Law and Mission of Commerce.”

p. 12929.—Mdlle. Carlotta Patti appeared at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, accompanied by Madame Fanny Huddart, Herr Reichardt, Signor Ferranti, and MM. Vieuxtemps and Ascher (violin and pianoforte).  “Mdlle. Patti had been offered an engagement at the Festival, but had declined to come unless she was paid 500 gs.  The Festival Committee were justified in rejecting her terms, which could only be accorded to a second Jenny Lind, which she is not.  Nevertheless she is a wonderful singer.”

NOVEMBER.

7.*—“The gales that have visited the coast during the last week have been terrific.  For days there has been an enormous fleet of southward bound colliers in Yarmouth Roads.  With other vessels, the coast, extending from Caister to Corton, a distance of several miles, has been crowded with shipping, and several shipwrecked crews have been landed at the Sailors’ Home.”

9.—Died at Norwich, in his 76th year, Mr. William Stark, F.G.S.  He was well-known in his day as an able chemist, and was one of the first dyers of fabrics of Norwich manufacture, “particularly of the colour called Turkey red, the manufacturers in the North sending large quantities of goods for dyeing.”  He devoted much of his time to the prosecution of scientific studies, and was a Fellow of the Geological Society.  In the days when Dr. Rigby, William Taylor, Dalrymple, Crosse, C. Austrin, Dr. Evans, &c., belonged to the Norwich Philosophical Society, Mr. Stark contributed many papers at its meetings, in which he bore a distinguished part.  For many years he had been afflicted by partial loss of sight, and a few months before his death became totally blind.

9.—Mr. Osborn Springfield was elected Mayor, and Mr. Frederick Brown appointed Sheriff of Norwich.

14.—A meeting for the promotion of the East Norfolk Railway was held at the Swan Hotel, St. Peter Mancroft, Norwich, under the presidency of Lord Suffield.  A resolution emphasising the importance of the scheme was adopted, and the following motion was also unanimously passed: “That the offer of the Great Eastern Railway Company to render substantial help in the formation of lines of railway to North Walsham, Aylsham, and Cromer, and to work the same when made at 50 per cent. upon the gross receipts, should be cordially accepted by the district, as conferring the means of accomplishing public works of the greatest benefit, and which otherwise must have been indefinitely postponed.”  (See May 5th, 1864.)

16.—Mr. James Caird, M.P., Mr. G. Shaw Lefevre, M.P., and Professor T. H. Huxley, the Commissioners appointed to enquire into the condition of the sea fisheries of the United Kingdom, attended at the Sailors’ Home, Yarmouth, for the purpose of hearing evidence.  The objects of the inquiry were to ascertain (1) whether the supply of fish from the fisheries of the United Kingdom had increased of late years, remained stationary, or diminished; (2) whether any of the methods of catching fish involved the wasteful diminution of fish spawn, and whether legislative interference was required to increase the supply; and (3) whether any existing legislative enactments p. 130operated prejudicially against fisheries.  The Commissioners afterwards visited King’s Lynn.

22.—The death occurred at Yarmouth, in his 43rd year, of Hales, the Norfolk Giant.  He was born at West Somerton, and for some years was engaged in seafaring pursuits, until his enormous height, 7 ft. 6 inches, gained for him such notoriety that he was induced to abandon the sea and exhibit himself.  During his nomadic career he visited almost every town in the kingdom, and scarcely a fair was considered complete without the huge yellow caravan which formed his temporary abode.  Becoming tired of his wandering life.  Hales took up his abode in London, and whilst there had the honour of appearing before the Court and of receiving from the Queen a handsome gold watch and chain.  Shortly after his appearance at Court, the fame of the Norfolk Giant reached Barnum, who lost no time in engaging his services.  Hales remained with Barnum for some years, in the course of which he visited most of the cities and towns in America.  On his return to England he resumed his wanderings, and, in the course of the summer of 1862 came to Yarmouth, where his presence on the Britannia Pier attracted large numbers of visitors.  Hales’s parents were conspicuous for their great height, his father being 6 ft 6 ins., and his mother 6 ft.  He had five sisters, who averaged 6 ft 6 ins.  One of them, Mary, was 7 ft. 2 ins. in height, and for some years travelled with her brother.  She died in Guernsey.  His four brothers averaged 6 ft 5 inches.  A few days before his death, Hales was walking about Norwich, where he attracted great crowds by his immense size.

23.—Died at the Rectory, Long Stratton, Mr. George Birch Jerrard, son of Major-General Jerrard.  Born at Bodmin, on November 24th, 1804, he acquired considerable fame as a mathematician, and was the author of “Mathematical Researches” and of “An Essay on the Resolution of Equations.”  In his first-named work, “he made a great step in Algebra, and one acknowledged by all mathematicians, namely, the taking away of three terms from equations of any degree.  In his latter work he maintains he has solved the great problem of Algebra, namely, the resolution of all equations.”  At the time of his death he was engaged in writing a work on “Prophecy,” a subject in which he was greatly interested.

26.—Brother Ignatius, “a clergyman of the English Church, who has the temerity to come before a public audience attired as a Benedictine monk, with bare head and bare feet, carrying a rosary and crucifix, which in this country are regarded as symbolic only of the Romish Church, and calling himself by a name not accorded to him by his godfathers and godmother,” lectured at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, on “Monks and Monasteries for the English Church.”  (See February 13th, 1864.)

DECEMBER.

2.—A gale of unusual violence began in the night, and prevailed during the whole of the 3rd.  There was hardly a street in Norwich in which the roofs of houses escaped damage.  Many vessels were lost off the Norfolk coast.  One hundred and forty-four men and boys were drowned, and 68 widows and 105 children were left destitute.  A p. 131public subscription, to which the Queen contributed £100, was opened at Yarmouth to relieve their distress.

9.—A meeting of weavers was held at Norwich, to consider the rates of payment for work.  It was stated that in 1846 a list of prices was agreed to by the manufacturers and operatives for all fabrics then made.  These prices had, with few exceptions, been maintained in Norwich, but a great deal of work was sent into the country, where it was done at the reduced rate of 5½d. per dozen skeins, or considerably more than 50 per cent. difference.  The weavers resolved that any departure from the list of prices would be alike injurious to employers and employed, and a deputation was appointed to wait upon the manufacturers to enforce this view.

—Mr. David Fisher gave, at Noverre’s Rooms, Norwich, his entertainment, entitled, “Facts and Fancies,” with which he had achieved great success during the London season.  Mr. Fisher was known in Norwich not only as an excellent actor and accomplished musician, but as a vocalist of much taste.

21.—At the Norwich Assizes, before Mr. Baron Martin, James Margatroyed Hubbard (24), described as a general dealer, and son of a Norwich brewer, was indicted for forging a bill of exchange for £45, and sentenced to 20 years’ penal servitude.

25.—The weather was very mild.  A picotee bloom and rose were gathered in a garden at Norwich.

26.—Mr. H. J. Byron was the author of the pantomime produced at Norwich Theatre.  It was entitled, “Ali Baba, or the Thirty-nine Thieves.”

—A revolting performance was given at one of the shows at the Norwich Christmas Fair.  “A man and woman, said to be Kaffirs, actually fed upon live rats, in the presence of continually succeeding audiences.”  The details, as published in the newspaper, are too horrible to be quoted.  The Mayor, on being informed of the proceedings, prohibited the exhibition, after which raw flesh was substituted for live rats.  At Walsingham, a few days afterwards, the show was visited by many hundreds of country folk; at Wells the police expelled the performers from the town.

1864.

JANUARY.

6.—The mild weather of Christmas week was succeeded by frost of great intensity.  On this day the thermometer stood at 14 degrees, and the river above the New Mills at Norwich was frozen.  Large numbers of golden plover made their appearance in the neighbourhood of Thetford, and an extraordinary quantity of wild fowl came within the bounds of Shadwell, where Sir Robert Buxton prohibited their being shot or molested.

p. 1329.—Early in the morning intelligence was received at Norwich that the Princess of Wales had, on the previous evening, given birth to a son (Prince Albert Victor).  Throughout the day rejoicing peals were rung upon the bells of St. Peter Mancroft, the Royal Standard was displayed at the Guildhall, and on the 19th the Corporation sent a congratulatory address to the Queen and to the Prince and Princess of Wales.

19.—Died at Norwich, Mr. George Fisher, a member of the talented and well-known local family of that name, and of the Norfolk and Suffolk Company of Comedians.  On retiring from the stage, he conducted a school at Swaffham, and subsequently resided at Lynn, where he was for many years known as an enthusiastic votary of the violin, and a useful member of the band of the Musical Union.  He was author of a curious and voluminous work, entitled, “A Companion and Key to the History of England,” printed by Skill, of Swaffham, and published in 1832.

20.—Died at Hove, Brighton, Captain J. J. B. E. Frere, R.N.  He entered the Navy in 1826, and had been for nearly twenty-five years engaged on active service—against the pirates in the Mediterranean, in the operations on the coast of Syria, in the Pacific with Lord George Paulet, and as commissioner for the Government of the Sandwich Islands, while held temporarily under the British flag.

21.—The hearing of the action, Cox v. Wise, arising out of the inundation in Marshland, was resumed in the Court of Queen’s Bench, and, after three days’ argument for the rule in support of the verdict, and against the rule to set it aside, the case was closed.  Their lordships reserved judgment until May 24th, when Mr. Justice Mellor held that the Middle Level Commissioners were trustees for public purposes, acting without reward and deriving no tolls from the works; they had not the means of raising funds except for the specific performance of the objects of their private Act.  He was of opinion that they were not liable for damages, and that the rule must be made absolute.  Mr. Justice Blackburn was of the contrary opinion; he thought the plaintiff had a right to his verdict, and that the rule should be discharged.  Lord Chief Justice Cockburn thought the defendants were not liable, and said that the rule must be made absolute.  Rule absolute accordingly.  (See June 9th, 1865.)

FEBRUARY.

8.—Died, aged 91, Mr. John Bennett, for many years resident in Norwich.  “The deceased wore a pigtail to the day of his death and was the last of the old school in the city.”

13.—It was announced that an attempt was being made to form a religious order or brotherhood in Norwich, and that a house on Elm Hill, formerly occupied by Mr. Elisha De Hague, had been purchased for conversion into a monastery.  Shortly afterwards a party of five brethren, headed by “the notorious Brother Ignatius,” took up their quarters in the newly-acquired premises, and, it was asserted, had the countenance, if not the active support, of advanced High Churchmen in the city, under whose auspices at this date lectures were delivered “in defence of Church principles,” one of the lecturers being the Rev. p. 133Dr. A. F. Littledale.  On February 24th, the “Benedictine chapel,” known as the “priory of St. Mary and Dunstan,” was dedicated by Ignatius.  From this date scenes of disorder and riot were of frequent occurrence in the neighbourhood of the monastery, and directly and indirectly the existence of the confraternity gave rise to several remarkable incidents.  During Easter week the “monks” made daily visits to St. Lawrence’ church, which had already been brought into notoriety by the ritualistic practices of the rector, the Rev. E. A. Hillyard.  There daily Communion was celebrated, and the brethren walking in procession to and from the church were assailed and insulted by the mob.  The protection of the police was demanded by Ignatius, and the magistrates were frequently engaged in the hearing of cases of riot and assault arising out of the proceedings at Elm Hill and St. Lawrence’.  A spirit of unrest manifested itself in other directions.  On April 6th a person calling himself the Baron De Camin, who stated that he was an ex-priest of the Romish Church, delivered, at the Victoria Hall, St. Andrew’s, a lecture full of scurrilous and indecent observations.  A scene of great tumult ensued; the gas was extinguished, and, under cover of darkness, the “baron” escaped.  Another lecturer appeared on the 14th and 15th, in the person of Signor (formerly Father) Allessandro Gavazzi, who delivered orations at St. Andrew’s Hall, on “Romish Encroachments at Home” and “Garibaldi and Italy’s Impending Future.”  Whilst the High Church party were taking an aggressive stand in the city, a section of the Low Church party in the county, led by the Rev. W. Haslam, of Buckenham, were seeking, under the name of “Revivalism,” to introduce Nonconformist methods into the services of the Church.  Meanwhile official notice was taken of Mr. Hillyard’s proceedings.  At a meeting of the Board of Guardians, on April 28th, it was agreed, “That the Rev. E. A. Hillyard having identified himself with certain persons calling themselves monks, whom he has allowed to participate in the services of his church, no longer holds the confidence of the Board, and is called upon to resign his situation as chaplain of the Norwich Workhouse.”  Mr. Hillyard declined to vacate the office, and a deputation of the Board waited upon the Bishop, who expressed strong disapproval of the reverend gentleman’s action.  A meeting of the parishioners of St. Lawrence’ passed a resolution on May 6th: “That this vestry views with grief and indignation the manner in which Divine worship has been performed of late, particularly as regards the dressing of the Communion table, and the minister allowing persons calling themselves monks to take a prominent part in the performance of the services.”  The resolution was numerously signed by the parishioners and presented to the Bishop.  St. Gregory’s church, during the incumbency of the Rev. W. B. Sharpe, became a centre of ritualism, and on June 9th advantage was taken, on the appointment of the new incumbent, the Rev. J. Wortley, to petition the Archdeacon of Norwich to sanction the removal of “a floral cross and other floral decorations from the chancel and the candlesticks from the Communion table, of monograms and emblems recently painted on the chancel steps, and of the curtains and drapery from the walls of the chancel, and to order the restoration of the Commandments, the Belief, and the Lord’s Prayer in their place”; and the minister was requested “to discontinue the weekly offering, as it was strongly objected to by many of the parishioners.”  On August 23rd Mr. Wortley announced that many of the objectionable ornaments had p. 134been removed; and on August 27th it was stated that the English Church Union had resolved to raise a special fund to meet expenses that might be incurred by Mr. Smith, churchwarden, in legally protesting against the action which had led to their removal.  On June 27th a meeting of the supporters of the district schools of the associated parishes of St. Peter Mancroft, St. John Maddermarket, St. Gregory, St. Lawrence, and St. Margaret, resolved “That the Rev. E. A. Hillyard had entirely forfeited the confidence of the committee, by mixing himself up with certain persons calling themselves monks, and Mr. Henry Browne finding it impossible, under the circumstances, to collect subscriptions, had therefore refused to continue to act with Mr. Hillyard, either as treasurer, secretary, or manager.”  Mr. Hillyard upon this decision severed his connection with the association, but refused to accede to a request, signed by some of the leading clergy in Norwich and Norfolk, on July 2nd, to discontinue his practices at St. Lawrence’ or to comply with the wishes of the Bishop.  On August 17th the Guardians passed a resolution prohibiting his further attendance at the Workhouse; and on October 25th Sir John Walsham, the Poor-Law Inspector for the district, held an inquiry at the Guildhall into his conduct.  The Poor-Law Board, on December 14th, intimated to the Guardians that they had dismissed Mr. Hillyard from the chaplaincy.  The Elm Hill monastery was closed in May, 1866, and the building work of a proposed new chapel to be erected by Ignatius suspended.  (See January 16th, 1869.)

22.—Died at Sidcup, Kent, in his 96th year, Mr. Edward Smyth, formerly agent in Norwich of the Bank of England.  His early career was spent in the Army.  He served at the fall of Seringapatam, in 1799, with the 25th Light Dragoons, who, at Mullavelly, routed the cavalry of Tippoo Sahib, thereby enabling Lord Harris to bring to a successful termination his siege operations against that important fortress.  Mr. Smith afterwards served with the Duke of Wellington in that Indian campaign which ended with the famous battles of Assaye and Urgam.

MARCH.

8.—The agitation for the repeal of the Malt Tax was re-opened with increased vigour at a large meeting of West Norfolk farmers, held at the Town Hall, Lynn, under the presidency of the High Sheriff (Mr. H. Lee Warner).  A resolution was passed affirming that the tax was unjust in principle, utterly opposed to the Free Trade policy adopted on the repeal of the Corn Laws, and most injurious to British farmers as producers of barley.  Members of Parliament were urged to support its repeal.

9.—Sir Henry Stracey announced to the electors of Yarmouth his intention of retiring from the representation of the borough.

10.—The Mayor of Yarmouth (Mr. R. Steward), who, for the fourth time, had held that office, was presented with a piece of plate, valued at 200 gs., in appreciation of his public services and his private worth.

APRIL.

5.—The church of St. John Maddermarket, Norwich, was re-opened p. 135by the Bishop of Norwich.  Extensive repairs and restoration had been carried out, under the direction of Messrs. Elmslie, Franey, and Haddon, of London, at the cost of £1,431.

9.*—“Col. Black, Chief Constable of the county, has accepted the command of the Norwich Battalion of Volunteers, as offered him by the Lord Lieutenant, on the retirement of Lieut.-Col. Brett.”

22.—Died at his residence, Prince of Wales Road, Norwich, Mr. David Hodgson, artist.  He was the son of Mr. Charles Hodgson.  “The names of both father and son are connected with the list of local celebrities in Art, in which may be included the names of Crome, Vincent, Stark, and Joseph Stannard.”  David Hodgson excelled in architectural subjects, which he painted with great care and truthfulness of detail.

26.—The marriage of Viscount Powerscourt and Lady Julia Coke, eldest daughter of the Earl and Countess of Leicester, was solemnised at St. George’s church, Hanover Square.

27.—The first meeting of the Norwich Geological Society was held under the presidency of the Rev. J. Gunn, F.G.S.

MAY.

5.—The Bill for the projected East Norfolk Railway was considered before a Committee of the House of Commons.  It was strongly opposed by the Yarmouth Haven and Pier Commissioners, and by the North Walsham and Dilham Canal Commissioners, as offering unfair competition with water communication in that part of the county.  (See October 18th, 1865.)

16.—Mr. Edmund Rosenthal’s grand English opera and burlesque company commenced an engagement at Norwich Theatre.  The artistes included Madame Haigh-Dyer, Miss Ada Taylor, Miss Hodgson, Miss Brooke, Miss Alessandri, Miss Bronti, Miss Mills, Miss Shepherd, Miss Tempest, and Miss Marian Taylor; Mr. W. Parkinson, Mr. J. Manley, Mr. Tempest, Mr. Warden, Mr. Bentley, Mr. Melville, Mr. R. Arthur, Mr. Smith, Mr. Arnott, Mr. Morgan, and Mr. Edmund Rosenthal.  The operas produced were “Maritana,” “Lucia di Lammermoor,” &c., and the burlesque “Prince Amabel.”

19.—The Norfolk Hotel, Norwich, was sold by Messrs. Spelman, at the Auction Mart, London, for the sum of £4,000.

24.—The Queen’s birthday was observed at Norwich as a general holiday.  The 18th Hussars, the Norfolk Light Horse, the Artillery and Rifle Volunteers, and the Cadet Corps were reviewed in Chapel Field; the officers were entertained at luncheon at the Guildhall, and the Volunteers at the Corn Hall; and at night the Mayor and Miss Springfield gave a ball at St. Andrew’s Hall.

30.—Died at his seat, Raveningham Hall, Sir Edmund Bacon, premier baronet of England.  Born in 1779, he was the eldest son of the eighth baronet, by Anne, eldest daughter of Sir William Beauchamp Proctor, Bart., of Langley Park.  He was educated at Rugby, and succeeded to the baronetcy in 1820.  In 1801 he married his cousin, Mary Anne Elizabeth, daughter of Mr. Dashwood Bacon, of Ottery St. p. 136Mary, Devon, who died in 1820, leaving two sons and three daughters.  Sir Edmund served the office of High Sheriff of Norfolk in 1826, and was a magistrate and Deputy-Lieutenant for the county.  He was succeeded in his title and estates by his nephew, a son of Mr. Nicholas Bacon, for many years resident in Norwich.

JUNE.

2.—Died at his residence, Tombland, Norwich, Mr. Roger Kerrison, aged 61.  He had for some time been in ill-health, and five weeks before his death, while superintending the cutting down of some timber, sustained a fall and received a severe shock.  Mr. Kerrison was, in many respects, a remarkable personage.  He was the son of Mr. Allday Kerrison, and was educated for the law, a profession he continued to practise until his decease, although a large accession of fortune on the death of his uncle, Mr. Matthew Kerrison, of Ranworth, twenty years previously, had placed him in independent circumstances.  Mr. Kerrison held several important public appointments, but he was more widely known by reason of his connection with the Norwich Triennial Musical Festival, of which he was for some years the active honorary secretary.  In politics he was Conservative, but by no means a prejudiced partisan, and he never scrupled to act independently when he deemed it right to do so.  He was a bachelor, and the bulk of his fortune went to his brother, Mr. Allday Kerrison, a partner in the Crown Bank, Norwich.

3.—Died, in his 78th year, Mr. William Johnson Fox, for many years member of Parliament for Oldham, and popularly known as “the Norwich Weaver Boy.”

7.—The 18th Hussars left Norwich for Shorncliffe, prior to their embarkation for India.  This was the first regiment which departed from the city by train.

8.—The annual show of the Norfolk Agricultural Association was held at Lynn, and was visited by upwards of 14,000 persons.  Mr. R. J. H. Harvey was president for the year.

18.—Died, near Christchurch, New Zealand, aged 59, the Ven. Octavius Mathias, Archdeacon of Akaron and formerly vicar of Horsford.  He was one of the first to take an interest in the foundation of Canterbury Cathedral, New Zealand, and was elected one of the capitular clergy.

JULY.

5.—A barque, named the Oriental, was launched from Mr. J. W. Rust’s shipyard at Yarmouth.  The vessel, which was intended for the China trade, was 115 feet long, 24 feet beam, 15 ft. 8 inches in depth, and 320 tons burthen.

9.*—“An agreement has been entered into for the purchase, by the Provincial Banking Corporation, of the business of the East of England Bank, an unlimited joint stock bank established in 1836, with head office at Norwich and branches at Yarmouth, Lynn, North Walsham, Fakenham, East Dereham, Swaffham, Bungay, Halesworth, and Harleston, and agencies at Wymondham, Wells, and Hingham.”  The city p. 137was startled on the 20th by the rumour that the Bank had suspended payment.  “On those who had accounts at the Bank going to that establishment, the doors were found to be closed, and a printed notice was exhibited in the windows to the effect that the directors regretted to intimate that they were compelled to suspend business.  Up to the hour of closing on the previous day the directors, after having resolved to suspend payment, continued to receive the money of unsuspecting customers.”  A few days afterwards was issued a statement, from which it appeared that the Bank’s liabilities were £576,963 7s. 6d., and assets £453,256 5s. 3d., leaving a deficit of £123,707 2s. 3d.  Meetings of the shareholders were held, at which resolutions were passed in favour of registering the company under the Companies Act, 1862, with the view to a voluntary winding up.  On August 13th it was announced that the Provincial Banking Company had issued a circular to the late customers of the Bank, stating “that being satisfied there was a probability of the customers being paid in full, they had authorised the branch managers at once to give credit to each customer of the East of England Bank in his pass-book for the full amount of the balance due to him on his current account with the East of England Bank.”  Messrs. Harveys and Hudsons, immediately after the issue of the circular, offered like terms.  Dividends were, in due course, paid to the creditors of the Bank.  In July, 1866, it was stated that the liquidators had announced “a further dividend of 2s. 6d. in the pound, which will make 20s. in the pound distributed, exclusive of interest, payment of which is postponed.”

23.—Died at the Palace Hotel, Buckingham Gate, London, Admiral Bertie Cornelius Cator, younger brother of Mr. John Cator, of Beckenham, Kent, and of Woodbastwick.  He entered the Navy in 1800, under his uncle, Captain Albemarle Bertie, and was actively employed early in his professional career in the capture of privateers in the Mediterranean.  In 1810 he assisted at the taking of the Isle of France; commanded the Actæon on the coast of America in the attack on the enemy’s barracks in Lynn Haven Bay in 1813, and participated in various other services.  After gaining post rank, he was not employed afloat.  He accepted retirement in 1846.

29.—Merton Park was the scene of great rejoicing, on the coming of age of the Hon. Thomas de Grey.  Seven hundred cottagers and labourers were entertained at dinner, and Lord and Lady Walsingham received a large number of personal friends in a pavilion erected near the famous Merton oak.  At luncheon Lord Ashburton proposed the health of Mr. de Grey, which was drunk with great enthusiasm.  The day’s festivities concluded with a display of fireworks.  On the 30th Lord and Lady Walsingham gave a ball to 150 tenants on the Merton estate, and on the 31st the celebration ended with a servants’ ball.

AUGUST.

26.—Two troops of the 16th Lancers arrived at Norwich Barracks.

28.—St. George’s Brewery, Norwich, and 40 public-houses were offered for sale by Messrs. Spelman.  Messrs. Youngs, Crawshay, and Youngs were the purchasers, at the sum of £15,300.

p. 138SEPTEMBER.

11.—Died at Norwich, aged 81, Henry Drane, for thirty-six years proprietor of the Telegraph coach.

19.—A prize-fight for £5 took place near Lynn, between Pooley Mace and Grey.  Mace was declared the victor, after a contest which lasted 35 minutes.

OCTOBER.

4.—The Yarmouth Town Council, by a majority of 25 to 11, adopted the Public House Closing Act, 1864.

8.—The first sod of the West Norfolk Junction Railway was turned by Miss Ellen Simpson, daughter of Mr. Lightly Simpson, the chairman of the company.  Many persons travelled to Heacham to take part in the proceedings.  (See January 8th, 1866.)

11.—Died, Captain Becher, “the well-known sportsman and father of steeplechase riders, whose deeds in the pigskin some 30 years back have immortalised him in the annals of that sport.”  Captain Becher was born in Norfolk, and was the son of a farmer, “who was very conspicuous as a horseman and the last of the leather breeches school.”

16.—A new screw steamer, the Ontario, 3,200 tons, Captain Brooklin, upon her first voyage, from Shields to Alexandria, laden with coals and iron, struck upon Happisburgh Sand.  Three steam tugs and the Caister lifeboat proceeded to her assistance, and her cargo was thrown overboard, but every effort made to get her off proved unavailing.  On the 17th the weather became very threatening, and the lifeboat took off 56 coal heavers, but the captain and officers and 86 of the crew determined to remain with the vessel.  During the night the storm increased, and the crew, apparently in great distress, sent up rockets and burned blue lights.  The Yarmouth lifeboatmen were implored by the ship’s agent, Mr. Butler, to go to the ship, but in vain.  They refused to launch the lifeboat unless they were paid from £400 to £500, saying that the steam tugs had begun the work and had better finish it.  The Caister lifeboat stood by the vessel, which, by the 20th, had so settled down that it was hopeless to attempt to get her off.  On this day 68 of the crew left in a lifeboat belonging to the steamer, but the captain and officers declined to desert her.  They were, however, compelled to leave on the 22nd, when she became a total wreck, and was offered for sale.  The original value of the Ontario was £120,000.

21.—The church of St. Nicholas, Yarmouth, was opened after restoration, at the cost of about £6,000.  The sermon was preached by the Bishop of Oxford, and at the luncheon held subsequently, under the presidency of the Mayor (Mr. R. Steward), the company included the Bishops of Norwich and Oxford, the Bishop of British Columbia, Lord Sondes (High Steward of the borough), and many other distinguished guests.

NOVEMBER.

9.—Mr. Charles Edward Tuck was elected Mayor, and Mr. Charles Jecks appointed Sheriff of Norwich.

p. 1399.—Died at Keswick, near Norwich, in his 90th year, Mr. Hudson Gurney.  He was the eldest son of Mr. Richard Gurney, who died at Keswick in 1811.  Educated by Dr. Thomas Young, of scientific celebrity, he became connected early in life with the great banking firm of the Gurneys, of which he was for many years senior partner, as well as with the noted London brewery of Barclay and Co., his mother being the daughter and heiress of Mr. David Barclay, of Youngbury, Herts.  In 1809 he married Margaret, daughter of Robert Barclay, of Ury, descended from the celebrated Barclay, the Apologist for the Quakers.  Mrs. Gurney died at Keswick on December 16th, 1855.  In politics Mr. Gurney was, in many respects, decidedly Conservative, though on some points he held opinions more in accordance with the most advanced Liberalism, and, as a perfectly independent member, allied himself to no party in particular.  His Parliamentary career commenced in 1812, when he was elected for Shaftesbury; from the year 1816 he represented Newport, Hants., in six successive Parliaments.  In 1835 he served the office of High Sheriff for the county of Norfolk.  He was a man of high literary attainments, and was vice-president of the Society of Antiquaries, a Fellow of the Royal and Linnæan Societies, vice-president of the Norwich Museum, the Literary Institute, and of the Norfolk and Norwich Archæological Society.  As an author his chief production was probably the beautiful poem in English verse under the title of “Cupid and Psyche,” a mythological tale from the “Golden Ass” of Apuleius; in 1801 it had reached a third edition, and was afterwards reprinted in Mr. Davenport’s “Poetical Register.”  He also published, for private distribution, in 1843, a translation into English verse of the “Orlando Furioso” of Ludovico Ariosto; and in 1847, in a letter to Mr. Dawson Turner, “Proofs that Norwich, and not Caistor, was the Venta Icenorum.”  In his latter years, confined almost entirely to his own residence, “he reversed in his hours the usual custom, amusing himself with his books and writings till four or five o’clock in the morning, and, of course, rising comparatively late in the day.”  His estate, real and personal included, was valued at £1,200,000.

—The Lynn Town Council resolved to put an end to the absurd and obnoxious impost known as “the Lady Mayoresses’ Pin Money.”  “For many years the custom has prevailed in the town of the constables (who perform no other duties) going round to all the inhabitants in October and November and collecting from all who were foolish enough to pay it a kind of blackmail, under the ridiculous title of the Lady Mayoresses’ Pin Money, pretending that it was legally payable under the charters, and that those who did not pay would be summoned before the magistrates or the County Court.  It appears that the custom has grown out of the collection of fines for non-attendance at the Court Leet held annually by the Mayor as Lord of the Manor; but for many generations past no such attendance has been either any use or capable of enforcement.  The fines have also completely lapsed, and those who collect the ‘pin money’ are completely ignorant of its origin.  The pretence has been that the money was to buy a piece of plate for the Mayoress, but in reality the greater part of it has been appropriated by the collectors themselves, and of the many pounds obtained not more than some fifty shillings annually found its way into the borough fund.”

12.*—“There appears to be some probability that the absurd p. 140system of inspection of weights and measures at Lynn by a ‘jury of headboroughs’ going round the town in a posse and discharging their functions in such a manner that the innocent only are punished and the guilty easily escape detection, is about to come to an end.  Several persons have refused to admit the headboroughs on their premises, and others have declined to pay the fines imposed on them by the ‘jury’; and as the authority of this jury is based on ancient charters of very doubtful legal force, and there is no prospect of that authority being respected or enforced, the jury have refused to be sworn in again on the Court Leet by which they are appointed.  It may be hoped, therefore, that the farce has come to an end, and that very shortly a proper and efficient officer will be appointed under the provisions of the Weights and Measures Act.”

14.—The newly-erected chancel of St. Mark’s church, Lakenham, Norwich, built at the cost of about £1,000, was consecrated by the Bishop of Norwich.

24.—A severe gale occurred off the Norfolk coast.  Many shipping casualties were reported.  The screw steamer William Hutt, 530 tons, employed as a transport during the Crimean War, was lost off Yarmouth with her crew of sixteen hands, whilst on a voyage from Sunderland to London, with coals.

DECEMBER.

17.*—“Mr. Thomas W. Rutland, carpenter, West Wymer Street, Norwich, has invented a very ingenious means of communication between the passengers and guard in a railway train.  It has the additional advantage of acting also as an extra break when required.  By its use a passenger can at once communicate with both guard and driver, and at the same time a signal is exhibited which shows from what carriage the alarm is given.”

20.—At a special meeting of the Norwich Town Council, a communication was received from the Dean and Chapter as to the giving up of their interest in Mousehold Heath, with the view of enabling the Council to convert the Heath into a people’s park.

26.—The Christmas “burlesque and comic pantomime” produced at Norwich Theatre was written by F. C. Burnand, and entitled, “Snowdrop, King Bonbon, and the Seven Elves, or the Magic Mirror and the Fatal Sewing Machine.”  At Sanger’s Circus, on the Castle Meadow, was produced “the equestrian pantomime,” entitled, “Jack the Giant Killer, or Harlequin and the Fairies of the Crystal Fountain.”  A great novelty at the Christmas Fair was “the striking feature of a roundabout worked by a steam engine, which at the same time turns a barrel organ.”

30.—Died at Dunston, John Fish, aged 100 years and 10 months.

p. 1411865.

JANUARY.

2.—The Prince and Princess of Wales arrived at Holkham Park, on a visit to the Earl and Countess of Leicester.  On the 3rd, 4th, and 5th his Royal Highness shot over the estate, and on the latter date 2,000 head of game was killed.  On the night of the 5th a distinguished company were invited to a ball, given by the Earl and Countess; and on the morning of the 6th the Prince and his noble host engaged in wildfowl shooting.  Their Royal Highnesses returned to Sandringham the same afternoon.

7.*—“Amongst the recent improvements in Norwich there are none to bear comparison with the magnificent bank of Messrs. Harveys and Hudson, which is now approaching completion by Messrs. Lucas, nor will there be one which has been erected at so small a comparative cost.  The contract for the new bank, of which Mr. P. Hardwicke is the architect, does not exceed £13,000.”  The bank was opened for business on January 1st, 1866.

13.—The Prince of Wales visited Lord Walsingham, at Merton Hall, and attended a meet of the West Norfolk Hunt.  On the 14th, after a day’s cover shooting, has Royal Highness returned to Sandringham, accompanied by the Hon. T. de Grey.

31.—The agitation against the Malt Tax was re-opened this year at Lynn, when a great meeting, convened by the West Norfolk Anti-Malt Tax Association, was held at the Town Hall, under the presidency of the High Sheriff (Mr. H. Lee Warner).  On February 4th, at a preliminary meeting held at the Swan Hotel, Norwich, presided over by Mr. Clare Sewell Read, the farmers of East Norfolk formed a similar association, and at a public meeting which took place on February 18th, Sir Henry Stracey was elected president, Mr. Robert Gillett treasurer, and Mr. G. H. Murrell secretary.  Many petitions were signed in the district in favour of the repeal of the tax.

FEBRUARY.

3.—A meeting of the inhabitants was held at the Corn Hall, Yarmouth, “to take into consideration the provisions of the Haven and Port Bill, and to determine whether the scheme should be supported or opposed in Parliament.”  This Bill was intended to supersede the functions of the Haven Commissioners and to protect the shipowners and fishermen, but great opposition was raised against it by the class in whose interests it was avowedly framed.  The Norwich Town Council, at a meeting on March 21st, decided to oppose the measure.  A Committee of the House of Commons, by whom the Bill was considered, on March 30th unanimously resolved that, “in the absence of unanimity of feeling among the parties affected, including the town of Yarmouth itself, it is not expedient to pass the preamble of the Bill.”  It was, therefore, thrown out.  (See April 30th, 1866.)

p. 142MARCH.

6.—The respective merits of the new iron ploughs introduced by Messrs. Ransomes and Sims, of Ipswich, and of the common Norfolk plough, were tested on Messrs. Salter’s farm at Attleborough.  “In their lightness and symmetry the former presented a strong contrast.  The Norfolk plough drew nearly half as heavy again as the iron ploughs, or in the proportion of 3 to 2 in the shallow work, and in the deep work one quarter heavier, or in the proportion of 4 to 5.”

10.—A remarkable incident occurred at Lakenham church.  A wedding had been arranged, and the Rev. C. Baldwin, of St. Stephen’s, Norwich, had promised, with the approbation of the vicar, the Rev. A. Pownall, to officiate.  When the wedding party arrived at Lakenham, they found the church closed.  An entrance was effected, but the vestry was locked, and neither surplice nor books were provided for the clergyman.  “It was suggested that a sheet should be borrowed, and the Rev. Mr. Baldwin, habited in this novel vestment, proceeded to unite the parties in the bonds of matrimony, and after having sent to the clergyman’s house for the parish registers, the happy couple were at length enabled to proceed on their wedding trip.  Mr. Pownall, who was himself the cause of the whole difficulty, having forgotten to inform the clerk of the forthcoming ceremony, issued the following extraordinary handbill:—‘Lakenham church.  A solemn service will be held on Friday, the 24th inst., to avert the wrath of Almighty God and to deprecate His righteous judgments in consequence of the profanation of His sanctuary on Monday last . . .  Ezekiel v., 11.’”  The incident gave rise to much comment.

15.—A great fire occurred at Frazer’s sawmills, near St. Martin-at-Palace church, Norwich, and resulted in the loss of about £4,000 worth of property.

18.—Died at North Walsham, Mary Doughty, aged 101 years.

28.—At the Norfolk Assizes, before Lord Chief Justice Cockburn, was tried a remarkable action for assault, false imprisonment, and malicious prosecution.  The plaintiff, Mr. Albert Pell (son of Sir Albert Pell, of Northamptonshire), with his brother, while on a visit to Yarmouth, crossed the fields of the defendant, Mr. Mayes Wigg, at Caister.  They had with them a Skye terrier, and defendant, alleging that they were poaching, gave them into the custody of a policeman, who, after detaining them at his cottage, took them before a magistrate at Thrigby.  The charge was dismissed, whereupon the present action was commenced.  The jury found for the plaintiff on the first count, charging assault and false imprisonment, and awarded damages £5; and for defendant on the second count, charging malicious prosecution.

APRIL.

4.—Died at Yarmouth, Mr. George Danby Palmer, aged 77.  In early life Mr. Palmer was an active supporter of the Tory party, but previous to the passing of the Reform Bill he adopted Liberal principles, and after the introduction of the Municipal Reform Act became decidedly Radical.  He was the oldest member of the borough Bench, p. 143and a justice of the peace for the county.  “Possessed of large property, he lavished his wealth with unsparing hand upon those whom he deemed worthy of his assistance, but as it was rendered so unobtrusively, with the exception of the recipients of his bounty, the world was not aware of his generosity.  He was a straightforward Englishman, and was greatly lamented by all classes in Yarmouth.”

17.—The English Grand Opera Company, under the management of Mr. G. B. Loveday, commenced an engagement at Norwich Theatre.  Madame Haigh-Dyer, Miss Annie Kemp, Miss Ada Taylor, Mr. Brookhouse Bowler, Mr. Grantham, Mr. E. Connell, Mr. Oliver Summers, and Mr. Henry Rowland were the principal artistes, and the works produced included “Faust,” “Dinorah,” “The Crown Diamonds,” “Lucrezia Borgia,” “The Lady of Lyons” (burlesque), “Satanella,” and “Norma.”

MAY.

17.—The Snettisham Hall estate of 2,600 acres and a rental of £3,600 was offered for sale at Garraway’s.  The highest bid was £99,000, and the reserve was declared at £130,000.

20.—In the Court of Queen’s Bench, the action, le Strange v. Rowe, which raised an important question as to sea-shore rights, came on for hearing.  The defendant was proceeded against for taking shingle, sand, and shell-fish from the sea shore in the manor of Snettisham, belonging to the plaintiff.  About twenty special pleas were set up by the defendant and demurred to in point of law, on the broad ground that there could not be in law any such rights as alleged, “either in all the subjects of the realm or by Royal grant or by custom or by prescription in inhabitants or occupiers.”  The Court deferred judgment, and ultimately referred the case to the Norfolk Assizes for decision as to questions of fact.  At Norwich, on August 4th, the case was adjourned to enable the plaintiff to amend the declarations.  The case came before Lord Chief Justice Erle at the Norfolk Assizes on August 13th, 1866, when the jury returned a verdict for the plaintiff, damages one shilling.  In the Court of Queen’s Bench, on May 28th, 1867, application was made for a new trial, on the ground of misdirection and that the verdict was given for the plaintiff against the weight of evidence.  The application was refused.

23.—An earthquake shock was distinctly felt along the coast from Scratby, on the north of Yarmouth, to Lowestoft, on the south.

24.—The Queen’s birthday was observed as a general holiday at Norwich.  A detachment of the 16th Lancers and the Volunteers were reviewed in Chapel Field, and fired a feu de joie in the Market Place; the Mayor gave a luncheon at the Guildhall, and the Volunteers were entertained at the Corn Hall.  The Mayor’s ball took place in the evening, at St. Andrew’s Hall.

27.—Considerable opposition was manifested, not only by the villagers, but by the citizens of Norwich, to an attempt made by Capt. Bellairs to enclose Mulbarton Common.  A meeting was held in the village, at which a strong protest was made against the proposal, and it was asserted that if ever the ancestors of Capt. Bellairs had possessed the power to effect the enclosure, they had allowed their rights to lapse.

p. 144JUNE.

2.—The detachment of the 16th Lancers, en route to India, marched from the Cavalry Barracks, Norwich, accompanied to the city boundary by the officers and band of the Norfolk Light Horse Volunteers.

7.—Mr. A. Dennison, brother of the Speaker of the House of Commons, visited Norwich, for the purpose of hearing the bells of St. Peter Mancroft.  “He rang the tenor in good style, and was highly delighted with the quality of tone of this far-famed peal of twelve.”

9.—In the Court of the Queen’s Bench, application was made in the action, the Queen v. the Middle Level Commissioners, for a rule calling upon them to show cause why a mandamus should not issue commanding them to make and maintain a bridge with a commodious road or hailing path in the place formerly occupied by their sluice which was destroyed in the great inundation in 1862.  A rule was granted.  (See January 7th, 1867.)

13.—At a special meeting of the Norwich Town Council, a report was received from Mr. Bazalgette, C.E., who had visited Norwich with the view of determining what steps could be taken for the immediate purification of the river Wensum in the vicinity of the city.  He stated that it would be impossible to render the river pure so long as it continued to be a receptacle for the town refuse; and he had examined the city and suburbs to ascertain how to improve the drainage and to dispose of the sewage.  The time would come, he added, when a drainage scheme would be urgently necessary, and very costly.  The Council authorised the Sanitary and River Committees to expend a sum not exceeding £50 in obtaining levels and plans and other information required by Mr. Bazalgette, “to assist him in the preparation of his scheme for diverting the drainage from the river.”  On October 17th Mr. Bazalgette’s scheme was laid before the Council.  It provided for two intercepting sewers, one for the higher and the other for the lower parts of the city, both forming a junction on the opposite side of the river near Trowse Station, whence the sewage would be conveyed to a point on Mr. Harvey’s estate at Crown Point, to the east of the old Whitlingham Road.  The plan also comprised the completion of the drainage of the western part of the city, then unconnected with the main sewers.  For the first part of the scheme £50,000 was required, and for the latter £30,000.  On October 31st the Council adopted a recommendation of the Sanitary and River Committees, that it was desirable to try more fully the possibility of cleansing the river by flushing and sluicing or otherwise before proceeding to carry out Mr. Bazalgette’s report; that the City Engineer be instructed accordingly; and that immediate steps be taken to improve the drainage on the south side of the city, at a cost not exceeding £10,000.  (See April 21st, 1866.)

15.—The first two-days’ show of the Norfolk Agricultural Association commenced in Chapel Field, Norwich.  The society’s dinner was held at the Royal Hotel, and was presided over by the Marquis Townshend.

17.—Died at Elm Lodge, near Hampton, Lord Charles FitzRoy, second son of the fourth Duke of Grafton.  His lordship was born on February 28th, 1791, and married, in 1825, Anne, eldest daughter of p. 145George Augustus Henry, first Earl of Burlington.  Lord Charles was at the battle of Corunna, and served in the Walcheren Expedition with the Guards.  In 1811 he joined Lord Hill’s staff, and was present at the siege and capture of Badajoz, and at the battles of Vittoria, Pyrenees, Nivelle, Nive, Othes, Toulouse, and Waterloo, and received the war medal with eight clasps.  For two years he served with the army of occupation in France.  His lordship sat in Parliament, as member for Thetford, from 1818 till the passing of the Reform Bill, and at the General Election which ensued was elected for Bury, in the Liberal interest.  He was Vice-Chancellor of the Household from 1835 to 1839, and was also appointed a Privy Councillor.  In four successive Parliaments he represented Bury, and resigned his seat in 1847.

JULY.

1.—The 5.30 p.m. express from London to Norwich had a narrow escape.  On reaching a portion of the line near Harford Bridges, the engine, on running down the incline, left the metals, and, tearing up the permanent way for some distance, stopped on the wooden bridge which crosses the Yare a little below Old Lakenham.  “One of the carriages was overturned, and the occupants, among whom was Lord Stafford, had to make their escape by climbing through the windows which were then uppermost.”  None of the passengers were seriously hurt.

7.—At a Liberal meeting held at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, certain accusations founded upon letters received from Mr. John Bright, M.P., were made against Mr. Robert Edmond Chester Waters, one of the Conservative candidates for the representation of the city.  The principal charges were that Mr. Waters (previously a Liberal) had been compelled to resign his membership of the Reform Club for cheating at cards, and that while he came before the Norwich electors as a Protestant Churchman, in Rome he professed to be a Roman Catholic.  Mr. Waters declared these statements to be scandalous and false; and on the 8th announced that he had authorised legal proceedings to be taken against Sir William Foster and the Rev. George Gould for making imputations on his personal character.  On the 10th a deputation, consisting of Messrs. H. S. Patteson, Edward Field, D. Dalrymple, and J. H. Tillett, proceeded to London to investigate at the Reform Club the truth of the allegations, and in the course of the day the following telegram was received simultaneously by Sir Samuel Bignold and Sir William Foster: “We have the minutes.  They have been produced before us, and we find that it is true that Mr. Waters was accused of cheating at cards at the Reform Club, and unanimously called upon by the committee to resign to prevent expulsion, and further that he did, on receiving that communication, resign on the 23rd November, 1860.”  The telegram was dated from the Reform Club, and signed by the deputation.  In consequence of the telegram, Messrs. Fred Brown, J. B. Morgan, F. E. Watson, and Henry Ling issued a notice stating that they felt it their duty to withdraw their support from Mr. Waters as one of the candidates for the city.  Mr. Waters thereupon stated that he would stand independently.  The nomination took place at the Guildhall on the 11th.  The other candidates were Sir William p. 146Russell and Mr. Edward Warner, Liberals; and Mr. Augustus Goldsmid, Conservative.  The polling took place on the 12th, and was officially declared on the 13th, as follows:—Russell, 1,845; Warner, 1,838; Goldsmid, 1,466; Waters, 1,363.  Mr. Waters, who was exceedingly popular with what the Norfolk Chronicle described as “the lower order of Conservatives,” made a return visit to Norwich on October 10th, and was escorted by a torchlight procession round the city.  Thirty thousand people assembled in the Market Place, the bells of St. Peter Mancroft were rung, and the late candidate, after making a complimentary call upon Sir Samuel Bignold, proceeded to the Norfolk Hotel and addressed from the window a dense crowd assembled in St. Giles’ Street.  On the 11th he was entertained at dinner by the Eldon Club; and at St. Andrew’s Hall, on the 12th, was received with the utmost enthusiasm by a crowded audience.  Mr. Waters, who was accompanied by Lord Henry Thynne and Sir Alfred Slade, was presented with a massive silver epergne, “by a very large number of the Conservatives of Norwich, as an expression of their cordial sympathy and regard, and in appreciation of the gallant and chivalrous spirit in which, under difficulties unprecedented, he fought the battle of the Conservative cause loyally, courteously, and fearlessly at the Parliamentary election for Norwich, 1865.”  A “testimonial dinner” was given to Mr. Waters at the Norfolk Hotel on the evening of the 13th, when the Norwich Conservative Association was inaugurated.  Upwards of 100 members were at once enrolled, and on the 14th Sir Samuel Bignold, in response to the request of a deputation, accepted the presidency.

8.—A meeting of the independent electors of East Norfolk was held at the Swan Hotel, Norwich, for the purpose of selecting a candidate to contest the constituency in the interests of the supporters of the movement for the repeal of the Malt Tax.  Mr. Clare Sewell Read, who had been for some time prominently identified with the party in favour of the repeal, was unanimously chosen.  Mr. Jacob Henry Tillett attended the meeting and made a remarkable speech.  If Mr. Read were nominated, he said, he would help him to the utmost of his power; and he added, “If you want money, if you want help, if you want what enthusiasm I can put into the cause, let your chairman write to me and I will respond with all my heart.”  The nomination took place at the Shirehall on the 15th.  Several times the proceedings were stayed and consultations held by the leaders of the respective parties, with the view of effecting a compromise.  The candidates nominated were Mr. Edward Howes, Sir Thomas Beauchamp, and Col. Coke.  Mr. Robert Leamon offered not to proceed with the nomination of Mr. Read if the Liberal party would pledge themselves to return to Parliament a Malt Tax repealer; in the absence of that assurance he nominated Mr. Read, whose candidature was seconded by Mr. H. S. Grimmer.  It was subsequently agreed by the friends of Mr. Howes to permit the name of Mr. Read to appear upon the election cards and posters issued by the former.  The poll was opened on the 18th, and was officially declared on the 20th, as follows:—Howes, 3,100; Read, 2,985; Beauchamp, 2,150; Coke, 1,994

11.—The nomination of candidates for the representation of Yarmouth was held at the Town Hall.  Sir E. H. K. Lacon, Bart., and Mr. J. Goodson, Conservatives, and Mr. Philip Vanderbyl and Mr. Brogden, liberals, were nominated.  The polling took place on the p. 14712th, and resulted as follows:—Lacon 828; Goodson, 784; Brogden, 634; Vanderbyl, 589.  (See March 20th, 1866.)

11.—At Thetford, the Hon. Alexander Hugh Baring and Mr. Robert John Harvey Harvey, Conservatives, and Mr. Thomas Dakin (Alderman of London and Sheriff of Middlesex), Liberal, were nominated to represent the borough.  The poll, on the 12th, resulted as follows:—Harvey, 193; Baring, 137; Dakin, 69.

12.—Lord Stanley and the Hon. Frederick Walpole, Conservatives, and Sir T. Fowell Buxton, Liberal, were nominated for the representation of King’s Lynn.  The polling, on the 13th, resulted in the return of Lord Stanley, 445 votes, and Sir T. Fowell Buxton, 401 votes.  Mr. Walpole polled 339 votes.

—Died at Herne Bay, aged 43 years, Mr. Samuel Peckworth Woodward, Ph.D., F.G.S., assistant in the Geological Department of the British Museum, and second son of Mr. Samuel Woodward, of Norwich.  He was a member of several learned societies, and in 1845 was appointed professor of botany and geology at the Royal Agricultural College.

19.—The nomination of candidates for West Norfolk took place at Swaffham.  The Conservatives were Mr. William Bagge and the Hon. T. de Grey (the latter strongly opposed as “an excessive game preserver”); and the Liberals, Sir Willoughby Jones, Bart. (Conservative member for Cheltenham in 1847), and Mr. Brampton Gurdon.  The poll was opened on the 22nd, and the following was the result: Bagge, 2,710; de Grey, 2,611; Jones, 2,133; Gurdon, 2,088.  A petition against the return of the successful candidates was dismissed, owing to informality in the recognisances.  Great disturbances took place at Swaffham, for which several persons were punished at the ensuing Quarter Sessions.  Mr. de Grey, on his return to Merton, on the 24th, was most enthusiastically received at Watton and other places on the route.

26.—The comic singer Vance—“the Great Vance”—made his first appearance in Norwich at St. Andrew’s Hall.  “He is the original singer of the absurd ‘Slap Bang,’ and has better recommendations, but the judicious portion of the audience could not see enough in him to explain the great success he has achieved in the Metropolis.”

AUGUST.

5.—A reminiscence of the old convict days was forthcoming in a case tried before Lord Chief Baron Pollock at the Norfolk Assizes.  Cornelius Bradnum, a fruit dealer, was indicted for being feloniously and unlawfully at large at Heckingham on February 6th, 1865, “he having been transported for the term of his natural life, in pursuance of a certain judgment against him at the Norfolk Assizes on July 21st, 1847, on an indictment for burglary.”  The prisoner, in his defence, made a remarkable statement, to the effect that in consequence of his having given information of an intended mutiny of the convicts at Gibraltar, his sentence was mitigated to fifteen years.  From Gibraltar he was sent to Swan River, Western Australia, where the Governor gave him his ticket of leave, and after “serving his ticket” he received a free pardon.  He then went to Callao, in Peru.  One evening, when p. 148standing on the Mole, he was kidnapped, put upon an American ship, and brutally ill-used and crippled.  Sixty-five dollars had been paid for him, but as he was useless he was put ashore at Hamburgh, whence, after remaining some time in hospital, he came to England.  Unfortunately, he had left at Callao the document conveying to him his free pardon.  The prosecution denied that a free pardon had been granted.  His lordship said it was for the prosecution to show that the prisoner’s statement was untrue, after using that statement against him as evidence.  The statement must be taken as true until it was contradicted.  It had not been contradicted, and, he added, turning to the jury, “It is for you to say whether you believe it or not.  I must say I don’t see why you should not believe it, and why he is not entitled to a verdict of not guilty.”  The jury acquitted the prisoner.

5.—A large meeting of agriculturists was held at the Swan Hotel, Norwich, for the purpose of considering what steps should be taken to combat “a disease known as the Russian murrain, which had broken out among the cattle of Norfolk.”  Mr. Clare Sewell Read, M.P., presided, and, in the course of the proceedings, alarming reports were given of the spread of the contagion and of the immediate steps that were necessary to arrest its progress.  A deputation, consisting of Mr. Read, Mr. Steeds, Mr. W. Smith, and Mr. R. Leamon, was appointed to wait upon the Home Office, and at a committee meeting on the 9th Mr. Read reported what had taken place.  It was resolved, on the motion of Sir Thomas Beauchamp, who headed the list with a donation of £100, that a public subscription be opened at once, and Professor Simonds, in a long address, showed that the disease was of foreign importation, and was known in Russia, whence it came, as rinderpest.  At this meeting it was reported that in the neighbourhood of North Walsham alone losses to the extent of £1,000 and upwards had been sustained.  Isolation of the herds and the slaughter of diseased animals were the means advocated for stamping out the murrain.  A Norfolk Cattle Plague Association was at once formed, and at a large and influential meeting, held at St. Andrew’s Hall on the 12th, under the presidency of Mr. Read, whose great services at this crisis were acknowledged by the Earl of Leicester, resolutions were adopted (1) recommending to the consideration of the public the means suggested by Professor Simonds for dealing with the disease, and urging that no farmer should purchase any store stock in any market for the period of six weeks; (2) that a subscription be entered into for the purpose of meeting the losses sustained by those who should conform to the resolutions drawn up by the committee, and for defraying the expenses incurred in carrying out the objects of the meeting; and (3) that no person who did not subscribe to the amount of twopence in the pound on his assessment should participate in the relief.  At this meeting the Earl of Leicester contributed a donation of £500.  Meetings of the Cattle Plague Association were then held weekly, reports were presented upon the state of the disease in various parts of the county, and matters of detail received attention.  On October 21st a public meeting was held at St. Andrew’s Hall, under the presidency of the Earl of Leicester, “to consider the desirability of closing all markets in the county of Norfolk.”  Sir Thomas Beauchamp moved, and the Earl of Albemarle seconded, a resolution in favour of the adoption of this course, which was agreed to.  During this month Mr. Read was appointed a member of the Royal Commission to inquire into the p. 149causes of cattle plague and to suggest remedies.  The Commission recommended the slaughter of animals and the stringent prohibition of the passage of cattle across public roads, &c.  At Norwich and elsewhere there were frequent magisterial proceedings against dealers and others for contravention of the Orders of Council; medical men and veterinary surgeons suggested many remedies for the disease, and quacks advertised their nostrums, but the end of the year found the fatal rinderpest more rampant than ever.  Science seemed confounded by the insidious character of the outbreak, and precautionary measures appeared to be vain to prevent its extension.  It was officially announced that from September 6th to December 20th compensation had been given in respect of 1,486 animals, to the amount of £9,448 3s. 11d.  (See February 23rd, 1866.)

8.—A barque named the Edgar, of 600 tons burthen, built by Messrs. Fellows and Son, for the South American trade, was launched from their shipyard at Southtown, Great Yarmouth.

11.—The Earl of Leicester issued to the tenants on his estate an address, in which he referred to an election circular sent out to them during his absence in Norway, the spirit of which he described as “a flagrant contradiction of the principles and practices that have been professed and followed on the Holkham estate for nearly a century.”  His lordship had counselled not coercion in any form, but the adoption of every legitimate measure to achieve the return of Mr. Gurdon and Sir Willoughby Jones at the West Norfolk election; but the zeal of his agent (Mr. Shellabear) in carrying out instructions which were only indicated and not given in detail led him to issue a circular which had caused much scandal, the impolicy and unfittingness of which no one now saw more clearly than his lordship himself.

12.—Died at Kew, Sir William Jackson Hooker, K.H., F.R.S., F.L.S., &c., Regius Professor of Botany in the University of Glasgow.  Sir William was a native of Norwich, where his father, Mr. Joseph Hooker, a manufacturer, took much interest in horticulture, and possessed a rich collection of succulent and other exotics.  Hooker spent some of his earlier years in the study of agriculture with Mr. Robert Paul, of Starston Hall, but the death of a relative enabled him to devote himself to his favourite pursuit, natural history.  With his brother, Mr. Joseph Hooker, the Rev. James Brown, and other naturalists, he thoroughly explored the rich district of the Norfolk Broads in the study of ornithology.  He was the author of several works, and editor of the “Botanical Magazine.”  Resigning the appointment of Regius Professor for the curatorship of the Royal Gardens at Kew, he received the honour of knighthood in 1835, and in 1845 had conferred upon him the degree of D.C.L. by the University of Oxford.  He married a daughter of Mr. Dawson Turner, of Yarmouth.  His eldest son, Dr. Hooker, F.L.S., was no less distinguished than his father for his valuable works in natural history and for the scientific explorations with which his name was associated.

13.—Died at Southwell, the Ven. Archdeacon Wilkins, D.D.  He was born at Norwich in 1785, and was the youngest son of Mr. William Wilkins, F.S.A., and brother of the Professor of Architecture in the Royal Academy.  Educated at the Grammar School, Bury St. Edmund’s, under the headmastership of Becher, he entered Caius College, Cambridge, in 1803, and having received his degree, removed to Oxford p. 150to prosecute his favourite study of divinity.  He was ordained at Norwich in 1808, and was ultimately presented to the vicarage of St. Mary’s, Nottingham, where he ministered single-handed to a population of 28,000.  He was the author of “A History of the Destruction of Jerusalem,” and of several other works.

18.—A sculling match, known as the “Great Lynn Sweepstakes,” was contested over the Ouse championship course in the Eau Brink Cut, a distance of 3,300 yards.  The competitors were Robert Chambers, champion of the Tyne and ex-champion of the Thames; Harry Kelley, who just previously had wrested the championship of the Thames from his formidable North country rival; and Robert Cooper, of Newcastle.  The sweepstakes amounted to £50, with £100 added by the Lynn Regatta Committee.  The conditions provided that if three competed the winner should receive £200 and the second man £50, and if only two came to the post a first prize of £200 only would be given.  The race lay between Cooper and Kelley alone.  The former kept a slight lead, and as Kelley’s efforts to pass him were unavailing, he rowed past the winning-post a quarter of a length ahead.  The referee decided that Kelley had won, disqualified Cooper on the ground that he had taken the other man’s water, and awarded second prize to Chambers.  At a meeting presided over by the Mayor of Lynn (Mr. W. Monement), a protest was lodged by Cooper’s backers against the second prize being awarded to Chambers.  The Mayor decided to withhold the second prize until the referee had been communicated with, and handed to Kelley a cheque for £200.  Cooper’s protest was ultimately disallowed.

26.—The 13th Hussars, with headquarters, arrived at Norwich Cavalry Barracks.

SEPTEMBER.

8.—A prize-fight took place on Grimstone Common, between Pooley Mace and a man named Rackaby.  After five rounds had been contested, the police stopped hostilities, and Rackaby’s party declining to resume the fight, the stakes were awarded to Mace.

30.—Died at Clive House, Beckenham, Kent, in his 71st year, Lieut.-Col. Henry Alexander, 96th Foot.  He was born at Caister, and entered the Army as ensign in the 28th Foot in June, 1811.  He received the war medal with six clasps for Vittoria, Pyrenees, Nivelle, Nive, Orthes, and Toulouse.

OCTOBER.

3.—The first Church Congress commenced at Norwich.  The Congress sermon was preached at the Cathedral by the Archbishop of York, and the first general meeting was held at St. Andrew’s Hall, presided over by the Bishop of Norwich.  The final meeting took place on the afternoon of the 5th, after which the members of Congress attended luncheon, given at the new bank by Mr. R. J. H. Harvey, M.P.  Two thousand guests were present.  On the morning of the 6th, the Bishop of Oxford preached the annual sermon at the Cathedral on behalf of the Five Religious Societies.

p. 1519.—Died at the house of Mrs. Church, Lady Lane, Norwich, Bartholomew Gattey, “the eccentric but clever flute-player at the Theatre Royal.”  For forty years he had scarcely been absent from his place in the orchestra of the theatres in the Norwich circuit, “a position to which he fondly clung, in spite of many most favourable offers of engagement that were made to him, and which, if accepted, would, no doubt, have resulted in his obtaining a position in the musical world of honour and emolument.  At length a mind never very strong gave way, and he was obliged to have recourse to the assistance of his friends.  Mr. Hewlett and other gentlemen got up a concert for him in December, 1863, and £50 was realised, which, with Mr. Gattey’s simple habits, was sufficient for his maintenance until his death.”  He was a son of Mr. Gattey, a yarn manufacturer, and a native of Norwich, and had attained his 64th year.

14.*—“Died at his residence, Bury St. Edmund’s, Mr. Frederick Ladbrooke, portrait painter.  The deceased was the youngest son of the late Mr. Robert Ladbrooke, one of the founders of the celebrated Society of Norfolk and Norwich Artists.  He was a painter of considerable power.”

18.—The ceremony of cutting the first sod of the East Norfolk Railway was performed on the estate of Mr. C. Jecks, Sheriff of Norwich, by Lady Suffield, in the presence of a large number of spectators.  In the evening a dinner, attended by representatives of most of the principal families in the county, was held at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, in celebration of the event.  Lord Suffield presided.  (See August 13th, 1870.)

21.*—“The Queen has been pleased to grant to Edward John Stracey, of Sprowston, Lieut.-Colonel of the Scots Fusilier Guards, her Royal licence and authority that he and his issue may, in compliance with a clause contained in the last will and testament of James Clitherow, take and use the name of Clitherow in addition to that of Stracey.”

25.—A new lifeboat, named the James Pearce, was launched at Yarmouth.  It was built at the cost of £350, subscribed by the artisans of Birmingham, and presented through the Royal National Lifeboat Institution to the Caister station.

30.—Died at Hilgay, aged 110 years (as was originally stated), Mr. John Naylor, formerly landlord of the Crown Hotel, Downham Market.  An amended notice, published on November 18th, says: “The late Mr. John Naylor, who died on the 30th ult., and was supposed by his eldest son to be only 110 years of age, appears from the parish register of Welney to be 117, he having been born on the 29th of May, 1748.  In 1825 the deceased retired from his business as a publican, he having kept the Crown at Downham and the George and Dragon at Hilgay in succession, and had since lived on a small property of his own in the latter village.  He was always a smart, active man, and constant in taking his walk up to October, 1860.  Since that time he had been confined to his house, but used to sit up in his chair for some portion of the day until June, 1864, when he did so for the last time.  His sight had failed him, but his hearing was so good that he could distinguish the voices of his friends, and he was rational until within six weeks of his death.”

p. 152NOVEMBER.

1.—Died of apoplexy, at his residence, Acton Green, Middlesex, John Lindley, F.R.S., Ph.D., and formerly Professor of Botany at University College.  He was born at Catton, near Norwich, in 1799, and was the son of a nurseryman.  His first literary effort, after devoting much of his early youth to the practical details of botany, was the translation of Richard’s “Analyse de Fruit” from the French, and the contribution of some papers to the Transactions of the Linnæan Society.  Afterwards he proceeded to London, where he was engaged by Mr. Loudon to assist in the production of the “Encyclopædia of Plants.”  In 1832 he published his “Introduction to Systematic and Physiological Botany,” but his chef d’œuvre was the “Vegetable Kingdom.”  For more than a quarter of a century Dr. Lindley filled the chair of Botany at University College, London, and in 1860 was appointed examiner in the University of London.  He was a member of several learned bodies, and edited the horticultural department of the “Gardeners’ Chronicle” from its commencement in January, 1841, to the time of his death.

7.—Lord Hastings, master of the East Norfolk Foxhounds, was presented with his portrait in oil, subscribed for by 400 gentlemen of the Hunt.  The portrait was painted by Mr. Eddis, and his lordship was depicted in hunting dress, mounted on Archer, his favourite hunter.  Sir Willoughby Jones, Bart., made the presentation, on behalf of the subscribers.

8.—The Marquis and Marchioness Townshend, whose marriage had taken place a few weeks previously, were welcomed with great enthusiasm on their return to Rainham, and were presented by the tenantry with a handsome silver epergne.

9.—Mr. William Peter Nichols was elected Mayor, and Mr. William Jary Cubitt appointed Sheriff of Norwich.

DECEMBER.

2.—Died at Necton Hall, Colonel William Mason.  He was the head of an old county family, whose head, Paul Miller Mason, a citizen of London, built Necton Hall in the time of Henry VII.  Col. Mason served the office of High Sheriff in 1849, was for many years a chairman of Quarter Sessions at Swaffham, and was Lieut.-Colonel of the East Norfolk Militia.

4.—The Prince and Princess of Wales left Sandringham, on a visit to Lord and Lady Suffield, at Gunton Park.  Their Royal Highnesses travelled by special train from Wolferton to Lynn and thence to East Dereham, where they were received by Lord Suffield, Viscount Hamilton, and the Hon. Harbord Harbord.  A guard of honour was formed by the 15th Norfolk Volunteer Company, under the command of Capt. Bulwer, and their Royal Highnesses, entering a carriage drawn by four greys, proceeded along Norwich Road and the Market Place.  Three triumphal arches were erected in the town, which was handsomely decorated, guns were fired, and the church bells rung, and in the evening there was a display of fireworks.  After leaving Dereham, the Royal visitors proceeded by way of Swanton, Bylaugh, and Bawdeswell p. 153to Reepham, where the Aylsham Volunteers, commanded by Capt. Scott, provided a guard of honour.  At Aylsham their Royal Highnesses were welcomed with great enthusiasm, and at Gunton Park gates the North Walsham corps, commanded by Major Duff, mounted a guard of honour.  On the 5th and 6th the Prince shot over the estate, and on the evening of the last-named day a dinner and ball were given at the hall.  On the 7th his Royal Highness attended a meet of the East Norfolk Foxhounds, and on the 8th shot on the Hanworth side of the hall.  The visit terminated on the 9th.  The Prince and Princess had arranged to honour Lord Sondes by attending luncheon at Elmham Hall, but, owing to intelligence received of the critical condition of the King of the Belgians, the visit was postponed.  Their Royal Highnesses left Elmham station by special train, and arrived at Sandringham the same afternoon.

7.—The Rev. J. M. Bellew gave public readings from the great poets and other authors, with organ accompaniments, at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich.  He was described as “a perfect master of the elocutionary art.”

20.—Died at Yarmouth, in his 71st year, Mr. Edward Cubitt, of Honing Hall.  He served in the Peninsular War with the 4th Dragoons, was at the retreat from Burgos, and received the medal with clasps for Vittoria, Pampeluna, and Toulouse.

26.—The Christmas pantomime at Norwich Theatre was entitled, “Camaralzaman and Badoura, or the Little God of Love and the Good Fairy of Lake Lovely.”

1866.

JANUARY.

6.—At a meeting of the Norfolk Agricultural Association, held at the Swan Hotel, Norwich, it was decided to abandon the annual show for that year, “because the bringing of cattle from all parts of the country would be inconsistent with what is being done to prevent the transit of cattle during the prevalence of the cattle plague.”

8.—The Prince and Princess of Wales, accompanied by the Hon. T. de Grey, arrived at Holkham, on a visit to the Earl and Countess of Leicester.  “Their Royal Highnesses de facto opened the new line of the West Norfolk Junction Railway, which had been pushed forward by the contractor so as to be ready for the purpose.”  It was by this line that the Prince and Princess travelled to Holkham.  Their Royal Highnesses returned to Sandringham on the 13th.

11.—The first wintry weather of the season was experienced on this date, when there was a considerable fall of snow, accompanied by showers of rain and sleet, followed by a sharp wind frost.  Telegraphic communication with London was suspended, in consequence of the blowing down of several miles of the telegraph line.

—Lost in the Bay of Biscay, by the wreck of the steamship London, on her voyage to Australia, the Rev. John Woolley, D.C.L., p. 154formerly headmaster of Norwich Grammar School, Fellow of University College, Oxford, and principal and professor of classics and logic in the University of Sydney.  Mr. G. V. Brooke, the actor, formerly a member of the Norwich Company, went down in the same ill-fated vessel.

13.—The new building, then known as the Consolidated Bank, London Street, Norwich, was opened for the transaction of business.  It was designed by Mr. R. M. Phipson, of Norwich and Ipswich, and built by Mr. Hall, of Pottergate Street, at the cost of £4,000.  It is now known as the National Provincial Bank.

—A vessel running through Yarmouth Roads was observed to be flying a “waif.”  Two lifeboats, the Rescuer, belonging to the Ranger Company, and the Friend of All Nations, the property of the Young Company of Beachmen, put off to her assistance.  The Rescuer, in attempting to pass through the rough water at the bar, unshipped her rudder, was capsized, and twelve of her crew of sixteen were drowned.

15.—Judgment was given in the Arches Court by Dr. Lushington, in the action, Edwards and Mann v. Hatton, otherwise known as the “Mattishall Church Rate case.”  The plaintiffs were the churchwardens, and the defendant a parishioner of Mattishall.  Hatton having refused to pay the Church Rate, proceedings were taken in the Arches Court to enforce it.  The whole sum in dispute was 6s. 8d., but it had given rise to many months of litigation, to much unpleasantness and ill-feeling in the parish, and to rioting and disturbance.  Two objections were urged against the rate: (1) That proper notice had not been given on the church doors, as provided by the Act of Parliament; and (2) that the rate was unequal and unjust.  The Court entered judgment for the churchwardens, and condemned the defendant in the costs of the protracted proceedings.

FEBRUARY.

1.—Under the Prisons Act, 1865, the old borough jail at Lynn ceased to be used as a prison.

2.—Mr. F. W. Windham, who for five or six years had enjoyed unenviable notoriety, died suddenly at the Norfolk Hotel, Norwich.  He had been unwell for several days, and was seen by his medical attendant, Mr. F. C. Bailey, on January 31st.  Mr. Windham became better on February 1st, and still further improvement was manifested on the 2nd; but later in the day his symptoms were completely altered, and became so alarming that Mr. Bailey called in Dr. Bateman and Dr. Eade.  Every effort was made to restore animation, but without avail; this victim of an ill-spent life gradually sank, and in a few hours expired, in the presence of the medical men and of some of the servants of the hotel.  Death was due to the obstruction of the circulation by a clot of blood in the pulmonary artery.  On the 7th the body was removed to Tucker’s Hotel, Cromer, and the interment took place on the 8th, in the family vault at Felbrigg.  Mr. Windham had completely dissipated the residue of the extensive property which he inherited, after payment of the law expenses contingent on the great suit, Windham v. Windham (q.v. November 22nd, 1861), and became p. 155dependent for a livelihood on the little income he made as driver of the Cromer coach.  His uncle, General Windham, had made arrangements by which he was supplied with the means of living respectably.  He had rooms at the Norfolk Hotel, but generally spent his time in one or other of the low public-houses in the city.  The effect of his death was to deprive Mrs. Windham of the annuity granted on Mr. Windham’s life, and of any interest whatever in the Hanworth estate.

16.—A case was heard at East Dereham Petty Sessions, in which the points urged in the Corn Hall litigation in 1857–58 were again brought prominently before the public.  George Squire, a Lincolnshire merchant, was charged with assaulting Charles Howard, the keeper of the Corn Hall.  He had paid twopence for admission, and Howard informed him that he ought to take a merchant’s ticket and hire a stand.  In the course of the altercation, defendant took plaintiff by the collar and pinched his neck.  Mr. J. C. Chittock, solicitor, on behalf of the defendant, contended that any person had a right to go into the hall, whether he paid for doing so or not, because at the Summer Assizes in 1857 the proprietors were indicted for obstructing a highway and a verdict was given for the Crown.  The hall was built upon a highway known as Lion Hill, and Lion Hill had never ceased to be a highway.  The Bench determined that they had no jurisdiction, and dismissed the case.

18.—Died at Great Yarmouth, Mr. Isaac Preston, aged 92 years.  One of the oldest inhabitants of the borough, he had, previous to the passing of the Municipal Reform Act, held several important offices in connection with the Corporation, and was twice Mayor.  He was a justice of the peace and a deputy-lieutenant for the county, and was one of the promoters of the movement for the erection of the Nelson Column on the South Denes.

23.—A serious difficulty arose at Norwich, owing to the operation of the Cattle Diseases Prevention Act.  A large number of dealers, apprehending that the provisions of the Act would not be enforced until the following week, sent stock to Norwich for the market on the 24th, or for transmission by rail to London.  Two hundred fat beasts arrived at Trowse for conveyance, but the railway authorities refused to receive them.  Salesmen on the Hill experienced the same difficulty, and dealers had to dispose of their cattle as best they could.  Many beasts were sent to butchers for immediate slaughter; others were removed to Trowse.  The Mayor (Mr. Nichols) went down on the 25th to see what help he could render, but the only way out of the difficulty was to send the animals to the Norwich slaughter-houses, whence the principal portion of the meat was forwarded to London.  In order to obviate any further difficulty of the kind, the Norwich Town Council, on the 27th, resolved to erect slaughter-houses and to provide a dead meat market.  The cattle plague continued with unabated virulence.  Thursday, March 8th, was observed as a day of humiliation, business was suspended, and special services were held at the Cathedral and the parish churches.  Similar services took place throughout the county.  On June 30th it was announced, “Rinderpest is now nearly extinct in Norfolk and Suffolk”; and on October 13th it was stated: “The non-existence of the cattle plague in the county has rendered the work of the Central Committee and the Cattle Plague Association very light.”  Norwich Cattle Market was re-opened on November 17th.

p. 156MARCH.

6.—A dastardly attempt was made to destroy the church of St. Lawrence, Norwich.  Mr. David Penrice, the churchwarden, accompanied by a lad, went to prepare the church for evening service, and found it to be full of gas.  The lad, on endeavouring to open the windows, was overcome by the fumes.  Assistance was obtained, and it was discovered that every burner in the church had been fully turned on.  At the Police Court, on the 21st, a lad named George Nobbs, described as a shoemaker, of St. Martin-at-Oak, was charged with “wilfully and maliciously turning on the gas at St. Lawrence’ church, thereby endangering the lives of her Majesty’s subjects.”  The offence was fully proved, but the magistrates dismissed the case, on the ground that “the lad did not show he had any knowledge of the consequences of the act.”

13.—A boiler explosion occurred at the brewery of Messrs. Arnold and Wyatt, St. Margaret’s Plain, Norwich.  William Whitworth, an engine driver, was killed, “his body being hurled into the beck containing six quarters of boiling wort.”

20.—The hearing of the petition against the return of Sir E. H. K. Lacon and Mr. J. Goodson commenced, before a Committee of the House of Commons.  Bribery, undue influence, and treating were alleged.  The inquiry concluded on the 22nd, when the chairman (the Right Hon. J. R. Mowbray) announced that the Committee had arrived at the unanimous conclusion that the members had been duly elected.  On April 12th Mr. Mowbray gave notice of his intention to move the appointment of a Royal Commission “to inquire into the corrupt practices which prevailed at the last election for Great Yarmouth.”  The Commissioners, Mr. Wyndham Slade, Mr. Lucius Henry Fitzgerald, and Mr. George Russell, began their sittings at the Town Hall on August 16th, and on September 11th adjourned until October 3rd, on which day the proceedings recommenced.  The final adjournment took place on October 15th, the thirty-fourth day of the inquiry.  Six hundred and fifty-six witnesses were examined, and full investigations made as to the elections of 1865, 1859, and 1857.  The Commissioners reported that corrupt and illegal practices extensively prevailed, and in consequence the borough was disfranchised.

27.—The 13th Hussars marched from Norwich, en route to Newcastle.

28.—In the course of a civil action, Creake v. Smith, at the Norfolk Assizes, before Mr. Baron Martin, reference was made to “the science of Bibliomancy,” as practised by a “cunning woman” in the neighbourhood of Wells-next-the-Sea.  The defendant, who was landlord of the Railway Hotel at Wells, had lost articles from his house, and had consulted the woman with the view of discovering the thief.  A Bible was suspended by a string and made to revolve; during its revolutions the names of several suspected persons were called out, and it was alleged that it stopped on the name of the plaintiff being mentioned—a clear proof that he was the guilty person.  The defendant returned to the hotel, alleged that Creake was a thief, “for he knew it by the turn of the Bible,” and dismissed him from his service.  Hence these legal proceedings for slander and wrongful dismissal, which resulted in a verdict for the plaintiff on the first count, and for the defendant on the second count.

p. 157APRIL.

2.—Loveday’s English Grand Opera Company commenced an engagement at Norwich Theatre.  The principals included Madame Florence Lancia, Mdlle. Ella Miraldi, Miss Annie Leng, Miss Fanny Leng, Mr. Brookhouse Bowler, Mr. Grantham, Mr. Oliver Summers, and Mr. Henry Rowland.  The repertory included “La Somnambula,” “Il Trovatore,” “Don Giovanni,” “Faust,” “Dinorah,” “Der Frieschutz,” “Lucrezia Borgia,” “Norma,” and “Satanella.”

3.—Died at Hethel Hall, John Davy Brett, formerly major in the 17th Lancers, and lieut.-colonel of the 1st Norfolk Battalion of Volunteers, aged 51.

5.—The marriage of the Right Hon. Charles Adolphus Murray, seventh Earl of Dunmore, and Lady Gertrude Coke, third daughter of the Lord Lieutenant of Norfolk, took place at Holkham.  The ceremony was honoured by the presence of the Prince and Princess of Wales, who arrived at the Hall on the 4th, as the private guests of the Earl and Countess of Leicester.

9.—Died at Chequers Court, Herts., aged 56, Lieut.-Col. Francis L’Estrange Astley, commandant of the Norfolk Militia Artillery.  He was born in 1810, and married first in 1835, Charlotte, second daughter of Mr. N. Micklethwait, of Taverham; and secondly, in 1854, Rosalind Alicia, fifth daughter of Sir Robert Frankland Russell, Bart.

21.—The Norwich sewerage scheme was further considered by the Town Council.  A scheme known as the Hope scheme, introduced at a previous meeting, was abandoned, and the future management of the matter referred to a committee selected from members opposed to the scheme.  On May 12th appeared the announcement that preliminary steps had been taken in Chancery by the inhabitants of Thorpe and a bill filed against the Mayor and Corporation for an injunction to compel them to desist from emptying sewage into the river.  On May 15th a special committee reported that certain attempts made to cleanse the river had been attended with considerable success, and at the same meeting a memorial was presented by the inhabitants of the city, expressing regret and disappointment at the abandonment of the proposed plan for diverting the sewage from the river, and stating that under no circumstances whatever should the stream be made use of as a sewer.  Acting upon counsel’s opinion, the Corporation, on May 31st, determined that it was needful at once to take measures for the diversion of the sewage from the river.  The Sewerage Committee resigned, and a new committee was appointed.  This committee, on July 10th, recommended the hiring “of 1,300 acres of land on the Crown Point estate, for the purpose of irrigating the same with the Norwich sewage.”  The recommendation was agreed to.  On October 9th the Town Clerk was authorised, under the direction of the Special Sewerage Committee, to give the necessary notices to enable application to be made in the next Session of Parliament for an Act of Parliament for carrying out sewerage works, and for the preparation of the necessary plans to be deposited in conformity with the Standing Orders of the House.  (See January 15th, 1867.)

22.—The Rev. John Alexander, minister of the Independent congregation meeting at Prince’s Street, Norwich, resigned the pastorate of the chapel, after a service of nearly half a century.  Mr. Alexander p. 158came to Norwich on April 4th, 1817, and for a time officiated at the Tabernacle belonging to Lady Huntingdon’s Connexion.  His small congregation next met at the Lancastrian School, and in order to retain his services they built the Prince’s Street chapel, where he ministered until the date of his resignation.  He was succeeded by the Rev. G. S. Barrett, B.A., of the Lancashire Independent College.

24.—Died at Coltishall Hall, Mr. William Burroughes.  The younger son of a family seated in Norfolk for considerably more than one hundred years, he was educated at Norwich Grammar School “in the palmy Valpeian days,” and at St. John’s College, Cambridge.  He was upon the commission of the peace for the county, chairman of the visiting justices, and joint secretary of the Norfolk Agricultural Association.

30.—The Great Yarmouth Fish Wharves and Tramways Bill and the Great Yarmouth Haven, Port, and Rivers Bill, were before a Committee of the House of Commons.  The first-named Bill went through Committee without opposition on May 7th, and the latter was ordered to be reported on May 28th.  The Port and Haven Bill, among other matters, provided that the Commission should consist of thirteen members, namely, four for Yarmouth (two to be elected by the Corporation, one by the registered shipowners and payers of dues, and one by the owners of fishing vessels and payers of dues on fish); three elected by the justices of Norfolk; three by the justices of Suffolk; and three by the Corporation of Norwich, one of each set of Commissioners for Norfolk, Suffolk, and Norwich being a merchant residing and carrying on business within the district for which he was elected.  (See October 28th, 1867.)

MAY.

2.—The organ at St. Peter Mancroft, Norwich, restored by Mr. Hedgeland, at the cost of £430, was used for the first time at commemorative services held at the church.  The instrument was built by Renatus Harris, in 1707.

5.*—“Lord Suffield has been appointed Lieut.-Col. Commandant of the Norfolk Militia Artillery, in place of the late Col. Astley.”

11.—Intelligence was received from London that the banking firm of Overend, Gurney, and Co. had been compelled, owing to the panic in the money market, to suspend payment.  The announcement created great anxiety in Norwich, lest the firm of Messrs. Gurney and Co. were involved.  Public confidence was restored by a notice issued by the firm, who stated that they were in no way liable, and were not affected by the affairs of Messrs. Overend, Gurney, and Co.  A meeting of the citizens was at once convened at the Guildhall, under the presidency of the Mayor, and a resolution passed “declaring publicly and unhesitatingly its unbounded confidence in the house of Messrs. Gurneys and Birkbecks, and its unabated reliance on its perfect financial security.”  (See January 1st, 1869.)

23.—Mrs. Bulwer, wife of Capt. Bulwer, commanding the 15th (Dereham) Company of Rifle Volunteers, opened a new rifle range at Billingford by firing the first shot, in the presence of a large gathering of Volunteers and civilians.

p. 15924.—The Queen’s birthday was celebrated at Norwich by a parade in Chapel Field of the 1st Norfolk Light Horse Volunteers and the Artillery and Rifle Volunteers.  The Mayoress (Mrs. Nichols) laid the foundation-stone of the new Drill Hall, and after the ceremony luncheon was served at St. Andrew’s Hall.

—The Norfolk and Norwich Gymnastic Society held their first annual sports on the Newmarket Road Cricket Ground.  The programme included gymnastic exercises, boxing, high jumping, flat and hurdle racing, &c.

31.—The new church at Thorpe St. Andrew was consecrated by the Bishop of Norwich.  The site on the north side of the old church was given by Mr. William Birkbeck; the building was designed by Mr. Thomas Jeckyll, of Norwich and London, and the contractor and subcontractors were Mr. Cornish, of North Walsham; Mr. J. W. Lacey and Mr. Rust, of Norwich.  The estimated cost of the work was £4,000.

JUNE.

1.—The Marquis of Hartington having stated in the House of Commons that as the troops would be accommodated in the new barracks at Colchester, the Government intended to give up the Cavalry Barracks at Norwich, and the lease having expired, the buildings would be handed over to the Dean and Chapter of Norwich, to whom they belonged, a meeting of citizens was held at the Guildhall, at which a resolution was passed asking the authorities to reconsider their determination.  A deputation consisting of the Earl of Leicester, the Earl of Albemarle, Lord Suffield, the members of Parliament for the city, and other gentlemen, waited upon Lord Hartington at the War Office on June 14th, and on July 7th it was announced that, after due consideration, the authorities had decided to continue the barracks at Norwich.

6.—Earl Fortesque attended at the Free Library, Norwich, and presented the prizes awarded under the Cambridge Prize Scheme.

JULY.

11.—Lord Stanley, on his appointment as Foreign Secretary in the new Conservative Administration, was re-elected without opposition member of Parliament for the borough of King’s Lynn.

16.—A meeting was held at the Rampant Horse Hotel, Norwich, to consider what steps should be taken to prevent the intended closing of Victoria Station, under the Great Eastern Railway (Additional Powers) Bill.  A memorial was addressed to the Town Council, calling attention to the fact that this was the fourth attempt made by the company to close the terminus, and that by the Act of Parliament which sanctioned the amalgamation of the Eastern Union with the Eastern Counties Railway a special clause was inserted for the sufficient maintenance of the station.  On these grounds the Corporation were asked to oppose the Bill.  At a meeting of the Town Council on the 17th, a letter was read from the company, in which they offered, in consideration of being permitted to close the station, to contribute £1,000 p. 160towards the improvement of Foundry Bridge.  The Council were not prepared to accede to the proposition.  When the Company’s Bill was before the Committee of the House of Commons, in March, 1867, the clause providing for the abandonment of the station was disallowed.

19.—St. Giles’ church, Norwich, was re-opened, after extensive restoration.  A new chancel had also been built, and a new organ, costing £350, erected.  The scheme included the widening of the street by the giving up of a portion of the churchyard.  The restoration was carried out, under the direction of Mr. R. M. Phipson, by Mr. J. W. Lacey, conjointly with Messrs. Atkins and Hawes.  The total cost of the work was about £4,000, of which £1,000 was given by the rector (the Rev. W. N. Ripley).

25.—The National Archery meeting commenced at Crown Point, Norwich, and was continued on the 26th and 27th.  The show of the Norfolk and Norwich Horticultural Society was held in the grounds on the 26th (when the band of the 1st Life Guards was present), and a ball was given at St. Andrew’s Hall in the evening.

28.—Died at Bramerton, in his 76th year, Mr. William Wilde, Coroner for Norwich.  “In Mr. Wilde the city has lost an active and intelligent public officer and a useful citizen, and the Liberal party a most efficient agent.  To his shrewdness, accurate judgment, and devotion to their interests, the Liberals of Norwich and elsewhere have been indebted for many a triumph.”  Mr. Wilde was a member of the Court of Guardians, and for some time its chairman, and a member of the Festival Committee.  He had been Coroner for thirty years.

31.—A new lifeboat, named the Leicester, was launched at Gorleston.  It was purchased by a fund amounting to £900 inaugurated by the Mayoress of Leicester (Mrs. Hodges), and was lodged in a new lifeboat house built at the cost of £250.

AUGUST.

5.—Died at his seat at Honingham, the Right Hon. and Rev. Lord Bayning.  His lordship was the second son of Mr. Charles Townshend, who was created Baron Bayning in 1797, and succeeded his brother, Charles Frederick, as third Baron on August 2nd, 1823, when he assumed, by sign manual (in lieu of his patronymic, Townshend), the name of his maternal grandfather, William Powlett.  Born on June 8th, 1797, he married, on August 9th, 1842, Emma, only daughter of Mr. W. H. Fellowes, of Ramsey Abbey, Huntingdon, by whom he had one son, who died twelve months previously to his lordship’s death, and the barony thus became extinct.  Lord Bayning was educated at St. John’s College, Cambridge, where he graduated M.A. in 1818, and was appointed rector of Brome, Suffolk, in 1821, and rural dean in the diocese of Norwich in 1844.  He resigned the rectory of Brome in 1847, and was appointed to the rectory of Honingham with the vicarage of East Tuddenham in 1851.  His lordship was High Steward of Norwich Cathedral, Vice-President of the Norwich Diocesan Association for the Propagation of the Gospel, of the Norfolk and Norwich Museum, of the Norfolk and Norwich Archæological Society, and of the Institution for the Indigent Blind, and he was a trustee of the p. 161Norwich Savings Rank, &c.  For some years he was treasurer and a most active promoter of the Diocesan Church Building Society.

6.—At a special meeting of the Norwich Town Council, Mr. Edward S. Bignold was elected Coroner, in place of Mr. Wilde.  In order to take the office, he resigned his seat in the Town Council, and was permitted to retire without paying the customary fine.

10.—A new self-righting lifeboat was launched at Happisburgh.  The vessel was presented to the National Lifeboat Institution by the people of Huddersfield, who contributed upwards of £1,000 for its purchase.

14.—At the Norwich Assizes, before Lord Chief Justice Erle and a special jury, was tried the libel action, Athill v. Soman.  The declaration stated that the libel was published in a newspaper called the “Norwich Argus,” of which the defendant was the printer, and was contained in a letter signed “Honour Lingley,” dated November 25th, 1865.  The writer accused Athill, a superintendent of police, of wrongfully ransacking her chests of linen at a house at Sprowston called the “Haunted Cottage,” at which disturbances had taken place, and where Athill had been present in the discharge of his official duties.  The damages were laid at £500; the jury returned a verdict for the plaintiff, damages one farthing.  Application was made on behalf of the plaintiff for costs, but his lordship held that “there was not a solitary instance of any personal malice or ill-will on the part of the defendant,” and refused it.  The county magistrates subsequently contributed to a fund to defray the expenses of the plaintiff.

25.—At the sale of the Lessingham House estate, by Messrs. Hewitt and Capon, at the Norfolk Hotel, Norwich, a portion of Surlingham Broad was purchased by Mr. R. Pratt, for £1,300.  “The last time this lot was sold by public auction it fetched about £900.”

27.—The Hon. Thomas de Grey, M.P., shooting on Blubberhouse Moor, made a bag of 215 brace of grouse, “a feat which has not met with its equal on any of the Yorkshire moors, nor on any other in England or Scotland.”

SEPTEMBER.

4.—Died at the King and Miller Inn, Norfolk Street, Sheffield, of “mortification of the big toe,” William Pilch, the cricketer, formerly of Norwich, in his 69th year.

19.—Died at Southsea, aged 80, General Sir William Robert Clayton, Bart., son of Sir William.  Clayton, fourth baronet.  He saw much service in the Peninsular campaign.  On the death of his father, in 1834, he succeeded to the extensive patrimonial estates in Norfolk, Bucks., Surrey, and South Wales.  Sir William’s Norfolk seat was White Hall, Saham Toney.

22.*—“The Dean and Chapter of Norwich have offered to confer the office of Lord High Steward of the Cathedral Church, vacant by the death of Lord Bayning, on the Earl of Kimberley, and his lordship has signified to the Dean and Chapter his intention to accept the office.  The grandfather and the great-grandfather of the present Earl have been Lord High Stewards of the Cathedral.”

p. 16225.—Minnie Stratton, daughter of “General Tom Thumb” and Mrs. Stratton, died at the Norfolk Hotel, Norwich, and was, on the 26th, buried at the Cemetery.  “Mr. and Mrs. Stratton were chief mourners, and there was a large number of spectators.”

—A boiler explosion took place at the dye and chemical works of Messrs. Stark and Co., Duke’s Palace Street, Norwich.  Three men (Taylor, Breeze, and Clarke) were killed on the spot, and three others died of their injuries.  The Coroner’s jury found that the explosion was due to the defective construction of the boiler.  At the Norwich Assizes, on March 27th, 1867, an action was brought by Mr. Stark against Messrs. Riches and Watts, for the recovery of damages.  A verdict was given for plaintiff, the amount to be assessed by arbitration.  (See February 19th, 1868.)

OCTOBER.

6.—The Norfolk Chamber of Agriculture, “to co-operate with the Central Chamber of Agriculture in watching over the measures affecting the agricultural interest,” was established at a meeting held at the Norfolk Hotel, Norwich, under the presidency of Mr. C. S. Read, M.P.  On October 20th Mr. Read was elected chairman, and Mr. Richard England vice-chairman.

13.—Norwich Theatre was opened for the winter season, under the management of Mr. J. F. Young, who had previously managed, with success, the Yarmouth and Lynn Theatres.

—Died at Great Chart Rectory, Kent, the Hon. and Very Rev. George Pellew, D.D., Dean of Norwich.  He was third son of Admiral Sir Edward Pellew, afterwards Viscount Exmouth, and was born in Tregeny, Cornwall, in 1793.  Educated at Eton and at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, where he took his B.A. degree in 1815 and his M.A. in 1818, he received holy orders in 1817, and in 1820 married the Hon. Frances Addington, second daughter of the first Viscount Sidmouth.  In 1823 he was appointed to a canonry in Canterbury Cathedral, where he resided until his preferment to the Deanery of Norwich in 1828, on the death of Dean Turner.  The degree of D.D. was conferred upon him in the same year, and in 1852 he was presented by the Archbishop of Canterbury to the living of Great Chart, which he held at the time of his death.  Besides publishing “Sermons preached in Cathedral Churches on the Leading Doctrines of the Church of England” (1848), he wrote “The Seven Ages of a Christian’s Life” (1866) and a “Memoir of Lord Sidmouth” (1847).  Dr. Pellew left three daughters and a son.

29.—The Norfolk and Norwich Triennial Musical Festival commenced with an evening performance of “Israel in Egypt.”  Miscellaneous concerts were given on the evenings of October 30th and 31st and November 1st.  On the morning of October 31st were given an anthem by Spohr (the first time of performance) and “Naaman” (the first time of performance in Norwich), conducted by the composer, M. Costa; on the morning of November 1st, “Saint Cecilia” (composed expressly for the Festival), a selection from the Passion Music (the first time of performance “in any country”), and the first and second parts of “The Creation”; and on the morning of November p. 1632nd, “The Messiah.”  The principal performers were Mdlle. Tietjens, Madame Rudersdorff, Miss Edith Wynne, Mdlle. Sinico, Madame De Meric Lablache, Mdlle. Anna Drasdel, Mr. Sims Reeves, Mr. W. H. Cummings, Signor Morini, Mr. Santley, Mr. Weiss, and Signor Gassier.  Mr. Benedict conducted.  The Festival concluded with a “full dress” ball on the evening of November 2nd.  The total receipts amounted to £5,783 11s., and the balance in favour of the committee to £971 7s. 3d.

30.—The Prince and Princess of Wales, with her Majesty the Queen of Denmark and suite, left Sandringham, on a visit to Lord and Lady Stafford, at Costessey Park.  They were accompanied by the Duke of Edinburgh, who had accepted the invitation of the High Sheriff (Mr. W. A. Tyssen Amhurst) to spend the Festival week in Norwich.  The Royal party, who travelled by special train to East Dereham, where the Volunteers formed a guard of honour, were received by Lord Stafford and the Earl of Leicester at the station, whence they travelled by road to Costessey, and were enthusiastically greeted by a large gathering in the park.  On the morning of the 31st the illustrious visitors, escorted by the 1st Norfolk Light Horse Volunteers, under Capt. Hay Gurney, proceeded to Norwich, and were received by the Mayor (Mr. W. P. Nichols), the Sheriff (Mr. W. J. Cubitt), and other civic dignitaries at the city boundary, and by members of the Corporation and Guardians and representatives of friendly societies, &c., at St. Giles’ Gates.  At the Guildhall addresses were presented to the Prince and Princess and the Queen by the Corporation and by the Bishop and clergy of the diocese.  The party then proceeded to St. Andrew’s Hall, to attend the Musical Festival.  During the interval at the performance, the Mayor gave a luncheon in one of the rooms to the Prince and Princess, the Queen of Denmark, and their suite; and the Princess was presented by Miss C. M. Nichols, on behalf of the ladies of Norwich, with an album containing photographic views of the city, &c.  Their Royal Highnesses then drove to Chapel Field and planted two trees, in commemoration of their visit, and the day’s proceedings ended with the opening, by the Prince of Wales, of the new Volunteer Drill Hall, the first stone of which was laid a few months previously by Mrs. Nichols, who was presented with a silver trowel designed for the occasion.  A ball, preceded by a dinner, was given at Costessey in the evening.  At the dinner the party comprised only the Prince and Princess, the Queen of Denmark, Lord and Lady Stafford, and Mr. and Mrs. Nichols.  On November 1st the Royal party passed through Norwich, escorted by a squadron of the 1st King’s Dragoon Guards (from Colchester), on their way to Thorpe Station, whence they departed for Sandringham.  The city was lavishly decorated in honour of the Royal visit, and on the night of the 30th there were illuminations and fireworks.  The Duke of Edinburgh stayed with the High Sheriff at Mr. Firth’s house in St. Giles’ Street, where a distinguished company was invited to meet his Royal Highness.

NOVEMBER.

5.—A remarkable outrage was perpetrated at Little Walsingham church.  A few minutes after the clerk had tolled the “curfew” bell, a violent explosion took place in the south transept.  It was found p. 164that a charge of gunpowder had been placed beneath the organ and ignited by a train of cotton.  The instrument, with the exception of the swell organ, was scattered to pieces, the south transept window entirely destroyed, and other windows seriously damaged.  The organ was purchased in 1862, at the cost of £250, and the total amount of damage done by the explosion was about £300.  A reward of £200 was offered for information that would lead to the conviction of the perpetrator of the outrage.

9.—Mr. Frederick Elwin Watson was elected Mayor, and Mr. William Copeman Clabburn appointed Sheriff of Norwich.

16.—Eight vessels were wrecked and five lives lost, on the Norfolk coast, between Mundesley and Palling.

17.—A Bohemian waxwing (Bombycilla garrulus) was observed at Old Buckenham, and another was shot the same day near Thetford.  By the first week of December the birdstuffers received at least 22 specimens, from Mutford, Worstead, Northrepps, St. Faith’s, Rollesby, Cawston Woodrow, Wroxham, and other districts.  In the last week of December it was stated that more than one hundred specimens had been procured.  “With the exception of one or two stragglers, this species has not been noticed here since 1863, when some sixteen specimens were killed in Norfolk.”

DECEMBER.

3.—A storm of terrific violence occurred off Yarmouth, and several ships were lost and men drowned.  A new gas-holder of 100,000 cubic feet capacity, surrounded by massive iron columns, was blown over at Yarmouth Gas Works, and considerably damaged.

4.—The Rev. Edward Meyrick Goulburn, D.D., incumbent of St. John’s, Paddington, was installed Dean of Norwich by the Rev. Canon Heaviside, in the absence of the Bishop of Norwich.

10.—The Prince and Princess of Wales and the Duke of Edinburgh arrived, by rail, at Diss, whence the Prince and Princess proceeded to Oakley Park, on a visit to Sir E. C. Kerrison, Bart., M.P., and Lady Caroline Kerrison; and the Duke to Thornham Hall, on a visit to Baron and Lady Hartismere.  Their Royal Highnesses returned to Sandringham on the 13th.

—An extraordinary charge was preferred before the Walsingham magistrates, against Mr. Miles Brown, a large farmer, of Houghton St. Giles, and his brother, Mr. William Brown.  It was alleged that they had exhibited in the window of a cottage in High Street, Walsingham, “an apparatus revolving before a light, and exhibiting in a glass behind an upright coffin, on the lid of which was a photograph of the Rev. Septimus Henry Lee Warner, such public exhibition being a threat on the part of the defendants to take away the life of the said complainant.”  The defendants were bound over in the sum of £1,600 to keep the peace.

15.*—“The old lighthouse at Cromer, which had for so many years been a conspicuous object on the edge of the lofty hill, toppled over the other day, and was immediately buried by a great fall from the cliff, which followed it.  It was first erected in the year 1719, and was p. 165lit by a coal fire until oil lamps with powerful reflectors were introduced.”

17.—The Duke of Edinburgh arrived at Norwich, en route to Gunton Park.  Before proceeding on his journey, his Royal Highness visited the Cathedral.

25.—Died at East Dereham, aged 65, Mr. William Drake, many years Conservative registration agent for West Norfolk.

26.—The pantomime at Norwich Theatre, written by Mr. R. Soutar, was founded upon the story of the intrigue of Henry II. and Fair Rosamond.

31.—A heavy fall of snow occurred, and the roads in many parts of the county were rendered impassable.

—The Prince and Princess of Wales arrived at Holkham, on a visit to the Earl and Countess of Leicester.  “So considerable was the destruction of hares, rabbits, pheasants, &c., during the Royal visit that on one day 2 tons 19 cwt. of game were forwarded from Wells Station to Leadenhall Market.”  The Prince, with the Duke of Edinburgh, who was also a guest of the Earl and Countess, left on January 10th, 1867, for Marham House, on a visit to Mr. and Mrs. Villebois.

1867.

JANUARY.

6.—During a severe storm off Yarmouth, the brigs Ark, of Sunderland, and Sarah, of the same port, had a collision in the Roads, and were lost, with their crews of sixteen hands.

7.—The actions arising out of the Middle Level inundations now took the form of an arbitration.  The arbitrators were laymen, appointed by both parties, with a legal umpire, and their investigation of the merits of the case or cases commenced on this date, at the Incorporated Law Society’s house, Chancery Lane, London.  The proceedings were protracted.  In the first week of March several of the claimants, among them Mr. Mason, in whose name the first action was brought, accepted offers made by the Commissioners.  The offers were in excess of the following items: (1) a year’s rent, tithes, taxes, and outgoings; (2) all expenses on the crops destroyed (tillage, seed sowing, &c.) up to the day of the inundation; (3) damage to fences, buildings, &c., and (4) the amount of a full year’s rent, tithes, and drainage taxes as profits to the tenants.  In May the cases Coe v. Wise and Sharpe v. the Commissioners were argued in the Rolls Court, before Mr. Serjeant Hayes and Mr. Durrant and Mr. Bailey Denton, the arbitrators; and on June 22nd it was announced that Mr. Coe had been awarded £2,575, and Mr. Sharpe £405, the former getting £500 and the latter £100 more than the defendants offered.  The defendants, therefore, were ordered to pay costs, and the litigation ended.

12.—Died at Bedford, Colonel Vincent Matthias, Madras Army, aged 73.  Born at Norwich, he was of a family of fifteen, and nine of his p. 166brothers entered either the Navy or Army.  He was appointed a cadet in 1810, and received his commission as ensign on August 24th, 1811, Colonel Mathias’ service extended over a period of more than thirty years.  He was an ardent sportsman, and while in India made a valuable collection of natural history specimens, which he presented to the Norfolk and Norwich Museum.

15.—The proceedings of the Town Council relative to the Norwich sewerage scheme commenced this year with the payment to Mr. P. E. Hansell, solicitor, of £205, the amount of taxed costs allowed to the informants in obtaining the injunction restraining the Corporation from putting sewage into the river Wensum.  On the 22nd the Council, after considerable debate, decided that the dry earth system advocated by Mr. Edward Boardman was not applicable to the district.  The Court of Reference appointed by the House of Commons to try the merits of the Norwich Local Board of Health Bill with reference to its engineering details and the estimated cost of the proposed works, commenced its investigations on March 11th.  The object of the Bill was “to provide for the better sewering of the city and the applying of the sewage to the irrigation of land.”  The referees reported to the House on the 14th that the works and estimates were sufficient for the objects proposed.  The Bill was before a Select Committee of the House of Commons on March 13th, and on March 26th it was, with certain amendments, reported to the House.  (See January 28th, 1868.)

16.—A deep snow caused considerable inconvenience to railway traffic.  A train from Norwich to Lowestoft came to a standstill in the Mutford cutting, and was not got out until the afternoon of the 17th.  The snow drifted to the depth of seven feet upon most of the lines, some of which remained closed for three days.  Many of the roads were impassable for vehicular traffic, and in some instances the mail bags were carried across country on foot.  Great distress prevailed amongst the poor, and special funds were raised in several towns for their relief.  At Norwich the amount contributed was £2,227.  On the 22nd a rapid thaw commenced.

FEBRUARY.

14.—Sir S. W. Baker, the discoverer of the sources of the Nile, delivered a lecture at St. Peter’s Hall, Norwich, upon the political condition of Egypt.  The Mayor presided over the large audience, who accorded a warm reception to Sir Samuel, who, at that time, was a resident in the county.

MARCH.

19.—The boiler of an engine at work in a field near Watlington Station exploded, killing five persons outright, and injuring seven others, two of whom died on the following day.  Such was the force of the explosion that the boiler was blown a distance of forty yards.  It was proved at the inquest that the accident resulted from the tying down the safety-valve.

p. 16729.—Charles Dickens appeared at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, and read, before a numerous audience, “Dr. Marigold” and the trial scene from “Pickwick.”

APRIL.

5.—Mr. Sothern appeared at Norwich Theatre, in the character of Lord Dundreary.  On the 6th he performed the part of David Garrick.  The house was crowded to excess on both occasions.

22.—Mr. Loveday’s English Grand Opera Company commenced an engagement at Norwich Theatre.  Madame Haigh-Dyer was the prima donna, and Mr. and Mrs. Aynsley Cooke were of the company.  The works produced included “Robert le Diable,” “The Fairy and the Cobbler,” “The Puritan’s Daughter,” “The Barber of Seville,” “Faust,” “Don Giovanni,” “Satanella,” “The Quaker,” &c.

24.—Lord Hastings and Mr. Anthony Hamond, masters of Norfolk foxhounds, were entertained at dinner at the Corn Hall, Fakenham, “in appreciation of their efforts to provide sport during the season.”  The Earl of Leicester presided.

MAY.

8.—Died at Yarmouth, aged 76, Lieut. William Simpson, R.M., of North Walsham.  He was one of the officers who received the Emperor Napoleon on board the Bellerophon, on July 15th, 1815.

14.—A great public meeting, in support of the United Kingdom Alliance, was held at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, and was addressed by General Neal Dow, who had taken a prominent part in the passing of the Maine Liquor Law.

18.—A meeting of the Norfolk Chamber of Agriculture, presided over by Mr. C. S. Read, M.P., was held “to discuss the future aggregate representation of the county in Parliament, in the event of the loss of three of its borough members,” namely, of two on the disenfranchisement of Yarmouth, and of one on Thetford being constituted a “single membered” borough.  The following motion was adopted: “That the attention of the Chamber having been directed to the clauses in the Bill before Parliament for the redistribution of seats, it is resolved that the proposal to take away three members from the county is unjust, and that the most strenuous efforts be made to retain twelve members, to which it is justly entitled, by reason of its population, wealth, and importance.”  It was announced on June 15th that, under the redistribution scheme, Norfolk would in future have three divisions, namely, West, North-East, and South-East.  The Boundary Commissioners appointed under the provisions of the Representation of the People Act held inquiries at Thetford on September 24th, at Norwich on September 27th and October 9th, at Lynn on October 2nd, and at the Shirehall, Norwich, on October 7th.  (See June 18th, 1868.)

21.—Died at West Bilney Hall, Mr. Thomas William Coke.  He was born in January, 1793, and was the eldest son of Edward Coke, of Longford, Derbyshire.  In his youth he was frequently at Holkham, p. 168and was long regarded as heir to the estate, but this prospect ended by the marriages in 1822, of his uncle, Thomas William Coke (created Earl of Leicester in 1837), to Lady Anne Keppel, the issue of which was the large family of whom the present Earl is the head.  Mr. Coke was very popular, and in early life was a fearless and accomplished horseman.

24.—The Queen’s birthday was observed at Norwich by a parade of the Volunteers and the firing of a feu de joie in the Market Place.  The Volunteers were entertained at dinner at the Drill Hall, 700 old people were invited by the Mayor and Sheriff to a feast at the Corn Hall, and luncheon was served at St. Andrew’s Hall for many of the leading residents in city and county.

28.—A modified observance of the old custom of “beating the bounds” took place in the parish of Colkirk.  “The existence of tithe maps and other circumstances halving rendered actual perambulation comparatively unnecessary, the circuit of the parish was omitted; but two brief services were held in the pretty green lanes at the opposite extremities of the parish, and were attended by 60 or 70 persons, including the little children of the village school, who marched through the village singing hymns, preceded by a modest banner.”  An address was given at both services by the Rev. W. A. Chapman.

JUNE.

4.—Died, at the age of 53, Dr. W. H. Ranking, formerly of Norwich.  He was descended from a family living on the borders of Norfolk and Suffolk, who had for three generations been engaged in the practice of medicine.  Dr. Ranking received his early education at Hastings, and subsequently entered the University of Cambridge.  After spending some time in the hospitals of Paris, he settled at Bury St. Edmund’s, and became physician to the Suffolk General Hospital, a post which he filled for seven years.  After the death of Dr. Lubbock, Dr. Ranking removed to Norwich, and became physician to the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, and editor of the Journal of the Council of the Provincial Medical and Surgical Association.  “He was a most uncompromising enemy to quackery in all its forms, and he always testified to the absurdity of what he considered the fashionable humbug of the age—homœopathy.”

19.—The annual show of the Norfolk Agricultural Association commenced at Fakenham, and was continued on the 20th.  By special permission granted by the Privy Council, at the request of a deputation introduced on May 9th by Mr. C. S. Read, M.P., cattle were exhibited under certain restrictions.  At the dinner, presided over by the Earl of Kimberley, Mr. E. C. Bailey was presented with a handsome testimonial, on his resignation of the office of secretary, after twenty-five years’ service.

24.—The First Administrative Battalion of Norfolk Volunteers, commanded by Col. James Duff, encamped in Hunstanton Park.

JULY.

5.—Mr. J. L. Toole commenced a two nights’ engagement at Norwich p. 169Theatre, and appeared in “The Spitialfields Weaver,” “Ici on parle Français,” and “The Area Belle.”

6.—Died, in his 70th year, at his residence, Surrey Road, Norwich, Mr. William Day, who for upwards of forty years had held the office of magistrates’ clerk.

9.—Died, Sir George James Turner, the senior Lord Justice of Appeal.  He was born at Great Yarmouth in 1798, where his father, the Rev. Richard Turner, was for thirty years vicar.  His education commenced at the Charterhouse (of which he was afterwards a governor), and finished at Pembroke College, Cambridge, where his uncle, Dr. Joseph Turner, Dean of Norwich, was then master.  In 1819 he took his degree as wrangler, and was soon afterwards elected a Fellow of Pembroke.  Having entered at Lincoln’s Inn, he was called to the Bar in 1821, and became Queen’s Counsel in 1840, and from 1847 to 1851 sat in the House of Commons as member for Coventry.  In 1851 he was selected as a Vice-Chancellor, and in 1853, when Lord Cottenham was appointed Lord Chancellor, he was promoted Lord Justice of the Court of Appeal.  Sir George married in 1823, Louisa, youngest daughter of Mr. Edward Jones, of Brackley, Northamptonshire.

AUGUST.

1.—A new lifeboat, the cost of which had been generously defrayed by a lady residing at Bath, was launched at Sheringham.  It was named the Duncan, and was housed in a commodious building, with reading-room attached for the use of the fishermen.

8.—At the Norfolk Assizes, before Mr. Justice Byles, Hubbard Lingley, aged 22, was indicted for the murder of Benjamin Black, his uncle, by shooting him at Barton Bendish, on May 17th.  The prisoner was found guilty and sentenced to death.  The execution was carried out by Calcraft, on the Castle Hill, Norwich, at eight a.m. on August 26.  “The holding of an execution upon Monday instead of on the market-day (Saturday) is a vast improvement, but it is to be hoped the time is not far distant when executions will take place within instead of outside the prison walls.”  (This was the last public execution in Norwich.)

—Died at her residence, at Weybridge, Mrs. Austin (Sarah Taylor, of Norwich).  She was born in 1793, and married, in 1820, Mr. John Austin, a barrister on the Norfolk Circuit.  A miscellaneous writer of some repute, she never aspired to original literary compositions, but devoted the singular power of her pen to the reproduction in English of many of the best contemporary works of German and French literature.  Her translations, from the German especially, were of the highest excellence.

12.—Chapel Field, Norwich, which had for some months been closed to the public, was re-opened.  Several portions of the old city wall had been removed, and railings erected, and efforts were also made to level the area.

14.—The Norfolk and Eastern Counties Working Classes Exhibition and Industrial Festival was opened at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, by p. 170the Mayor (Mr. F. E. Watson).  The exhibition consisted of works of art, industry, and mechanical invention, and remained open for one month.

30.—Mr. George Buttler Kennett, formerly of Great Yarmouth, was appointed clerk to the justices of Norwich, in place of Mr. William Day, deceased.

SEPTEMBER.

4.—A new lifeboat, named the “Licensed Victualler,” was launched at Hunstanton.  Its cost was defrayed by a fund inaugurated by Mr. James Wyld, editor of the “Licensed Victuallers’ Guardian.”

10.—A surf lifeboat was launched at Caister-next-the-Sea.  It was provided, at the cost of £300, by means of a fund raised by the editor of “Routledge’s Magazine for Boys,” and was christened by Mrs. Routledge, “The Boys’ Lifeboat.”

11.—The Royal Commission appointed to inquire into and report on the employment of children, young persons, and women in agriculture, for the purpose of ascertaining to what extent and with what modifications the principles of the Factory Acts could be adapted for the regulation of such employment, and especially with the view of the better education of such children, commenced its investigations in Norfolk in the Docking Union.  The Assistant-Commissioner (the Rev. James Frazer) held similar inquiries in other parts of the county, and, in an address to the members of the Norfolk Chamber of Agriculture, on September 28th, said he had met at forty-eight meetings 500 Norfolk farmers, “and not on one occasion had he heard a single painful or discourteous word drop from anybody’s lips.”

16.—The first annual regatta of the Norfolk and Norwich Rowing Club was held at Whitlingham.

17.—The Norfolk and Norwich Licensed Victuallers’ Association was formed at a meeting held at the Three Pigeons, Charing Cross, Norwich.

19.—A new church erected at Overstrand, in place of the old church, which had fallen into decay, was consecrated by the Bishop of Norwich.  The architect was Mr. A. Salvin, of London, and the builder Mr. R. Cornish, of North Walsham.  The necessary funds were provided principally by the Dowager Lady Buxton and the descendants of Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, deceased, by Mr. Gurney Hoare, Mr. Joseph Hoare, and others.

21.*—“A destructive parasitical weed has made its appearance on some of the small farms at Navarina, an open district forming a part of the very extensive manor of Lord Ashburton, at Thetford.  It is known as ‘the dodder.’  It completely absorbs or destroys the crop wherever it appears, and leaves the land barren of all but its own hair-like fibres.  So powerful and fatal is the grasp of this singular plant, that even the hardy and prickly gorse succumbs to the pressure of its delicate fibres.”

OCTOBER.

1.—The 15th Hussars, from Aldershot, marched into Norwich, under the command of Col. F. W. J. Fitzwygram.

p. 17112.*—“The county having for upwards of a year been free from cattle plague, the Norfolk Cattle Plague Association has been wound up, and the balance in hand, amounting to upwards of £4,000, has been invested in the names of trustees, Mr. Howes, M.P., and Mr. Read, M.P., to be available in case of any further emergency.”  The “London Gazette,” on October 23rd, contained an Order to take effect on November 4th, for the withdrawal of restrictions on the movement of cattle in the interior of the kingdom.

14.—A huge female elephant, weighing five tons, and belonging to Edmonds’ (late Wombwell’s) Menagerie, started from Diss with the show, but had not gone far when she fell in Denmark Street.  Poles and tackle had to be procured, and after four hours’ labour the ponderous animal was raised, put in the caravan, and taken back to the fair green, where she was placed in slings.  Cordials and other restoratives were administered, but the animal died on the following day.  She was valued at between £800 and £900, and had been fifteen years in the collection.

22.—An immense eel was taken from the river Ouse, near Denver Sluice.  It measured 5 ft. 8 in. in length, 17¼ in. in girth, and weighed 36 lbs. before and 28 lbs. after being skinned.  “Yarrel, in his ‘British Fishes,’ mentions having seen the skins of two at Cambridge which together weighed 50 lbs.—one 27 lbs. and the other 23 lbs., which were taken within a few miles of this spot.”

28.—The new fishmarket, wharves, and tramways constructed at Great Yarmouth, at the total cost of £15,799, were opened.

NOVEMBER.

5.—The new Drill Hall at Great Yarmouth, erected at the cost of £1,300, by Mr. Leggett, from designs by Mr. J. T. Bottle, was opened.

6.—St. Andrew’s church, Norwich, was re-opened after restoration.  The architect who superintended the work was Mr. William Smith, the Adelphi, London, and the contractor, Mr. Burrell, of Norwich.  The Bishop of Norwich preached the sermon.

—Died at Yarmouth, aged 82, James Sharman, the keeper of the Nelson monument on the South Denes.  He was a native of Yarmouth, and entered the Navy in 1799, having been “pressed” when a waiting lad at the Wrestlers Inn, and taken on board H.M.S. Weazel, Captain Durben.  After four years’ service he was wrecked off Cabaratta Point, near Gibraltar.  He then joined the Victory, under Captain Thomas Hardy, and at Trafalgar “assisted in carrying the dying Nelson from the lower deck to the cockpit.”

9.—Mr. Jeremiah James Colman was elected Mayor, and Mr. Robert Fitch appointed Sheriff of Norwich.

—At a meeting of the Norwich Town Council, a memorial was received from the parents of boys educated at the Commercial School, praying that the efficiency of that school should not be impaired in consequence of the large outlay required for making alterations in and additions to the Grammar School premises.  The Parliamentary and Bylaws Committee, to whom the memorial was referred, reported to the Town Council on November 26th that they strongly deprecated p. 172any increase in the fees of the Commercial School, but they considered the successful maintenance of the Grammar School of great advantage to the city.  The report was adopted.

10.—Died in Paris, aged 63, Mr. W. Wilshere, of Welwyn, Herts., and formerly member of Parliament for Yarmouth.  He became a candidate for that borough with Mr. Rumbold, in the Liberal interest, in 1837, when the Conservative candidates were Messrs. Baring and Gambier.  On the dissolution of Parliament in 1847, he retired from the representation of the borough.  “It is said that his various contests cost him a very large sum of money, and that in other respects the expenses incident to the representation of a borough on Liberal principles were too much for endurance.”

16.—Reference was made to the disbandment of the 1st Norfolk Light Horse, which had been under the command of Capt. Hay Gurney since its institution by him in 1861.  The members presented to their commanding-officer a testimonial “representing in frosted silver, on an ebony stand, a mounted officer and trumpeter in full dress.”

20.—The Scratby Hall estate, comprising 280 acres, was sold by auction by Messrs. Butcher, at the Star Hotel, Yarmouth, for £16,760.

26.—The Rev. Edward Marjoribanks Nisbet, M.A., was installed a residentiary canon at Norwich Cathedral.

30.—The Right Hon. Edward Stratham Gordon, Lord Advocate of Scotland, was elected to represent the borough of Thetford in Parliament, upon the resignation of the Hon. A. H. Baring.  Lord Frederick FitzRoy, who had come forward as a candidate, withdrew from the contest on the day appointed for the nomination.  “He departed for London, leaving behind him an address telling the electors that, by means of treachery, opposition had been brought against him.”

DECEMBER.

1.—The Norfolk coast, in common with the whole of England, was visited by a gale of unusual violence.  It resulted not only in great destruction of property, but in the loss of many lives.  At Yarmouth the waters overflowed the banks of the river, inundated all the low-lying lands from the harbour’s mouth to Reedham, and, flooding the neighbouring railways, stopped the traffic.  Several vessels were driven ashore and their crews lost.  On December 2nd the lifeboat Rescuer was entering the harbour with the shipwrecked crew of the ship George Kendall, from Liverpool to Hull, on board, when she fouled with a fishing-boat and was capsized.  Of the shipwrecked crew of twenty-three only four were saved, and of the lifeboat crew six were drowned.  Many widows and children were left destitute, owing to the large number of lives lost during the gale.

—The parish church of Little Ellingham was destroyed by fire.  The building had recently undergone extensive restoration, and the damage, due to the overheating of a new warming apparatus, amounted to upwards of £1,000.  Efforts were made by the Hingham fire brigade to preserve the chancel, and were in part successful, but the nave was wholly demolished.  Under the supervision of Messrs. T. H. and F. Healey, architects, of Bradford, the nave was rebuilt and the chancel p. 173repaired by the contractor, Mr. Clarke, of Hingham; and the church was re-opened for public worship on Ascension Day, 1869.

24.—A common hall was held at the Guildhall, Norwich, under the presidency of the Mayor (Mr. J. J. Colman), at which the citizens expressed their “detestation of the late Fenian outrage at Clerkenwell, their sympathy with the sufferers, and their loyal attachment to the Queen and the Constitution.”

26.—The Christmas pantomime produced by Mr. Sidney at Norwich Theatre was entitled, “Hush-a-Bye Baby on the Tree Top, or Harlequin Fortunio, Clown King Frog of Frog Island, and the Fairy Queen of the Golden Flowers.”  At Mander’s Menagerie, stationed on the Castle Meadow, “the electric light was exhibited in the interior during Maccomo’s performance with the lions, tigers, and elephants.”  On the 30th was produced at Henry and Adams’ Circus an “equestrian pantomime,” entitled, “O’Donaghue of the Lakes, or Harlequin Dermot Astore and the White Horse of Killarney.”

30.—The Prince and Princess of Wales arrived at Holkham, on a visit to the Earl and Countess of Leicester, and returned to Sandringham on January 4th, 1868.  Prince Edward of Saxe-Weimar was of the party.

1868.

JANUARY.

2.—At the Norfolk Quarter Sessions, held at Norwich, Mr. Day, the County Treasurer, gave notice of his intention at the Easter Sessions, to resign that office, which he had held for thirty-three years.  Mr. Day took leave of the Court on April 2nd, and Mr. Herbert William Day was elected in his place.

—Lord Suffield, at the Norfolk Quarter Sessions, moved the adoption of an address to her Majesty, expressing indignation at the Fenian outrages committed throughout the kingdom, and promising the hearty and vigorous co-operation of her Majesty’s loyal subjects in the county in supporting the Government in any efforts that might be made “to repress this odious conspiracy.”  It was stated on January 11th that at Yarmouth precautions had been taken to prevent an outbreak in the borough.  Each ward was under the special supervision of two magistrates; the store of gunpowder was removed from the outlying magazine at the North Battery to the South Battery, where a strong guard was stationed; and directions were given to the Artillery and Rifle Volunteers as to the course to be pursued in the event of their services being required.

14.—The Norwich Churchmen’s Club was established at a meeting held at the Clerical Rooms.  It was intended for “the self-culture and rational recreation of young men.”  For some years afterwards the society continued to flourish, and was instrumental during the early period of its existence in introducing to the city several eminent lecturers on scientific and other subjects.

p. 17416.—A remarkable seizure of about one hundred coombs of wheat was made at the New Mills, Norwich.  This “mass of filth, one-tenth wheat and nine-tenths rats’ dung and maggots,” had been sent to the mills by Mr. Orlando Barnes, of Beeston, “for the purpose of being dressed for the preparation of human food.”  The magistrates granted an order for its destruction, and on the 22nd and 23rd it was publicly burned in the Cattle Market.  At the Norwich Police Court, on February 7th, Mr. Barnes was summoned for sending the wheat to the mills with the view of preparing it for human consumption, and was fined 40s. and costs.  The Norfolk Chamber of Agriculture, on February 8th, discussed “the policy of destroying agricultural produce by any local authority under the Nuisances Removal Act, 1863, without sufficient proof of its unfitness for feeding or some other useful purpose.”  A motion was adopted affirming that such a practice was impolitic.  In the following week handbills were circulated calling upon the citizens to make an “indignation visit” to Mr. Barnes’ premises at Beeston on Sunday, February 16th.  The Mayor issued notices warning all persons to abstain from taking part in the proposed proceedings, and the Chief Constable of the county (Col. Black) drafted to the district thirty police-officers and eight mounted inspectors and sergeants to prevent trespass upon the farm.  Several thousands of persons visited the village during the afternoon, but a hostile demonstration was prevented.

18.—The colours of the 54th (West Norfolk) Regiment, bearing the marks of the severe conflicts through which they had passed, were “laid up” at Norwich Cathedral.  They were brought from Aldershot on the 17th, in charge of Capt. Shirecliff Parker, Lieut. Smart, Ensign Ibbetson, and two colour-sergeants, and were deposited for the night at the Guildhall.  On the morning of the 18th the colours, escorted by the 15th Hussars, and preceded by the band of that regiment, were borne to the Cathedral.  After Morning Prayer had been said, Lieut. Smart carried the Queen’s and Ensign Ibbetson the Regimental colour to the altar rails, and, kneeling, handed them to Canon Nisbet and Canon Heaviside, “who placed them leaning across the altar, one on the north and the other on the south side”; the National Anthem was played upon the organ, and the officers and escort, who wore their busbies, saluted.  Canon Nisbet preached from Psalm xx., part of the 5th verse.  The colours were subsequently placed in the positions they now occupy in the choir.

23.—A fire, involving the loss of three lives and the destruction of much valuable property, occurred at the house of Mr. Frederick Pigg, hosier and boot and shoe manufacturer, Market Row, Yarmouth.  Mrs. Pigg, in heroically attempting to save her two children, was buried beneath the falling roof of the building, and the charred remains of the mother and infants were found the following day.  The value of the property destroyed was about £3,500.

28.—The first of the many long discussions upon the sewerage question during this year took place at a special meeting of the Norwich Town Council, on a recommendation of the Sewerage Committee that a memorial from the citizens, praying for the introduction of the dry earth system, instead of an expensive scheme of drainage, be not adopted.  It was decided that the works had progressed too far to admit of any reconsideration of the plans.  On February 28th a large p. 175meeting of ratepayers was held at the Lecture Hall, St. Andrew’s, under the presidency of Sir Samuel Bignold, at which the following resolution was passed:—“That the Local Board of Health be respectfully requested to postpone the proposed drainage works, and that Messrs. Hay Gurney, Charles Foster, J. Davey, and W. H. Clabburn and the other promoters of the injunction be earnestly entreated not to interpose any obstacle to the Board’s compliance with this request.”  The “injunctionists,” on March 2nd, received a deputation appointed by the meeting, and, after hearing their statements, Dr. Dalrymple replied on behalf of the relators in the suit that they were of opinion “the question of proceeding with the scheme of drainage did not rest with them but with the Town Council, and they were not prepared to take any steps which would prejudice their legal position for enforcing the purification of the river.”  On March 10th a memorial was presented to the Town Council, urging that the drainage scheme in the then perplexity of sanitary science was “a speculation with the health of the city,” and that it was “stark madness to plunge into a gulf of unplumbed expenditure unwarned by the failures in other cities.”  A motion was adopted authorising the Sewerage and Irrigation Committee to negotiate for a loan not exceeding £60,000, required for the construction of sewerage works.  On the 17th a band paraded the city to attract the citizens to a common hall, at which resolutions were adopted affirming that the rates were too high and the trade of Norwich too depressed to warrant this costly experiment in drainage.  The Town Council, on April 7th, entered into a contract with Messrs. Shrimpton and Co., of Uxbridge Road, London, for the construction of certain sewerage works, at the cost of £28,874; and it was agreed to take up at interest of the Hand-in-Hand Fire and Life Office the sum of £30,000, of which £20,000 was to be paid as soon as the necessary security was prepared, and the remaining £10,000 at the expiration of six months, at the rate of £4 15s. per cent. per annum.  (See March 5th, 1869.)

31.—Died at Welborne, aged 100 years, Benjamin Tooley, “leaving a widow at the advanced age of 99.”

FEBRUARY.

1.—During the prevalence of a severe gale from W. and S.W., shipping casualties of a very serious character occurred off the coast of Norfolk, and inland considerable damage was done to property.  Trees were uprooted, stacks overturned, and many houses partially unroofed.

6.—A collision occurred off Happisburgh, between the screw steamer Swan, of and for Newcastle, and the paddle steamer Seagull, of Hull.  The Seagull, which foundered, with the loss of a passenger, was valued at £15,000, and her cargo at £10,000.

13.—During a run of the Norfolk and Suffolk Harriers over land at West Tofts, in the occupation of Mr. Colman, the hare was shot by a gamekeeper in the service of that gentleman.  During the altercation which ensued Mr. Colman appeared, and blows were exchanged between the members of the Hunt and himself.  Reinforcements came to Mr. Column’s assistance, and the engagement became general, the conflict ending in favour of the Hunt.  At the Norfolk Assizes, on March 31st. before Mr. Baron Martin, was tried the action, Colman v. Larkman, in p. 176which the plaintiff claimed damages for injury done to his crops and fences and for being assaulted with a hunting-whip by the defendant.  The special jury gave a verdict for the plaintiff, damages £50.

15.—Died at his residence, St. Giles’ Street, Norwich, Mr. Arthur Dalrymple, who had held the office of Clerk of the Peace since 1856.  He was a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, a lover of science and art, and possessed a unique and valuable collection of Norfolk portraits.

19.—In the Court of Exchequer, before the Lord Chief Baron, Messrs. Henry Morgan and others, as assignees of the estate and effects of Messrs. Riches and Watts, engineers, of Norwich, brought a claim against William Cafferata, engineer, of Newark, for the recovery of £5,000 damages which had been sustained by the estate of the bankrupts by reason of the explosion of a steam boiler which they purchased of the defendant and had supplied to Mr. Richard John Stark.  It was warranted to be of the very best metal, but was really of inferior quality, and burst with disastrous consequences.  The defendant accepted a verdict against himself of £2,000 damages.

20.—Died at Portsmouth, Rear-Admiral Robert Sharpe, K.T.S., aged 76 years.  A native of Tunstead, he entered the Navy in 1807, on board the Mars (Captain Lukin), and retired with the rank of Rear-Admiral in 1865.  “Whilst in command of the Siska, he conducted the King of Musquito from Blasford to Belize to be crowned.”

MARCH.

8.—Died at Thetford, in his 73rd year, Mr. Isaac Carr.  He was described as “a veteran politician of the old school, who was deputed some two years since by Mr. Harvey, M.P., to compile a history of Thetford, which he had not completed at the time of his death.”

9.—The ceremony of laying the foundation-stone of the new dock at Lynn was performed by Mrs. Jarvis, wife of Mr. L. W. Jarvis, chairman of the Dock Company.  (See July 7th, 1869.)

10.—The first screw steamboat built in Norwich was launched from Field’s boatbuilding yard, Carrow Abbey.  She was named the Alexandra, and was intended for passenger traffic on the local rivers.  Mr. John Hart Boughen was the owner of the vessel.

—Mr. Elijah Crosier Bailey was appointed Clerk of the Peace for the city and county of the city of Norwich.

—The Norwich Town Council, on the motion of Mr. Field, adopted a resolution affirming the desirability of arranging with the Board of Guardians for the collection by one set of paid collectors of all the public rates within the corporate district of Norwich.  On April 21st the Town Council adopted the report of a joint committee of the Corporation and the Guardians, who recommended that the corporate district be divided into eight districts; that the then four collectors be retained at the salary of £140 per year each; that four new collectors be appointed, at the salary of £100 a year each; that in future two poor rates be made yearly, namely, one in January and one in July, both of such rates to be collected in two instalments, the first in January and July, and the second in April and October; and that a like arrangement be made as to the making and collection of the rates of the Board p. 177of Health.  This arrangement was known as the consolidation of the rates.

27.—Died at North Creake, in his 71st year, the Ven. R. E. Hankinson, M.A., Archdeacon of Norwich.  He was educated at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, where he took his B.A. degree in 1821, and was ordained in the same year by Bishop Bathurst, of Norwich.  For some years he was minister of Well Walk Chapel, Hampstead; in 1847 was presented by the Dean and Chapter of Norwich to the incumbency of St. Margaret and St. Nicholas, King’s Lynn, which he held until 1863, when he was presented to the rectory of North Creake; and was appointed to the Archdeaconry of Norwich in 1857.  He was succeeded by the Rev. Augustus Macdonald Hopper, honorary canon and rural dean, and proctor for the Archdeaconries of Norfolk and Norwich, who was collated on April 26th.

31.—At the Norfolk Hotel, Norwich, a meeting of the Conservative and Constitutional Association passed a resolution condemnatory of Mr. Gladstone’s resolutions on the Irish Church.  Many meetings were held for the same purpose in different parts of the county, and on April 23rd the Norwich Diocesan Church Association recorded its protest against the measure.

APRIL.

8.—A complimentary dinner, attended by about 150 gentlemen, was given to Lord Hastings at the Royal Hotel, Norwich, in recognition of the successful manner in which he had hunted the East Norfolk Foxhounds.

13.—The English Grand Opera Company, managed by Mr. G. B. Loveday and Mr. Oliver Summers, commenced a season’s engagement at Norwich Theatre.  Madame Haigh-Dyer was the prima donna, and Mr. Henry Haigh and Mr. Henry Rowland were members of the company.  The works produced included “Un Ballo in Maschira,” “Fidelio,” “Masaniello,” “Faust,” “Lurline,” “Il Trovatore,” “Satanella,” “Rose of Castile,” and “Crown Diamonds.”

14.—The headquarters of the 15th Hussars marched from Norwich Cavalry Barracks, en route to York.

17.—East Raynham church was re-opened, after restoration.  The Marquis Townshend had entirely rebuilt the nave, at the cost of upwards of £4,000, and the rector, the Rev. R. Phayre, the chancel, at the cost of £1,000.  The work was commenced in May, 1866, by the contractor, Mr. William Hubbard, of East Dereham.

25.—Died at Ballycroy, Ballina, co. Mayo, where he had occupied an extensive farm, Mr. T. J. Birch, Judge of the Norfolk County Court circuit.  The second son of Mr. Wyrley Birch, of Wretham Hall, he was born prior to the settlement of the family in the county.  He was educated at Eton, and having graduated at Oxford, entered the Inner Temple, and was called to the Bar on November 18th, 1831.  His first official connection with the county was as a magistrate and joint chairman of the Court of Quarter Sessions.  After the passing of the first County Courts Act, the Liberal Government of the day appointed him, in March, 1847, to the judgeship of the Norfolk district.  He was succeeded p. 178in his appointment by Mr. William Henry Cooke, Q.C., Recorder of Oxford.

MAY.

1.—Died at the South Kensington Hotel, London, Mr. Albemarle Cator, of Woodbastwick Hall, aged 55.  He was one of the most prominent sportsmen in the county, was a Conservative in politics, and was upon the Commission of the Peace.  In the year preceding his death he served the office of High Sheriff of Norfolk.

4.—At a special meeting of the Norwich Town Council, an address was adopted congratulating the Queen upon the failure of the attempted assassination of the Duke of Edinburgh.

25.—The Queen’s birthday was observed at Norwich as a public holiday.  The Rifle Volunteers fired a feu de joie in the Market Place, and the Artillery Volunteers a salute on the Castle Hill.  The Mayor’s déjeuner at the Drill Hall was attended by 1,000 guests, and his entertainment at the Corn Hall by over 1,000 of the aged poor, among whom were an old lady aged 98 and her daughter aged 80.

30.—Died at Thetford, Mr. Leonard Shelford Bidwell, aged 86.  Mr. Bidwell had several times served the office of Mayor, was upon the Commission of the Peace for the county and for the borough, and was senior Alderman of the Corporation.  In politics he was a Conservative, and had always given his support and influence to the house of Baring in the representation of the borough.

JUNE.

11.—Died at his residence, Burrator, Devon, Sir James Brooke, K.C.B., Rajah of Sarawak.

13.—The name of Lord Ranelagh, High Sheriff of the county, was brought into unpleasant prominence at Bow Street Police Court, during the hearing of a charge against Madame Rachel for fraudulently obtaining from a Mrs. Borradaile the sum of £1,000, upon pretence of making her “beautiful for ever.”  Madame Rachel had informed her dupe that Lord Ranelagh had fallen desperately in love with her, and was ready to marry her “providing he had £1,400 for Volunteering purposes.”  Lord Ranelagh emphatically denied having had anything to do in the matter further than that he had received letters from Mrs. Borradaile, and had suggested to her family that she should be taken care of, believing that she was under delusions.

—Died at his residence, the Crescent, Norwich, in his 83rd year, Mr. J. N. V. Cooper, who was for more than 56 years clerk to the Governors of the Bethel Hospital.

18.—In the House of Commons it was agreed, on the motion of Mr. Howes, that the three divisions of the county be thenceforth known as North, South, and West Norfolk, instead of “North Eastern, South Eastern, and West.”

—The annual show of the Norfolk Agricultural Association commenced at Downham Market, and was continued on the 19th.  Mr. W. Amhurst Tyssen Amherst was President.

p. 17920.—The Norwich Volunteers attended the review held by the Queen in Windsor Park.  The Rifles, under the command of Lieut.-Col. Black, numbered 455; and the Artillery, under Capt. Barber, 111.  Both corps mustered on Tombland at 5.30 a.m., left Thorpe Station at 6.15 a.m., and returned from Windsor the same day.

27.—The 1st Administrative Battalion Norfolk Volunteers went into camp at Hunstanton Park, 500 strong, and remained under canvas until July 2nd.  The battalion was inspected by Col. Boileau.

30.—The Norwich Electoral Union selected Mr. Jacob Henry Tillett as Liberal candidate for the city, in view of the pending General Election.

JULY.

23.—A two days’ cricket match commenced on the Lakenham Ground, Norwich, between a team of “Aboriginal Australians” and the Carrow Club.  The Australians showed surprising skill with the bat, and in the first day’s play made 177, against the Carrow score of 82.

26.—Died, Robert Monsey Rolfe, Baron Cranworth of Cranworth.  His lordship was the eldest and only surviving son of the Rev. Edward Rolfe, and was born December 18th, 1790.  His father, like his uncle, grandfather, and great grandfather, was a plain country clergyman, holding the livings of Cockley Cley and of Cranworth, and it was at the rectory house of the latter parish that he was born, and from which he selected his title just 60 years afterwards.  His mother was a Miss Alexander, a granddaughter of Dr. Monsey, the physician of Chelsea Hospital.  Having received his early education at Bury St. Edmund’s, he was transferred to Winchester College, and in due course proceeded to Cambridge, took his B.A. degree as 17th wrangler in 1812, and was elected to the Fellowship of Downing College.  He entered Lincoln’s Inn, and was called to the Bar in 1816.  One of his first public appointments was that of Recorder of Bury St. Edmund’s, and he more than once, as a Liberal, contested the representation of the borough against the powerful interest of the Marquis of Bristol.  In 1832 he obtained a silk gown, and in the same year was returned to Parliament.  On becoming Solicitor-General, in 1834, he received the honour of knighthood, and at the close of 1839 accepted a puisne judgeship as one of the Barons of Exchequer.  In 1850 he was nominated a Vice-Chancellor, a post which, in the following year, he exchanged for that of a Justice of Appeal in Chancery, which he continued to hold until the Great Seal of the kingdom was entrusted to his hands by Lord Aberdeen, on the formation of the Coalition Cabinet in December, 1852.  In the same year he was raised to the Peerage, and as Lord Cranworth again held the Great Seal in 1865–66.  His lordship married Miss Carr, of Froghall Park, Hampstead.

27.—Mr. Simmons ascended in his large balloon from the Victoria Gardens, Yarmouth, and descended at Caister.  On August 6th he made an ascent from the Greenhill Gardens, Norwich, and descended in Horstead Park.  Mr. Simmons, on August 13th, exhibited the balloon in Norwich Market Place, where, in a captive state, it made several ascents.  The aeronaut, accompanied by Mr. William Maris, then ascended to the height of 10,000 feet in the space p. 180of two minutes, when the balloon drifted away in a north-easterly direction.  The passengers made a perilous descent near the sea coast.  They narrowly escaped with their lives by jumping out of the car, and the balloon, blown out to sea, fell into the water two and a half miles off Sheringham.  The voyage from Norwich lasted only fifteen minutes.

29.—A great Volunteer fête and al fresco entertainment took place in the grounds of Quebec House, East Dereham, the residence of Capt. Bulwer.  The fête, which was attended by many hundreds of persons, was in aid of the funds of the corps.

31.—Died at his residence, St. George’s Middle Street, Norwich, aged 75, the Rev. John Alexander, for nearly 50 years pastor of Prince’s Street chapel.  “He was honoured and loved by his congregation as a kind-hearted, liberal-minded, and truly Christian gentleman.”

AUGUST.

7.—The dismounted party of the B and C Batteries, Royal Horse Artillery, arrived by rail at Norwich.  The mounted portion marched in on the 13th, under the command of Major H. P. Bishop.

8.*—“The death, of Mr. George Cattermole, the well-known artist, is announced.  He was born at Dickleburgh, near Diss, in 1800.  At an early age he acquired proficiency as a draughtsman, and some of the most elaborate drawings in Britton’s ‘Cathedrals’ emanate from him.”

—Chang, the Chinese giant, was exhibited at the Lecture Hall, St. Andrew’s, Norwich.  “He is between 8½ ft and 9 ft. high, and his natural suavity of manner is very agreeable to those he meets.”

10.—The Grand English Opera and Ballet Company appeared at Norwich Theatre.  The artistes, included Miss Annie Thirlwall, Miss Blanch Cole, Miss Fanny Rowland, Mr. William Parkinson, Mr. Aynsley Cook, Mr. Eugene Corri, Mr. Charles Durand, &c.  In the company’s repertory were “Un Ballo in Maschira,” “Faust,” and a ballet divertissement, in which the sisters Louie and Marie Smithers appeared.

19.—The British Association for the Advancement of Science commenced its thirty-eighth congress at Norwich.  The General Committee met at St. Pater’s Hall in the morning, and in the evening the President, Mr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S., D.C.L., delivered his inaugural address, at the Drill Hall.  The various sections were presided over by the following gentlemen:—Mathematical and Physical Science, Professor Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S.; Chemical Science, Professor Frankland, F.R.S.; Geology, Mr. R. A. C. Godwin Austen, F.R.S., F.G.S.; Biology, the Rev. J. M. Berkeley, M.A., F.R.S.; Geography and Ethnology, Capt. Richards, F.R.S., Hydrographer to the Royal Navy; Economic Science and Statistics, Mr. Samuel Brown, President of the Society of Actuaries; Mechanical Science, Mr. G. Bidder, C.E.  On the 22nd the members were invited to Crown Point by Mr. R. J. H. Harvey and Lady Henrietta Harvey.  The concluding meeting was held at St. Peter’s Hall on the 26th, after which excursions were made to Lynn, Hunstanton, Wolterton, Walsingham, Burgh Castle, and Holkham Hall, where the members were entertained by the Earl of Leicester.  The International Congress of Prehistoric Archæology, presided over by Sir p. 181John Lubbock, was held simultaneously with the gathering of the British Association.  Its meetings took place at the Public Library.

19.—Died at his residence, Craven Hill Gardens, Bayswater, General Sir George Petre Wymer, K.C.B., Colonel of the 107th Regiment.  He was a son of Mr. George Wymer, of Reepham, where he was born on August 19th, 1788.  Educated at North Walsham, he entered the military service of the East India Company in August, 1804, served in Lord Lake’s campaign of 1805, and throughout the Nepaul War in 1814–15.  In 1840 he joined the army under Sir William Nott at Candahar, and was present during the investment of that city.  He was appointed brigadier, and in command of the First Brigade of the Candahar Force saw much active service.  In 1842 he was appointed aide-de-camp to the Queen, in recognition of his services in Afghanistan, and in 1857 he was made a K.C.B. for his military services in India.  His military career extended over 64 years.  General Wymer married, in 1833, a daughter of Sir C. F. Crespigny.

SEPTEMBER.

4.—A new lifeboat, built at the cost of £1,000 subscribed to the National Lifeboat Institution by Mr. Benjamin Bond Cabbell, of Cromer Hall, was launched at Cromer.  Mr. Bond Cabbell also provided all the necessary appliances, the transport carriage, and the boat-house.  The Bishop of the diocese delivered an address at the launch, and the ceremony of christening the boat by the name of Benjamin Bond Cabbell was performed by Miss Buxton.

7.—Died, Francis Baring, third Baron Ashburton.  His lordship was second son of Alexander, first Baron, by his wife Anne Louisa, eldest daughter of Mr. W. Bingham, of Philadelphia.  He was born on May 20th, 1800, and married in January, 1831, Mdlle. Claire Hortense, daughter of the Duke de Bassano, by whom he left issue Alexander, his successor in the title, and formerly Member of Parliament for Thetford, the Hon. Denzil Hugh Baring, and an only daughter, Mary Louisa Anne, married to the Duke of Grafton.  Previously to his accession to the family honours, the deceased nobleman represented Thetford in Parliament, namely, from 1832 to 1841, and from July, 1848, to December, 1857.  He was a Conservative in politics, but, like his father and brother, was moderate in his views, and generally voted with the class of politicians formerly known as “Peelites.”

10.—Died at Westgate House, near Bury St. Edmund’s, Rear-Admiral Sir William Legge George Hoste.  He was the eldest son of Sir William Hoste (who was created baronet in 1814 for his naval services, but particularly for the victory he gained over the combined French and Italian squadrons off the island of Lessa in 1811), and Lady Harriett, third daughter of Horatio, second Earl of Orford.  Born on March 19th, 1818, he succeeded to the baronetcy on the death of his father, in December, 1828.  He was Gentleman Usher to Queen Adelaide from 1845 to 1849, and was appointed Groom-in-Waiting to Queen Victoria in 1860.

OCTOBER.

21.—Died, from the effects of an accident, caused by a fall from his p. 182horse whilst riding from Cringleford to Earlham, Mr. Charles Evans, barrister-at-law, and Chancellor for the Diocese of Norwich.  Mr. Evans was born at Harrow in 1798, and was the eldest son of the Rev. Benjamin Evans, formerly a Fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge, and for many years assistant-master at Harrow School.  After remaining a short time at Eton, he proceeded to Pembroke College, where he took his degree in 1819, as twelfth wrangler, and was afterwards elected a Fellow.  On being called to the Bar Mr. Evans joined the Norfolk Circuit, and in 1824 settled in Norwich, where he practised to the time of his death.  In 1845 he was appointed by Bishop Stanley to the Chancellorship of the diocese.  He was acting judge of the Court of Record, Chairman of the Board of Guardians, to which office he was elected on the passing of the new Act in 1863; president of the directors of the Norwich Union Office, a magistrate of the city, chairman of the Governors of the Grammar School, &c.  Mr. Evans married in 1829 Emily, daughter of Mr. George Morse, of Catton, by whom he left eight children—five sons and three daughters.

31.—The Earl of Leicester presided at a meeting of the inhabitants of the county and city, held at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, “for the purpose of bringing the affairs of the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital before the public.”  Resolutions were adopted affirming that the resources of the institution were inadequate to meet the annual expenditure, and as a means of increasing the revenue it was desirable “that on one Sunday at least in every year, as far as possible on the same Sunday, collections be made for the benefit of the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital in places of worship throughout the diocese, where such collections shall not interfere with the claims of other hospitals.”  As the resources of the Hospital were heavily drawn upon by casualty cases, a separate fund called the Accident Fund was established.

NOVEMBER.

9.—Mr. Edward Kerrison Harvey was elected Mayor and Mr. John Robison appointed Sheriff of Norwich.

15.—For the second time since its erection in 1857–8, the Britannia pier at Yarmouth was partially destroyed.  Built at the cost of £6,000, it was originally 750 feet in length.  On October 25th, 1859, during a tremendous gale, a sloop, driven from her anchors, was dashed upon the pier and divided it into two portions.  It was deemed advisable not to rebuild the severed portion, 80 feet in length, and the terminal portion was subsequently removed.  During a heavy north-east gale on this date the schooner Seagull, of Lynn, parted from her anchors, and, drifting towards land, struck against the north side of the pier.  The crew of six hands speedily scrambled upon the structure and escaped, but about 105 feet of the centre portion of the pier was completely torn away and damage done to the amount of nearly £1,000.

16.—The nomination of candidates for Norwich, to be elected under the new Reform Act, took place at the Guildhall.  The Liberal candidates were Col. Sir William Russell, Bart., C.B., Charlton Park, Charlton Kings, Gloucester, and Mr. Jacob Henry Tillett; and the Conservative candidates Sir Henry Josias Stracey, Bart., of Rackheath, who had been selected about a fortnight previously.  The show of p. 183hands was in favour of the Liberals, and Sir Samuel Bignold demanded a poll, which was opened on the 17th “at 29 polling places most conveniently arranged in the different wards.”  The pronouncement of the electorate at this election was upon the Irish Church, and at Norwich, as elsewhere, a severe contest resulted.  The poll closed at four o’clock with the return of Sir William Russell and Sir Henry Stracey, the figures being officially declared on the 18th as follow:—Stracey, 4,521; Russell, 4,509; Tillett, 4,364.  Sir Henry Stracey, accompanied by Lady Stracey, on the morning of the 18th was escorted from Rackheath Park to Norwich, by his mounted tenantry, and received at Magdalene Gates by an imposing procession of Conservative electors, who, amid the playing of brass bands and the ringing of St. Peter Mancroft bells, accompanied him to the Guildhall.  After the declaration the procession, half a mile in length, marched through the city.  Mr. Tillett, in an address to the electors, stated: “The Tory party have, beyond all precedent, and in the most undisguised manner, committed themselves to the disgrace involved in the wholesale purchase of votes.”  (See January 14th, 1869.)

16.—The nomination of representatives to serve in Parliament for the Western Division of the county took place at Swaffham, when Sir William Bagge, Bart., and the Hon. Thomas de Grey were re-elected without opposition.

17.—The nomination of candidates for the borough took place at King’s Lynn.  Lord Stanley and the Hon. Robert Bourke were nominated by the Conservatives, and Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, Bart., by the Liberals.  The poll was opened on the 18th, and resulted as follows:—Stanley, 1,265; Bourke, 1,125; Buxton, 1,012.  (See March 16th, 1869.)

—Died at his residence, Surrey Street, Norwich, in his 82nd year, Mr. Thomas Brightwell.  A native of Ipswich, he married the only daughter of Mr. W. M. Wilkin, of Costessey, and settled in Norwich, where he resided for 60 years, and practised as a solicitor.  An earnest Nonconformist, he joined the congregation which assembled at the Old Meeting in St. Clement’s, where to the close of his life he officiated as one of the deacons.  He was the author of a work on the Pentateuch, and his intellectual attainments and scientific pursuits gained him admission into the circle which included William Taylor, Doctors Sayers, Martineau, Rigby, and Barrow, Sir James Smith, and other Norwich celebrities.  Men bearing historic names, and of widely different sentiments, had from time to time been entertained beneath his roof—Williams, Dr. Gary, Moffat, Doctors Philip and Wolff, of missionary fame; Joseph Kinghorn, the eloquent Irving, Belzoni, the Egyptian explorer; Professor Sedgwick, George Borrow, and many others who had done good service in the cause of religion, literature, and science.  A close observer of nature, Mr. Brightwell gave much of his time to entomology, and a fine collection of insects in the Norfolk and Norwich Museum was formed by him.  But the study to which, in his later years, he devoted especial attention was that of Infusoria.  A treatise upon Infusoria, illustrated from drawings by his daughter, was written by Mr. Brightwell and printed for private circulation.  At the Norwich Congress of the British Association, of which he was a vice-president, he was greatly amused by the anxious and ineffectual endeavours made by several of the scientific men present to procure p. 184copies of the work, then out of print.  In 1821 Mr. Brightwell became a Fellow of the Linnæan Society, and he also rendered considerable assistance in the formation of the Norfolk and Norwich Literary Institution and of the Norfolk and Norwich Museum.

21.—The nomination of candidates for South Norfolk took place at the Shirehall, Norwich.  The Conservative candidates were Mr. Edward Howes, of Morningthorpe, and Mr. Clare Sewell Read, of Honingham Thorpe.  Mr. Henry Lombard Hudson, of Harleston, was nominated by the Liberals.  The polling, on the 24th, resulted as follows: Read, 3,097; Howes, 3,055; Hudson, 1,679.

23.—The following gentlemen were nominated at Aylsham to contest the new constituency of North Norfolk:—Sir Edmund Knowles Lacon, Bart., and the Hon. Frederick Walpole, Conservatives; Mr. Edward Robert Wodehouse and Mr. Robert T. Gurdon, Liberals.  The polling took place on the 26th, at nine polling-places—Aylsham, Cromer, Holt, North Walsham, Ormesby, Reepham, Stalham, Wells, and Yarmouth.  The official declaration was made at Aylsham on the 28th, as follows:—Walpole, 2,630; Lacon, 2,563; Wodehouse, 2,235; Gurdon, 2,078.  (See May 17th, 1869.)

DECEMBER.

19.*—“A club bearing the name of the Norwich Football Club has been started, and has already begun to play upon the Norfolk and Norwich Cricket Ground.  Mr. Croker has been elected president, and Mr. Edward A. Field treasurer and secretary.”  The members made their public début on February 5th, 1869, in a match against King Edward VI. School.  (This is the first reference to football, as distinct from the old game of camp ball, made in the columns of the Norfolk Chronicle.)

26.—The pantomime produced at Norwich Theatre was entitled “The White Fawn, or the Loves of Buttercup and Daisy and the Fairies of the Coral Lake.”  At Wombwell’s Menagerie (then owned by Mr. Fairgrieve, of Edinburgh) was exhibited, “Prince Bonta Workey, son of the late King Theodore, who held levées in his grand state saloon at stated intervals during the day.”

—Died at his residence, Chapel Field Road, Norwich, Mr. Trivet Allcock, in his 80th year.  “He was an active politician and staunch Liberal, and had associated in his earlier life with men like William Taylor and others, whose superior learning formerly made Norwich celebrated.”

1869.

JANUARY.

1.—At the justices’ room of the Mansion House, London, John Henry Gurney, Henry Edmund Gurney, Robert Birkbeck, Henry Ford Barclay, Henry George Gordon, and William Rennie, directors of Overend, p. 185Gurney, and Company, Limited, were summoned for having, in July, 1865, and at divers other times, conspired to defraud Dr. Adam Thom and others who became shareholders in the company, of money to the amount of three millions sterling.  The defendants, on the 27th, were committed for trial, and were admitted to bail, each of them in the sum of £10,000, with two sureties of £5,000 each.  The trial commenced in the Court of Queen’s Bench on December 13th, before the Lord Chief Justice, who summed up on December 22nd, and the jury, after a few minutes’ deliberation, returned a verdict of not guilty.  Intense excitement prevailed in Norwich during the trial, and on December 22nd, when the result was telegraphed to the city, it was everywhere hailed with great satisfaction.  A remarkable scene occurred at Norwich Corn Hall, where a sale was in progress when the intelligence was received.  The proceedings were stopped by cheering, the waving of hats, and other demonstrations of approval, and the auctioneer, addressing the company, said, “The name of Gurney was an honoured name in Norwich.  The Gurneys had ever been friends of the poor and kind and good to all classes, and all were glad that the trial had resulted in the honourable acquittal of all the defendants.”

2.—At the Lambeth Police Court, William Sheward, aged 57, was charged upon his own confession with the wilful murder of his wife, Martha Sheward, at Norwich, on June 15th, 1851.  On the night of January 1st the prisoner went to the Carter Street Police Station and said to the officer in charge, “I have killed my wife.  I have kept the secret for years, but I can keep it no longer.”  In a further statement he said he had intended to destroy himself, “but the Almighty would not let him do it.”  He added that he had cut up his wife’s body, and that a portion was kept in spirits of wine at the Guildhall at Norwich, by order of the magistrates.  At the Norwich Police Court, on January 4th, the Chief Constable (Mr. Hitchman) detailed to the magistrates the particulars reported to him by the London police, and stated that on June 21st, 1851, portions of a human body were found in different parts of the city and deposited at the Guildhall.  The magistrates issued a warrant for the apprehension of Sheward, who, on January 7th, was brought to Norwich, and appeared before the Bench on January 8th.  He was described as a licensed victualler, of the Key and Castle public-house, St. Martin-at-Oak, and it was proved that he married his first wife, a Norfolk woman, who formerly lived at Wymondham, at Greenwich, on October 28th, 1836.  In 1838 he came to Norwich, opened a pawnbroker’s shop in St. Giles’, and became bankrupt.  When living in Tabernacle Street, in 1851, his wife suddenly disappeared, about the 9th or 10th of June.  Upon this evidence the prisoner was remanded, and at subsequent hearings witnesses were called who deposed to finding various portions of human remains in different parts of the city and suburbs in the summer of 1851.  Relatives of the deceased woman stated that the prisoner accounted for her disappearance by saying that she had left Norwich for a time.  On February 1st the prisoner was fully committed for trial.  At the Norwich Assizes, on March 29th, before Mr. Baron Pigott, Sheward was placed upon his trial, and on the second day of the hearing Mr. Metcalfe, Q.C., for the defence, contended that the accused was labouring under delusions when he made the confession.  The jury, after three-quarters of an hour private deliberation, returned a verdict of guilty, and the prisoner, who had nothing to say, was sentenced to death.  Immediately after p. 186the trial anonymous letters were published in the London newspapers asserting the innocence of the prisoner; similar letters were addressed to the Magistrates’ Clerk at Norwich, and one communication actually purported to have been written by Mrs. Sheward herself.  Efforts were made to obtain a commutation of sentence, on the ground of the long interval that had elapsed between the perpetration of the murder and the trial of the accused.  These efforts, however, were of no avail, and the capital sentence was carried out by Calcraft at the City Gaol on April 20th.  This was the first private execution that had taken place in Norwich.  It was announced that on April 13th the culprit made a full confession of his crime, and gave detailed particulars of the manner in which he had disposed of the body of the murdered woman.  In a letter to his second wife he also admitted his guilt.

14.—The trial of the election petition presented by Mr. Jacob Henry Tillett against the return of Sir Henry Josias Stracey, Bart., as member of Parliament for Norwich, commenced at the Shirehall, before Mr. Baron Martin.  Counsel for the petitioner were Mr. Serjeant Ballantyne, Mr. Keane, Q.C., and Mr. Simms Reeve; and for the respondent, Mr. Rodwell, Q.C., Mr. Serjeant Sleigh, Mr. E. L. O’Malley, and Mr. J. C. C. Wyld.  Bribery, treating, personation, and other matters were alleged.  In his opening address, Mr. Ballantyne asserted “that the bribery was most profligate and most wholesale, and that houses were opened by persons of apparent respectability for the mere purpose of carrying out this bribery, and men of position who ought to have known a great deal better were concerned in it.”  After three days’ hearing, the trial resulted in the unseating of Sir Henry Stracey.  The learned judge, in his report to the Speaker of the House of Commons, stated that although no corrupt practice was proved to have been made with the knowledge or consent of any of the candidates, and, further, it was proved to his entire satisfaction that neither Sir Henry Stracey nor the other candidates at the said election had any personal knowledge of or connection whatever with bribery or any other illegal or corrupt practice, he had determined that Sir Henry Stracey was not duly elected, and that his election was rendered void by the acts of his agents.  The persons reported for being guilty of corrupt practices were Robert Hardiment, Arthur Hunt, Robert Callow, and Thomas Hutchings.  The first-named absconded after the petition was presented.  It was also stated in the report that a number of persons went to the poll in a gross state of drunkenness.  (See April 1st.)

15.—A trout weighing 15 lbs. was captured in a drop net near the New Mills, Norwich.

16.—Messrs. Jolly and Son, coachbuilders, Norwich, advertised that they had “arranged to supply from a noted French maker the celebrated bicycle velocipede, so much in vogue in Paris.”  The price of the machine was from 8 gs. upwards.  On the 30th there was an editorial announcement to the effect that “an attempt is being made to introduce this latest novelty in locomotive machinery, now so fashionable in Paris, to the Norwich public, by Mr. C. Thorn, who has two at his establishment, for the inspection of the curious.”  The “first velocipede journey of any considerable distance from Norwich” was performed on March 30th by Mr. B. W. Jolly, who travelled from Norwich to Yarmouth, including a stoppage of fifteen minutes at Acle, in 2 hours 30 minutes.  “The progress of the traveller was considerably retarded by p. 187the roughness of the roads and a powerful gale.”  A short time previously Mr. G. W. Bellamy, of Saxlingham, on a velocipede built by Messrs. Jolly and Son, but under much more favourable conditions as to roads and weather, accomplished a distance of 56 miles in 6 hours 25 minutes, exclusive of a short delay midway on the journey.  A Norwich Velocipede Club was established in the month of April, and on the 29th an exhibition of the machines was held at the Corn Hall, under the management of Mr. Thorn.  On the same occasion was exhibited “one of the old-fashioned dandy horses, the original or the velocipede tribe,” but, it was added, “the now velocipede is more easily managed.”  The first velocipede races took place at the athletic sports of the Norwich Gymnastic Society, held on Newmarket Road Cricket Ground, on May 24th.  A “slow race,” ridden by Messrs. Jolly, Griffiths, and Goldsmith, was won by the last-named.  A “plank race,” in which the bicycles were ridden upon a seventy yards’ length of plank, was won by a competitor named Ewing.  A one mile “fast race” was ridden in heats, the first of which was won by Kent, of Beccles, and the second by Bellamy.  Kent was the winner of the final heat, in 4 minutes 49 seconds.  “He came over on his bicycle from Beccles in the morning, and returned the same way after the sports.”  By the end of the year there was a marked increase in the number of local cyclists.  Accidents to inexperienced riders were frequently recorded, and many complaints were made by drivers of the alarm occasioned to horses by the appearance of these new-fangled machines.

16.—The so-called monastic chapel erected at Elm Hill, Norwich, by Father Ignatius, was the subject of further discussion.  Miss Robinson, a “lady preacher,” had hired the “monastery,” and named it the “Jehovah Jireh chapel,” whereupon Ignatius issued a notice warning her and others concerned that he was the owner of the building.  On this date “Brother Philip” and one or two other members of the confraternity came to Norwich, under instructions from Ignatius, and demanded the keys of the building from Mr. Liddlelow, who refused to give them up unless authorised by his principal, Mr. Backhouse, surveyor, of Ipswich.  At midnight on the 18th Ignatius, who had arrived in Norwich a few hours previously, with other brethren, gained access to the old sanctuary by, they asserted, miraculous intervention, and thence made their way to the new chapel.  The police were sent for, and Ignatius was informed that he had no right there; as he declined to leave the building, the police refused to interfere.  Mr. Liddlelow, on the 19th, applied to the magistrates for an order of ejectment, but as a question of right was involved, they would have nothing to do with the matter.  On the same evening Ignatius performed service in the chapel, and stated, in the course of his address, that Miss Robinson had acted in the most honourable manner, but had been misled by others.  He alluded to her as his “sister in Christ,” and Miss Robinson, who preached in the chapel on the evening of the 20th, spoke of Ignatius as her “brother in Christ.”  Ignatius addressed the congregation at the close of the proceedings, and informed them that he should never allow the chapel to be used for any other purpose than that of monastic worship.  “Although the members of Father Ignatius’ congregation and the members of Miss Robinson’s flock could not be more opposed in their mode of thought, yet the greatest harmony prevailed, and at the close they offered up the Lord’s Prayer in perfect unison.”

p. 18818.—The new Cemetery at Diss was consecrated by the Bishop of Norwich.  The total cost of the chapels, lodge, &c., was about £1,750, but this sum was exclusive of the price of the land.

FEBRUARY.

5.—Died, in his 87th year, at Norwich, Thomas Hurry, church bell-hanger, and for more than 50 years a member of the St. Peter Mancroft company of ringers.

12.—A severe gale occurred on the Norfolk coast.  The barque Try Again was lost off Yarmouth, and the crew saved by means of the rocket apparatus.  Other vessels were wrecked, and several lives lost.

13.*—“We are sorry to learn that the Norfolk County Cricket Club has been brought to an untimely end.  The officers of the club hold out no hope that it can be carried on, as the persistent apathy of those who call themselves members, many of whom have failed to pay their subscriptions, has left the treasurer with a large amount of debts and no hope of being able to meet them.”  At a meeting held on the 17th, it was agreed by the Dereham Cricket Club to hire the ground hitherto let to the County Cricket Club.

MARCH.

5.—At a meeting of the Norwich Town Council, a report was received from the Sewerage and Irrigation Committee, stating that an intimation had been made by the contractor for the construction of the intercepting sewers that he would be unable to proceed with his contract unless the Committee advanced him a sum of money.  As neither the Committee nor the Board of Health had power to do so under the contract, proposals were made to the contractor (Mr. Wainwright), which resulted in the Committee taking possession of the works, materials, &c.  The opinion was expressed that the Committee had acted with due consideration of the interests and safety of the public, and at the same time with consideration for the contractor, who appeared to have met with unforeseen difficulties in the prosecution of that part of the works in course of construction at Trowse, the soil there consisting of sand instead, as was supposed, of chalk.  The Town Council, on March 16th, agreed that the contract with Mr. Wainwright be cancelled, upon payment to the parties entitled thereto of £2,800, in full satisfaction of all claims and for the purchase of plant and materials.  On July 20th the Sewerage and Irrigation Committee reported that, in consequence of the nature of the soil through which so large a portion of the tunnelling had to be carried, and other unforeseen circumstances, the original estimate would be exceeded, but the ultimate cost of the works would not be more than £81,500, to be reduced to £78,500 by the sale of plant, &c.  A description of the sewerage works was published on December 24th, from which it appeared that all the money authorised to be raised by Act of Parliament, £75,000, had been borrowed, and the greater part of it already expended.  The whole of the high level sewer was completed on this date.  It extended from the Ipswich Road, along Town Close Road, through Mount Pleasant Lane, across the fields and under Mill Hill p. 189Lane to West Pottergate street, Bedford Street, Opie Street, the Cattle Market, and King Street, to a point near Messrs. Morgan’s Brewery, where it joined the low level sewer, a distance of more than two and a half miles.  Branch sewers had been laid in various directions.  The low level sewer, from the New Mills, along Westwick Street, Charing Cross, St. Andrew’s, Prince’s Street, Tombland, Upper King Street, and along King Street to the gates had also been completed, a few short distances excepted.  The work was carried out under the direction of the engineer, Mr. Morant, and of the Sewerage and Irrigation Committee, of which Mr. J. G. Johnson was chairman.  (See October 1st, 1872.)

9.—Died at Torquay, Sir John P. Boileau, Bart., of Ketteringham Park.  The eldest son of Mr. John Peter Boileau, he was born in 1794, educated at Eton and Merton College, Oxford, and in 1813 entered the Rifle Brigade, from which he retired in 1818.  He married, in 1824, Lady Catherine Sarah Elliot, daughter of the first Earl of Minto, by whom he had two sons, Francis George Manningham, born in 1830, who succeeded to the baronetcy, and Edward William Pollin, born in 1831, and five daughters.  Sir John was a magistrate and Deputy Lieutenant for the county of Norfolk, and served the office of High Sheriff in 1844.  As a memorial to his wife, who died in 1862, he founded the Catherine ward in the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital.  He was devoted to the pursuit of science and the arts, was a vice-president of the Society of Antiquaries, a Fellow of the Royal Society and of the Society of Artists, president of the Norfolk and Norwich Archæological Society, vice-president of the Norfolk and Norwich Museum, and a member of the committee of the Norfolk and Norwich Triennial Musical Festival.

11.—Prince’s Street chapel, Norwich, was re-opened, after having been re-arranged and improved, under the direction of Mr. Edward Boardman, architect, at the cost of £2,600.  As originally planned, in 1819, it was a building of heavy and uninteresting appearance; the new designs by Mr. Boardman gave to it an imposing façade.  The Rev. Newman Hall preached at the opening services.

12.—A race took place between Joseph Tuck, a pedestrian, of Little Snoring, and a trotting pony belonging to Mr. Gutteridge.  The match was for £40, the distance 500 yards, and the start was from scratch.  Tuck had the race in hand the whole way, and passed the winning-post thirty yards ahead of the pony.

13.*—“Mr. Bunnett, of Norwich, has successfully undergone the necessary preliminary of the searching examination in music by Professor Sterndale Bennett.  As a corollary of the examination, the exercise of Mr. Bunnett for the degree of Doctor in Music was performed in the chapel of Trinity College, Cambridge, on the 8th instant, in the presence of Professor Bennett, and produced a very good impression.”

16.—The trial of the election petition against the return of the Hon. R. Bourke, one of the Conservative members for the borough, commenced at King’s Lynn, before Mr. Baron Martin.  The petitioners alleged corrupt practices, treating, and intimidation.  The hearing concluded on the 17th, when the Judge stated that he was clearly of opinion that the object of the petition had failed, and it would be his duty to report to the Speaker of the House of Commons that Mr. Bourke had been duly elected.

p. 19027.—At the Norwich Assizes, before Mr. Baron Pigott, Francis Howard Clare (42), shoemaker, was indicted for the wilful murder of his wife, Ann Frances Clare, on October 16th, 1868.  The woman was found with her throat cut, and it was alleged that the prisoner had inflicted the wound.  Mr. Metcalfe, for the defence, set up the theory of suicide, and the jury, adopting that view, returned a verdict of not guilty.

APRIL.

1.—In the House of Commons a motion was agreed to for the appointment of a Royal Commission to inquire into alleged corrupt practices at Norwich at the last election of members to serve in Parliament.  (See August 21st.)

14.—The Watton and Swaffham Railway Bill was considered by a Select Committee of the House of Commons.  The company asked for powers to extend from Watton in the direction of Thetford the line of railway constructed between Swaffham and Watton.  The Committee decided that the preamble had been proved.  On June 25th a Select Committee of the House of Lords ordered the Bill to be reported to that House.  The estimated cost of the construction of the line was £72,500; the capital proposed to be raised under the Bill was £80,000—£62,000 by shares, and the remaining £20,000 by borrowing powers.  The line to Roudham was opened for passenger traffic on October 18th.

15.—The Committee appointed by the House of Commons to investigate the condition of turnpike trusts considered the affairs of the Norfolk group.  The Committee decided that the New Buckenham, the Norwich, Swaffham, and Mattishall, the Norwich and Watton, and the Thetford trusts be not continued, and that the Aylsham and Cromer trusts be continued.

MAY.

12.—Died at King’s Lynn, Mr. Charles Gill, “the well-known and highly respected lessee and manager of theatres in the East Anglian district, and talented comedian.”  Mr. Gill had attained the age of 74 years, and left a daughter with whom he was about to proceed to Australia.  In his earlier days Mr. Gill performed with the great Kean and many other eminent actors.

17.—Loveday’s English Opera Company commenced an engagement at Norwich Theatre.  Mdlle. Mariana and Miss Ella Collins made their first appearance in Norwich.

—The hearing of the election petition against the return of the Hon. Frederick Walpole and Sir E. H. K. Lacon, as members for North Norfolk, commenced at the Shirehall, Norwich, before Mr. Justice Blackburn.  The nominal petitioner was Mr. Edward Colman, merchant, of London, who alleged bribery, treating, undue influence, employment of roughs, illegal payment of travelling expenses, and, what was a novel feature in election inquiries, the employment of canvassers.  Counsel for the petitioner were Mr. Serjeant Ballantyne and Mr. p. 191Littler, and for the respondents Mr. O’Malley, Q.C., Mr. Rodwell, Q.C., and Mr. Blofeld.  The trial concluded on the 24th, when his lordship, in delivering judgment, said the petition had completely failed.  Both members were duly elected, and in the present case there was no reason for departing from the rule that the petitioner must pay the costs.

24.—The Queen’s birthday was observed in the usual manner at Norwich.  A parade of the Royal Horse Artillery and the Volunteers took place.  The event was officially observed on June 2nd, when the troops were reviewed on Mousehold; the Mayor and Mayoress entertained the aged poor at the Corn Hall, and gave a feast to the inmates of the Workhouse.

26.—The foundation-stone of the new church of St. James’, Yarmouth, was laid by the Dean of Norwich.  The church was partially opened on April 27th, 1870.

JUNE.

4.—A crane was shot at South Pickenham.  It was a young male, in good condition, measured 64 inches in length, and weighed 10½ lbs.; the expanse of its wings was 93 inches.  On the 12th two were killed out of four seen at Burnham, and about the same time another was shot on the Thornham salt marshes.  The occurrence of so many cranes in one year was remarkable, as not more than three or four specimens were known to have been procured in Norfolk during the preceding half century.

8.—A great demonstration was held at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, in opposition to the Irish Church Bill.  The meeting was convened by the Norwich Conservative and Constitutional Association, and was presided over by Sir Samuel Bignold.

9.—Died at Lugano, Switzerland, where he had gone for the benefit of his health, Mr. Charles Cory, Town Clerk of Great Yarmouth, aged 57.  He was a son of Mr. Robert Cory, solicitor, a former Mayor of the borough, and was elected Town Clerk in 1851, in succession to Mr. J. Clowes.  Mr. Charles Diver was elected to the vacant office on June 21st.

15.—At a special meeting of the Norwich Town Council, it was reported that new governors had been appointed under the amended Grammar School and Commercial School scheme.  The Town Clerk, it was stated, had obtained for the Corporation the right of interfering in the trust, and had procured the adoption of the lists furnished by the Council.  The principle obtained was an important one—that no body of trustees exercising a trust for the benefit of the city and neighbourhood should be allowed to make enormous and various changes in their government and management of the school, which was the property of the Council as much as theirs, without the sanction of the representative body.

24.—The annual show of the Norfolk Agricultural Association commenced at Attleborough, and was continued on the 25th.  The members’ dinner took place at the Corn Hall, and was presided over by the Hon. Thomas de Grey, M.P.

p. 19226.—The annual camp of the 1st Administrative Battalion of Norfolk Volunteers was formed at Hunstanton Park.  The Battalion was inspected by Lieut.-Col. Elliott, and the camp was struck on July 2nd.

JULY.

7.—The new dock at Lynn, completed at the cost of upwards of £80,000, was opened by the Prince of Wales, who was accompanied by the Princess of Wales.  Their Royal Highnesses arrived by special train from London, and were received at the railway station by the Chairman of the Dock Company (Mr. L. W. Jarvis), the Mayor (Mr. J. Thorley), the members of Parliament for the borough, and others.  Escorted by a troop of the 3rd (Prince of Wales’) Dragoons, from Colchester, the Prince and Princess proceeded to the Town Hall, where an address was read by the Recorder.  After a visit to the Grammar School, where his Royal Highness presented the medal annually given by him to the head boy, the procession went to the Common Staithe Quay, where the twin screw steamer Mary, of London, was lying ready to receive the party on board.  The band of the Grenadier Guards, under Mr. Dan Godfrey, played a selection of music as the vessel steamed down the Estuary Channel.  Returning to the harbour, the Mary passed through the lock gate into the Dock basin, amid the loud cheers of the spectators, the playing of the National Anthem, and the ringing of the church bells.  His Royal Highness having declared the Dock duly opened, said that it would thenceforth be called the Alexandra Dock.  The Royal visitors and a distinguished company next proceeded to the Town Hall for luncheon.  The Prince and Princess afterwards left for Sandringham.  In the evening the town was illuminated, and a display of fireworks was given in the Tuesday Market Place.

8.—After lying high and dry for upwards of nine weeks, the large screw steamer, Lady Flora, was launched from Caister beach.  She was a first-class vessel, of 750 tons register, and 1,000 tons gross, 205 feet in length, 29 feet beam, and was valued at £16,000.  On May 1st she ran hard and fast on the beach, in close contiguity to the dangerous shoal known as the Patch.  Early in June the services of Mr. T. B. Carr, engineer, of Hull, were engaged by the underwriters, and efforts were made to get her off.  The steamer had become embedded in the sand to the depth of eight feet, but by the aid of very powerful hydraulic cranes and other appliances, and assisted by 120 men, Mr. Carr succeeded in lifting the vessel four feet above the beach.  In these operations upwards of £2,000 was expended.  Three thousand persons assembled to witness the launch.  When the blocks were knocked away the vessel, by her own weight, glided broadside off, and rolled in magnificent style into 4½ feet of water.  Her draught (empty) was eight feet; as the tide rose she floated with it, and was towed to Hull for repair.  On November 20th it was announced that the Lady Flora, which was then engaged in the Baltic trade, had been lost at sea.

16.—In recognition of the great services he had rendered to the Norwich Battalion of Rifle Volunteers during the five years it was under his command, Col. Black was presented with a service of plate by the officers, non-commissioned officers, and members of the corps.  p. 193Col. Black was succeeded in the command of the Battalion by Col. G. M. Boileau.

19.—Robertson’s comedy, “Caste,” which marked a new era in the character of theatrical representation, was produced for the first time in Norwich, by a company which appeared at the Theatre Royal, under the management of Mr. Frederick Younge.  The transition from sensational drama and broad farce to refined comedy was by no means appreciated by local playgoers, and the attendance during the week was unusually small even for Norwich.  “School” was the other piece performed by the company, which comprised Mr. Frederick Younge, Mr. Craven, Mr. J. W. Ray, Mr. G. Canninge, Mr. Fortune, Mrs. E. Dyas, Miss Ada Dyas, and Miss Brunton.

21.—Died at Saham, Mr. Jonas Silvanus Wright, aged 71.  He was the author of “The Prodigal Son,” “Rambles in Wales,” and other poems.

AUGUST.

12.—A two days’ cricket match, between eleven of the South of England and twenty-two of Norfolk and Norwich, commenced on the Newmarket Road ground, Norwich.  Scores: South of England, 33—161; Norfolk and Norwich, 172—124.

13.—The advance party of the D Battery, Royal Horse Artillery, arrived at Norwich, and on the 16th the B Battery marched en route to Ireland.

19.—The Royal Commission appointed to inquire into the existence of corrupt practices at the last election of members to serve in Parliament for the city of Norwich commenced its sittings at the Shirehall, Norwich.  The Commissioners were Mr. George Morley Dowdeswell, Q.C., Mr. Horatio Mansfield, and Mr. John Biron.  On September 4th (the fifteenth day) the Court adjourned until the 27th, when the inquiry was resumed.  Sir Henry Stracey was examined on October 9th (the 27th day), and Mr. J. H. Tillett on October 11th (the 29th day).  The inquiry terminated on October 15th (the 32nd day).  The Chief Commissioner acknowledged the assistance given by the police and the Guardians.  “We feel,” he said, “that these bodies have rendered us most efficient and signal assistance, and we only wish that other officials in this city had also offered us that assistance, and that we had not experienced obstacles on their part.  We fear that the encouragement which has been given by them to persons to withhold information has led to many of those spectacles which have been to us a source of signal pain in the course of our inquiry.”  The Commissioners, in their report, dated February 15th, 1870, stated that corrupt practices did not extensively prevail in Norwich at the election in November, 1868; that Sir Henry Stracey was returned through such practices; and that corrupt practices did not extensively prevail at the election of 1865 or that of 1860.  Several persons were scheduled for bribery and for corruptly influencing voters by treating.  The Norwich Voters Disfranchisement Bill, by which it was proposed to disfranchise 119 electors, passed its second reading in the House of Commons on May 2nd, 1870, and received the Royal assent on July 4th in the same year.  (See January 31st, 1870.)

p. 19430.—The Norfolk and Norwich Triennial Musical Festival commenced at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, with an evening concert, at which the “Hymn of Praise” and “Acis and Galatea” were performed.  The other works in the programme were the following:—Wednesday morning, September 1st, selection from “Hezekiah” and “The Fall of Babylon”; Thursday morning, September 2nd, Sacred Cantata, by Horace Hill, “Messe Solennelle” (first time of performance out of London), and the Dettingen Te Deum; Friday morning, September 3rd, “The Messiah.”  Grand miscellaneous concerts were given on the evenings of August 31st and September 1st and 2nd.  The principal vocalists were Mdlle. Tietjens, Mdlle. Ilma de Murska, Madame Talbot Cherer, Madame Patey, and Madame Trebelli Bettini, Mr. Vernon Rigby, Mr. Arthur Byron, Mr. W. H. Cummings, Signor Bettini, Signor Foli, and Mr. Santley.  Mr. Benedict conducted.  A “dress ball” took place on the evening of September 3rd.  Financially the Festival was a failure, and the total receipts, about £4,000, barely covered expenses.

SEPTEMBER.

15.—A Conservative banquet was held at the Town Hall, Great Yarmouth, to celebrate the return of the Hon. Frederick Walpole and Sir E. Lacon, Bart., as members for North Norfolk.  Upwards of 1,000 electors of the Flegg Hundreds were present, and presented to Sir Edmund Lacon a piece of plate weighing nearly 900 ozs., in recognition of the services he had rendered during the period he represented Yarmouth in Parliament.

20.—Blondin gave tight-rope performances at Norwich Theatre during the week commencing on this date.

30.—An ascent was made from Norwich Market Place in a “fish balloon,” by Mr. Orton, accompanied by Mr. William Maris.  The descent took place at Tuddenham, near East Dereham, a distance of fourteen miles from Norwich.

OCTOBER.

12.—Died at his residence, the Royal Mews, Buckingham Palace, Mr. Bernard Bolingbroke Woodward, B.A. (Lond.), F.S.A., aged 53 years.  He had for some years held the post of librarian to the Queen at Windsor Castle, and was the eldest son of Mr. Samuel Woodward, of Norwich.

16.*—“The mansion that Sir Robert Harvey, Bart., is erecting on his estate at Crown Point is approaching completion.  It has been built from the designs of Messrs. Coe and Peake, architects, of London.”

18.—The Prince of Wales, with his suite, passed through Norwich, on his way to Gunton Hall, on a visit to Lord Suffield.

19.—A heavy gale took place at Yarmouth, where shipping casualties occurred and several lives were lost.  The sea rose to within a few feet of the houses on the Marine Parade.

—A week’s festivities commenced at Holkham Hall, in celebration of the majority of Viscount Coke, which his lordship attained in the p. 195previous month of July.  The proceedings had been postponed in consequence of the illness of the Earl of Leicester.

20.—Died at Thorpe Hamlet, in his 81st year, Mr. John Kitson, Registrar of the Diocese of Norwich.  He had for 58 years held the office of secretary to the Bishop, having been appointed in 1811 by Bishop Bathurst, and continued in the office by his successors, Bishop Stanley, Bishop Hinds, and Bishop Pelham.  Mr. Kitson was appointed Registrar in 1825, and was Chapter Clerk and Registrar to the Dean and Chapter, and district registrar in her Majesty’s Court of Probate.

NOVEMBER.

1.—That portion of Dereham Cemetery appropriated to the Church of England was consecrated by the Bishop of Norwich.  The chapels were designed by Mr. Brown, architect, of Norwich, and built by Mr. Hubbard, of East Dereham.  “The old churchyard is said to have been used as a burial-ground for 600 years.”

9.—Mr. Augustus Frederick Coke Bolingbroke was elected Mayor, and Mr. Henry Morgan appointed Sheriff of Norwich.

12.—A new self-righting lifeboat, 33 feet in length, was launched at Wells-next-the-Sea.  It was purchased with the proceeds of “penny readings” given in various parts of the kingdom.  The fund, which was inaugurated by Mr. E. B. Adams, surgeon, of Bungay, amounted to the sum of £500, and represented the contributions of eighteen different counties.  Of this amount Norfolk raised £161.  In the presence of several thousands of spectators, the Countess of Leicester christened the boat the Eliza Adams.  Luncheon was served at the Crown Hotel, under the presidency of the Earl of Leicester, and in the evening a ball was held.

18.—Died at his residence, St. Clement’s, Norwich, Mr. Henry Ladbrooke, landscape painter.  He was a member of the accomplished family of Norfolk artists and a pupil of the celebrated Crome, the influence of whose style was apparent in his works.  After residing many years in Lynn, he removed to Norwich.

20.*—“Mr. W. T. Bensly, LL.D., has been appointed by the Dean and Chapter of Norwich to be Chapter Clerk, in the place of the late Mr. Kitson.”

25.—Mdlle. Christine Nilsson, Mdlle. Anna Drasdil, Madame Gilardoni, Signor Foli, and Mr. J. M. Wheli, with Mr. Benedict as conductor, appeared at a concert at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, on this and the following evening, in aid of the local charities, which had suffered from the non-success of the late Festival.  The concerts were arranged by Mr. Howlett and Mr. C. S. Gilman, who handed to the charities a sum of nearly £200.

27.*—“The catch of herring last week was a most extraordinary and exceptional one, not only as regards the present season, but also as compared with those of the wonderful voyage of 1868.  The quantities of herring delivered on Yarmouth fishwharf exceeded 2,400 lasts (13,200 fish per last), a catch probably unprecedented.  Several of the smacks had ‘made up’ before the recent successes, being compelled to do so in consequence of the terrible disasters that had befallen them.”

p. 196DECEMBER.

7.—Lord Claud Hamilton and Mr. Richard Young were nominated candidates for the representation of King’s Lynn, rendered vacant by Lord Stanley’s succession to the Earldom of Derby.  The proceedings were of a most tumultuous character, and the show of hands being in favour of the Liberal candidate, the supporters of Lord Claud Hamilton demanded a poll.  In apprehension of a disturbance, detachments of the 4th and 8th Foot were drafted into the town, and were stationed in the National Schoolroom, St. Margaret’s.  The polling took place on the 8th, and resulted as follows:—Hamilton, 1,051; Young, 1,032.

13.—Died at Westacre, aged 64, Mr. Anthony Hamond.  He was the representative of a Norfolk family of considerable antiquity, and succeeded to the Westacre estate on the death of his father, Mr. Philip Hamond, in 1824.  In 1828 he married Mary Anne, eldest daughter of Mr. John Chaworth Musters, of Colwick, Notts.  He was succeeded in his estate by his son Anthony, born in 1834, Mr. Hamond served the office of High Sheriff in 1836, and twice unsuccessfully contested the representation of the Western Division of the county—in 1847 and 1852; and in 1854 accepted an invitation to become a candidate for Norwich, in opposition to Sir Samuel Bignold, by whom he was defeated.  Mr. Hamond took a great interest in country pursuits, and was ever foremost in promoting experiments for the advancement of agricultural science.

14.—Holkham church was re-opened after restoration by the Earl and Countess of Leicester, at the estimated cost of £10,000, of which £7,000 was expended for wood carving alone.

27.—The Prince and Princess of Wales, with Prince Albert Victor and Prince George, arrived at Holkham, on a visit to the Earl and Countess of Leicester.  Their Royal Highnesses left on January 1st, 1870, for Gunton Park.

—The pantomime at Norwich Theatre was produced by Mr. J. F. Young.  It was entitled, “The King of the Peacocks.”  Circus entertainments were provided at Messrs. Henry and Adams’ establishment on the Castle Meadow.

1870.

JANUARY.

31.—In the Court of Common Pleas, before Lord Chief Justice Bovill and Justices Smith and Brett, Mr. Mellish, Q.C., showed cause against the rule calling upon the Master to review his taxation of the costs in the Norwich election petition.  The bill of costs of the petitioner (Mr. J. H. Tillett) had been reduced from £3,015 7s. to £703 3s., and of the respondent (Sir H. J. Stracey) from £793 14s. 2d. to £168 6s.  Four hundred witnesses had been subpœnaed.  The Lord p. 197Chief Justice said the rule must be discharged.  “Sir Henry Stracey,” it was stated on March 19th, “has this week paid to Mr. Tillett’s solicitors £583 17s. 8d., which has been accepted as payment in full for his costs in the matter.  The total amount of the petitioner’s costs was £3,800, and deducting Sir Henry’s contribution, it leaves upwards of £3,200 to be paid by the petitioner.”  (See March 31st.)

FEBRUARY.

1.—Died in Florida, while on leave of absence from Montreal, Lieut.-General Sir Charles Ashe Windham, K.C.B., commanding the forces in Canada.  He was the fourth son of Vice-Admiral Windham, of Felbrigg Hall, who was the son of the Rev. George William Lukin, Dean of Wells, and who assumed the name of Windham on succeeding to the estates of his distinguished relative, the Right Hon. William Windham.  His mother was Anne, daughter of Mr. Peter Thellusson, of Broadsmouth, Yorkshire, and sister of the first Baron Rendlesham.  He was born at Felbrigg in 1810, and married first, in 1849, Marianne Catherine Emily, daughter of Admiral Sir John P. Beresford, Bart., K.C.B., who died in 1865; and secondly, in 1866, Charlotte Jane, eldest daughter of the Rev. Henry Des Vœux.  Educated at Sandhurst, he entered the Army in 1826, as ensign and lieutenant in the Coldstream Guards, and served in Canada during the time of the rebellion, from 1838 to 1842.  He continued with the regiment until the outbreak of the war with Russia, when he accompanied the Eastern Army as Assistant Quarter-master General of the 4th Division, and served from September, 1854, to July, 1856, without a day’s absence.  He was present at the battle of the Alma, at Balaclava, and at the repulse of the powerful sortie on October 26th, 1854, and was with Sir George Cathcart when the latter was killed at the battle of Inkerman.  At the second assault on the Redan, on September 8th, 1855, Windham (then Colonel) greatly distinguished himself by his personal daring and gallantry in command of the storming party of the second division, and for his intrepid conduct was promoted Major-General.  In September, 1855, he was appointed Governor of the British portion of Sebastopol, and in the following month was entrusted with the command of the 4th Division.  For his services in the Crimea he received numerous clasps, medals, and orders.  In 1857 General Windham proceeded to India and commanded a division in the field, under Lord Clyde, during the advance to Kallee Nuddee.  On June 17th, 1861, he was appointed to the command of the 46th Regiment of Foot, and in October, 1867, became Commander of the Forces in Canada.  On the return of General Windham from the Crimea, in July, 1856, he was enthusiastically received at Norwich and presented with two handsome swords, purchased by public subscription.  In April, 1857, he was returned to Parliament for East Norfolk, and remained its member for two years.

5.—A meeting of the Norwich Diocesan Church Association was held at the Church Societies’ Rooms, Norwich, for the purpose of discussing the question of national education, a subject which was brought prominently before the country during this year.  The Bishop of Norwich presided, and the Dean moved, “That in any legislative enactments for promoting the education of the children of the working p. 198classes called for by the destitution in this respect of many places in England and Wales, the inculcation of Christian truth ought to form an essential feature, and that provision for this purpose can be best made under existing circumstances through the medium of parochial and other schools attached to the Church of England or to other religious communions.”  A further resolution was moved by the Hon. Frederick Walpole, M.P., “That the present system, which has been successfully in operation during the last thirty years, carried on by means of voluntary efforts, and maintained by school fees, charitable contributions, and grants from the Consolidated Fund, is capable of further extension and improvement, and is able, if adequately assisted by the State, to supply the national wants of the country without resorting to local taxation for the purpose, unless in those extreme cases for which provision can be made in no other way.”  A third resolution was moved by Mr. C. S. Read, M.P., “That compulsory education, except under especial circumstances, such as the case of vagrant, criminal, and destitute children, would be an unnecessary interference with the rights and responsibilities of parents, and unless applied to all classes of the community, create an unjust and invidious distinction between rich and poor, and its enforcement by pains and penalties would cause a general feeling of hardship and discontent, while its objects could be attained by other means, such as the extension, under due restrictions, of the Factory Acts and of similar measures regulating the employment of children’s labour.”  The final resolution was moved by the Rev. Canon Heaviside, “That in the opinion of this meeting it is expedient that the promoters of Church education should consent that in schools aided by the Government grant provision should be made for securing perfect liberty of distinctive religious teaching combined with perfect liberty of declining it.”  These resolutions were adopted.  The Elementary Education Bill, introduced by Mr. W. E. Forster on February 17th, was passed, and received the Royal assent on August 9th.  On October 11th a meeting of the clergy was held, under the presidency of the Mayor (Mr. A. F. C. Bolingbroke), at the Girls’ Model School, Norwich, “for the purpose of consulting as to the steps to be taken under the Elementary Education Act,” and it was resolved to convene a public meeting for the discussion of the question.  This meeting was held on October 19th, at the Free Library, and was composed of “school managers and supporters of Church education.”  The Mayor again presided.  The Lord Bishop moved, “That, with the view of carrying out the objects of the Elementary Education Act, 1870, in this city, steps be immediately taken to supply and maintain sufficient, efficient, and suitable schools on the voluntary principle, in order to secure in Church schools religious education in accordance with the teaching of the Church of England.”  This was seconded by Mr. Henry Birkbeck.  The Sheriff (Mr. Henry Morgan) moved, “That an immediate appeal be made to the citizens of Norwich to provide funds on the voluntary principle for carrying out the object of this meeting.”  A further resolution was adopted, “That the Bishop of the Diocese, with the clergy of the city, the managers of Church schools, and such donors and subscribers as may be willing to act be constituted a council, and shall appoint, as soon as possible, a committee to carry out the former resolutions, and to report progress to the council from time to time.”  The body thus constituted was afterwards known as p. 199the Church Education Council.  On November 28th the supporters of voluntary education held a large meeting at St. Andrew’s Hall, at which were adopted resolutions framed on similar lines to the foregoing.  The supporters of unsectarian education held a meeting at the Free Library on the 30th, under the presidency of Mr. Jacob Henry Tillett, at which the Rev. G. S. Barrett moved, “That a request be sent to the Mayor to convene a common hall, in order that steps may be taken immediately for the formation of a School Board in the city.”  The Rev. J. Hallett seconded the motion, which was unanimously adopted, and a committee was formed for the purpose of carrying it into effect.  The Church Education Council, on December 13th, announced that sufficient subscriptions had been obtained for providing necessary school accommodation in Norwich.  At a special meeting of the Town Council on December 20th, the return made under the provisions of the Act to the Education Department of the Privy Council was approved.  It stated that the estimated population of the city was 82,000, the rateable value £212,129; the total number of assessments, 21,397; and the number of voters on the municipal register, 10,909.  “The returns from elementary schools as being in operation were 93; the number of schools to which forms were delivered but refused to fill them up was 27.”  (See February 28th, 1871.)

6.—Died at Bethel Street, Norwich, in his 78th year, Mr. Henry Browne.  He was the youngest son of Mr. Alderman John Browne, and a liberal supporter of the charitable institutions of Norwich.  In his early days of business life Mr. Browne was led to join in those well-intentioned but unfortunately not permanently successful enterprises, the Yarn Company and the movement for making Norwich a port by communication with the sea at Lowestoft.

9.—Strong gales from the E. and E.N.E., accompanied by snow squalls, prevailed off the Norfolk coast, and increased in severity until the 14th.  Several shipping disasters occurred.  On the 13th the screw steamer Sea Queen, with her crew, was lost on the Scroby Sands, and the American-built barque Victoria, 700 tons, bound from North Shields to Barcelona, with a cargo of coals, went down.  Of her crew, several hands were lost.

12.—The Assembly Rooms, erected in 1862, on the Victoria Esplanade, Yarmouth, at the cost of £6,000, were destroyed by fire.

24.—Sir R. J. H. Harvey declined to accede to a memorial signed by 3,000 electors of Norwich, requesting him to allow himself to be adopted as Conservative candidate for the city.

26.*—“Since January 1st several rare birds have been met with in the neighbourhood of Swaffham, namely, a fork-tailed petrel, picked up at Gooderstone; little gull (Larus minutus), in good condition, and weighing only 3 ozs., shot at Beechamwell; stormy petrel, picked up at Narborough; bittern, shot at Weeting; pied thrush, shot at Cockley Cley; pied common partridge, shot at Didlington; dusky grebe, shot at Castleacre; and a peregrine falcon, a fine old female bird weighing 43 ozs. and measuring 47 inches from tip to tip of its wings, shot at Beechamwell.”

28.—The organ at Yarmouth parish church was opened after restoration.  The instrument was built by Jordan, Bridge, and Byfield, in 1733, repaired by England (Jordan’s grandson) in 1812, and again p. 200in 1840 by Gray.  It was finally restored and enlarged by Messrs. Hill, of London.

MARCH.

20.—A movement known as “The Church’s Call” commenced in Norwich.  A simultaneous and united effort was made at all the churches in the city; “all seemed resolved to cast aside minor differences, and High Churchmen, Low Churchmen, and Broad Churchmen apparently vied with each other in doing the work set before them.”

23.—Died at Warham All Saints, Margaret Green, aged 100 years.  “The Thursford register testifies to her baptism in that parish on March 27th, 1769.”

31.—At the Norwich Assizes, before Mr. Justice Byles, Robert Hardiment, tanner and fellmonger, was charged on five counts with bribing voters at the last General Election to vote for Sir H. J. Stracey.  The Attorney-General appeared for the prosecution, and the defendant was found guilty.  His lordship remarked that this was a very serious crime, and, as he was desirous that sentence should be pronounced by the highest judicature of the country, judgment was reserved.  Another person, named Banfather, charged with bribery at the same election, was acquitted.  On April 1st, at the same Court, John Hughes Hulme was found guilty of bribery, and sentence was reserved.  Edward Stracey, son of Sir Henry J. Stracey, was next charged.  The Attorney-General conducted the case for the prosecution, and Mr. A. Staveley Hill, Q.C., was specially retained for the defence.  On April 2nd the jury returned a verdict of not guilty.  “No sooner was the announcement made than deafening cheers were raised in the Court, and it was in vain that the officers tried to suppress them.”  The defendant Hardiment was indicted, before Mr. Justice Blackburn, on various counts, for committing acts of bribery at the Eighth Ward Municipal Election, on November 1st, 1869.  On being found guilty, he was sentenced to six months’ imprisonment.  Joseph Stanley, solicitor, was charged with unlawfully conspiring with Robert Hardiment and others to induce, by means of bribes, certain persons to vote for Edward Bennett and George Gedge, candidates at the municipal election in question.  The jury acquitted the defendant.  Anthony Freestone, baker, and Henry Ellis, shoe manufacturer, were also indicted for conspiring to bribe at the municipal election, and were acquitted.  On April 8th Messrs. W. H. Tillett and Co., solicitors, addressed a letter to the newspapers, asserting that “the jury drew lots to decide what their verdict should be in the cases of Freestone and Ellis.”  They added, “The verdict is, of course, bad, and we shall feel it our duty to lay the facts before the committee of gentlemen who instructed us in the prosecutions.”  No further action was taken, however.  In the Court of Queen’s Bench, on May 10th, before the Lord Chief Justice and Justices Blackburn, Mellor, and Hannen, Hardiment and Hulme were brought up for sentence.  Mr. Bulwer, Q.C., applied for mitigation of sentence in the case of Hardiment, on the ground that he was then undergoing imprisonment for municipal bribery; in the case of Hulme it was urged that imprisonment would be injurious to his health.  The Court passed sentence of ten months’ p. 201imprisonment upon the first-named defendant, to run concurrently with the six months he had received for municipal bribery, two months of which he had already served, to be classed as a second-class misdemeanant, and to be fined £100.  Hulme was fined £100.  Mr. C. S. Read, M.P., subsequently presented to the Home Secretary a memorial, signed by 1,500 citizens, praying that Hardiment should be classed as a first-class misdemeanant.

APRIL.

4.—The Rev. Canon Greenwell, of Durham, “the well-known opener of the Yorkshire wold tumuli,” who had been making scientific investigations at Weeting, opened one of the peculiar mounds known as “Grimes’ Graves,” and discovered therein “two primitive picks in situ, with a splendid ground axe, the skeleton of a bird, a chalk bowl or lamp, and other curious relics.”

18.—The Loveday Opera Company commenced an engagement at Norwich Theatre.  The celebrated pantomimists and dancers, the Paynes, and Mdlle. Esta, appeared with the company.

20.—Died at Aigle, Switzerland, the Rev. W. Beal, LL.D., vicar of Brooke, aged 54.  Dr. Beal was the well-known originator of harvest festivals.

21.—Died at Holkham, the Countess of Leicester.  Her ladyship was the eldest daughter of Mr. Samuel Charles Whitbread, of Cardington, Bedfordshire, and was married to the Earl of Leicester in 1843.

26.—The portrait of the Rev. John Gunn, F.G.S., painted by Capt. H. H. Roberts, of Thorpe, was hung at the Norfolk and Norwich Museum, “in acknowledgment of his munificent gift to the geological department of his unrivalled collection of local mammalian remains.”

28.—The south aisle of Yarmouth parish church was opened.  The Bishop of Rochester and the Bishop of the Diocese were the preachers.

—Died, aged 84, William Gurney, compositor, of Norwich.  He had been for seventy years in continuous employment at the Norfolk Chronicle Office.

30.—Died at his residence, Horsforth Hall, near Leeds, in his 74th year, Mr. John Marshall, who was Sheriff of Norwich in 1834 and Mayor in 1838 and 1841.  Mr. Marshall, who was an advanced Liberal, went to Leeds in 1843, and there took an active part in the affairs of that town.  His remains were interred at the Rosary burial-ground, Norwich.

MAY.

8.—Died at Cholmondeley Castle, Cheshire, George Horatio Cholmondeley, second Marquis and Earl of Cholmondeley.  He was the eldest son of George James, the first Marquis, by his wife, Lady Georgina Charlotte Bertie, second daughter of Peregrine, third Duke of Ancaster.  Born January 16th, 1792, he married, first, on October 20th, 1812, Caroline, second daughter of Lieut.-General Colin Campbell, who died in October, 1815; and secondly, on May 11th, 1830, Lady p. 202Susan Caroline Somerset, fourth daughter of Henry Charles, sixth Duke of Beaufort, by whom he was survived.  He succeeded to the marquisate on the death of his father, in 1827.

16.—Miss Heath, principal tragedienne of the Drury Lane, Haymarket, and Princess’ Theatres, London, supported by Mr. Wilson Barrett, commenced an engagement at Norwich Theatre, in “East Lynne,” “The Jealous Wife,” “The Bond of Life,” and “Masks and Faces.”  Mr. Wilson Barrett was described as “a painstaking and conscientious actor.”

24.—The Queen’s birthday was celebrated at Norwich by a review of the Royal Horse Artillery and the Volunteers on Mousehold Heath.  The Mayor entertained a large party at the Drill Hall, and gave a dinner at the Corn Hall to the indigent blind and to poor children; and the Norwich Athletic Club held sports on the Newmarket Road Ground.

JUNE.

13.—At a meeting of 2,000 Liberal electors, held at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, Mr. Jacob Henry Tillett was adopted a candidate for Norwich.  A meeting of the Whig party, convened by Sir William Foster, was held at the Royal Hotel on the 14th, under the presidency of Mr. I. O. Taylor, at which it was decided to adopt the candidature of Mr. Edward Warner.

17.—Died at Edgbaston, Birmingham, in his 72nd year, Mr. Robert Martineau, brother of the Rev. James Martineau and Miss Harriet Martineau.  He was a native of Norwich, but settled in Birmingham as a manufacturer at an early period of his life, and took an active part in the Reform agitation preceding the Bill of 1832.  For the last fourteen years of his life he lived in retirement, owing to almost total blindness.

23.—The annual show of the Norfolk Agricultural Association commenced at Harleston, and was continued on the 24th.  Mr. Edward Howes, M.P., presided at the dinner.

—The Earl of Rosebery visited his Norfolk estate for the first time.  His lordship was met at the entrance to the village of Postwick by a brass band, which preceded the carriage to the rectory, where he was received by the Rev. W. and Lady Margaret Vincent, the Countess of Buchan, Lord Cardross, and other guests.  The cottage tenants were entertained at dinner, and “the orator of the village” proposed his lordship’s health, to which the Earl replied.  A dinner to the tenantry was given in the school-room, at which his lordship presided, and the festivities ended with a display of fireworks.

JULY.

1.—The first annual meeting of the Norwich Meteorological Society was held at the Literary Institution.  After the visit of the British Association to Norwich in 1868, the local committee, having defrayed all the expenses, had a balance in hand of upwards of £300.  At a meeting of subscribers, £100 of this balance was devoted to the purchase p. 203of meteorological instruments, and on December 3rd, 1868, the society was formed, with Mr. S. Gurney Buxton as president.

4.—Died at his London residence, Clapham, the Right Hon. William Schomberg Robert Kerr, Marquis of Lothian.  He was the eldest of the four surviving sons of John William Robert, seventh Marquis, by Lady Cecil Chetwynd Talbot, daughter of Charles, second Earl Talbot.  Born on August 12th, 1832, he married, on August 12th, 1857, Lady Constance Harriet Mahonesa Talbot, eldest surviving daughter of the Earl of Shrewsbury and Talbot.  He succeeded to the marquisate on the death of his father, in November, 1844.  Educated at Christchurch, Oxford, he took high honours, having been first class in classics in 1853, and first class in jurisprudence and modern history in 1854.  After he had finished his University career, he went to India for a year, but the climate had an injurious effect upon his naturally feeble constitution.  His lordship died without issue, and the family estates in Scotland and Norfolk were inherited by his brother, Lord Schomberg Kerr.

6.—The foundation-stone of St. Philip’s church, Norwich, was laid by the Mayor (Mr. A. F. C. Bolingbroke), who was accompanied by members of the Corporation.  The church was consecrated by the Bishop of Norwich on August 3rd, 1871.  The architect was Mr. Edward Power, of London, and the builder Mr. J. Nelson, of Necton.  It was designed to seat 775 persons, and the cost was estimated at about £3,575.

9.—The 1st Administrative Battalion Norfolk Rifle Volunteers went into camp at Hunstanton Park.  The battalion was inspected by Col. Freer, 27th Regiment.

11.—The nomination of candidates to fill the vacancy in the representation of Norwich caused by the unseating on petition of Sir Henry Josias Stracey, took place at the Guildhall.  Mr. Jacob Henry Tillett was nominated by Mr. J. J. Colman, and seconded by Mr. Henry Birkbeck; and Mr. John Walter Huddleston, Q.C., by Sir Samuel Bignold, seconded by Mr. H. S. Patteson.  The show of hands was in favour of Mr. Huddlestone, and a poll was demanded by the Liberals.  The polling took place on the 12th, and resulted as follows: Tillett, 4,236; Huddlestone, 3,874.  Mr. Tillett, on the 14th, took the oath and his seat in the House of Commons.  (See August 3rd.)

15.—Great consternation was caused in Norwich by a report that Sir Robert Harvey had committed suicide in his grounds at Crown Point.  As it subsequently proved, the rumour was well founded.  Sir Robert was in his shrubbery when two pistol shots were heard.  Two workmen employed upon the premises, on proceeding to the spot, found Sir Robert in a sitting posture, bleeding from a severe wound in the chest.  He was at once removed into the house and placed in the library.  Mr. Nichols, the family surgeon, and Mr. Cadge were summoned, and on arriving found Sir Robert in a critical condition.  Dr. Copeman was subsequently called in, and every effort was made to preserve life.  On the 16th the patient rallied slightly, and on the 17th he was pronounced to be better, but on the 18th he became worse, and was visited by the Dean of Norwich, who prayed with him and afforded him spiritual consolation.  Later his prostration increased, and he passed away in an unconscious state on the 19th.  With the report of the suicide was circulated the rumour that Sir p. 204Robert had speculated and lost heavily, and having been unable to meet his engagements, was posted a defaulter on the Stock Exchange.  At an early hour on the 16th the following notice was exhibited upon the closed doors of the Crown Bank: “Norwich Crown Bank.  In consequence of the lamentable catastrophe which has happened to Sir Robert Harvey, it has been determined by the other partners to suspend the business of the Bank for the present.”  This notice gave rise to increased anxiety.  Messrs. Gurneys offered to afford every possible accommodation to the customers of the Crown Bank, and a few hours later the National Provincial Bank made a similar offer.  The affairs of the Crown Bank being inextricably involved, Mr. Allday Kerrison, one of the partners, signed, on the 16th, a declaration of insolvency, and on the same day the largest city creditor, Mr. George Gedge, presented a petition for bankruptcy.  The sale of the good-will and premises of the Bank was provisionally made to Messrs. Gurneys and Co. on the 18th.  Mr. Allday Kerrison and his son, gentlemen of unsullied honour, had their fortunes shattered by one dire stroke, through the reckless speculations of their partner, speculations of which they were entirely ignorant.  The inquest was held upon the body of the deceased baronet at Crown Point on the 20th, by Mr. W. H. N. Turner, one of the Deputy Coroners for the Liberty of the Dean and Chapter of Norwich, and the jury returned the following verdict: “The jury are of opinion that Sir Robert Harvey’s death was caused by firearms discharged by himself while in a state of temporary insanity.”  A meeting of the principal creditors was held at the Royal Hotel on the 21st, under the presidency of the Mayor, and the following resolution was passed: “That this meeting entirely approves of the steps taken by Messrs. Kerrison in suspending the business of the Bank, the measures taken to protect the assets of the Bank by the immediate filing of a petition in bankruptcy and the negotiations for the sale of the goodwill and the business and premises to Messrs. Gurneys and Co.”  On the 27th a meeting was held at the Royal Hotel for the purpose of considering and discussing the best course to be taken in liquidating the estate of the bankrupts.  Mr. E. C. Bailey was appointed trustee of the estate, and the Mayor and Messrs. F. E. Watson, H. S. Patteson, H. Woods, and C. Hornor a committee of inspection.  The first general meeting of creditors was held on August 3rd, when it was reported that the total liabilities to rank for dividend would be £1,600,321, and the total assets £910,187.  [Sir Robert John Harvey Harvey was the eldest son of General Sir Robert John Harvey, C.B., K.T.S., of Mousehold House, Norwich, by Charlotte (his cousin), daughter and heiress of Mr. Robert Harvey, of Walton, Suffolk.  Born in 1817, he married, in 1845, Lady Henrietta Augusta, daughter of George, Viscount Kilcoursie, and granddaughter of the eighth Earl of Craven.  He was High Sheriff of Norfolk in 1863, and represented Thetford in Parliament from July, 1865, to November, 1868, when the borough was disfranchised under the new Reform Act.  His son and heir, Charles Harvey, was born at Bracondale in 1849.]

AUGUST.

1.—The Grand English Opera Company, under the management of Mr. Henry Corri, appeared at Norwich Theatre.  The principal artistes p. 205were Madame Ida Gilliers Corri, Miss Fanny Harrison, Mr. Henry Corri, and Mr. Haydn Corri.

3.—In the Court of Common Pleas a petition was filed by Mr. Gardiner C. Stevens against the return of Mr. Jacob Henry Tillett, as member for Norwich.  In addition to the usual allegations of bribery and undue influence at the last election, there was a special one of disqualification on account of corrupt practices at the election in 1868.  On November 3rd Mr. Tillett obtained an order in the Court of Common Pleas for the striking out of this clause, but leave was given to the petitioner to move the full Court for a rule to show cause why the order should not be rescinded.  On November 23rd motion was made accordingly, and the Court unanimously ordered the clause which had been struck out to be restored.  (See January 5th, 1871.)

8.—Died at Great Yarmouth, in his 90th year, Mr. Edward Youell, a partner in the banking-house of Lacons, Youell, and Co.  He retired from the firm in 1863, after having been in the house nearly 70 years, for 42 of which he was a partner.  For several years he had been afflicted with total blindness.

13.—A half-yearly meeting of the East Norfolk Railway Company was held at Norwich.  This company was formed for the purpose of constructing a railway from Norwich to North Walsham, and thence to Cromer.  After commencing operations, it was unable to proceed from want of capital and other circumstances.  It was reported that the estate of the contractor was in the Court of Chancery, a further survey of the proposed line was ordered, and steps were taken to ensure the resumption of the works.  (See October 20th, 1874.)

30.—At a meeting of the Norwich Town Council, a proposed tramway scheme was discussed.  The Wensum Valley railway scheme, for which an Act of Parliament was obtained in 1864, having been abandoned, it was considered that a tramway taking its place would prove useful for conveying produce from the several mills in the district to Norwich.  The estimated cost of construction was £2,000 per mile, and the total estimated cost £14,000.  The matter was referred to the Paving Committee, and no further steps were taken.

SEPTEMBER.

2.—Mr. Sothern appeared at Norwich Theatre as Lord Dundreary (“Our American Cousin”) and Hugh de Brass (“A Regular Fix”).  On the 3rd he played the part of Colonel John White (“Home”), and appeared in “Dundreary Married and Settled,” and “Whitebait at Greenwich.”

3.—Mr. B. V. Winch was appointed Postmaster at Norwich, in place of Mr. S. Base, retired.

15.—A three days’ bazaar was opened at the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, in aid of a fund for converting the Hospital field into an ornamental garden.  The sum of £462 was realised.

27.—An explosion took place on the premises of Mr. George Coe, firework manufacturer, New Catton.  Two persons were severely injured, and removed to the Hospital.

p. 206OCTOBER.

6.—Died at Landfort House, Portsmouth, Col. Edwin Wodehouse, C.B., commanding Royal Artillery in the Southern District.  He was the eldest son of Vice-Admiral the Hon. Philip Wodehouse, and was born at Halifax, Nova Scotia, on April 17th, 1817.  Entering the Army as lieutenant in the Royal Artillery, on December 19th, 1834, he served in the campaign of 1854–55, was present at the battles of the Alma, Balaclava, and Inkerman (where his horse was killed beneath him), at the siege and fall of Sebastopol, and at the repulse and sortie of October 26th, 1854.  Col. Wodehouse was three times mentioned in dispatches, and received the medal with four clasps.

10.—The first number of the “Eastern Daily Press” was published.  A rival newspaper, called the “Eastern Daily Journal,” published at the price of one halfpenny, was issued this month, and had but a very brief existence.

31.—The first Diocesan Conference was held at Norwich.  At the ruri-decanal meetings held in the spring of the year, the question propounded by the Bishop for consideration was, “Is it desirable that there should be held in this diocese a Diocesan Conference, in which both the clergy and laity should be fully represented, for the purpose of considering and eliciting the opinions of Churchmen upon matters affecting the Church in general, or our own diocese in particular?”  A large majority of the clergy and laity were in favour of the Conference, and the Bishop, considering the large area of the diocese, decided that the meetings should take place in five different centres.  The first Conference was held at St. Andrew’s Hall on this date; the second at Fakenham Corn Hall, on November 1st; the third at Ipswich Public Hall, on November 2nd; the fourth at Halesworth, on November 3rd; and the fifth at Lynn Athenæum, on November 4th.  At each Conference papers were read, followed by the moving of resolutions and by discussions.

NOVEMBER.

9.—Mr. Frederick Elwin Watson was elected Mayor (for the second time), and Mr. William Butcher appointed Sheriff of Norwich.

21.—The Prince of Wales arrived at Merton Hall, on a visit to Lord and Lady Walsingham.

29.—The building known as the temporary church in the parish of St. Bartholomew, Norwich, was opened by the Bishop of the Diocese.  It was intended for the accommodation of 500 persons, and was erected at the cost of £600.

DECEMBER.

14.—The Widow Steavenson, residing in St. Gregory’s parish, Norwich, completed her 101st year.  “Several of the parishioners called upon her, congratulated her on the event, and supplied her with all the needful viands and wine to enable her to entertain several old friends.  Her daughter, now 77 years old, is a widow, having had to p. 207mourn the loss of three husbands, but is on the point of marrying again.”  (See January 2nd, 1874.)

24.—Mr. Sidney produced his “farewell pantomime” at Norwich Theatre.  It was entitled, “St. George, the Dragon, and the Seven Champions of Christendom.”

31.—The Prince of Wales, on his journey from Gunton to Sandringham, lunched at the County Club, Norwich.  The party travelled from Gunton to Norwich in sleighs and closed carriages, and his Royal Highness afterwards proceeded by rail from Thorpe station to Wolferton.

—Died at Merton Hall, the Right Hon. Thomas, Lord Walsingham.  He was the eldest son of Thomas, fourth Lord Walsingham, by his wife Lady Elizabeth, fourth daughter of the Hon. and Right Rev. Brownlow North, Bishop of Winchester, and was born July 5th, 1804.  On the death of his father, on September 8th, 1839, he succeeded to the barony, and married, on August 6th, 1842, Augusta Louisa, eldest daughter of Sir Robert Frankland Russell, Bart.  Of this marriage he had issue a son, the Hon. Thomas de Grey.  Lady Walsingham died in 1844, and his lordship married, secondly, on October 25th, 1847, the Horn Emily Elizabeth Julia Thellusson, eldest daughter of John, second Lord Rendlesham, by whom he left issue three sons and three daughters.  His lordship was educated at St. John’s College, Cambridge, where he graduated M.A. in 1824, was called to the Bar at Lincoln’s Inn in 1827, and in 1842 was made LL.D. of his University.  Although educated for the law, he devoted himself to agriculture, the improvement of his estate, and of his cattle and sheep.  He was a member of the leading agricultural societies and of the Smithfield Club, an excellent landlord, and one who carried out to the fullest extent the motto of his house, “Excitari non hebescere.”  His lordship was succeeded in his title and estates by his son, the Hon. Thomas de Grey, M.P. for West Norfolk, who was born in 1843.

—*“The December of 1870 has been no less remarkable for its cold than its heat.  In the opening days of the month the temperature was unusually high, and only a fortnight before winter made its appearance in stern reality the thermometer registered in Norwich 55.  On the 21st there were four degrees of frost, and on the 23rd the thermometer fell as low as 8.5.  On Christmas Eve the cold was so intense that the register on the following morning was as low as 5.5.  Christmas Day was the coldest experienced since Christmas Day, 1860, when the cold was more intense by some two or three degrees.”  There was a deep fall of snow throughout the county.

1871.

JANUARY.

5.—At the Norfolk Quarter Sessions, a memorial was received from the Norfolk Chamber of Agriculture, affirming the necessity of the p. 208revision and re-adjustment of the existing mode of assessment, and of inducing the Government to contribute more largely to the rates levied under the authority of Courts of Quarter Sessions.  Mr. C. S. Read, M.P., moved, “That, inasmuch as many of the charges at present paid by county rates, such as police, lunatic asylums, military stores, coroners, gaols, &c., are rendered necessary not for the benefit of any particular class or locality, but of the community at large, it is both just and politic that those charges should be much more liberally supplemented from the National Exchequer, and that a petition from Quarter Sessions be presented to the House of Commons to this effect.”  The resolution was seconded by Mr. Dalrymple, M.P., and agreed to.

5.—The trial of the election petition presented by Mr. Gardiner C. Stevens against the return of Mr. Jacob Henry Tillett, as one of the members of Parliament for Norwich, commenced at the Shirehall, Norwich, before Mr. Justice Keating.  Mr. O’Malley, Q.C., and Mr. Griffits were counsel for the petitioner, and Mr. Rodwell, Q.C., Mr. Serjeant Ballantine, and Mr. Simms Reeve for the respondent.  The case for the petitioner closed on the 6th, and on the 7th Mr. Rodwell commenced his address on behalf of the respondent.  On the 10th Mr. Serjeant Ballantine summed up the respondent’s case, and on the same day Mr. O’Malley replied.  His lordship gave judgment on the 11th, declaring the election void, and stated that he should report to the House of Commons “the names of everyone engaged with this shameful and disgraceful bribery.”  (See February 20th.)

18.—Died, in his 93rd year, at Alexandra Road, Norwich, Christopher Bunting.  “He was present at the capture of the French ship Généreux, whose ensign now hangs in St. Andrew’s Hall.  In his early days he was a steward in the Royal Navy, and not only saw the ensign strike to the Foudroyant, but on the quarterdeck of that vessel saw it packed and addressed to Robert Harvey, Esq., then (1800) Mayor of Norwich, little imagining that he would subsequently reside in Norwich, and for more than half a century have the opportunity of seeing the flag decorating the walls of its principal building.”

24.—Died, suddenly, at 2, Rectory Grove, Clapham, Mr. Henry Harrod, F.S.A., aged 53.  Mr. Harrod was a native of Aylsham, and commenced practice as a solicitor, at Norwich, where he resided some years.  He was best known for his devotion to antiquarian pursuits and by his contributions to the Transactions of the Norfolk and Norwich Archæological Society, of which he was an honorary secretary, in conjunction with Mr. R. G. P. Minty.  His principal work was “Gleanings from the Castles and Convents of Norfolk.”  Possessed of remarkable skill in deciphering old documents, his services in this respect were taken advantage of by the Corporations of Norwich, Lynn, and other boroughs, whose ancient records he undertook to arrange.  Mr. Harrod was local secretary of the Society of Antiquaries, of which he was a Fellow, and of the Archæological Institute, and a corresponding member of the New England Historic Genealogical Society.

27.—A new reservoir constructed by the Norwich Waterworks Company at Lakenham, from designs by Mr. Thomas Hawkesley, C.E., of London, engineer in chief to the company, was opened.  It cost between £6,000 and £7,000, and was of 1,400,000 gallons capacity.

p. 209FEBRUARY.

4.—Died at Cambridge, Mr. Robert Steward, of Yarmouth.  He served the office of Mayor of Yarmouth for four consecutive years, namely, from 1858 to 1861.  In addition to being a borough magistrate, he was upon the Commission of the Peace for the county of Norfolk.

6.—A new type of traction engine (Thompson’s patent) was tested in the streets of Thetford by Messrs. Burrell, of the St. Nicholas Ironworks.  “The peculiarities of the engine consist of its wheels, three in number, being fitted with a length of indiarubber, six inches thick and twelve inches wide, covered with steel and kept on the wheels by endless chains.  The great use of these indiarubber tyres is to give elasticity.”

8.—Mr. George William Perrepoint Bentinck, of Davies Street, Berkeley Square, London, was, at Swaffham, returned unopposed to fill the vacancy caused in the representation of West Norfolk by the elevation to the Peerage of the Hon. Thomas de Grey.

10.—A storm of great violence swept over the Eastern coast, and strewed the shores from Yarmouth to the Humber with wrecks and drifting spars.  “Off Yarmouth vessel after vessel went down bodily with all hands, and left no clue as to their names or of the ports to which they belonged.”  Six Lynn vessels were lost in the Deeps.  On this day large flocks of wild geese and swans, with mallards and widgeon, were seen in the neighbourhood of Yarmouth, and the stormy petrel was observed.

20.—The nomination of candidates to fill the vacancy caused in the representation of Norwich by the unseating of Mr. Jacob Henry Tillett for bribery took place at the Guildhall.  Sir Charles Legard, of Ganton, Yorkshire, was the Conservative, and Mr. J. J. Colman, of Carrow House, Norwich, the Liberal candidate.  The show of hands was in favour of the latter, and a poll was demanded by Sir Samuel Bignold, on behalf of the Conservative nominee.  The election took place on the 21st, with the following result: Colman, 4,637; Legard, 3,389.

28.—At a meeting of the Norwich Town Council, a report was received from a special committee appointed on January 17th to consider the question of the necessity of a School Board for the city.  The committee stated that after communication with the Education Department of the Privy Council, they considered the appointment of a School Board for the corporate district to be inevitable.  Mr. Tillett moved the adoption of the report, which was seconded by Mr. Youngs.  Mr. Priest moved, and Dr. Copeman seconded, a resolution—“That, in the opinion of the Council, a School Board is not at present desirable, and that they see no sufficient reason why it should be inevitable.”  Mr. Tillett’s motion was carried, by 29 votes to 5.  (See April 12th.)

—The Norwich Town Council authorised the Sewerage and Irrigation Committee to borrow a further sum of £10,000 for the completion of the drainage works.  On April 17th the works were used for the first time for delivering sewage upon the land at Kirby Bedon.

p. 210MARCH.

3.—The foundation-stone of the new passenger station for the Great Eastern, the Midland, and the Great Northern Railways, at King’s Lynn, was laid by the Mayor (Mr. E. E. Durrant).

8.—Died at his Norfolk seat, Melton Constable, Jacob Henry Delaval Astley, twenty-third Baron Hastings.  His lordship, who was in his 49th year, succeeded his father in 1859.  He married, in 1848, the Hon. Frances Diana Manners Sutton, daughter of Viscount Canterbury.  He took no part in public affairs, but he was much esteemed for his amiable disposition, and deservedly popular in the county for the spirited manner in which he promoted field sports, and for his courteous bearing as a Master of Foxhounds.  Having no issue, his lordship was succeeded by his brother, the Hon. and Rev. Delaval Loftus Astley, of East Barsham.

9.—At Norwich Police Court, Richard Hoskins, a clerk in the employment of the National Provincial Bank of England, was charged with feloniously stealing divers sums, amounting altogether to £1,835, the moneys of his employers.  The magistrates consented to deal with the case summarily, and, on the prisoner pleading guilty, he was sentenced to six months’ imprisonment, with hard labour.

10.—Mr. Henry Haigh’s Opera Company, with Madame Haigh-Dyer as prima donna, opened the Easter season at Norwich Theatre with a performance of “The Grand Duchess.”

15.—Died at his residence, St. Andrew’s, Norwich, Mr. James Newbegin, aged 51.  He was Chairman of the Norwich Board of Guardians, and was possessed of considerable scientific attainments.  Mr. Edward Field was elected to the chairmanship of the Board on April 17th.

21.—The marriage of Princess Louise was celebrated at Norwich by the ringing of bells and by the partial decoration of the city.  The Town Council, at a special meeting, adopted a congratulatory address for presentation to the Queen, and in the evening the Scottish residents in the city held a banquet at the Norfolk Hotel.  “Although a number of their English friends were invited to join it, the gentlemen from North of the Tweed assembled in sufficiently preponderating numbers to give a distinctive character to the gathering, and the whole of the arrangements were carried out by a committee of Scotchmen.”  The “Number Twenty-Four” Club also dined at the same hotel, and the event was similarly celebrated at Yarmouth, Lynn, and Thetford.

26.—Died at Morningthorpe, Mr. Edward Howes, member of Parliament for South Norfolk.  Born July 7th, 1813, he was the eldest surviving son of the Rev. George Howes, rector of Spixworth, his mother being a daughter of Mr. Robert Fellowes, of Shotesham Park.  From St. Paul’s School he proceeded to Cambridge, and came out high in the list of Wranglers of his year (1835); in 1836 he was elected a Fellow of his College (Trinity), and three years after was called to the Bar.  In 1859 Mr. Howes was returned without opposition for the Eastern Division of the county, in conjunction with Colonel Coke, and in 1865 he was again elected, with Mr. Clare Sewell Read as his colleague.  In 1868, when the county was subdivided, Mr. Howes and Mr. Read selected the Southern Division, and were again returned.  Mr. Howes was appointed Chancellor of the Diocese on the death of p. 211Mr. Chancellor Evans; he was a Chairman of Norfolk Quarter Sessions, and one of her Majesty’s Ecclesiastical Commissioners.  He married first, in 1842, Agnes Maria, daughter of Mr. Richard Gwyn, who died in 1843; and secondly, in 1851, his cousin, the fourth daughter of Mr. R. Fellowes, deceased, by whom he left a son and a daughter.

APRIL.

1.—Died, in his 88th year, Mr. George Samuel Kett, of Brooke House.  He served the office of High Sheriff in 1820, and was a magistrate and Deputy Lieutenant of the county.

4.—Died, suddenly, while on a visit to Norwich, Mr. G. Middleton, of Wimbledon.  Mr. Middleton, who was a magistrate of the city, served the office of Mayor in 1859.

11.—The dedication-stone of a new church at Harleston was laid by Mr. Sancroft Holmes.  The building was designed to accommodate 400 persons, and the contract amounted to £3,150, exclusive of fittings.  Mr. Phipson was the architect, and Mr. Grimwood, of Weybread, the contractor.

—The nomination of candidates to fill the vacancy in the Southern Division of the county, occasioned by the death of Mr. Howes, took place at the Shirehall, Norwich.  Sir Robert Jacob Buxton, Conservative, and Mr. Robert Thornhagh Gurdon, Liberal, were nominated.  The polling took place on the 14th, and resulted in the return of the Conservative candidate.  The official declaration was made at the Shirehall on the 17th, as follows: Buxton, 2,868; Gurdon, 2,547.

12.—The first School Board election took place at Norwich.  “There was a total absence of excitement, and not much interest was shown.”  The following candidates were elected:—Mr. J. H. Tillett, Mr. H. Morgan, Mr. H. Birkbeck, Mr. J. W. Dowson.  Mr. T. R. Pinder, Mr. R. A. Cooper, the Rev. Hinds Howell, Mr. A. J. N. Chamberlin, Mr. C. J. Bunting, the Rev. E. P. Costello (Roman Catholic), the Rev. A. C. Copeman, the Rev. J. W. L. Heaviside, and Mr. J. C. Barnham.  The unsuccessful candidates were Mr. John Youngs, Mr. F. Paul, the Rev. G. S. Barrett, and the Rev. A. Jessopp.  On April 27th Canon Heaviside was elected Chairman, and Mr. Barnham Vice-Chairman; and on May 22nd Mr. E. P. Simpson was appointed Clerk.

15.*—“In consequence of the Purchas judgment, the clergy of Yarmouth intend to wear the surplice in future instead of the black gown when preaching.  This resolution was carried into effect during Passion week, and on Easter Sunday at the various churches.  At St. John’s, St. James’, and St. Andrew’s churches the black gown has long been discarded.”

18.—The sale of the stud and foxhounds of the late Lord Hastings, at Melton Constable, attracted an enormous number of persons from all parts of England.  About £4,000 was realised.  On the 19th the daily cows and red and fallow deer were sold for £1,600.

21.—Died at his residence, the Crescent, Norwich, the Rev. Samuel Titlow, vicar of St. John Timberhill and rector of St. Peter Hungate, aged 78.  Mr. Titlow was a native of Harleston, and was seventh Wrangler in the mathematical tripos of 1817.  Ordained deacon in the p. 212same year, he was appointed curate of Broxbourne, and in 1818 received priest’s orders.  He came to Norwich in 1819, as mathematical master at the Grammar School, under Dr. Valpy, and held the curacy of St. Clement.  Mr. Titlow afterwards opened a school in Pottergate Street, which he carried on for several years with great success.  In 1831 he was appointed to the vicarage of St. John Timberhill, and in 1839 the Lord Chancellor presented him to the rectory of St. Peter Hungate.

22.—Died at his residence, Hellesdon House, Norwich, Mr. John Norgate, a warm supporter of the benevolent and educational institutions of the city, and a good judge of the fine arts.

27.—A great meeting was held at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, under the presidency of the Mayor (Mr. F. E. Watson), “for the purpose of protesting against the Intoxicating Liquors (Licensing) Bill introduced into the House of Commons by the Home Secretary, Mr. Bruce.”  The principal speakers were Sir Samuel Bignold, Mr. W. P. Nichols, Mr. S. Gurney Buxton, and Mr. H. Patteson.  Resolutions were adopted affirming that the Bill was unjust in its character and indefensible in its confiscating the rights of property, and ought to be opposed by every constitutional means, and that it was an undue interference with the rights, liberties, and necessities of the working man, and inconsistent with the true spirit of freedom.

MAY.

7.—Died, at Great Plumstead, Robert Maidstone, in his one hundredth year.  For the last twenty years of his life he was postmaster of the village, and had served for more than half a century the office of parish clerk.

13.—The census returns for Norwich were published on this date.  The number of houses inhabited was 18,328; uninhabited, 1,117; building, 181; the total population was 80,382—males, 36,583; females, 43,799.

17.—Snow fell at Norwich, “and the weather was more like that of midwinter than of the merrie month of May.”

18.—The sale of the late Lord Walsingham’s Merton herd was conducted by Mr. John Thornton.  Forty-six cows realised £1,906 16s., and eleven bulls, £402 3s., a respective average of £41 9s. and £36 11s. 2d.  The total amount was £2,308 19s.  The Southdown flock was sold by Mr. Thornton on June 29th.  The highest price paid for a yearling ram was 180 guineas, and the total amount realised £5,489 15s.

21.—Died, at St. Augustine’s, Norwich, Mr. John Sultzer, in his 69th year.  Since the year 1839 he had carried on an extensive manufacturing business; he was a magistrate of the city, a member of the Town Council, and chairman of the Norwich Waterworks Company, and of the Board of Management of the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital.  Mr. Sultzer was a native of Leicester, and at the age of 25 settled in Lichfield, of which city he was Mayor at the time of the Coronation of Queen Victoria.  In politics he was a Liberal.

24.—The Queen’s birthday was celebrated in the customary manner at Norwich.  The Royal Horse Artillery and Volunteers were reviewed p. 213on Mousehold, and the Mayor and Sheriff, besides entertaining a large number of guests at the Drill Hall, gave a dinner at St. Andrew’s Hall to 1,200 of the aged poor.

JUNE.

7.—A rifle match between two teams of 22 men each, representing the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, took place on the Billingford range, East Dereham, and was won by Norfolk by 589 points against 562.

20.—A fine barque, classed A 1 at Lloyd’s for fourteen years, named the Oleander, was launched from the shipyard of Mr. J. H. Fellows, at Southtown, Yarmouth.  The vessel was 440 tons builder’s measurement, and 386 tons register, 133 feet in length, and 27 feet beam, and was intended for the South African trade.

21.—The annual show of the Norfolk Agricultural Association commenced at East Dereham, and was continued on the 22nd.  It was the most successful that the society had held.  Mr. C. S. Read, M.P., presided at the public dinner, which took place at the Corn Hall.

JULY.

14.—Mrs. Elizabeth Watts, of Badding’s Lane, St. Martin-at-Palace, Norwich, attained her one hundredth year.

15.—The 2nd Administrative Battalion of Norfolk Volunteers and the 1st Administrative Battalion of Suffolk Volunteers were encamped on the North Denes, Yarmouth.  Major-General F. Murray inspected the battalions on the 20th.

18.—The projected establishment of a Norfolk County School for the education of the middle classes “on similar principles to those which have been successfully carried out in other counties,” was discussed at a meeting of the West Norfolk Chamber of Agriculture held at King’s Lynn.  The movement, which was initiated by the Rev. J. L. Brereton, was deemed worthy of support not only by the chamber, but by the county generally.  On September 30th the announcement was made that the school was being experimentally conducted at Great Massingham.  (See January 22nd, 1872.)

22.—The 1st Administrative Battalion of Norfolk Rifle Volunteers went into camp at Holkham Park.  The North Walsham corps marched the whole distance of thirty miles; they started the day before, and were billeted for the night at Holt.  Lieut.-Col. Wilkinson inspected the battalion on the 26th, and the camp was struck on the 29th.

AUGUST.

2.—The Eastern Counties Industrial and Fine Arts Exhibition commenced at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich.  It remained open for two months.

p. 2145.—At a special meeting of the Governors of the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, the Centenary Committee appointed for the purpose of suggesting a scheme for affording increased accommodation for in-patients, and for soliciting donations and subscriptions to carry out the object, reported that in consequence of conflicting opinions they had been unable to come to a decision.  It was agreed by the Board that no additional building be commenced not only until the necessary funds for completing the building were provided, but until increased subscriptions for the maintenance of additional in-patients were forthcoming.  (See November 20th, 1876.)

7.—The first Monday in August falling upon this date, “the banks at Norwich were closed, under the Bank Holiday Act.”  At East Dereham “the first of the holidays mentioned in the new statute was officially observed by the various bank officials, for whose convenience the measure was passed into law.”  A meeting of the merchants, manufacturers, traders, and others was held at the Guildhall, Norwich, on December 14th, “to determine whether the holidays mentioned in the Bank Holiday Act should be permanently adopted in this city.”  Those present pledged themselves to adopt the holidays.

15.—The Yarmouth Town Council voted an address to Sir James Paget, a native of the borough, congratulating him upon the honour of a baronetcy conferred upon him by the Queen.

22.—The D Battery, B Brigade, Royal Horse Artillery, marched from Norwich for Aldershot, and were accompanied to the city boundary by the bands of the Artillery and Rifle Volunteers.

26.—Died, Mr. James De Carle Sowerby, aged 84.  He belonged to a Norwich family of naturalists, and was chiefly employed in drawing, engraving, and colouring.  “There were few departments of natural history in which his attainments were not considerable, and he published many papers on shells and other subjects in the Transactions of the Geological and other societies.”

SEPTEMBER.

2.—Mr. Walter Montgomery, the well-known actor, committed suicide by shooting himself at Shelly’s Hotel, Stafford Street, London.  Only on the 30th of the previous month he married, at St. George’s, Hanover Square, Miss Laleah B. Bigelow, an American lady.  Mr. Montgomery, whose real name was Richard Tomlinson, was a native of Norwich, and for some years resided at Walsingham, where he was apprenticed to Mr. William Coker, a grocer and draper.  At an early age he showed a predilection for the stage, and after a series of recitals in private, made his first appearance at Norwich Theatre, and subsequently played at Yarmouth, Bath, Bristol, and other provincial towns.  He went to Birmingham in 1854, and thence to the Theatre Royal, Manchester, where he became a great favourite.  He performed also at Drury Lane and the Haymarket, and made a tour in Australia, where he established for himself a high reputation.  Returning to England, he sustained heavy pecuniary losses by his connexion with the Gaiety Theatre, and had resolved to emigrate to America.  Mr. Montgomery was 44 years of age.

p. 21511.—Mdlle. Beatrice appeared at Norwich Theatre with “Frou-frou” Company.  During the engagement, “The Happy Pair” and “The Ticket-of-Leave Man,” in which Mr. Horace Wigan sustained his original character of Hawkshaw, the Detective, were produced.

27.—The All England and Norfolk Ploughing Matches commenced at Booton, near Reepham, and were continued on the 28th.  There were seven contests—three for implement manufacturers and four for Norfolk ploughmen.  A public dinner was held at Hackford schoolroom on the evening of the first day, when Mr. C. S. Read, M.P., presided, and several local members of Parliament were present.

OCTOBER.

4.—The headquarters of the 7th Dragoon Guards arrived at Norwich, under the command of Lieut.-Col. Peyton.  The Cavalry Barracks being under repair, the officers took up their quarters at the Royal Hotel.

6.—Great excitement was caused at Diss by the closing of the doors of Messrs. Fincham and Co.’s Bank.  In a circular issued shortly afterwards, Mr. Simpson stated that he was compelled to adopt this course owing to the continued strain upon his resources.  On the 7th it was announced that arrangements were being made by which it was hoped the business of the Bank would be carried on; and on the same day Messrs. Gurneys intimated that they would afford banking facilities to the customers of Messrs. Fincham and Simpson during the temporary suspension of business.  A meeting of the creditors was held on the 10th, and a committee appointed; and representatives of the London and Provincial Bank carried out negotiations which resulted in the Bank being re-opened on the 11th.  Another meeting was held on November 2nd, for the purpose of proving debts and of realising the estate.  Payment to the creditors of 10s. in the pound was arranged, it being understood that further dividends would be paid as the estate was realised.  The liabilities were reported to be £87,305 5s. 6d., and the assets £54,491 18s. 2d.

13.—Sir Samuel Bignold, on the completion of his 80th year, was presented by the clerks at the Union Offices with a silver inkstand and an illuminated address.  Several of the Conservative Ward Associations adopted congratulatory addresses, and, on the 17th, a resolution was passed by the Town Council expressive of the congratulations of that body.  On January 9th, 1872, the proprietors of the Norwich Union Fire Office presented Sir Samuel with a service of plate and his portrait, painted by Ventnor.

15.—Died at his residence, Buckingham Palace Road, London, Mr. Richard Young, who, on the 13th inst., had been re-elected by the Livery of the Corporation Sheriff of London and Middlesex.  Mr. Young, who was a merchant and shipowner, and a director of the Great Eastern Railway and other companies, was born at Scarning, in 1809, and was a self-made man.

16.—Died at the house of her nephew, Mr. H. Wilkin, West Pottergate Street, Norwich, Sarah Nolbrow, aged 100 years.

p. 21617.—The Norwich Town Council accepted a portrait of Mr. Jacob Henry Tillett, painted by Sandys, to be placed in St. Andrew’s Hall.

—The Sanitary Committee reported to the Norwich Town Council that the number of outbreaks of small-pox in the city was such as to occasion considerable alarm.  It was stated that the necessary precautions had been taken, and, in case of death, burial within forty-eight hours had, as far as possible, been enforced, and arrangements made to prevent the bodies of children being carried to the Cemetery in cabs.  Dr. Eade, at a meeting of the Town Council on November 28th, referred to the alarming spread of the disease, and urged the necessity of enforcing vaccination.  During this and the succeeding month several persons were prosecuted for neglect of precautionary measures.  On December 19th it was reported to the Town Council that the Marchioness of Lothian had munificently given to the city a small-pox hospital.  (See March 23rd, 1872.)

18.—A new Corn Hall, erected through the enterprise of Mr. J. W. Davey, was opened at Yarmouth.  It was designed by Mr. J. B. Pearce, and built by Mr. J. W. Lacey, at the cost of £3,800.  “For many years past the corn merchants had met in all weathers in front of the Duke’s Head Hotel, without the slightest shelter, and transacted their affairs at great inconvenience to themselves and to the annoyance of the general public.”

26.—At Norwich Quarter Sessions, before the Recorder, Mr. O’Malley, Q.C., Henry Brown Woolsey (36), formerly a clerk at Carrow Works, pleaded guilty to feloniously embezzling £558, the monies of his employers, Mr. J. J. Colman and others, and was sentenced to five years’ penal servitude, although recommended to mercy by the prosecutors.  Considerable comment was made upon the disparity of the sentences in this and in the Hoskins case (q.v. page 210).

NOVEMBER.

9.—Mr. Robert Chamberlin was elected Mayor, and Mr. Frederick Grimmer appointed Sheriff of Norwich.

23.—A telegram was received at Norwich announcing that the Prince of Wales was suffering from an attack of typhoid fever at Sandringham.  “There are,” it was added, “no unfavourable symptoms.”  Later bulletins were of a most alarming character, and the inhabitants of county and city soon realised that his Royal Highness was in a critical condition.  The Queen arrived from Windsor on the 29th, and was met at Wolferton station by the Duke of Edinburgh, who escorted her to Sandringham.  This was her Majesty’s first visit to Sandringham, and her second to Norfolk.  [As Princess Victoria, she, with her mother, the Duchess of Kent, visited Mr. Coke at Holkham, in 1835.]  Her Majesty returned to Windsor on December 1st.  On the 8th his Royal Highness had a very serious relapse, and his Royal mother, accompanied by the Duke of Edinburgh and Princess Louise, hurried back to Sandringham.  On December 10th a special form of prayer was used in all churches, and supplications were made at Nonconformist places of worship.  Public suspense continued until the 14th, when a turn for the better took place, and on the 19th her Majesty returned to Windsor.  On the same day a special meeting of p. 217the Norwich Town Council was held, at which, on the motion of Sir William Foster, seconded by Sir Samuel Bignold, a resolution was adopted expressing to her Majesty and the Princess of Wales the deep sympathy felt by the citizens during the dangerous and painful illness of his Royal Highness.  Throughout this trying period the newspaper offices in Norwich were besieged by anxious crowds, eager to receive intelligence.  (See January 4th, 1872.)

30.—A severe gale burst over the East coast, and was productive of the most terrible disasters to shipping and the fishing fleet.

DECEMBER.

26.—The pantomime produced at Norwich Theatre, by Miss May Holt, was entitled, “The Fair One with the Golden Locks, or Harlequin Zephyr and the Peris’ Paradise on the Jewelled Island.”  At Charles Adams’ Circus was produced the equestrian pantomime, “Ride a Cock Horse to Banbury Cross, or Harlequin Mother Goose.”

1872.

JANUARY.

4.—At the Norfolk Quarter Sessions, held at the Shirehall, Norwich, the Earl of Kimberley moved an address to the Queen, conveying to her Majesty the assurance that the magistracy and all her loyal subjects in the county had felt the sincerest sympathy with her during the alarming illness of the Prince of Wales; and Lord Sondes moved a congratulatory address to his Royal Highness and the Princess of Wales.  The clergy of the diocese, at a meeting held at the Palace on the 27th, adopted similar addresses.  “Thanksgiving Day” was observed throughout the county on February 27th.  At Norwich the principal business establishments were closed, and services held at the Cathedral, the parish churches, and other places of worship.

11.—The centenary of the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital was celebrated by an entertainment given at the institution.

22.—The Norwich, Costessey, and Taverham Tramway Scheme was considered by the Board of Trade, to whose satisfaction the promoters proved that the preliminary steps required under the Tramways Act, 1870, had been complied with.

—The Norfolk County School Association held its first meeting at the temporary school at Great Massingham, under the presidency of Sir Willoughby Jones.  The Rev. J. L. Brereton reported that the Prince of Wales had become a patron of the school, and the sum of £5,920 had been subscribed by about seventy shareholders.  At a meeting held at the Earl of Leicester’s, house in Grosvenor Square, London, on April 24th, it was decided to erect the school on Bintry Hill, near North Elmham.  (See April 14th, 1873.)

p. 21824.—The Norwich Waterworks Company opened a second covered reservoir at Lakenham, and, in celebration of the event, luncheon was served within the works, under the presidency of the chairman of the company, Mr. H. S. Patteson.  The reservoir was 128 feet in length and 120 feet in width.

FEBRUARY.

7.—Died at his residence, Notting Hill, London, the Right Rev. Samuel Hinds, D.D., formerly Bishop of Norwich.  Born at Barbadoes in 1793, he came at an early age to England, and was educated at a private school at Ridland, near Bristol.  He entered Balliol College, Oxford, but migrated to Queen’s, where he took Second Class Honours in Classics and the University Latin Essay.  After ordination by the Bishop of London, he returned to Barbadoes as the first missionary to the negro population.  Soon afterwards the headmastership of Codrington College fell vacant, and Dr. Hinds was appointed thereto by Bishop’ Howley.  On returning to England, he held a small living in Hertfordshire, and the rectory of Castle Knock, near Dublin; in 1848 was appointed Dean of Carlisle, and in 1849, on the death of Bishop Stanley, he became Bishop of Norwich.  On account of ill-health he resigned the See in 1857.  Bishop Hinds was the author of “A Treatise on Logic,” “A History of the Rise and Early Progress of Christianity,” “An Inquiry into the Nature and Extent of Inspiration,” and “Sonnets and Sacred Poems.”  “His beautiful hymn, to which Dr. Buck set such appropriate music, is familiar to every attendant at our Cathedral services.”

MARCH.

1.—Died at Gateley, Mr. Money Griggs, in his one hundredth year.

9.*—“Under the provisions of Mr. Cardwell’s Army Organization Bill, Yarmouth has been selected as the headquarters of the depôt of the 9th East Norfolk Regiment of Foot.”

11.—Died, at 21, Taviton Street, Gordon Square, London, Emily Taylor, daughter of Mr. Samuel Taylor, of New Buckenham.  She was born April 8th, 1795, and for nearly fifty years resided in Norfolk.  At the age of five her singing was said to be wonderful; before seven years of age she had read the Iliad of Homer and made herself acquainted with many books of history.  Among her writings were “Tales of the Saxons,” “Tales of the English,” “The Ball I live on,” “Poetical Illustrations,” &c.  Her last work was “Contemporary Poets,” issued in 1868.  Miss Taylor, who was a native of Banham, removed to London in 1858, and established the West Central Collegiate School, Southampton Road, Russell Square.  Her remains were interred in Highgate Cemetery, on March 14th, near the resting-place of Miss Martineau.

14.—Died at his residence in Duke Street, Norwich, very suddenly, aged 51, Mr. Henry Rudd, chorus master of the Norfolk and Norwich Triennial Musical Festival.  Mr. Rudd was originally a sawyer, but his taste for music was observed by Mr. Taylor, organist of St. John’s Roman Catholic chapel, from whom he received his musical education.  For many years he was a member of the Choral Society and of other p. 219musical associations, held the situation of music master at the Diocesan Training Institution, and was instrumental in forming the Norwich Gatehouse Choir.  On the resignation of Mr. J. F. Hill, he obtained the post of director of the Festival Choral Society.  Mr. Rudd was succeeded as chorus master by Mr. James Harcourt.

20.—Died at Northrepps Hall, aged 88, Hannah, widow of the first Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, whom she survived twenty-seven years.  Lady Buxton was sister of the well-known philanthropist, Elizabeth Fry, and of Mr. John Joseph Gurney.

22.—Died at Burlingham Hall, Mr. Henry Negus Burroughes, aged 81.  He succeeded to the family estates at an early age, and in 1815 served the office of High Sheriff.  In 1837, in conjunction with Mr. Edmond Wodehouse, he successfully contested the representation of East Norfolk against Mr. W. H. Windham and Mr. R. H. Gurney, and he continued to represent the division until 1857, having meanwhile stood a second contest, in 1841, with Sir William ffolkes, and been twice re-elected, in 1847 and 1852, without opposition.  In 1857, however, he and his colleague, Sir Henry Stracey, who had been elected in 1855, in the room of Mr. Wodehouse, declined to come forward again, the then popularity of their chief opponent, Major-General Windham, who had just returned triumphant from the Crimea, rendering success doubtful.  Mr. Burroughes had taken an active part in the public business of the county.

23.—In the week ending this date there was a marked decline in the mortality from small-pox in Norwich.  The largest number of deaths in any week was 37, and for several weeks the number was reported as 30.

30.—Died at Coltishall, in his 80th year, Mr. Nathaniel Palmer, of the Inner Temple, barrister-at-law.  By his death the Recordership of Yarmouth and the Judgeship of the Norwich Court of Record became vacant.  The first-named office was filled by the appointment of Mr. Simms Reeve, and the latter by the election of Mr. Carlos Cooper.  Mr. Palmer was one of the oldest of the Norwich magistrates, and for many years occupied a leading position in the Liberal party.  Born in 1792, he was the son of Mr. Nathaniel Palmer, Government contractor for the Navy and distributor of stamps, and was articled to Mr. Worship, solicitor, of Yarmouth, in which borough he practised as an attorney, with considerable success.  In 1827 he was called to the Bar by the Inner Temple.  He married Rachael, only daughter of Mr. Thomas Hitchin, of Norwich, by whom he had five children.  One of his sons was Mr. T. H. Palmer, registrar of the Norwich County Court.

APRIL.

1.—Mr. Henry Leslie’s Opera Bouffe Company commenced an engagement at Norwich Theatre, in “Princess of Trebizonde.”

13.—The agricultural labourers’ agitation began in Norfolk with a meeting held at Old Buckenham.  The movement was shortly afterwards taken up in earnest in many parts of the county.  The principal object of its supporters was to obtain an increase in the rate of wages.  (See February 20th, 1873.)

p. 22022.—Died at Norwich, aged 50, Mr. Frederick Simpson, for many years City Treasurer.  Mr. T. Hancock, a member of the Town Council, resigned his seat, and on May 3rd was elected to the vacant office.

MAY.

1.—The arbitration case, Coaks v. Tillett, was opened at the Shirehall, Norwich, before Sir Willoughby Jones, Bart.  The inquiry had reference to a claim made by Mr. I. B. Coaks against Mr. J. H. Tillett, arising out of the winding-up of the affairs of the East of England Bank.  An action was originally brought in the Court of Queen’s Bench, and was intended to have been heard at the previous Norwich Assizes, but by consent of both parties the matter in dispute was referred to the arbitration of Sir Willoughby Jones.  Mr. Merewether appeared for Mr. Coaks, and Mr. Tillett conducted his own case.  The amount claimed was £2,160, and the arbitrator, after an exhaustive inquiry was due consideration, awarded £1,881 4s. 5d.

8.—In the Court of Queen’s Bench, the Attorney-General moved for a rule nisi calling upon the Town Council of Norwich to show cause why a mandamus should not issue directing them to build a new asylum for pauper lunatics.  The question had been in abeyance since 1863, and various reasons were urged why the asylum should not be erected.  The Court granted the rule nisi.  On the 17th it was resolved, at a meeting of the Town Council, to write to the Secretary of State, pointing out that on April 17th a resolution was passed in the House of Commons affirming that occupiers in counties and boroughs should be relieved either in whole or in part of charges imposed for lunatics, the expenditure for such purpose being almost entirely independent of local control.  The Home Secretary was asked whether he felt it imcumbent by compulsory measures to force upon the local rates of Norwich an expenditure estimated at between £40,000 and £50,000.  On the 21st the Town Council sent a memorial to the House of Commons, asking them “to intervene for the protection of this municipality, or at least obtain a postponement of the threatened proceedings until Parliament shall have definitely settled by whom the cost of maintaining lunatics shall be permanently borne.”  The Court of Queen’s Bench, on June 10th, made the rule absolute against the Corporation, and on June 18th the Corporation decided, by 33 votes to 7, to offer continued resistance to the mandamus.  (See January 15th, 1873.)

14.—A meeting, presided over by Colonel Hugh FitzRoy, was held at the Town Hall, Aylsham, to discuss the feasibility of constructing a narrow gauge railway between Norwich and Aylsham, and thence to Aldborough and Beeston.  Mr. Minshull, engineer, estimated the cost of construction at £5,000 per mile.  The meeting was in favour of the scheme, and appointed a committee to consider details.

16.—The first stone of Christ church, Eaton, was laid by the Mayor of Norwich (Mr. R. Chamberlin).  The church was opened on November 4th, 1873, by the Bishop of Norwich.  Mr. H. Bolingbroke gave the site; the architects were Mr. J. H. Brown and Mr. J. B. Pearce, and the contractors Mr. W. Wright and Mr. J. W. Lacey.  “It is said that the bell fixed in the turret was formerly the sanctus bell at the Cathedral.”

p. 22120.—The Queen’s birthday was celebrated at Norwich on this day (Whit-Monday).  “It was a demonstration of regard towards the person of her Majesty and of joy that his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales had recovered from his illness.”  The streets of the city were decorated, a military review took place on Mousehold, civic entertainments were given, and the festivities terminated with a display of fireworks on the Castle Meadow.

21.—Captain Bates, the Kentucky Giant, and Chrissie-Millie, better known as the “Two-headed Nightingale,” appeared at the Lecture Hall, St. Andrew’s, Norwich.  Of this mulatto girl it was said, “Chrissie and Millie are fairly educated, and sing either solos or duets with ease and effect.”

23.—Died at Naples, the Right Hon. Henry Lytton Earle Bulwer, Baron Dalling and Bulwer.  Born in 1804, his lordship was the second son of General William Bulwer, of Heydon Hall and Wood Dalling, by Elizabeth Barbara Lytton, sole heiress and last descendant of the Lyttons of Knebworth in Hertfordshire.  His career as a diplomatist is familiar to every student of history.  His lordship was the author of “Historical Characters,” which appeared in two volumes in the winter of 1867, and rapidly ran into a sixth edition; and of a “Life of Lord Palmerston,” published in 1871.  The remains of the deceased nobleman were interred at Heydon on June 25th.

27.—A one hundred yards’ race took place on the West Winch Road, Lynn, between Thomas Akers and a horse belonging to Mr. W. L. Proctor.  “Akers led off, the horse not starting directly the signal was given, but he had not proceeded far when he was overtaken by the animal and beaten by about ten yards.”

29.—The tower of the church of Beeston-next-Mileham was struck by lightning.  “The Litcham fire-engine was taken into the church, but the molten lead and burning timber fell so rapidly that nothing could be done, and the tower was entirely destroyed.”

—A remarkable mirage was witnessed at Yarmouth.  “The weather was exceedingly sultry, with heavy banks of clouds towards the east and south-east, just opposite Yarmouth, and extending from the Scroby to the Corton Sands there appeared a sharply-defined and magnificent outline of Gorleston and Corton cliff, with the entrance to the harbour and even the white sands.  A stranger visiting the locality for the first time would have supposed that Yarmouth was embayed by a narrow peninsula.”

JUNE.

3.—Mr. G. B. Loveday’s Gaiety Operetta Company, under the direction of Mr. John Hollingshead, appeared at Norwich Theatre.

6.—The Prince of Wales visited Yarmouth for the first time.  His Royal Highness, accompanied by the Earl of Leicester, arrived at Southtown station, and was received by the Mayor (Mr. E. H. L. Preston), the members of the Corporation, and the Recorder (Mr. Simms Reeve), who read an address of welcome.  The Militia Artillery and the Rifle Volunteers formed guards of honour, and the Royal carriage was escorted from the station to the Town Hall, by the 7th Dragoon Guards from Norwich, under the command of Colonel Peyton.  p. 222After luncheon at the Town Hall, his Royal Highness proceeded to the newly-erected Grammar School, at the junction of Trafalgar Road and Apsley Road, and declared the buildings open; in the evening he dined at the Artillery mess and attended a performance in which Mr. Toole appeared, at the Regent Hall.  On the 7th the Prince was present at a review of the Artillery Militia, of which he was honorary colonel, and on the 8th returned by special train to London.

10.—Mr. J. L. Toole and Miss E. Farren appeared at Norwich Theatre on this and the succeeding evening in “Dearer than Life,” “The Steeplechase,” “The Weavers,” scenes from “Paul Pry,” and “Ici on parle Français.”

19.—The show of the Norfolk Agricultural Association, of which the Prince of Wales was this year President, commenced at King’s Lynn, and was attended by his Royal Highness, who was accompanied by the Princess of Wales.  The Prince presided at the luncheon, which, for the first time, took place in a marquee erected in the showground, and was attended by upwards of 900 guests.  In addition to the Prince of Wales, the speakers at the gathering included the Earl of Leicester, the Bishop of Norwich, Lord Sondes, Lord Suffield, Admiral Sir Henry Keppel, the Hon. R. Bourke, M.P., Sir W. Bagge, M.P., Mr. C. S. Read, M.P., Mr. G. W. P. Bentinck, M.P., &c.

JULY.

2.—Died at the Roman Catholic Presbytery, Willow Lane, Norwich, the Rev. Edmund Costello, S.J., aged 44.  Father Costello had been in ill-health, and his death was accelerated by his devoted ministrations among the poor when the small-pox epidemic was at its height.  He was a son of Mr. James Costello, of Eyre Square, Galway, was educated at the Irish College, Paris, at Maynooth, and at Stonyhurst, and entered upon the Norwich Roman Catholic Mission in 1868.

27.—The 3rd Norfolk Rifle Volunteers (formerly the 1st Administrative Battalion), commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Duff, went into camp at Ketteringham Park.  The North Walsham corps marched from that town to the camp, a distance of twenty-two miles.  The 2nd Battalion, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel R. T. Gurdon, was brigaded with the 3rd Battalion.  The camp was struck on August 2nd.

29.—The sale of Crown Point and Whitlingham estate took place at the Royal Hotel, Norwich, by order of the Court of Chancery.  Messrs. J. and J. Colman were the purchasers, at £55,700.

30.—Sir Henry Stracey was presented, at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, by the Conservatives of the city, with a valuable piece of plate, as “a mark of their appreciation of his political conduct during the recent contests, and their admiration of his example as a straightforward English gentleman.”  Lady Stracey received from the ladies of Norwich a diamond bracelet, and silver bouquet-holders were presented by working-men to the Misses Stracey.

AUGUST.

5.—The High Sheriff (Mr. Angerstein) was fined £50 by the Judge p. 223of Assize at Norwich.  (Mr. Justice Keating), for non-attendance with his carriage at the Judge’s lodgings.  His lordship had driven to the court in a cab, which he considered to be “a way not fitting her Majesty’s Judges.”  The High Sheriff subsequently explained that a mistake had been made as to the time fixed for the sitting of the court, and having tendered an apology, the fine was remitted by his lordship.

5.—At the Norfolk Assizes, before Mr. Justice Byles, James Johnson, of North Walsham, sought to recover from Mr. W. H. Cooke, Q.C., Judge of the Norfolk County Court, damages for false imprisonment and assault.  It was alleged that the defendant wrongfully imprisoned the plaintiff for thirty days; when the plaintiff left Norwich Castle he personally served the Judge, as he was leaving the court, with a notice of action for false imprisonment, and his Honour, mistaking the man’s intention, seized him by the collar, and a second time ordered his arrest.  For the defendant it was alleged that he had acted within his jurisdiction.  After two days’ trial the jury returned a verdict for the plaintiff, damages one farthing.

8.—An alarming flood occurred at Walsingham.  Owing to heavy rains, the stream in the vicinity overflowed its banks, and the low-lying part of the town was submerged.  Forty women and children were rescued from the upper rooms of the cottages by means of ladders, and conveyed in boats to a place of safety.  On the 9th a temporary dam was erected, which had the effect of diverting the flow of water.  The village of East Barsham was also flooded, and the high road at West Barsham was under water.

10.—At a meeting of the Norfolk Central Committee, held at the Shirehall, Norwich, it was reported that foot-and-mouth disease had spread to an alarming extent among cattle and sheep.  On the motion of Mr. C. S. Read, M.P., it was ordered that markets for fat stock be held under the same restrictions that were in force during the time of the cattle plague, and that similar regulations should govern the movements of store stock as were then in force.  In Norfolk alone during the previous five weeks the loss to stockowners from foot-and-mouth disease was estimated at £22,500, in respect of 10,000 cattle and 5,000 sheep.  The committee sent a memorial to the Privy Council to prohibit the opening of all fairs and markets for the period of six weeks.

12.—Died suddenly, at Hills Road, Cambridge, Mr. George Kett.  He was born at Suton, near Wymondham, on June 26th, 1809, and commenced life in a small way of business as a wood carver at Wymondham.  After copying poppyheads at Wymondham church, he undertook the carving of the seats for Ketteringham and Mulbarton churches.  He then removed to Norwich, where he was engaged upon the restoration of the Cathedral stalls and canopies.  Whilst he was working there Mr. James Rattee was placed under him as an apprentice, and the two afterwards became partners.  Mr. Kett was next offered employment upon the works for the new Houses of Parliament.  In 1845 he removed to London, where he was principally employed under the immediate direction of Sir Charles Barry, in supplying designs for the wood carving.  Among other portions of the work on which he was specially engaged were the Royal Arms at the back of the Throne in the House of Lords.  Mr. Rattee, in 1848, consulted him p. 224upon an estimate for the restoration of the choir of Ely Cathedral, and Mr. Kett agreed that if the tender were accepted he would remove to Cambridge and assist him in carrying it out.  The business partnership thus commenced continued after Mr. Rattee’s death, in 1854, with his widow, under the style of Rattee and Kett.  Mrs. Rattee died in 1866, when Mr. Kett assumed sole control of the establishment, and was largely engaged in the work of church restoration in all parts of the United Kingdom.

15.—Died at Felbrigg Park, Mr. John Ketton, in his 61st year.  Mr. Ketton was a native of Norwich, where for many years he was engaged in commercial pursuits.  His success enabled him, when Mr. Windham’s affairs became embarrassed, to purchase the Felbrigg estate, where he resided until the period of his death.

—Died at Reigate, Surrey, from the effects of injuries inflicted upon himself, Mr. Benjamin Land, better known as “Ben Land,” a sporting character of great celebrity in his day.  Mr. Land began life as a Norfolk farmer, and gave great encouragement to steeple-chasing in the county, upon the introduction of that sport in the first half of the century.  One of his earliest winning mounts was in 1836, a horse named Predictor.  Then he owned a very useful nag called Neewood, and another, Lottery, an exceedingly clever animal over a country.  Land made himself further known by his doings on Jim Crow, Faith, the Novice, Yellow Dwarf, Little Nell, Victoria, and Wonder, who could all run and jump a bit, and sad teasers they were to other Norfolk sportsmen.  While still holding on his farm, Land hunted a pack of staghounds, but he gradually got out of business as an agriculturist, and took to riding and training as a profession.

17.—The provisions of the new Licensing Act came into operation in Norwich.  A notice had been issued by the Chief Constable that on Sunday, Christmas-day, and Good Friday, licensed houses were not to open before 12.30 at noon and to close at 2.30 in the afternoon; not to open again before six in the evening, and to close at ten o’clock.  On week-days they were not to open until six in the morning, and to close at eleven o’clock at night.  “This application of the Act came on the city suddenly and unexpectedly, the general opinion having prevailed that everything would go on as usual until the next annual licensing-day.  In Union Place and King Street many people determined to have their own way as far as they could, and accordingly just before closing time they made a great demand upon the can accommodation of the houses.  Large cans and small cans, when filled with beer, were borne off in triumphant defiance to the pavement outside, or to the men’s private gardens or houses, where friend and neighbour remained drinking, and, in some cases, singing, together long after the lights of the various public-houses had been extinguished.  In two or three instances some ill-advised publicans persisted in keeping their houses open.”  Several licensed victuallers were fined for infringing the regulations of the new Act, and in the early days of its operation the Norwich magistrates were very liberal in granting extensions of time on the occasion of the Christmas, Easter, and Whitsun holidays.  At East Dereham the justices permitted the public-houses to remain open until twelve o’clock during four months of the year.

19.—The first really notable journey upon a bicycle was performed p. 225by Percy Everett, of Ryburgh, a lad aged 16.  He started at 4.45 a.m. from Ryburgh station, and rode to Newmarket, where he had breakfast; thence to Whittlesford, where he lunched; and at 5.30 p.m. he reached Ware, in Hertfordshire, having accomplished the distance of 110 miles in about 12½ hours.  Everett rode one of the first of the rubber-tyred bicycles—a machine of Coventry make, known as the “Aeriel.”

20.—Died, Mr. Edmund Harbord Lushington Preston, Mayor of Great Yarmouth.  Mr. Preston was born in 1806, at the period when the Hon. E. Harbord (second son of the then Lord Suffield) and Mr. Stephen Lushington were returned to Parliament as members for Yarmouth—hence two of his Christian names.  After the passing of the Municipal Reform Act, he was one of the first burgesses returned to the Town Council on Conservative principles, and, with the exception of a short period, from November, 1868, to November, 1869, he continued to be a member of the Corporation.  Mr. Preston was for twenty years one of the magistrates of the borough, and a member of the Port and Haven Commission.

27.—The Blake-Bignold incident occurred at the Norwich Police-court.  Mr. Blake, on September 2nd, was charged with assaulting a publican, and fined, and, on his leaving the court, was followed by a mob, who endeavoured to overturn the cab in which he had taken refuge.

28.—Lord Walsingham, while shooting on Blubberhouse Moor, Yorkshire, killed with his own gun 842 head of grouse, between the hours of 5.30 a.m. and 3 p.m.  The birds were driven, and before one o’clock 550 had been bagged.

29.—A portion of the Reserve Squadron, consisting of nine ironclad war vessels, under the command of Admiral Randolph, entered Yarmouth Roads, and sailed on the 30th for the Nore.  The officers and men numbered 4,500.

—A 300 yards swimming match took place at Thorpe, between John Morris, ex-champion of England, and “Victor Natator, the champion under-water performer,” for £10 a side.  “Natator” received ten yards’ start, and, after an exciting race, was beaten by three yards.

SEPTEMBER.

2.—Died at Slough, Buckinghamshire, aged 95 years, Mrs. Anne Rigby, widow of Dr. Rigby, of Norwich, whom she survived 51 years.

5.—The Norwich Board of Guardians, after a long and acrimonious discussion, agreed, on the motion of the Rev. A. C. Copeman, seconded by Dr. Bateman, to accede to the request of Professor Humphrey, of Cambridge, that he be supplied, for the purposes of dissection, with the unclaimed bodies of persons who died in the Workhouse.  At a meeting on October 3rd an attempt was made to rescind the resolution, which, however, was confirmed by 16 votes against 12.  On December 12th a third debate resulted in the rescission of the original motion by one vote.

9.—The first election in the Eastern Counties under the new Ballot Act took place at Great Yarmouth, when a councillor was returned p. 226to fill in the Town Council the vacancy occasioned by the death of Mr. Preston.

10.—Lord Walsingham was presented by his Merton tenantry with an address of welcome upon his return after a prolonged visit to America.

16.—Norwich Theatre was opened for the winter season, under the management of Mr. G. H. Chaplin.  “It has been our lot to witness some very indifferent acting upon the Norwich boards, but we never remember having seen a whole company (with the exception of Mr. Chaplin) so thoroughly destitute of histrionic talent, or so wretchedly poor in the dresses whereby to represent the characters.”

—The Norfolk and Norwich Triennial Musical Festival commenced with an evening performance of the “Festival Te Deum” (composed in celebration of the recovery of the Prince of Wales) and of “The Creation.”  The morning performance on the 18th was “Elijah,” on the 19th “St. Peter” (first time of performance in Norwich); and on the 20th “The Messiah.”  On the evening of the 17th a grand ballad concert took place, and on the 18th and 19th miscellaneous concerts.  The principal vocalists were Mdlle. Tietjens, Mdlle. Florence Lancia, Mdlle. Albani, Madame Patey, Madame Trebelli-Bettini, Mr. W. H. Cummings, Mr. Edward Lloyd, Mr. Kerr Gedge, Mr. J. G. Patey, and Mr. Santley.  Sir Julius Benedict conducted.  The Festival ball was held on the night of the 20th.

25.—Great rejoicings took place at Gunthorpe, in celebration of the return of Mr. and Mrs. E. Bowyer Sparke, from their wedding tour.  The squire was presented by the tenantry with an illuminated address.

27.—Died, Mr. John Longe, of Spixworth Park.  He was the second son of the Rev. John Longe, vicar of Coddenham, Suffolk.  Educated at Norwich Grammar School, under Valpy, and subsequently at Cambridge, he succeeded to the estate in 1828, on the death of the widow of his cousin, Mr. Francis Longe, who was High Sheriff in 1786.  He married, in 1829, Caroline Elizabeth, eldest daughter and co-heiress of Lieut.-Colonel Warnford, of Warnford Place, Wilts., and niece of Henry, fourth Viscount Ashbrook.  As a Valpeian, Mr. Longe always took the greatest interest in the success of the Norwich Grammar School, of which he was a governor.  He was a Deputy-Lieutenant of the county, and for some years captain in the East Norfolk Militia, and was succeeded in his estates by his brother, the Rev. Robert Longe, vicar of Coddenham, who was born in 1800.

—A heavy gale prevailed off the East coast, and many shipping casualties were reported.

28.—Died at his seat, Melton Constable, the Right Hon. and Rev. Delaval Loftus, ninth Baron Hastings, in his 48th year.  His lordship had been summoned from Wiesbaden, in consequence of the alarming illness of Lady Hastings.  He was at the time recovering from a severe attack of gout, and little fitted to undertake a long journey.  On reaching Melton Constable he was seized with an illness which proved fatal.  Lord Hastings was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, and, on taking holy orders, was appointed to the family living of Foulsham, and subsequently to that of East Barsham and Little Snoring.  He married, in 1848, the Hon. Frances Diana Manners Sutton, daughter of the first Viscount Canterbury, by whom he left p. 227three sons and a daughter, and succeeded to the title and estates on the death of his brother, in March, 1871.  His successor was the Hon. Bernan Edward Delaval Astley, who was born in 1855, and was, at the time of his father’s death, completing his term at Eton.

OCTOBER.

1.—The Norwich Town Council decided to purchase, for sewerage and irrigation purposes, a portion of the Crown Point estate, for £27,000.  (See February 11th, 1873.)

—Died at his residence, Cambridge House, Westling-on-Trym, Bristol, in his 77th year, the Rev. William Charles Wollaston, for upwards of thirty years rector of East Dereham.  “Mr. Wollaston was the thirty-seventh and last of the sinecure rectors of Dereham, and the exceptional custom of tolling the muffled bell, which had long been held in this parish when any of its rectors or vicars died, was observed.”

14.—The ceremony of laying the first rail of the East Suffolk Tramway was performed at Yarmouth by Sir E. H. K. Lacon, M.P. for North Norfolk.  As originally planned, the tramway was to extend from Southtown Railway station to Gorleston, and thence to Lowestoft and Southwold, and eventually to form a junction with Halesworth.  On March 22nd, 1873, it was announced: “From present appearances, it would seem that the East Suffolk Tramway scheme has been abandoned.  The works have been wholly stopped for months past, and the Southtown Road has been restored to its former state.”  (See April 1st, 1875.)

19.—At a meeting of the Governors of the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, the thanks of the Board were accorded to Mr. William Peter Nichols “for his able, humane, and successful services as surgeon to the charity during the last 21 years, and for the active and zealous part he has taken during the same period in promoting the general interests of the Hospital.”  Mr. Nichols afterwards became honorary consulting surgeon to the institution, and on March 22nd, 1873, was presented by public subscription with a valuable, silver centrepiece, in recognition of his eminent services.  Mr. T. W. Crosse was elected to the office rendered vacant by the resignation of Mr. Nichols.

23.—The second Diocesan Conference was held at Noverre’s Rooms, Norwich, and was continued on the 24th, whereby the meeting in the Fakenham district was dispensed with.  The remaining meetings were held at Lynn on the 25th, Ipswich on the 30th, and Halesworth on the 31st.

28.—The ceremony of opening the first school built by the Norwich School Board—the Mariners’ Lane School—was performed by the Rev. Canon Heaviside, chairman of the Board.  It was intended for the accommodation of 125 boys.

31.—Died at Costessey, where he laboured as a Roman Catholic priest for more than fifty years, the Very Rev. Frederick Charles Husenbeth, D.D., President of the Brotherhood, Provost of the Chapter of Northampton, and Vicar-General of the Roman Catholic Diocese.  Dr. Husenbeth, who was in his 77th year, was a frequent p. 228contributor to “Notes and Queries,” and was the author of many works, the best known of which was “Emblems of the Saints.”

NOVEMBER.

1.—The municipal elections were, for the first time, conducted under the provisions of the Ballot Act.  At Norwich, where fourteen out of a possible sixteen Conservative candidates were returned, the elections were rendered noteworthy by all the members of the firm of Messrs. Bullard and Sons intimating that in future it was their intention to adopt Conservative principles.

4.—The Prince and Princess of Wales passed through Thetford, on their way to Elveden, on a visit to the Maharajah Duleep Singh, and were received with great enthusiasm by the inhabitants of the borough.

—Mr. George Grossmith, “of the Temple, London,” made the first of his visits to Norwich, and appeared at Noverre’s Rooms in an entertainment entitled, “The Comic Side of Life.”

9.—Sir Samuel Bignold was, for the fourth time, elected Mayor of Norwich; Dr. Frederic Bateman was appointed Sheriff.

10.—Hospital Sunday was, for the first time, observed in Norwich.  The amount collected was £454 6s., 3d.

14.—The new schools of St. Philip, Heigham, Norwich, completed through the munificent donation of Mr. James Harford and his late sister, and the voluntary efforts of the friends of Church of England education, at the cost of £2,000, were opened by the Bishop of Norwich.  The architect was Mr. Edward Power, of London, and the builder Mr. James Youngs.

18.—Died, in his 60th year, Mr. Henry Kett Kett-Tompson, of Brooke House and Witchingham Hall.  He was the last representative of an old Norwich family, whose connection with the city dated back more than three centuries, and who during nearly two centuries were extensive brewers in King Street.  Messrs. Morgan, in 1846, purchased the business of Mr. Kett-Tompson and his brother, their landed property in the county rendering it unnecessary for them to continue the brewery.  Mr. Kett-Tompson was one of two sons of Mr. Charles Tompson (High Sheriff in 1827), by Juliana, second daughter of Thomas Kett, of Seething Hall, and sister and co-heiress of George Samuel Kett, of Brooke House.  His grandfather was Timothy Tompson, formerly of Denton, and afterwards of Witchingham Hall.  He was born in 1813, and married, in February, 1843, Margaret Amelia, second daughter of Rear-Admiral the Hon. Frederick Paul Irby, C.B., of Boyland Hall, and second son of the second Lord Boston.  The name of Mr. Kett-Tompson stood first upon the list of gentlemen to fill the office of High Sheriff of Norfolk in 1873.

19.—Died, Elizabeth Harvey, widow of James Harvey, of Rollesby, in her 102nd year.

20.—A heavy gale occurred.  Several vessels were lost off Yarmouth, and a ship wrecked at Wells.

21.—A grand fancy dress ball, attended by representatives of the principal families in Norfolk, was held at Hillington Hall, in celebration of the twenty-fifth birthday of Sir William ffolkes, Bart.

p. 22924.—Died at his residence, Heigham Grove, Norwich, aged 73, Major-General Burton Daveney, formerly of the Royal Scots Regiment.  He was born at Colton, in December, 1799, and obtained his commission as ensign in the 57th Regiment.  In 1825 he went to Australia as lieutenant in command of a detachment which had charge of nearly 200 convicts.  On the voyage small-pox broke out, and the vessel was placed in quarantine.  The young lieutenant throughout a period of the greatest difficulty discharged his duties with conspicuous success.  In 1830 he exchanged into the 1st Royals (afterwards the Royal Scots), and served in one or other of the battalions of that regiment for thirty-one years.  He passed through the Canadian Rebellion in 1837, was present at the affairs of St. Charles and St. Eustache, and returned to England in 1841.  In the Crimea, as commandant at Balaclava, his duties were so arduous that when he left, completely broken down in health, in January, 1855, the work was divided among three officers.  In the absence of the colonel he brought the regiment to Aldershot, and afterwards had the honour of dining with her Majesty, to whom he was presented by the Prince Consort.  He next sailed to India, and assisted in quelling the Mutiny, and returned in 1862, when he retired on full pay, with the rank of Major-General.  He had seen forty-one years of active service without passing a single day on half-pay.  General Daveney was the possessor of three clasps for the Crimea, the Order of the Medjidié, and several other decorations presented by the Sultan to British officers who had served in the war against Russia.

DECEMBER.

8.—A fearful storm swept over East Anglia.  At Norwich and other towns in the county great damage was done to buildings; in the country trees were uprooted and stacks overturned; and on the coast there were many shipping casualties.

21.—Mr. James Bacon was elected secretary of the Norfolk Agricultural Association, in place of Mr. Cross, resigned.  Mr. E. C. Bailey resigned the office of honorary director.

—A conference was held at the Guildhall, Norwich, at which representatives of the sanitary authorities in city and county discussed the best method of carrying out the provisions of the new Public Health Act, more particularly as to the appointment of medical-officers of health and inspectors of nuisances.  It was suggested that the county be divided into seven districts, exclusive of the city of Norwich; that a medical-officer of health be appointed to each district, the election to be made by representatives of the sanitary authorities; and that a similar course be adopted in regard to inspectors of nuisances.  Mr. T. W. Crosse, on January 23rd, 1873, resigned his seat in the Norwich Town Council as a representative of the First Ward, and was appointed Medical-Officer of Health for the city, at the salary of £200 per annum.

26.—A pantomime (titled not stated) was produced at Norwich Theatre by Mr. G. H. Chaplin.  “The transformation scene,” it was stated, “has not been surpassed for gorgeous beauty on our stage.”  p. 230Edmonds’ (late Wombwell’s) Menagerie was exhibited on the Castle Meadow.

30.—The Prince and Princess of Wales arrived at Holkham, on a visit to the Earl of Leicester.

31.—Colonel Peyton and officers of the 7th Dragoon Guards gave a grand invitation ball at the Crown Bank building, Norwich.  It was attended by many of the leading families of the county.

1873.

JANUARY.

2.—Died at his residence, Thorpe Hamlet, Norwich, Mr. Claude L. Nursey, artist, the painter of the well-known pictures illustrating scenes in the early days of the local Volunteer movement.  He was a son of Mr. Perry Nursey, of Little Bealings, Suffolk, and was in his 54th year.

15.—The Norwich Town Council received a letter from Whitehall, intimating that as Mr. Secretary Bruce had received no information that any steps had been taken by the Corporation for erecting a pauper lunatic asylum, he had instructed the Solicitor to the Treasury to proceed in the matter of the mandamus.  (See July 21st, 1874.)

21.—The resignation of Mr. A. W. Morant, City Engineer, and the author of the first sewerage scheme, was received by the Norwich Town Council, on his appointment as engineer to the borough of Leeds.  On March 25th Mr. Christopher Thwaites, C.E., of London, was appointed to the vacant post.

27.—Died at Trinity College, Cambridge, the Rev. Adam Sedgwick, LL.D., aged 87, Woodwardian Professor of Geology.  He came of a North country family, and was born at Dent, in Yorkshire.  In due course he entered at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he took his Bachelor’s degree in 1808, as fifth wrangler.  In 1810 he was elected to a Fellowship in his College, of which at his death he was the senior member.  He succeeded, in 1818, Professor Hailstone in the chair of Geology, founded at Cambridge by the celebrated Dr. John Woodward.  Professor Sedgwick had been a Canon of Norwich Cathedral since 1834.

FEBRUARY.

11.—A Local Government Board inquiry was held at the Guildhall, Norwich, by Mr. R. Morgan, C.E., as to an application made by the Town Council to borrow the sum of £32,500, for the purchase of a portion of the Crown Point estate, for sewerage and irrigation purposes.  The amount required for the purchase of the land was £27,500, for legal and other charges, £500, and the remainder was p. 231for erecting buildings, &c.  The application was opposed by the Norwich Ratepayers’ Protection League.  Another phase of the sewerage question occupied the attention of the Town Council at a special meeting on May 13th, when the City Engineer presented a report stating that serious defects existed in the low-level sewer, and part of the works had given way.  It was resolved to borrow £20,000, at four per cent., on mortgage of the sewerage farm, as a permanent loan for ten years.  On August 19th the City Engineer submitted to the Council three alternative plans for dealing with the difficulty—(1) By plating the sewer, at a cost of not less than £17,178; (2) by reconstruction, at a minimum cost of £25,000; and (3) of providing a new lining at not less than £33,000.  Up to that time the total expenditure on the works amounted to £113,000.  On October 21st the Council decided to consult Messrs. Hawkesley and Bazalgette, who, on December 16th, presented a report suggesting that certain remedial works be carried out at an approximate cost of £34,000.  (See January 20th, 1874.)

20.—In consequence of the demand by agricultural labourers for increased wages, an important meeting of employers resident in the district of the Wayland Agricultural Association was held at Watton, under the presidency of Lord Walsingham, when resolutions were adopted whereby the meeting pledged itself to decline to recognise the system of compulsion exercised by the Labourers’ Union, and to refuse any demand for higher wages made by those who were members of the Union, “although willing to give favourable consideration to any request made in a proper manner whenever circumstances might be found to justify it.”  It was further decided to invite co-operation from a larger area, and to form a society to be called the Wayland Farmers’ Defensive Association.  Similar action was taken by employers in the North Walsham district, at Swaffham, and in the Blofield and Taverham Hundreds.  (See March 14th, 1874.)

MARCH.

25.—The Sheriff of Norwich (Dr. Bateman) and the Mayor (Sir Samuel Bignold) attended at the Shirehall, on the conclusion of the Norfolk Assizes, when the former, addressing Mr. Baron Martin, presented his lordship with a pair of white kid gloves, in commemoration of the fact that for the first time in forty-three years the city of Norwich had had a maiden Assize.  The Mayor corroborated the statement, and said that in that year, 1830, he happened to be Sheriff of the city.  His lordship remarked it was extremely creditable that a city of 80,000 inhabitants should have no cases for trial at the Assizes.

29.—Two meetings were held at Norwich, in furtherance of an effort to secure a visit of the Royal Agricultural Society to the city in 1874.  The Norfolk Agricultural Association agreed to suspend its own show, and to vote £500 to the funds of the Royal; and a gathering of county and city gentlemen promised subscriptions to the amount of £1,100.  The Mayor authorised the secretaries to guarantee the full amount required—£2,000.

p. 23229.—A fire occurred at Mr. Darken’s music warehouse, Norwich, and damage was done to the amount of £1,500.

APRIL.

2.—The Docking Union Association, founded in 1839 for the purpose of promoting habits of industry and frugality and of rewarding good conduct amongst labourers, was dissolved, and the balance of £87 paid to the funds of hospitals in the county.

4.—Died at Southtown, Great Yarmouth, aged 82, Commander George Jenner, R.N.  He entered the Navy in 1806, and served on board the Milan; in 1810 he joined the Desiré, was at the taking of San Sebastian, and was awarded the medal for gallant service.

12.—At the All England Champion Athletic meeting, held at Lillie Bridge Grounds, London, A. R. Upcher won the quarter-mile and H. K. Upcher the 120 yards hurdle race.  “This makes seven championships won by Norfolk men, namely, the walking, in 1868, by W. Rye; the four miles, in 1870, by H. C. Riches; the quarter-mile, in 1870–71–73, by A. R. Upcher; the pole jump, in 1872, by H. C. Fellowes; and the hurdle-race, in 1873, by H. K. Upcher.”

14.—The foundation-stone of the Norfolk County School was laid by the Prince of Wales.  His Royal Highness, with whom was the Princess of Wales, left Wolferton station by special train, and was accompanied by the Bishop of Norwich, Lord and Lady Suffield, and Viscount Newry.  At Holkham the Royal party was joined by the Earl of Leicester and Lady Anne Coke, and other members of the family.  At Elmham station the Prince and Princess were received by Lord and Lady Sondes.  A detachment of picked men of the 3rd Norfolk Rifle Volunteers, under the command of Captain Bulwer, formed a guard of honour at the entrance to the enclosure on the school site.  After an address had been read to their Royal Highnesses by Prebendary Brereton, chairman of the Board of Directors, the Prince laid the stone, inscribed, “Albert.  Edward, Prince of Wales, April 14, 1873.”  The Lord Bishop offered prayer, and a hymn was sung, after which a large and distinguished company, presided over by the Earl of Leicester, partook of luncheon in a marquee.  Their Royal Highnesses, after taking tea with Lord and Lady Sondes, at Elmham Hall, returned to Wolferton by special train.  The school was opened on September 16th, 1874, when an inaugural luncheon was held, and an address delivered by the Right Hon. Earl Fortesque.

—Mr. Henry Leslie’s Opera Bouffe Company commenced an engagement at Norwich Theatre.  The pieces produced included “Lischen and Fritzchen,” “Genevieve de Brabant,” “The Princess of Trebizonde,” and “The Brigands.”

28.—The headquarters of the 7th Dragoon Guards marched from Norwich for Manchester.  On the regiment reaching the Market Place, the officers adjourned to the Royal Hotel, where the Mayor, on behalf of the traders of the city, presented to Colonel Peyton and the officers a massive silver cup and an illuminated address.  The cup was filled with champagne, and the officers drank “Health end Prosperity to the City of Norwich.”  At Costessey Park the regiment was entertained by Lord Stafford.

p. 233MAY.

6.—The depôt of the 51st Regiment, from Yarmouth, arrived at Norwich and took over the Cavalry Barracks.

24.—The Queen’s birthday was observed at Norwich with the customary festivities.  The event was further marked by the presentation to the Mayor and Sheriff of a set of official robes, purchased by public subscription.

26.—A specially-organized company, under the management of Mr. Craven Robertson, performed the comedy of “Caste” at Norwich Theatre.  “School” was also produced during the six nights’ engagement.  On this occasion the favourite actress, Miss Fanny Addison, made her first appearance in Norwich, and Mr. J. F. Young was a member of the company.

30.—A detachment of the Honourable Artillery Company, numbering 64 officers and men, arrived at Yarmouth by train, and on the 31st marched for Norwich.  At Blofield the detachment was met by the band of the Norwich Artillery Volunteers, and at Brundall the men boarded the Alexandra steamer, by which they performed the remainder of the journey to Norwich.  Headquarters were established at the Royal Hotel.  On Sunday, June 1st, the Honourable Artillery Company and the Norwich Artillery Volunteers attended service at the Cathedral, and on June 2nd the Norwich corps accompanied the London men on their march to Wymondham.  The London corps proceeded to Attleborough, where they took train for London.

JUNE.

9.—Mr. and Mrs. Rousby commenced an engagement at Norwich Theatre, in “Twixt Axe and Crown.”  On subsequent evenings, “The School for Scandal,” “Romeo and Juliet,” and “Joan of Arc,” were produced.

19.—The annual show of the Norfolk Agricultural Association commenced at Thetford.  Mr. Angerstein presided at the members’ luncheon.

30.—The Earl of Leicester was invested by the Queen with the Riband and Badge of the Garter.  His lordship previously received the honour of knighthood.

JULY.

10.—Mr. J. L. Toole commenced an engagement at Norwich Theatre, during which he appeared in a round of his favourite characters.

19.—The 3rd Norfolk Rifle Volunteers went into camp at Heacham Park, and on the 23rd were inspected by Colonel Knox, C.B., commanding the 31st Depôt.

21.—A company, under the management of Captain Disney Roebuck (late Royal Welsh Fusiliers), commenced an engagement at Norwich Theatre.  The repertory included “David Garrick,” “Society,” “The School for Scandal,” “East Lynne,” and the bouffe burlesque, “The Rows of Castille.”

p. 23421.—Mr. David Fisher gave a dramatic reading at North Walsham.  “Since the closing of the theatrical circuit under the management of the Fisher family, no member had visited it until Mr. David Fisher, now of the London theatres, and known to us first as a boy actor with his father and grandfather, came to read ‘The School for Scandal.’  Mr. David Fisher in London has carried out the promise of his early life, and in coming upon scenes of his boyhood finds those who tell him tales of former years, and pleasure no doubt arises on the other side from the opening up of old associations.  We have spoken of Mr. Fisher’s reading—he does not read, he acts two-thirds of the whole play from memory; every character is given with perfect clearness.  He visits all the towns where formerly theatres stood under the management of his family.”  On this tour Mr. Fisher was accompanied by his daughter, Miss Mary Fisher, who displayed her musical abilities.

30.—The valuable collection presented to the Norfolk and Norwich Museum by Mrs. E. P. Clarke, of Wymondham, was opened to the public.  This collection was formed by Mr. Edward Lombe, of Great Melton, and set up by the first taxidermist of his day, the elder Leadbeater, of London.  Regret was expressed at the absence of any memoranda of dates and localities.  The British birds alone numbered 551 specimens, representing 280 distinct species.

—The headquarters and six troops of the 3rd Dragoon Guards marched into Norwich, under the command of Colonel Conyers Tower, C.B.

—A new iron bridge over the River Ouze, constructed in place of the wooden structure known as the Free Bridge, near Lynn, was formally opened by Mr. E. Fellowes, M.P., chairman of the Ouze Outfall Commissioners.  It was designed by Messrs. Brunlees and McKerrow.

AUGUST.

14.—An extensive fire occurred at the engineering works of Messrs. Holmes and Sons, Cattle Market, Norwich.  The damage was estimated at £10,000.  Effective assistance was rendered to the fire brigade by three troops of the 3rd Dragoon Guards, and by members of the Norwich Rifle Volunteers.

18.—Mr. Charles Wyndham’s company appeared at Norwich Theatre in the political and satirical burlesque, “The Happy Land.”  The piece was interdicted by the Lord Chamberlain on its production at the Court Theatre, London, on account of its caricature of three Liberal Ministers—Mr. Gladstone, Mr. Lowe, and Mr. Ayrton.  It was played at Norwich, it was announced, with the excised portions restored.

26.—At Norwich Brewster Sessions, the licensed victuallers of the city applied for an alteration of the hours of closing, namely, an extension of the time from 11 to 12 on week-days, and from 10 to 11 o’clock on Sunday.  A memorial in favour of the alteration, signed by 7,000 persons, was presented.  The Dean of Norwich handed in a memorial containing 7,925 signatures against the alteration.  The magistrates declined to alter the hours of closing.

p. 2352.—The marriage took place at Holkham of Lady Winifred Coke, fifth daughter of the Earl of Leicester, and Mr. Robert Clements, only son of the Hon. and Rev. Francis Nathaniel Clements, vicar of Norton, Durham, and heir to the Earldom of Leitrim.

11.—The ceremony of laying the foundation-stone of the new Congregational chapel, built on the site of Cowper’s house, at East Dereham, was performed by Mr. Henry Wright, of Kensington.  The building, which was erected by Mr. Hubbard, of Dereham, from designs by Mr. Edward Boardman, architect, Norwich, at the cost of £3,500, was intended for the accommodation of 500 worshippers.  It was opened for public worship on September 24th, 1874.

12.—Mr. Charles Durand’s English Opera Company appeared at Norwich Theatre, and on the 19th produced, for the first time in the city, Meyerbeer’s opera, “L’Africaine.”

19.—Died at Caldecot, near Botley, Hampshire, Dr. Dalrymple, M.P.  He was born in 1814, and was the fourth son of Mr. William Dalrymple, an eminent surgeon, of Norwich.  He married a daughter of Mr. T. O. Springfield, on whose death he was placed in possession of an ample fortune.  Dr. Dalrymple then relinquished his practice in favour of his partner, Mr. Cadge.  In 1862 he made a tour through Egypt and Palestine, and on his return published a work on “The Climate of Egypt.”  On the invitation of the Liberal electors of Bath, he, in 1868, contested the representation of that city, and was returned.  His chief Parliamentary labours were most conspicuous in connection with his well-known Habitual Drunkards Bill, a measure which, while not in accordance with the spirit of English legislation, evinced that devotion to philanthropic objects which was the characteristic of Dr. Dalrymple’s life.  He served the office of Sheriff of Norwich in 1860–61, was a director of the Norwich Union Fire Office, chairman of the Governors of King Edward VI. School, and at various times had taken part in the management of the local charitable and scientific institutions.  Dr. Dalrymple was a magistrate and Deputy-lieutenant of the county.

21.—Died at Ipswich, Mr. Henry Bright, the well-known artist.  He was born at Saxmundham, in June, 1814, and, after serving his apprenticeship to a chemist and druggist at Woodbridge, removed to Norwich, where he acted as dispenser to the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital.  An acquaintance with Crome, Cotman, the elder Ladbrooke, Stark, Vincent, and others of the Norwich School of Artists, stimulated him to work with his pencil.  Proceeding to London, he devoted himself entirely to art, and, by teaching drawing and painting, realised nearly £2,000 a year from that branch of his profession.  For splendid sky effects Bright is second only to Turner, and his crayon drawings are almost unequalled.

OCTOBER.

1.—Miss E. Farren and Mr. Lionel Brough, supported by the London Gaiety Company, commenced an engagement at Norwich Theatre.  The productions included, “A Nice Girl,” “The Rough p. 236Diamond,” “Good for Nothing,” “Stage Struck,” “Betty Martin,” “Lischen and Fritzchen,” &c.  The company made a return visit on November 25th.

1.—The Social Science Congress commenced its proceedings at Norwich, under the presidency of the Right Hon. Lord Houghton, D.C.L., F.R.S.  The meetings terminated on the 8th.

13.—The eighty-second birthday of Sir Samuel Bignold, Mayor of Norwich, was celebrated.  The Cathedral choristers, under Dr. Buck, assembled in the garden of Sir Samuel’s residence in Surrey Street, at eight a.m., and sang “Lift up thine eyes” (Handel), “The Old English Gentleman,” and the Nunc Dimittis.  The bells of St. Peter Mancroft were rung, the boys of the Grammar and Commercial Schools were granted a holiday, the inmates of the Boys’ Home and the Girls’ Home were entertained at St. Andrew’s Hall, and a feast was given to the paupers in the Workhouse.

20.—Died at the Charterhouse, London, Mr. James S. Garthon, aged 74, formerly a surgeon in Norwich.  He was the son of a farmer at Costessey, and was himself originally in business as a corn dealer.  It was not until he was well advanced in life that he entered the medical profession.  In addition to his private practice, he undertook the duties of surgeon to the Norwich police force.  Mr. Garthon was a Liberal in politics.

23.—The Sheriff of Norwich (Dr. Bateman) delivered a lecture to the members of the Churchman’s Club, on “Darwinism tested by Scientific Researches in Language.”  The Dean presided.

NOVEMBER.

3.—The Prince of Wales passed through Thetford, on his way to Elveden Hall, to visit the Maharajah Duleep Singh.

10.—Mr. Samuel Gurney Buxton was elected Mayor, and Mr. Alexander Robert Chamberlin appointed Sheriff of Norwich.

—The Prince of Wales arrived at Merton Hall, on a visit to Lord Walsingham, and left on the 15th.

18.—Died at Bournemouth, Mr. Thomas Baring, member of Parliament for Huntingdon.  Mr. Baring, who was 73 years of age, was second son of Sir Thomas Baring, second baronet, nephew of the first Lord Ashburton, and brother of the first Lord Northbrooke.  At the General Election in 1835 he successfully contested Great Yarmouth in the Conservative interest, but in 1837, 1838, and 1841 he was defeated.  Elected for Huntingdon in 1844, without opposition, he held undisputed possession of the seat for nearly thirty years.  Mr. Baring was head of the great house of Baring Brothers and Co.  He twice refused the Chancellorship of the Exchequer, and twice declined the offer of a peerage.

DECEMBER.

2.—A meeting of the creditors of the Crown Bank was held at the Royal Hotel, Norwich, under the presidency of Sir Samuel Bignold, p. 237to receive an account of the receipts and payments of the trustee in bankruptcy to November 15th, and to consider the question of the remuneration of the Committee of Inspection.  It was reported that the estate, under judicious management, had produced 11s. 6d. in the pound.  The solicitors’ law costs amounted to upwards of £10,000, and it was decided that £8,000 be paid as remuneration.

15.—The death took place, at Yarmouth, of Samuel Brock, aged 69, who, on October 6th, 1835, performed the remarkable feat of swimming fourteen miles after the wreck of the Young Company’s yawl Increase, of which he was one of the crew (q.v. Vol. I., p. 344).

23.—The first annual meeting of the Norwich Hospital Sunday Fund was held at the Guildhall, under the presidency of the Sheriff (Mr. A. R. Chamberlin).  It was reported that the Sunday collection amounted to £670 8s. 11d., and the Saturday collection to £188 16s. 3d.

26.—The pantomime of “The Babes in the Wood, or Harlequin Robin Hood and the Fairies of the Forest,” written by Mr. F. Robson, was produced at Norwich Theatre by Mr. Richard Younge’s company.  “Jack the Giant Killer” was the Christmas attraction at Batty’s Circus.

1874.

JANUARY.

2.—Died at Neal’s Square, St. Benedict’s Church Alley, Norwich, Susannah Steavenson, in her 105th year.  “A few days ago she repeated no less than thirty verses which she had learnt at school 95 years ago.  She attended the Mayor’s feast, given to the aged poor last Whit-Monday, and was accompanied by her daughter, aged 79.  Mrs. Steavonson was born December 14th, 1769, and, according to a certificate given in 1836 by the Rev. W. F. Blakewell, the then minister at the Octagon chapel, was baptised there on December 24th, 1769.  She was the daughter of Joshua Sabberton, chairmaker, in St. George’s Colegate.”

7.—Died at Saxlingham Hall, Mr. Edward Steward, aged 67.  He was the last Tory Alderman elected under the old Corporation, and, owing to his youth, was known as “The Boy Alderman.”  In 1832 he fought a severe contest with Mr. (afterwards Sir William) Foster, for the office of Freemen’s Sheriff, and was defeated by seven votes only.  In the following year he was elected without opposition, and served in conjunction with Mr. W. J. Utten Browne.  Mr. Steward was president of the Norwich Union Fire Office.

13.—Died at his residence, St. Giles’ Street, Norwich, Mr. John Godwin Johnson, in his 77th year.  Born November 26th, 1797, he was the youngest son of Mr. John Johnson, for many years Governor of Norwich Castle.  He became a pupil of Dr. Rigby, and afterwards joining Mr. Page Scott, commenced a long and successful career as a p. 238medical practitioner.  Mr. Johnson was a member of both the old and “reformed” Corporations, was elected Mayor in 1855, and for twenty-five years was on the Haven and Pier Commission.  He took a prominent part in founding the Jenny Lind Infirmary for Sick Children.

13.—Died at Amélie les Bains, Mr. Charles Mends Gibson, F.R.C.S., aged 65.  He was for many years resident medical-officer of the Norwich Bethel, devoted much of his time to scientific pursuits, was a member of the Royal Microscopical and other societies, and a warm supporter of the Norfolk and Norwich Museum and Literary Institution.

—At a meeting of the Norwich Union Fire Insurance Society, Sir Samuel Bignold was presented by the proprietors with his portrait (painted by Sandys), in recognition of his long and successful services as secretary.

16.—The marriage of Lady Anne Coke, second daughter of the Earl of Leicester, with Lieut.-Colonel Edmund Manningham Buller, of the Rifle Brigade, second son of Sir Edward Manningham Buller, of Dilhorn Hall, Staffordshire, was solemnised at Holkham church.

20.—At a special meeting of the Norwich Town Council, the report of Mr. J. W. Bazalgette on the condition of the low-level sewer was adopted, and it was agreed to consult Sir John Hawkshaw and Mr. J. F. Bateman.  On July 21st it was decided, on their recommendation, to line the sewer with cast-iron tubing; and on November 17th the Council passed a resolution in favour of applying to the Local Government Board for powers to raise for the purpose a sum not exceeding £25,000, on mortgage of the General District Rates.

23.—The marriage of the Duke of Edinburgh was celebrated in Norwich by the partial decoration of the city.  The 3rd Dragoon Guards and the Volunteers paraded in the Market Place and fired a feu de joie, and at a special meeting of the Town Council congratulatory addresses were adopted and the loving-cup passed round.  At night a display of fireworks took place on the Castle Meadow, and on the 27th the Mayor gave a soirée at St. Andrew’s Hall.

31.—The General Election, the first contested under the Ballot Act, commenced in Norfolk, with the unopposed return for the Northern Division of the Hon. Frederick Walpole and Sir Edmund K. Lacon, Bart.

—King’s Lynn election took place.  The candidates were the Hon. R. Bourke, 1,163 votes; Lord Claud Hamilton, 1,093; Sir William ffolkes, Bart., 999; and Mr. E. R. Wodehouse, 895.

FEBRUARY.

2.—Sir William Bagge, Bart., and Mr. G. W. P. Bentinck were returned unopposed for West Norfolk.

4.—Polling took place at Norwich, “when, owing to the operation of the Ballot Act, there was less excitement than usual.”  The votes were counted on the 5th, and the poll was declared at five o’clock, as follows: Mr. J. J. Colman, 6,138; Mr. J. W. Huddleston, Q.C., 5,823; Mr. J. H. Tillett, 5,776; and Sir H. J. Stracey, Bart., 5,290.  p. 239The number of votes polled was 11,786, and the time occupied in counting, eight hours.  (See August 16th, 1875.)

10.—The South Norfolk election took place.  The votes were counted at the Shirehall, Norwich, on the 11th, and the result was declared as follows: Mr. C. S. Read, 3,146; Sir R. J. Buxton, Bart., 3,010; Mr. R. T. Gurdon, 2,699.  Mr. Read, M.P., and Sir R. J. Buxton, M.P., were, on April 9th, entertained at a banquet given at Wymondham by the Conservatives of the district, when Mr. H. W. B. Edwards, chairman of the South Norfolk Conservative Registration Association, presided.

14.—Died at Snetterton, Sarah Edwards, aged 100 years.

15.—Died at St. John Maddermarket, Norwich, the Rev. John Dalton, canon of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Northampton, in his 60th year.  Canon Dalton was of Irish parentage, and passed the early years of his life at Coventry.  After his ordination, he was employed on missions at Northampton, Lynn, and Norwich.  In 1858–59 he resided at St. Alban’s College, Valladolid, in Spain.  He returned to that country in 1866, to collect subscriptions towards the erection in London of a cathedral in memory of the illustrious Cardinal Wiseman, who was himself born in Spain; his mission was, however, unsuccessful.  Canon Dalton was the author of several theological works.  “Amiable, genial-hearted, charitable, and good, no sectarian difference was ever suffered to affect that thorough respect and esteem which was extended to him from the representatives of all creeds.”

28.—At a meeting of the Norfolk Chamber of Agriculture, held at the Norfolk Hotel, Norwich, a resolution was adopted expressive of satisfaction on the appointment of the President, Mr. C. S. Read, M.P., as Parliamentary Secretary of the Local Government Board.

MARCH.

14.—A meeting of the agriculturists of the county, whose interests were affected by the action of the Labourers’ Union, was held at the Norfolk Hotel, Norwich, “to take action with reference to the demands now being pressed upon the occupiers of the soil.”  It was decided to form a Norfolk Farmers’ Labour Defence Association.  Another meeting took place on April 25th, for promoting the objects of the association.  Many meetings were held throughout the county by the Labourers’ Union during this year, and much strong feeling was manifested.  At the Norfolk Lent Assizes, on March 28th, before Mr. Justice Blackburn, the Rev. John Spurgin, vicar of Hockham, brought an action against Mr. John Edward Matthew Vincent, of the “Labourers’ Union Chronicle,” for publishing a false and malicious libel, “whereby he was injured in his credit and reputation as a clergyman.”  The paper, which was published at Leamington, alleged that the “reverend divine” claimed tithe on charity coals supplied to the poor parishioners, and “had two tons out of the twenty carted to his divine rectory, for his own consumption.”  The defendant afterwards expressed deep regret for publishing the imputation, and the jury found a verdict for the plaintiff—damages £100.

p. 240APRIL.

19.—Died, while on a visit to Norwich, Mr. Robert Seaman, of Tunbridge Wells, aged 63.  He served the office of Sheriff in 1856–57, and was a magistrate for the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk.

MAY.

2.—The marriage of Lady Margaret Coke, sixth daughter of the Earl of Leicester, with the Hon. H. Strutt, eldest son of Lord Belper, took place at Holkham church.

5.—Died at his residence, Newmarket Road, Norwich, Mr. John Robison.  He was born in Norwich in November, 1809, was for many years a partner in the firm of Grout and Co., and in 1868 served the office of Sheriff.

9.—Died in London, Lieut.-General Sir Archdale Wilson, G.C.B., Colonel commandant Royal Artillery.  Born in 1803, he was a son of the Rev. George Wilson, of Kirby Cane (uncle of Lord Berners), by a daughter of the Rev. C. Millard, Chancellor of Norwich.  He entered the service of the East India Company, and went through some of the earlier campaigns in India.  For his eminent services during the Indian Mutiny he received the thanks of both Houses of Parliament, and was nominated in succession Companion, Knight Commander, and Knight Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath.  General Wilson was granted a pension of £1,000 a year by the East India Company, and created a baronet.  He was a brother of Mr. Philip Wilson, a Lynn solicitor, with whom he resided for some time after his return from India, and was succeeded in the baronetcy by his nephew, Mr. Rowland Knyvett Wilson, Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge.

15.—Died at his residence, Unthank’s Road, Norwich, Mr. John Briggs, who for many years was connected with the firm of Messrs. Bullard and Sons.  Early in life Mr. Briggs married a sister-in-law of Mr. Richard Bullard, and sailed for America, where he landed with only a few shillings in his pocket.  He offered his services as an assistant in a lithographic establishment, and though practically unacquainted with the business beyond a taste for drawing, he not only secured the appointment, but in a short time acquired sufficient knowledge of the art to earn a fair competence for himself.  Amongst other work which subsequently came into his hands was the drawing of plans for many of the streets and blocks of buildings in Chicago, of which the chief part were destroyed in the great fire.  Mr. Briggs made several remunerative purchases of land in the United States.  Ill-health compelled him to return to England, and, settling in Norwich, he joined his brother-in-law in the Anchor Brewery, the success of which was greatly promoted by his active business habits.

19.—At a meeting of the Norwich Town Council, certain members expressed strong disapproval of the action of the City Committee “in ordering the destruction of the chapel of Thomas à Becket, one of the archæological gems of the city.”  Several members stated that they had never heard of the place, and the Town Clerk informed the p. 241Council that the chapel was “a vault at the back of the Dutch church,” and had been converted into a place of storage.  The subject was discussed at a meeting of the Norfolk and Norwich Archæological Society, on the 20th, when Mr. Gunn referred to the members of the Town Council as “a pachydermatous set,” and Sir Francis Boileau described them as “ruthless Goths.”

25.—The Mayor and Sheriff of Norwich entertained, at St. Andrew’s Hall, 1,600 of the aged poor of the city, in celebration of the Queen’s birthday.

JUNE.

3.—Died, aged 69, Mr. John Oddin Taylor, of Norwich.  He was an Alderman of the city, “and the grand Cattle Market and Prince of Wales Road, for which we are mainly indebted to him, are monuments of his far-seeing judgment and untiring zeal.”  Descended from a long line of Norfolk yeomen, Mr. Taylor was born at Thuxton, on April 26th, 1805, and in due course was articled to Mr. T. Bignold and Mr. T. Brightwell.  In politics he was one of the old school of Whigs, and on the passing of the Municipal Reform Act in 1835 became a member of the Corporation.  Mr. Taylor was one of the Liberals who protested against the displacement of the old Corporation officials.  He served the office of Mayor in 1861–62; was made a Deputy-Lieutenant of the county in acknowledgment of his political services as Liberal agent, and was a trustee of the Grammar and Commercial Schools, and an active member of the Committee of the Norfolk and Norwich Triennial Musical Festival.  Mr. Taylor married the eldest daughter of Mr. Brewer, of Mile End House, Norwich, and of the marriage there were two sons and three daughters.

15.—A fire took place on the premises of Mr. Dixon, silversmith and jeweller, of London Street, Norwich, and did damage to the amount of £2,000.

17.—The annual show of the Norfolk Agricultural Association commenced at Norwich.  It was held upon the grounds of the Sheriff (Mr. A. R. Chamberlin), on Ipswich Road, and the luncheon was under the presidency of Mr. J. J. Colman, M.P.

18.—A meeting of the Norfolk and Norwich Provident Building Society was held at the Bell Hotel, Norwich, under the presidency of Mr. H. S. Patteson, when it was reported that the secretary, Mr. Josiah Buttifant, had left the city on the 2nd inst., ostensibly for the purpose of taking a holiday; but it was afterwards discovered that he had committed defalcations to the amount of about £5,000.  A committee was appointed to consider the best course to be adopted, and soon afterwards a petition was presented for the winding-up of the society, and a warrant issued for the apprehension of Buttifant.  On July 6th William Frederick Fish, a clerk in the employment of Buttifant, was taken into custody, on the information of Samuel Beckett Hook, a shareholder in the society, on the charge of cheating and defrauding Agas Goose and others, trustees, of the sum of £10 7s., and on other days of divers other sums, amounting in the whole to £10,000.  The accused was finally committed for trial on July 20th; and on July 27th Mr. Justice Blackburn granted an application p. 242for a writ of certiorari to remove the trial of Fish to the Central Criminal Court.  On August 14th a telegram was received in Norwich, announcing that Buttifant had been arrested at Valentia.  The arrest was effected on August 7th, by Detective Williamson, of the Norwich police.  Buttifant and his son Archibald were staying, under the name of Biron, at the Hotel de Ville Madrid, Valentia.  He was brought to England, viâ Marseilles, reached Norwich on August 14th, and underwent his preliminary examination before the magistrates on the 15th, on charges of forgery and embezzlement.  After several remands he was committed for trial at the Norwich Assizes.  At the Central Criminal Court, on November 25th, Fish was placed upon his trial, on the charge of stealing £39 2s., and of aiding and assisting Buttifant in the embezzlement, and was sentenced by Mr. Baron Pollock to sixteen calendar months’ imprisonment, with hard labour.  (See March 25th, 1875.)

JULY.

6.—The first prize-day was held at the resuscitated Grammar School at North Walsham.  In 1606 Sir William Paston founded a free Grammar School in the town for forty boys, sons of inhabitants of the Hundreds of Tunstead, North Erpingham, Happing, and East and West Flegg.  The school gradually decayed until only the head-master remained.  In 1871 Mr. Robert Wortley called attention to the fact that the endowment was lying perfectly useless; an appeal was made to the Endowed School Commission to take action, and finally the Committee of Council on Education adapted a scheme for the management of the school.  New governors were appointed, with Lord Suffield as president, the school house and master’s house were restored, and the Rev. F. R. Pentreath, formerly master of Retford Grammar School, appointed head-master.  The school was re-opened in February, 1874.

8.—The foundation-stone of the Baptist church in Unthank’s Road, Norwich, was laid by Mr. J. J. Colman, M.P.  The building, which was designed by Mr. Edward Boardman, and was estimated to cost £5,000, was opened for public worship on July 8th, 1875.

11.—During the week ending this date the 3rd Dragoon Guards marched from the Cavalry Barracks, Norwich, en route to York.

18.—The 3rd Norfolk Rifle Volunteers went into camp at Hunstanton Park, and were inspected on the 23rd by Colonel T. E. Knox, C.B.

21.—The Norwich Town Council, at a special meeting, decided to comply with the order of the Home Secretary, directing them to build a new asylum for the reception of pauper lunatics; and a memorial was adopted praying the Public Works Loan Commissioners to grant the necessary loan at 3½ per cent., repayable in fifty years.  (See February 5th, 1875.)

24.—At a meeting of the Church Missionary Society, held at Wymondham Vicarage, Mr. Edward Hutchinson, lay secretary of the society, presented to Jacob Wainwright, one of the Nassick boys in attendance upon Dr. Livingstone in his last journey, the bronze medal of the Royal Geographical Society.  Wainwright, who addressed the p. 243meeting in very good English, described how they preserved the body of Livingstone and conveyed it to Zanzibar.

25.—A new lifeboat, presented to the Royal Lifeboat Institution by Mrs. Boettefure, was launched at Brancaster.  It was christened by Mrs. Simms Reeve, in the name of the Joseph and Mary.

27.—At a meeting held at the Guildhall, Norwich, under the presidency of the Mayor, it was decided to establish a branch of the Girls’ Public Day School Company, and the Rev. W. Vincent was appointed local secretary.

—A mulatto woman, known as Madame Angelo, was credited with completing the feat of walking, at the Hoppole Gardens, Norwich, one thousand miles in one thousand hours.  “Although the greatest vigilance has been exercised,” says the report, “it has not yet transpired that she has ever failed to come to the scratch at the appointed times.  During the last week she showed signs of flagging, her limbs swelling, and considerable difficulty was experienced in keeping her awake.  It was announced that she would walk the last mile with her infant baby in her arms, but it was evident from her appearance that this would be too much for her, and her infant was handed to her when she had only four laps to walk.”

AUGUST.

3.—At the Norwich Assizes, before Mr. Justice Keating, Frederick Sutton, formerly medical-officer of the Norwich Pauper Lunatic Asylum, and Emma Styggles, head female attendant, were charged with conspiring to cheat and defraud the Mayor, aldermen, and citizens of the sum of £3 10s. 6½d., in the month of January.  Sutton was sentenced to one calendar month, and Styggles to seven days’ imprisonment.

5.—At the Norfolk Assizes, before Mr. Justice Keating, Frederick Wales, aged 21, a labourer, was charged with the wilful murder of Thomas Pettingill, at Raveningham, on July 16th.  He was found guilty of manslaughter, and ordered to be kept in penal servitude for the term of his natural life.

7.—Mr. J. R. Bulwer, Q.C., M.P., and Mr. William Graham, Crown Commissioners, opened an inquiry at the Royal Hotel, Norwich, into the circumstances of what was known as the Creak case (q.v. Vol. I., p. 485; Vol. II., p. 18).  A special jury was empanelled.  Miss Margaret Creak was an eccentric person, who died in 1850.  It transpired at the trial of certain actions brought in 1866 by Mr. Kent, solicitor, that the deceased’s property in the parishes of St. Andrew and St. George Colegate had been purchased by Margaret Creak’s mother during her widowhood.  Margaret Creak having died without leaving legal heirs, it was held that her property devolved upon the Crown, for a strange will made by her had been decided to be void and of no effect.  Since her death the property had been held by different individuals, some of whom had exercised the rights and enjoyed the profits of landlord, whilst others had lived upon the property rent free.  The Crown, on being informed of these facts, issued a Commission under the Great Seal to ascertain (1) what p. 244property Margaret Creak possessed at the time of her death, and (2) what had become of her brothers and sisters.  The jury, on the 8th, found that Margaret Creak was seised of the fee simple of three lots of property; that she left no heir thereto; that the property was of the yearly value of £330 at the time of her death; and that as the property was holden of the Crown in common socage, it devolved to her Majesty, in virtue of her prerogative Royal.  The jury further said that mesne profits amounting to £7,920 had accrued since the death of Margaret Creak, of which about £2,000 had been received by Jonathan Flowers, of Gressenhall, and various sums by other persons.  The Commissioners thereupon seized the property into the hands of her Majesty, and ordered the inquisition to be returned to the Court of Chancery.  (See July 24th, 1876.)

11.—The forty-second annual meeting of the British Medical Association commenced at Norwich, under the presidency of Sir William Fergusson, Bart., Serjeant Surgeon to the Queen.  The President-elect was Dr. Edward Copeman.  During the proceedings, which concluded on the 14th, addresses were delivered by Sir James Paget, Dr. Eade, Mr. Cadge, &c.  A prominent feature of the visit was an exhibition at St. Andrew’s Hall of the works of deceased and living Norfolk and Suffolk artists.  This remarkable collection included examples by Old Crome and his sons, Stannard, Stark, the Cotmans, Thirtle, Opie, Vincent, Colkett, and others.  (See December 9th.)

12.—The 7th Hussars arrived at Norwich.  The Duke of Connaught was an officer of the regiment, and his Royal Highness was welcomed by the citizens with great enthusiasm.  At the south entrance to the Guildhall, Lieut.-Colonel Hale and the officers were received by the Mayor (Mr. S. Gurney Buxton), the Sheriff (Mr. A. R. Chamberlin), the Deputy-Mayor (Sir Samuel Bignold), the magistrates, and members of the Town Council.  An adjournment was then made to the Council Chamber, where the loving cup was passed round, and the proceedings were concluded by the Duke of Connaught proposing the health of the Mayor.

17.—A great Liberal demonstration was held at Whitlingham, at which addresses were delivered by Mr. J. J. Colman, M.P., Mr. Henry Birkbeck, Mr. J. H. Tillett, and other prominent local leaders of the party.

SEPTEMBER.

10.—A terrible railway collision occurred at Thorpe.  The mail train leaving Yarmouth at 8.46 p.m. was joined at Reedham by another train from Lowestoft.  The combined train proceeded to Brundall, where, owing to the existence of only a single line, it had to wait until the arrival of the express train from Norwich to Yarmouth, or until permission should be given to the engine-driver to proceed.  The accident was caused by the down express being allowed to leave Norwich while the mail train was permitted to come on from Brundall.  The telegraphic message to Brundall, which had been written by Night-Inspector Alfred Cooper, but not signed, was sent through some mistake by the telegraph clerk, John Robson.  A few minutes later the inspector, not knowing that the message had gone, allowed the down express to proceed.  Hardly had he done so when the fatal p. 245error was discovered.  A second message was immediately dispatched to Brundall to stop the mail, if possible, but the answer came back, “Mail gone,” and nothing remained but to make arrangements for dealing with the inevitable catastrophe.  Both drivers had reason for putting on increased speed, believing, as they did, that each train was waiting for the other.  The speed of the up mail, which consisted of thirteen carriages, was from thirty to thirty-five miles an hour, while the rate of the down express of fourteen carriages was from twenty to twenty-five miles.  The trains met near Thorpe village, the impact producing a terrific crash which resembled a peal of thunder.  The drivers and firemen of the locomotives were killed, eighteen passengers were killed on the spot, and about fifty were severely wounded, of whom five died in the course of a few days, making a total of twenty-five killed.  The dead and dying were removed to Field’s boathouse and to the Tuns Inn, and the injured were taken to the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital.  On the following morning the scene of the catastrophe was visited by many hundreds of persons, among whom was the Duke of Connaught, then stationed in Norwich with his regiment, the 7th Hussars.  The City Coroner (Mr. E. S. Bignold) opened an inquest on the bodies of two persons who had died at Thorpe station, and, after formal evidence, adjourned the inquiry to the 25th, when the jury found that the accident was due to the negligence of Robson and Cooper, against whom they returned a verdict of manslaughter.  The County Coroner (Mr. E. Press), on the 12th, held an inquest on the bodies lying at Thorpe, and adjourned the inquiry to the Shirehall.  On October 5th the jury returned a verdict of manslaughter against Robson only.  The Board of Trade inquiry commenced at the Guildhall, before Capt. Tyler, R.E., and Mr. Ravenhill, on September 21st, and on the 22nd was adjourned sine die.  It was resumed on October 5th, and again adjourned.  (See February 23rd, 1875.)

15.—Madame C. Nilsson, assisted by Madame Patey, Mr. E. Lloyd, Signor Foli, &c., gave a concert at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, in aid of the endowment fund of the Jenny Lind Infirmary.  A second concert was given on the 16th.  Sir Julius Benedict conducted on both occasions.  Madame Nilsson was presented with an address by the Mayor and Corporation, in acknowledgment of her valuable services to the institution.

17.—The memorial stone of the Norwich Presbyterian church was laid by Mr. C. E. Lewis, M.P., and at a public meeting subsequently held at St. Andrew’s Hall an address was delivered by the Rev. Dr. Chalmers, of London.  The estimated cost of the church was £3,600.  It was designed by Mr. Edward Boardman, architect, of Norwich, and built by Mr. Samuel Hall.  Efforts to establish a Presbyterian church in the city were made in 1866, when a “station” was opened and meetings for worship were held at the Lecture Hall in St. Andrew’s.  A communion was formed, and in 1867 St. Peter’s Hall, Theatre Street, was purchased by the congregation.  The church, which is built upon a site adjoining the hall, was opened for public worship on June 23rd, 1875, by the Rev. John Matheson, the Moderator, and the Rev. Dr. Fraser.

20.—Three war vessels, the Northumberland, the Sultan, and the Monarch, forming part of the Channel Fleet, entered Yarmouth Roads, p. 246under the command of Rear-Admiral Hancock.  On the 22nd the Mayor and Corporation gave a ball at the Town Hall, at which the officers were present.  The vessels sailed for Spithead early on the morning of the 23rd.

20.—Died, from injuries received in the Thorpe collision, Mr. Bransby Francis, surgeon, of Norwich, aged 59.  Mr. Francis, who was a native of Bungay, was an excellent botanist and naturalist.

26.—At a general meeting of the members of the Norfolk Cattle Plague Association, held at the Norfolk Hotel, Norwich, it was agreed, “That this meeting recommend the presentation of a testimonial to the chairman, Mr. C. S. Read, M.P., out of the funds of the association, in acknowledgment of the great services rendered by him to the association.”  It was also decided to present Mr. C. R. Gilman, secretary to the association, with a testimonial of the value of £50.

OCTOBER.

7.—Died at Langley Park, Sir Thomas W. H. Proctor Beauchamp, Bart., in his 60th year.  Educated at Eton, he entered the Royal Horse Guards in 1836, and in 1852 married the Hon. Catherine Esther Waldegrave, daughter of Admiral Lord Radstock.  On the death of his father, Admiral Sir William Beauchamp Proctor, third baronet, he succeeded to the baronetcy in 1861.  A Liberal in politics, Sir Thomas consented, at the request of the party, to contest the representation of the Eastern Division of the county in 1865, in conjunction with Colonel Coke, but was unsuccessful.  Upon the commencement of the Volunteer movement, he gave it his active support, and was for some years Lieutenant-Colonel of the 2nd Administrative Battalion.  He served the office of High Sheriff in 1869–70, and was a Deputy-Lieutenant and magistrate of the county.  Sir Thomas was a warm supporter of local charities, and shortly before his death gave a donation of £1,000 to the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital.  He was succeeded by his eldest son, Reginald William, who was born in 1853.

9.—Died at Costessey Hall, the Hon. Francis Stafford Jerningham, aged 59.  He was the youngest brother of Lord Stafford, and formerly an examiner in the Audit Office.  For many years he took an active part in the management of the Costessey estate.

11.—Died, Mr. Edward Freestone, solicitor, of Norwich.  The youngest son of Mr. Anthony Freestone, he was born at South Elmham St. Margaret, and educated at Mr. Brewer’s school at Norwich.  After serving his articles with Mr. Crabtree, at Halesworth, he was admitted an attorney and solicitor in 1825, and commenced practice in Norwich and Bungay, in partnership with Mr. J. C. Copeman.  In politics Mr. Freestone was a Liberal, but systematically declined to take part in municipal affairs.  He, however, held several important public appointments.  The Freestone family lived and owned property at South Elmham for nearly 200 years.  For three generations, ranging over the long period of 150 years, they hunted their own hounds.  Mr. Freestone’s only sister married the celebrated botanist, Dr. Lindley and was mother to Mr. Lindley, Q.C., the eminent equity barrister.

p. 24716.—An operetta, in two acts, by Mr. J. Arthur Harcourt, entitled, “The Science of Love,” was performed for the first time by a company of amateurs at Noverre’s Rooms, Norwich.

20.—The East Norfolk Railway, from Norwich to North Walsham, was opened for traffic.  The line was constructed by Messrs. Lucas Bros., from plans by Mr. E. Wilson, C.E.

22.—Mr. W. H. Cooke, Q.C., Judge of the Norfolk County Court, resigned his appointment.  He was succeeded by Mr. Edwin Plumer Price, Q.C., Recorder of York.

23.—Died at Chapel Field Road, Norwich, Mr. Henry Ninham, aged 82.  He was the son of John Ninham, who, in 1792, at the request of Mr. William Stevenson, F.S.A., drew, with the assistance of the camera obscura, the ancient gates of Norwich, then about to be demolished.  He succeeded to his father’s business as an heraldic painter and copper-plate printer, and was for many years employed by the principal coachbuilders of the city to paint armorial bearings on their patrons’ carnages.  A few days prior to his death, he completed, for the Very Rev. Dr. Goulburn, a large painting of the arms of the Deans of Norwich.  Mr. Ninham was a frequent contributor to the Norwich exhibitions, both in oil and water-colours, and made many careful and truthful delineations of picturesque old houses and churches in the city and its neighbourhood.  A good etcher, he published (without letterpress) “Eight Etchings of Antiquities of Norwich,” including the Strangers’ Hall, Sir Benjamin Wrenche’s Court, &c.; and afterwards “Views of the Gates of Norwich,” from drawings made by Kirkpatrick about the year 1720.  For private circulation only, he etched a series of small but spirited plates, principally views in Norwich and Norfolk.  The illustrations of Bloom’s “Castle Acre,” and Grigor’s “Eastern Arboretum,” were also etched by him.  The well-known works, “Remnants of Antiquity in Norwich,” and “Norwich Corporation Pageantry,” were illustrated in lithograph by Ninham from his own drawings.  He was a large contributor of illustrations to “Norfolk Archæology” and other local antiquarian works.

24.—Mr. Paynton Pigott, barrister-at-law, of the Oxford Circuit, and revising barrister of the Western Division of Staffordshire, a nephew of Mr. Baron Pigott, was admitted to the office of Deputy Chief Constable of Norfolk.

30.—Died at his residence, Tombland, Norwich, Mr. Thomas Hancock, City Treasurer.  Mr. Hancock, who made himself prominent by his efforts to revive the ancient office of City Chamberlain, took an active part in many public movements, and is said to have fallen a victim to over-work.  Mr. Edwin Syder Steward was, on November 9th, elected to the vacant office of City Treasurer.

31.—Died at Topcroft Rectory, the Rev. Edward Wilson, aged 75.  Mr. Wilson, early in life, wrote “The Martyr of Carthage” in “Burns’s Englishman’s Library.”  Soon afterwards, his mind, unhappily, became clouded, and his services were lost to the Church for over twenty years.  When at length a surprising recovery restored him to his friends, he returned to the study of theology and the arts with a vigour and perseverance that would have been remarkable in a young man of unbroken health.  In his youth Mr. Wilson was no mean poet, and his unpublished verses received the warm praise of Wordsworth.  p. 248He had, too, the makings of a great painter, and some of his best efforts in colouring were executed only a few weeks before his death.  Mr. Wilson was brother of Sir Archdale Wilson, Bart., of Delhi, and first cousin to Henry Wilson, Lord Berners, at whose decease the barony, one of the oldest in England, passed, through an heiress, into another name.  The family was descended from Bourchier, Lord Berners, the translator of Froissart, and through him from Bourchier, the Earl of Essex and his wife, a granddaughter of Edward III.

NOVEMBER.

6.—Died at Lynn, Mr. F. Reynolds, formerly of Newton next Castleacre, at an advanced age, and in very reduced circumstances.  “The deceased for many years was known by the sobriquet of ‘The Marquis,’ which was given him when he kept a pack of harriers at his own expense, and with which he had good sport.  Once in pursuit of a stolen horse, for a neighbour, he drove one of his hunters, a bay blood horse, 100 miles in ten hours, only stopping once, namely, at Six Mile Bottom, near Newmarket, where he gave his horse some corn from his own bag, and fetched him water in his hat from a brook.  One of his first, and, perhaps, best hunters, that he trained to such perfection, was a bay thoroughbred mare by Old Whisker, bred by Chifney, the celebrated jockey.  She became a distinguished hunter with the Marham Staghounds.  For Chip he gave but £8, and this horse was afterwards sold by Mr. Anderson for 500 guineas.  Grey Tail, too, was sold by Mr. Taylor for 400 guineas, and Sweep, bought for £10, was sold by Mr. Percival for 300 guineas; whilst poor old Hawk struggled on with him in his decline, winning him a few pounds at country races by his indomitable pluck, and carrying him miles and miles when other people were at rest.  Although Mr. Reynolds had his failings, no one could impeach his honour.  He possessed such peculiar blandness, free from haughty and unkind feeling, that he was always regarded with something more than the common courtesy of life.  He received, in his dying illness, the greatest attention from his old servant Peter, his former whip.”

7.—The Prince and Princess of Wales arrived at Sandringham, from Coventry, accompanied by Prince Albert Victor and Prince George, and by the Czarewitch of Russia, Prince Wolkonsky, Prince Bariatinsky, &c.  It was on this occasion that the new railway-station erected at Wolferton was formally opened.  On the 20th a grand county ball was given at Sandringham.

9.—Mr. Edward Kerrison Harvey was elected Mayor, and Mr. John Youngs appointed Sheriff of Norwich.

18.—Died in London, the Hon. George Sulyarde Stafford Jerningham, C.B., formerly Minister Plenipotentiary to the Court of Sweden, aged 69.  He was third son of the eighth Lord Stafford, and was born February 17th, 1806.  Mr. Jerningham was attached to the embassies at St. Petersburg and the Hague in 1826, was appointed an attaché at the Hague in 1832, and Secretary of Legation in 1833, and was chargé d’affaires there until 1836, when he was sent as secretary of legation to Turin, where he was chargé d’affaires in 1838.  He subsequently filed similar offices at Madrid and Paris.

p. 249DECEMBER.

2.—Died at his residence, St. Giles’ Street, Norwich, Sir William Foster, Bart., aged 76.  For half a century he had taken a prominent position in Norwich in all matters connected with its municipal and charitable institutions, and, as the head of one of the oldest legal firms in the city, was greatly esteemed in his professional career.  Under the old Corporation he served the office of Sheriff in 1832, and in 1838 was created a baronet.  Sir William was elected Mayor of Norwich in 1844.  In politics he was a warm supporter of Liberal principles, and was for many years the recognised leader of the old Whig school in Norwich.  He was succeeded by Capt. William Foster, formerly in the 11th Hussars.

6.—Died at Golding Street, Heigham, Norwich, Mrs. Winifred Johnson, aged 101 years.

9.—Died at 39, Chapel Street, Marylebone Road, London, Mr. Benjamin Bond Cabbell, F.R.S., F.S.A., of Cromer Hall, in his 94th year.  Educated at Westminster and at Exeter College, Oxford, and called to the Bar in 1816, he was a Bencher of the Middle Temple, a justice of the peace and Deputy-Lieutenant for Middlesex and Norfolk, and Provincial Grand Master of Freemasons in the latter county.  In 1846 he was returned to the House of Commons for St. Alban’s, and represented Boston from 1847 to 1857.  On purchasing the Cromer Hall estate, Mr. Bond Cabbell became identified with Norfolk, presented to Cromer a fully-equipped lifeboat, and contributed largely to the restoration of the parish church.

—A remarkable charge of cruelty to dogs was preferred at Norwich Police-court, against Dr. Eugene Magnan, of London, Mr. Haynes S. Robinson, Mr. John Ballard Pitt, Mr. Richard Wentworth White, and Mr. Horace Turner, well-known medical men residing in Norwich.  It was alleged that on the occasion of the visit of the British Medical Association to Norwich, application was made by a committee of gentlemen that a certain experiment, namely, the injection of alcohol and absinthe into the veins and bloodvessels of dogs, should be made.  Dr. Magnan performed the operation, and the other defendants took part.  Among the witnesses called for the prosecution was Dr. Tuffnell, President of the Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland, who said the experiment was cruel because unnecessary, and similar evidence was given by Sir William Fergusson, Professor William Pritchard, R.C.V.S., Professor Varnell, R.C.V.S., Mr. G. Fleming, Examining Member of the Council of Veterinary Surgeons, and one of the editors of the “Veterinarian,” and others.  For the defence it was denied that Dr. Magnan performed the experiment simply for the amusement of those present, and Dr. Beverley, Dr. Bateman, Dr. Eade, Dr. Copeman, Mr. Cadge, Mr. W. P. Nichols, Mr. G. W. W. Firth, Mr. Joseph Allen, and others were called to prove that the operation was justifiable.  The magistrates dismissed the charges, but expressed the opinion that the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals were justified in bringing the case.

10.—Died at 7, Lowndes Street, London, Mr. Peter Frank O’Malley, Q.C., last surviving son of Mr. Charles O’Malley, of Castlebar, co. Mayo.  Born in 1804, he was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, p. 250where he graduated M.A. in 1828, and was called to the Bar at Lincoln’s Inn in May, 1834.  He married, in August, 1839, Emily, second daughter of Mr. William Rodwell, of Woodlands, Suffolk, sister of Mr. B. B. Hunter Rodwell, M.P., Q.C.  In 1850 he was appointed Queen’s Counsel and made a Bencher of the Middle Temple.  On the elevation of Mr. Serjeant Byles to the Bench, in 1858, Mr. O’Malley succeeded to the leadership of the Norfolk Circuit, and in the following year was appointed to the Recordership of Norwich.  In politics he was a Conservative, and, as an advocate, was remarkable for his eloquence, earnestness, and zeal.  Mr. O’Malley was succeeded as Recorder of Norwich by Mr. W. J. Metcalfe, Q.C.

15.—The Duke of Connaught presented the prizes at Norwich Grammar School.

—Died at Bracondale, Norwich, Mr. Samuel Jarrold, in his 69th year.  Mr. Jarrold, who was head of the wall-known firm of publishers, was an ardent temperance reformer, and one of the earliest advocates of the cause in Norwich.

17.—Died at his Norfolk seat, Elmham Hall, George John Milles, fourth Baron Sondes.  The deceased nobleman had almost attained his 81st year.  The second son of Lewis Thomas Watson, second Lord Sondes, by Mary Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Milles, of North Elmham, he succeeded to the title on the death of his brother, in 1836.  He was educated at Eton and at Christ Church, Oxford, and entered the Royal Horse Guards, in which regiment he served in the Peninsular War, and was present at the battle of Waterloo.  In 1823 he married Eleanor, fifth daughter of Sir Edward Knatchbull, Bart., and in 1824, on succeeding to the Elmham estate, assumed the name of Milles in lieu of that of Watson.  After his retirement from military service, he took great interest in agricultural pursuits, and was very successful in his efforts to improve the breeds of cattle and sheep.  The Elmham herd of red polled cattle and flock of Southdowns attained universal reputation.  His lordship was High Steward of Great Yarmouth, to which office he was elected in 1854.

26.—The pantomime at Norwich Theatre was “Dick Whittington and his Wonderful Cat.”  At the Prince Arthur Royal Circus, on Castle Meadow, the pantomime, “King Bombast, or Harlequin Reckless Ralph and his Lilliputian Army,” was produced.

1875.

JANUARY.

2.—The frost, which, during the preceding week, had been very severe, suddenly broke up, and, under the influence of a south-west wind, a rapid thaw set in.

—Died at his residence, Surrey Street, Norwich, Sir Samuel Bignold.  He was the third son of Mr. Thomas Bignold, of Westerham, Kent, who came to Norwich towards the close of the eighteenth p. 251century, and established the Norfolk and Norwich General Assurance, “for the insurance of houses, stock, and merchandise from fire.”  The office was in the Market Place, where Mr. Bignold also carried on the business of a wine and spirit merchant until the end of 1807.  Mr. Samuel Bignold was elected Corporation Sheriff on August 9th, 1830, and in 1831 succeeded Mr. John Patteson as Alderman of the Great Mancroft Ward.  In 1832 he was instrumental in introducing to the city Lord Stormont and Sir James Scarlett, as candidates for its representation in Parliament.  During his Mayoralty in 1833 he wrote a letter to the Governor of the Court of Guardians, suggesting the establishment of a joint stock company for spinning yarn, in order to give employment to the poor.  The result was the formation of the Norwich Yarn Company, and the first stone of their factory was laid by Mr. Bignold on December 1st, 1836.  This undertaking was commenced with every indication of success, but it finally succumbed to the powerful competition of the North.  In 1848 Mr. Bignold was a second time elected Mayor, and was chosen a third time for the office in 1853.  On May 3rd, 1854, having been requested by the Corporation to present to the Queen an address pledging its loyal support to her Majesty in the prosecution of the Crimean War, he received the honour of knighthood, and his portrait was painted by public subscription, by J. P. Knight, R.A., and placed in St. Andrew’s Hall.  In the same year Sir Samuel was returned as member of Parliament for the city, in opposition to Mr. Anthony Hamond, the Liberal candidate.  On seeking re-election, in 1857, he was defeated by Lord Bury and Mr. Schneider, and again in April, 1859, by the same gentlemen; but that election was declared void.  In June, 1859, when Lord Bury sought re-election, having vacated his seat by accepting the appointment of Comptroller of her Majesty’s household, Sir Samuel was again defeated, and Lord Bury was a second time unseated on petition.  In all subsequent elections, although not a candidate himself, Sir Samuel Bignold continued to take an active part.  He was associated with many public companies and charitable and other institutions.  After the passing of the Municipal Reform Act, he was elected a Councillor for the Fifth Ward, which he continued to represent until his death.  He was placed on the Commission of the Peace for the County in 1835, and became a Deputy-Lieutenant, and was appointed a city magistrate in 1841.

4.—The Norwich Choral Society, founded by Professor Taylor, in 1824, for the performance of choral and orchestral music, was voluntarily dissolved by the few remaining members.

—The Prince and Princess of Wales arrived at Holkham, on a visit to the Earl of Leicester.

20.—Died at her residence, Thorpe St. Andrew, in her 69th year, Miss Mary Ann Bacon, third daughter of Mr. R. M. Bacon, of Costessey.  She possessed varied accomplishments and poetical talent.  Early in life she assisted her father by translating and writing several valuable articles for the “Musical Review”; and she was associated with Mr. Owen Jones in the production of some volumes of combined art and poetry which attracted much attention at the time of their appearance.  Miss Bacon was particularly happy in her metrical translations of German, French, and Italian songs, and the books of the Norwich Festivals for many years attested her ready talent in p. 252giving the spirit of those languages when combined with music.  She contributed many fugitive verses and serial tales in prose to the “People’s Journal” and other periodicals and magazines.

FEBRUARY.

3.—A special meeting of the Norwich Town Council was held for the purpose of considering and passing resolutions authorising the Council to petition Parliament against the Norwich Gas Bill, by which the British Gaslight Company sought to acquire additional lands and to raise further capital.  It was decided to oppose the Bill, and the action of the Council was confirmed at a common hall held on the 4th.

—Died at 26, Highbury Place, London, the Rev. Luke Hoult Wiseman, aged 53.  He was a son of Mr. Samuel Wiseman of Norwich, so well known for his long and devoted services to the British and Foreign Bible Society.  He became private secretary to Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, and afterwards entered as a candidate for the Wesleyan Methodist ministry.  A popular and powerful preacher, he was appointed, in 1868, one of the general secretaries of the Wesleyan Missionary Society.  In 1871 he was elected secretary to the Conference, and in 1872 was appointed its president.  Mr. Wiseman wrote much for the Press, and all his writings bore the impress of a clear and vigorous intellect.  His best known works were “Christ’s Temptation in the Wilderness” and “Men of Faith.”

4.—A fire, which resulted in the destruction of the treadmill-house and of a small storage building, occurred at the City Gaol, Norwich.  An alarming rumour of an attempted escape of the prisoners was circulated, and a detachment of the 7th Hussars was summoned from the Cavalry Barracks.  The prisoners, however, were safely removed from the south to the north side of the gaol, the fire was extinguished by the city police, and the cavalry were ordered back to quarters.

5.—The Norwich Town Council discussed the question of the proposed site for the new pauper lunatic asylum, and decided to erect the building at Hellesdon.

23.—The Sheriff of Norwich (Mr. J. Youngs) and the Under-Sheriff (Mr. F. Foster) opened a court at the Shirehall for the assessment of damages in the claims brought against the Great Eastern Railway Company by the relatives of certain persons who had been killed or injured in the Thorpe collision.  At Norwich Assizes, on April 6th, before Mr. Justice Blackburn, Alfred Cooper, formerly night inspector, and John Robson, formerly telegraph clerk at Thorpe railway station, were indicted for feloniously killing and slaying George Robert Womack, on September 10th.  Mr. Womack was one of the victims of the collision.  The jury acquitted Robson, and returned a verdict of guilty against Cooper, who was sentenced to eight calendar months’ imprisonment.  At the same Assizes, a special jury tried the civil action, Morse v. the Great Eastern Railway Company, in which the Rev. Charles Morse sued the company for compensation for injuries sustained in the collision.  The jury awarded plaintiff £2,050 damages.  On April 17th it was announced: “It is now expected that p. 253the amount of compensation claims will not exceed £40,000.  About £10,000 has been paid in the amicable adjustment of minor claims, and juries have awarded some £15,000 more.”  At the Summer Assizes, on August 6th, before Mr. Baron Bramwell, a special jury awarded Mr. C. R. Gilman the sum of £6,497 3s. 8d. for damages, medical attendance, and extra expenses consequent upon injuries received by him in the collision.

MARCH.

1.—Mr. Craven Robertson’s company commenced an engagement at Norwich Theatre.  “Caste,” “School,” “Ours,” and “M.P.” were produced.

5.—An election to fill the vacancy caused in the representation of Norwich by the elevation to the judicial bench of Mr. Huddleston, Q.C., took place.  The candidates were Mr. J. H. Tillett and Colonel Josiah Wilkinson, Southampton Lodge, Highgate.  The result was declared as follows: Tillett, 5,877; Wilkinson, 5,079.  On April 2nd a petition against the return of Mr. Tillett, M.P., was filed in the Court of Common Pleas, by Frank Ames, a workman at Messrs. Barnard and Bishop’s Ironworks.  (See May 6th.)

7.—Died at Brighton, Mr. Edward Warner, of Hingham Hall, Woodford, Essex, formerly member of Parliament for Norwich.  He was first returned in 1852, in conjunction with Sir Morton Peto, and in opposition to the Marquis of Douro and Lieut.-Colonel Dickson; and sat in the House of Commons until the dissolution in 1857, but did not present himself for re-election.  In 1860 he again came forward, with Sir William Russell, with whom he was returned, defeating the Conservative candidates, Mr. W. Forlonge and Mr. W. D. Lewis.  In 1865 he and Sir William Russell were unsuccessfully opposed by Mr. A. Goldsmid and Mr. R. E. Chester Waters.  After the passing of the new Reform Act, the advanced Liberals selected Mr. J. H. Tillett as their candidate, and the Whigs adhered to Sir William Russell.  In 1870 Mr. Warner took the field in opposition to Mr. Tillett, but, after consulting the electors, he decided to retire from the contest.  Thereafter he lived in comparative retirement.

11.—A severe gale raged on the East Coast.  The schooner Elizabeth, belonging to Messrs. Bessey and Palmer, of Yarmouth, struck on the Barber Sand, and the crew of four hands were drowned.  Several other casualties occurred.

25.—Application was made in the Court of Common Pleas, on behalf of Josiah Buttifant, charged with the building society frauds at Norwich, for an order that a writ of certiorari might issue to remove the indictments into the Court of Queen’s Bench.  The order was granted, and the case came for trial before Mr. Justice Archibald, on May 6th, when it was stated that the prisoner’s defalcations amounted to £20,000.  Buttifant pleaded not guilty to the charge of forging certain documents, but guilty to embezzling various sums.  A jury was sworn to try the charge of forgery, and returned a verdict of guilty.  The prisoner was sentenced to fifteen years’ penal servitude.

p. 25431.—St. Margaret’s church, Lynn, which had been restored at the cost of £7,000, as an act of thanksgiving for the recovery of the Prince of Wales from his severe illness, was re-opened for Divine worship.  The sermon was preached by the Lord Bishop, and a distinguished company assembled for luncheon at the Town Hall, under the presidency of the Mayor (Mr. E. E. Durrant).  The Prince and Princess of Wales attended afternoon service at the church on Sunday, April 18th, and were received by the Mayor and Corporation.  The work of restoration was carried out under the direction of Mr. Ewan Christian and Sir E. Gilbert Scott.

—A new organ, erected at North Walsham church, by Messrs. Hill and Son, of London, at the cost of £487, was opened by Mr. James Turle, organist of Westminster Abbey, at a special service, at which the sermon was preached by the Dean of Norwich.

APRIL.

1.—The Yarmouth and Gorleston tramway was formally opened by the Mayor of Yarmouth (Mr. R. D. Barber).

5.—At the Norfolk Assizes, before Mr. Justice Grove, William Sillis, 25, labourer, was found guilty of feloniously assaulting Miss Ann Elizabeth Blyth, at Great Massingham, on October 12th, 1874, and was sentenced to eighteen years’ penal servitude and twenty lashes of the “cat.”  The whipping was inflicted at Norwich Castle on April 20th.  “The prisoner’s back having been bared, he was securely fastened by the hands and feet to the whipping-post and the flagellation duly administered by Mr. Pinson, the Governor, with a ‘cat’ having nine tails of braided whipcord.  When the third lash had been given the prisoner turned his head round and implored, ‘For God’s sake, don’t hit twice in the same place,’ and, howling and wincing, threatened to break down at the eighth lash; but the whipping proceeded until the punishment was completed.  When released from the post he appeared faint, and required assistance to get on his shirt.  ‘A poor devil had better be hanged than punished like that,’ he said.”

9.—At a military tournament given by the 7th Hussars at Norwich, the “cavalry ride,” now known as the “musical ride,” was performed for the first time.  It was introduced by the bandmaster, Van Der Huevil, who was afterwards transferred to the Household Cavalry, and under his direction the display became one of the most prominent features of the Royal Military Tournament.

17.—Died at her residence, Surrey Street, Norwich, Miss Cecilia Lucy Brightwell, eldest daughter of Mr. Thomas Brightwell.  For nearly forty years she was the devoted and inseparable companion of her father.  Miss Brightwell was a voluminous writer, and more than twenty works of hers had issued from the press, the first of which was a biography, the only one extant, of her old friend, Amelia Opie, whose diary and correspondence she had access to through her father, Mrs. Opie’s executor.  Amongst her other works was a “Life of Linnæus,” “Early Lives and Doings of Great Lawyers,” “Annals of Curious and Romantic Lives,” “Palissy, the Huguenot Potter,” “Footsteps of the Reformers,” “Heroes of the Workshop,” “Men of Mark,” “Annals of Industry and Genius,” &c.  Proficient in the use of the p. 255etching needle, she illustrated her father’s works on “Infusoria.”  “A singular evidence of Miss Brightwell’s skill in etching may be found in the British Museum, where, side by side with the work of Rembrandt, known as ‘The Long Landscape,’ is a copy by her which the gentleman then in charge of that department could not believe to be such until vouched for by others.”

MAY.

6.—The hearing of the election petition against the return of Mr. Jacob Henry Tillett as member of Parliament for the city commenced at the Shirehall, Norwich, before Mr. Justice Lush.  Mr. Giffard, Q.C., was leading counsel for the petitioner, and Mr. Hawkins, Q.C., for the respondent.  It was alleged on the part of the petitioner that a large number of voters had received employment of a colourable character.  “Wherever possible a voter was made a messenger, clerk, or something.  The majority for Mr. Huddleston at the General Election was between 40 and 50, but by this kind of device the Conservative majority was converted into a minority of one under 800.”  The inquiry proceeded, and on the 15th Mr. Hawkins announced that “Mr. Tillett had come to the conclusion it had been sufficiently established that a great number of the lower class voters were employed unjustifiably in his behalf, and he felt he could not struggle further to retain the seat.”  After hearing the evidence of Mr. Tillett and a few other witnesses, his lordship said: “The result is the respondent has become disqualified by reason of this corruption by his agents, and I have nothing more to do than to declare the election void and award costs to the petitioner.”  (See August 16th.)

13.—The centenary of the banking house of Messrs. Gurneys and Co. was celebrated by a dinner given at Stoke Holy Cross, the seat of Mr. Henry Birkbeck.  “The original founders of the Bank were John and Henry Gurney, who, in addition to their ordinary trade, that of merchants, carried on a banking business, first in Pitt Street, and afterwards in Magdalen Street.  They were the sons of John Gurney, who earned the title of the ‘Weavers’ Friend,’ by reason of his advocacy of their cause.  The Gurneys having, in 1779, devoted themselves exclusively to banking, the business was transferred to Bartlett Gurney (son of Henry Gurney), who removed to the present premises on Bank Plain, having as a partner his uncle, John Gurney.  Bartlett Gurney died in 1803, and John Gurney was left sole proprietor, being joined shortly by his cousins, Richard and Joseph Gurney.  John Gurney lived at Earlham Hall, Richard Gurney at Keswick, and Joseph Gurney at Lakenham.  Changes from time to time occurred, and Hudson Gurney, Richard Hanbury Gurney, James John Gurney, Henry Birkbeck (the father of the present head of the firm), and Simon Martin became at subsequent periods partners in the great banking house.  The panics of the years 1792 and 1825, which caused the failure of many banking houses, only resulted in establishing the Gurneys on a firmer and more prosperous basis, for they not only survived these financial disasters, but assisted others to tide over their difficulties.  The year 1866 will be remembered as one which tested the stability of the house.  The run on the Bank in that and the following year was as remarkable for its intensity as it was lasting.  p. 256The run having ended, the business was further extended in 1870 by the addition of that of Harveys and Hudsons, the goodwill of which was purchased, and, by the liberality of the firm, that which might have ended in a catastrophe for Norfolk was averted.  It is now by far the largest private banking house in the provinces.”

JUNE.

5.—The Reedham Hall estate was sold by auction by Messrs. Spelman, at the Rampant Horse Hotel, Norwich, for £31,568.  The purchaser was Mr. John Rose.

8.—Mr. Frank Buckland, Inspector of Salmon Fisheries, opened an inquiry at Yarmouth, at the request of the Home Secretary, into the crab, lobster, and other sea fisheries on the Norfolk coast, with the view of ascertaining the expediency of adopting regulations for the prevention of waste and the preservation of fish.  Similar inquiries were held at Lynn, Wells, and Cromer.

16.—The annual show of the Norfolk Agricultural Association opened at Fakenham, and was continued on the 17th.  Mr. Anthony Hamond was president for the year.

19.—An important meeting was held at the Guildhall, Norwich, for the purpose of conferring with Mr. Frank Buckland as to the possibility of extending legislative protection to the fishing in the rivers and broads of Norfolk.  Mr. Buckland expressed his full concurrence in the necessity of an Act of Parliament, for placing restrictions on the fishing, and resolutions to that effect were adopted.  (See January 22nd, 1876.)

21.—The centenary of the opening of the bells of St. Peter Mancroft, Norwich, was celebrated by the ringers of that church.

JULY.

3.—Extracts from an article in the “Natal Mercury” of May 11th, on the life and labours of Mr. Thomas Baines, F.R.G.S., “just then deceased,” were published.  Mr. Baines was a native of King’s Lynn, where he was born in 1822.  At an early age he gave evidence of artistic instincts, and of his love of travel and adventure.  His first experiences of the kind were in South Australia.  When little more than a youth, he took part in an expedition which traversed a then unpenetrated portion of the Continent.  He and his companions carried their lives in their hands, and many were the hairbreadth escapes from the perils of both sea and savages.  Baines arrived in South Africa about the year 1848, and took an active part in the Kaffir wars of 1850–51–52.  In 1860 he joined Dr. Livingstone’s expedition to Zanzibar, but differences arose between him and his illustrious chief.  The next few years were spent in devious travel, and in 1866 he returned home and published several important works.  He subsequently went to Natal as leader of a party sent out by the South African Gold Fields Exploration Company, and it was at Natal that he spent a large portion of the last few years of his life.

p. 2578.—Died at Mulbarton, Mary Ann Todd, aged 100 years.

22.—The Norfolk polled cattle and flock of pure Southdown sheep on the North Elmham estate were sold by Messrs. Thornton and Long.  The total amount realised was £4,953 5s.

23.—The last detachment of the 7th Hussars left Norwich for Manchester by special train; and on the 24th the dismounted party of the 6th Dragoon Guards (Carabiniers), from Shorncliffe, took over the Cavalry Barracks.

AUGUST.

2.—A vessel named the Ponda Chief, intended for trading between this country and Port Natal, was launched from the shipyard of Messrs. J. Fellows, at Southtown, Yarmouth.  She was 140 feet long, 26 feet beam, 14 ft. 6 in. deep, and 416 tons register.  This was one of the largest vessels ever built at the port.

3.—H.M.S. Favourite, an armour-plated corvette of 2,094 tons and 490 horse-power, ran upon the south spit of Scroby Sand, when endeavouring to make the gatway.  At the flood tide the vessel floated off and steamed out to sea.

9.—At the Norfolk Assizes, before Mr. Justice Mellor, William Harper Stewardson, printer, of Norwich, was charged with publishing in a newspaper called the “Herald and Dispatch,” a malicious and defamatory libel of and concerning Frederick Lawrence Phillips, editor of the “Norwich Argus.”  The jury returned a verdict of guilty, and the defendant was fined £20, and ordered to enter into his own recognisances of £100 to be of good behaviour for twelve months.

16.—A Royal Commission, issued in consequence of the report of Mr. Justice Lush, “that he had reason to believe corrupt practices extensively prevailed at the election which took place in Norwich on March 5th, on the elevation to the Bench of Mr. Baron Huddleston,” commenced its proceedings at the Shirehall, Norwich.  The Commissioners were Mr. John Morgan Howard, Q.C., Mr. Patrick MacMahon, and Mr. Gabriel Prior Goldney, with Mr. Tyndal Atkinson as secretary.  On the 43rd day, Wednesday, October 28th, the court terminated its sittings in Norwich, and the inquiry was resumed in the House of Lords on November 8th.  The fiftieth day was reached on December 3rd, when a further adjournment took place.  (See March 15th, 1876.)

26.—The marriage was solemnised, at Latimer, of the Earl of Leicester and the Hon. Georgiana Cavendish, eldest daughter of Lord and Lady Chesham.

SEPTEMBER.

20.—The Norfolk and Norwich Triennial Musical Festival commenced with an evening performance of “Elijah.”  The morning performances were as follow: 22nd, “Hymn of Praise” and selection, “Jerusalem”; 23rd, “Stabat Mater” and “Woman of Samaria”; 24th, “The Messiah.”  Miscellaneous concerts were given on the evenings of the dates named, except on the 24th, when a dress ball p. 258took place.  The principal vocalists were Mdlle. Albani, Mdlle. Mathilda Enequist, Madame Lemmens Sherrington, Mdlle. Anna de Belocca, Miss Enriquez, Madame Patey, Mr. Edward Lloyd, Mr. H. J. Minns, Mr. Henry Guy, Mr. J. L. Wadmore, and Signor Foli.  Sir Julius Benedict conducted.

26.—Died at his residence, Bracondale, Norwich, Mr. Frederic Brown, aged 67.  He served the office of Sheriff in 1863–64, was a magistrate of the city, and a director of the Norwich Waterworks and Corn Exchange Companies.

OCTOBER.

4.—Don Edgardo Colona, a Mexican tragedian, appeared at Norwich Theatre, and during a week’s engagement played a round of Shakesperian and classical characters.

9.—The foundation-stone of Yarmouth Aquarium was laid by Lord Suffield.  The building was opened on September 5th, 1876.

16.*—“Her Majesty has been graciously pleased to approve the Norfolk Regiment of Artillery Militia being in future designated the Prince of Wales’ Own Norfolk Artillery Militia, and of the officers, non-commissioned officers, and men of the regiment being permitted to wear, as a distinctive badge, on the collars of the tunics, the Prince of Wales’ plume and the motto, ‘Ich Dien.’”

20.—During a severe gale, the barque Young England, of Middlesbrough, 371 tons (Captain Brown), bound from the Baltic to London with deals, drifted on the Cockle Sand.  The crew of twelve men and a boy took to the boat, which was capsized, and all, with the exception of the boy, were drowned.

26.—A public meeting was held at Yarmouth, to consider a project for constructing a railway from that town to Stalham, viâ Caister, Ormesby, Martham, Potter Heigham, and Catfield.  Sir E. H. K. Lacon, Bart., M.P., presided, and resolutions were adopted affirming the desirability of the undertaking, which was estimated to cost £70,000.  (See August 7th, 1877.)

28.—A preliminary meeting of landowners and others interested in the construction of a new line of railway from March to Wymondham, to be known as the Central Norfolk Railway, was held at the Crown Hotel, Watton, under the presidency of Mr. W. A. Tyssen-Amherst.  Mr. A. F. Jerningham, C.E., described the proposed route, and it was agreed that the railway was desirable.  Its cost was estimated at £450,000, or £10,000 per mile.  A Bill for the promotion of the undertaking was introduced in Parliament, but was withdrawn in January, 1876.

NOVEMBER.

5.—Mr. Charles Tadman, for many years manager at Norwich Gasworks, committed suicide by shooting himself with a revolver.

8.—Mr. Anthony Hamond, Master of the West Norfolk Hunt, was presented with his portrait, painted by Mr. Graves, R.A.  Sir William ffolkes, Bart., made the presentation, on behalf of 400 subscribers.

p. 2599.—Mr. Jacob Henry Tillett was elected Mayor, and Mr. Henry Stevenson appointed Sheriff of Norwich.

10.—The first Poor-law Conference, attended by delegates from twenty-two Norfolk unions, was held at the Guildhall, Norwich, under the presidency of Mr. C. S. Read, M.P., “to take counsel on the important point of the more uniform administration of poor relief.”

13.—Died at St. Leonard’s, the Rev. Dr. William Brock.  Dr. Brock, who was upwards of 70 years of age, was formerly minister of the Baptist congregation, in Norwich, and resigned that post about twenty-five years previously, and became minister of Bloomsbury chapel, London, then recently built.  There he remained until he retired from the ministry.  Dr. Brock was one of the most popular ministers in the Baptist denomination, and took an active part on the Liberal side in many of the political movements of his time.

—An extremely high tide occurred at Lynn, owing to heavy rains and strong gales.  On the 15th Denver Sluice was in jeopardy, and large numbers of men were employed to strengthen the banks.  At Hunstanton great masses of cliff were washed away; on the 19th railway traffic between Brandon and Ely was suspended, owing to the floods, and considerable damage was done to the line between Reedham and Haddiscoe by the overflow of water.

17.—Sir William Bagge, Bart., M.P., presided at a luncheon at Downham Market, held in celebration of the opening of the new Public Hall.  The building was converted from the old Theatre by a company formed for the purpose of carrying out the project.

18.—At the adjourned Norfolk Quarter Sessions, held at the Shirehall, Norwich, a report was received on the advisability of amalgamating the county prisons and of transferring the Governor of Swaffham Prison to Norwich Castle, the Governor of the latter prison, Mr. Pinson, having given notice of his resignation of office.  The report recommended that Swaffham Prison be discontinued from January 13th, 1876; that the prisoners at the time under detention be removed to Norwich Castle; and that Mr. Duncan Stuart, Governor of Swaffham Prison, be appointed to succeed Mr. Pinson at Norwich.  The report was adopted.  Mr. Stuart took over the governorship of Norwich Castle in January, 1876, but resigned office in the following month, when he was succeeded by Mr. Miles Joseph Walker.

19.—A gale, the severity of which had been unequalled for many years previously, visited the coast of Norfolk.  Several wrecks occurred off Yarmouth and Caister, and many lives were lost in the Wash.  The Scotch fishing fleet suffered terrible privations.  Five bodies of the crew of the smack Beautiful Star, of St. Monance, Fifeshire, were picked up at the entrance to Lynn Well, and at a subsequent date the bodies of other unfortunate fishermen from the North were discovered in the same locality.

20.—The Hon. Frederick Walpole, M.P., F.R.G.S., was installed Grand Master of the Norfolk Provincial Grand Lodge of Freemasons, in place of Mr. Benjamin Bond Cabbell, deceased.

21.—On this day (Sunday) a mad freak was perpetrated at Yarmouth by a Scotch fisherman, named Watson.  Having gained admittance to the Nelson column, he climbed the figure of Britannia and clasped his arms about its neck.  He then came down to the platform, p. 260and, dangling his legs over the edge of the capital, took off his shoes and proceeded to descend by the lightning conductor which runs down the outside of the column.  The conductor was only seven-eighths of an inch in diameter, and placed close to the stone work, “and how he managed to get over the edge of the projecting capital was a marvel.”  The man, however, reached the ground in safety; but his hands were terribly lacerated, “as in several instances he had to pull the conductor from the wall to get his fingers in.  He was under the influence of drink when he performed the feat.”

30.—Died, in his 75th year, Mr. Francis John Blake, solicitor, for forty years treasurer of the Norfolk County Lunatic Asylum, and thirty-eight years Superintendent Registrar for the city of Norwich.  Mr. Blake was for many years treasurer of the Norwich Musical Festival, and a director of several public companies.

—St. Andrew’s Day was celebrated in Norwich by the members of the newly-formed St. Andrew Society dining at the Maid’s Head Hotel.  Mr. T. Muir Grant, the founder and president of the society, was in the chair, and Dr. Waddell, the vice-president, officiated as croupier.

—A suit, the Archdeacon of Norwich v. William Delph and William Thomas Gilbert, churchwardens of St. Augustine, which came before the Consistory Court at Norwich, excited much public comment.  The case was heard originally in November, 1874, when the Chancellor decreed that the respondents, who had desecrated the churchyard by throwing a portion of it into the public road, should, by placing certain stones in the pathway and wall, mark the ancient boundary of the churchyard.  The respondents not having obeyed the decree of the court, application was made on October 5th by Mr. Walter Overbury, as Proctor for the Archdeacon, that they might be pronounced contumacious.  The case was adjourned until this date, and the decree not having been obeyed, the Chancellor pronounced the respondents contumacious, and issued a certificate to her Majesty in the High Court of Justice, in order that an attachment might forthwith issue against them.  This action resulted in the arrest and imprisonment of Mr. Gilbert.  At a meeting of the Town Council, on December 21st, Mr. J. D. Smith called attention to the case, and stated that Mr. Gilbert was imprisoned for alleged contempt of court in not paying the costs of the suit.  He moved a resolution expressing regret that the ecclesiastical authorities should have instituted the prosecution, and urging that the Parliamentary and Bye-Laws Committee confer immediately as to the best steps to be taken to obtain the release of the prisoner.  The motion was carried by 27 votes against 1, “the Conservatives having vacated their seats, leaving only Mr. H. W. Stafford, who voted against the motion.”  Mr. Gilbert was liberated on December 24th, an undertaking having been given on the part of Mr. Delph that the decree of the Consistorial Court should be carried out.

DECEMBER.

4.—A heavy gale prevailed on the coast of Norfolk, and continued until the 6th.  There were many shipping casualties, and much loss of life.

p. 2617.—At the annual dinner of the Farmers’ Club, held at the Salisbury Hotel, London, Mr. Clare Sewell Read announced that he would no longer continue a member of the Government.  He took office, he said, on the stipulation that he should have perfect freedom to speak upon all agricultural matters, and that if he believed the interests of agriculture were neglected by any department of the Government he should resign.  “I believe,” he added, “that the interests of the stockholders of this country have been persistently ignored by the Veterinary Department of the Privy Council, and that being the case, I have to inform you that I am no longer the Secretary of the Local Government Board, and that I only hold office until my successor be appointed.”  Mr. Read further said that, to a tenant-farmer whose principal income was derived from the occupation of 600 or 700 acres of land, £1,500 a year was an extremely convenient addition to his income; but he was quite sure that all present would approve of what he had done.  During the Cattle Show week it was announced that some suitable recognition would be made of Mr. Read’s services to agriculture, and, at a large meeting of the agriculturists of the county—Conservative and Liberal—held at the Norfolk Hotel, Norwich, on December 18th, a deputation was appointed to attend a meeting at the Salisbury Hotel, on the 20th, in support of the testimonial fund which was forthwith inaugurated.  (See January 1st, 1876.)

13.—A dreadful tragedy occurred at the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital.  A weaver, 42 years of age, named Robert Edwards, who resided at Marsham, had been admitted to the Hospital on an indoor recommendation obtained from the Rev. J. Gunton, rector of the parish.  The physician who examined him prior to admission believed that he was suffering from some bodily ailment of a dyspeptic character.  Ten or twelve weeks previously his case was regarded as one of insanity; he had been restless and violent at times, and his friends had placed him under surveillance.  Early on the morning of this date, Edwards, in a fit of homicidal mania, escaped from the Catherine ward, and, finding his way to the children’s ward, seized a pair of tongs from the fireplace, and, before he could be secured, made a murderous assault upon some of the unfortunate young patients, which resulted in two being slain outright, a third died shortly afterwards, and grievous injuries were inflicted upon two others.  Edwards was disarmed by Mr. Baumgartner, the house surgeon, taken into custody, and charged on the 14th, at Norwich Police Court, with feloniously killing William Martin, aged 14, of Ryburgh; John Lacey, 10, of Griffin Yard, Pockthorpe; and Joseph Colman, 11, of Barton Turf.  A fourth lad, Alfred Clarke, aged 9, died on February 20th, 1876.  On the 18th the magistrates committed him for trial at the Assizes, but meanwhile he was certified to be insane and incapable of pleading, and was sent to Broadmoor Criminal Lunatic Asylum.  At the Coroner’s inquest, held on December 18th, a verdict of wilful murder was returned, and the jury expressed, in the strongest terms, their disapproval of the circumstances under which Edwards had been admitted to the institution, and their high opinion of the courageous conduct of Mr. Baumgartner.

22.—Died at Bombay, Bernard Edward Delaval Astley, tenth Baron Hastings, aged 20.  His lordship left England early in October, for India, accompanied by Viscount Ebrington, and, after staying with Sir p. 262Philip Wodehouse, the Governor, at Parell, during the Prince of Wales’ visit there, he proceeded to Calicut, and thence to the Annamally Hills, for shooting.  He there fell a victim to jungle fever.  Born September 9th, 1855, his lordship was eldest son of the Rev. Delaval Loftus Astley, some time vicar of East Barsham, and afterwards ninth Lord Hastings, and grandson of Jacob Astley, Lord Hastings, better known by his former name of Sir Jacob Astley, M.P.  He was educated at Eton, and succeeded to the family honours in 1872.  The title passed to his next brother, the Hon. George Manners Astley, who was born in April, 1857.

26.—The Christmas pantomime produced by Mr. George H. Chaplin, at Norwich Theatre, was entitled, “Bluff King Hal the Bluffer and his Crippled Guy, or Harlequin Darnley, the Pet of the Court.”

1876.

JANUARY.

1.—At a meeting of Norfolk agriculturists, held at the Norfolk Hotel, Norwich, it was decided to support the national movement for presenting Mr. C. S. Read, M.P., with a testimonial in recognition of his services to agriculture.  Upwards of £600 was subscribed in the room, the Earl of Leicester, Lord Lieutenant of the county, heading the subscription-list with a handsome donation.  The presentation was made at the Cannon Street Hotel, London, on May 2nd, at a banquet presided over by Mr. Charles Howard, of Bidenham, and attended by 160 of the leading agriculturists of the three kingdoms.  The testimonial consisted of a massive silver salver weighing 115 ozs., and inscribed, “Presented, the 2nd May, 1876, to Clare Sewell Read, M.P. for Norfolk since 1865, with a cheque for £5,500, in testimony of his valuable services to Agriculture.”

19.—The first of the entertainments known as “Spelling Bees” was given at Noverre’s Rooms, Norwich.  It was claimed that they “served the twofold purpose of testing the orthographical and philological knowledge of the competitors and of providing amusement for the public.”  The Mayor (Mr. J. H. Tillett) presided.  The referees were Mr. Carlos Cooper, the Rev. A. C. Copeman, and Mr. A. Master, and their decisions were in accordance with the Imperial, Richardson’s, and Walker’s dictionaries.  Mr. T. Richmond Pinder was interrogator.  “Spelling Bees” enjoyed for some months the same popularity as their precursors, “Penny Readings,” and every town and village in the county took up the movement, which, however, was very short-lived.

22.—The members of the Yare Preservation Society and the riparian owners of the county adopted a memorial to the Home Secretary, praying for the legislative protection of local sea and inland fisheries.  A deputation, which included the members of Parliament for the county and city, approached the Home Secretary upon the p. 263subject on February 1st, and received the assurance that “if the Government could see their way they would take the matter up at some future time.”  (See February 2nd, 1877.)

29.—Died at his residence, Unthank’s Road, Norwich, Mr. Abel Towler, one of the senior magistrates of the city, aged 83.  He was head of the firm of Towler, Allen, and Co.  In politics Mr. Towler was “a Liberal of the old school.”

FEBRUARY.

1.—A fire occurred at the works of Messrs. Riches and Watts, agricultural engineers, Duke’s Palace, Norwich.  The damage amounted to between £3,000 and £4,000.

12.—Died at his residence, the Depperhaugh, Diss, Admiral Sir John Baldwin Wake Walker, Bart., K.C.B.  Born in 1803, he entered the Navy in 1812, and saw much service.  In 1847 he was appointed Surveyor to the Navy; in 1861 he assumed command of the Cape of Good Hope station, and attained the rank of Admiral in 1870.  He was created a baronet in 1856.

16.—Died at his residence, Drayton Lodge, near Norwich, Mr. James Winter, aged 79.  He was the last member but one of the old Corporation, in which he held the important office of Speaker.  Mr. Winter remained a member of the new Corporation from its formation in 1835 until a few years before his death.

19.—An outbreak of small-pox was announced to have taken place amongst the prisoners confined in Norwich Castle.  There were twelve cases, two of which were serious, but no deaths occurred.

27.—Died at his residence, Surrey Street, Norwich, Mr. John Harwell, in his 78th year.  His mother was a daughter of John Samuel Sedley, of Barford and Morley, a lineal descendant of Sir Charles Sedley, the wit and poet.  Mr. Barwell married, in 1824, the eldest daughter of Mr. Richard Mackenzie Bacon, proprietor and editor of the “Norwich Mercury.”  He succeeded his father in his wine merchant’s business, was for many years an alderman for the Mancroft Ward, and served the office of Sheriff in 1839–40.  On the occasion of the marriage of Queen Victoria, he was one of the deputation who presented, on behalf of the city, an address of congratulation to her Majesty and the Prince Consort.  Mr. Barwell engaged largely in artistic pursuits, and was an accomplished musician and vocalist.  A skilful amateur artist, he painted a portrait of Miss Julia Smith, daughter of Mr. William Smith, M.P., and aunt of Florence Nightingale, which was exhibited at the National Portrait Gallery, South Kensington, in 1868.  He did much to promote art in Norwich, and, in conjunction with Cotman, Crome, and other Norwich artists, established a drawing academy.  Many years later he had the satisfaction of seeing his views carried out by the establishment of a Science and Art Department of the Government, and by the opening of Schools of Science and Art in Norwich and most of the principal towns in the kingdom.  With the assistance of Mr. Burt, he established the Norwich Cricket Club, and, in co-operation with Bentley, and afterwards with Fuller Pilch, formed the Cricket Ground at Lakenham, which p. 264was one of the best in England.  Mr. Barwell was a Liberal in principle, but always refrained from taking an active part in local politics.

MARCH.

6.—Mr. Craven Robertson’s “Caste” Company commenced an engagement at Norwich Theatre, and produced, for the first time there, Mr. T. W. Robertson’s latest comedy, “Play.”

14.—In the House of Commons, Mr. C. S. Read called attention to the report of the Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act Committee, 1873, and moved, “That, in the opinion of this House, the general orders and regulations for the stoppage of disease should cease to be varying or permissive, and should be uniform throughout Great Britain and Ireland.”  On an assurance from Viscount Sandon that the Government accepted the principle of uniformity, Mr. Read said he would not be justified in asking the House to divide, and withdrew the motion.

15.—The Norwich Election Commissioners issued their report.  They found that corrupt practices extensively prevailed in Norwich at the election in March, 1875, and in February, 1874.  The number of persons scheduled was as follows: Schedule I., persons guilty of bribery at the election of 1874 or 1875, 72; Schedule II., persons bribed at the election of 1874 or 1875, 31; Schedule III., guilty of personation, 1; Schedule IV., persons guilty of procuring personation, 2.  In the House of Commons, on May 29th, the Attorney-General announced that the scheduled voters were to be disfranchised, and the writ for the vacant seat suspended during the then Parliament.  At a meeting of the Norwich Town Council, on February 26th, 1878, the Lords Commissioners of her Majesty’s Treasury requested payment by the city of £3,943 19s. 2d., the cost of the Commission.  This charge was equal to a rate of 5d. in the pound.

APRIL.

1.—Died at Dean Street, Park Lane, London, the Hon. Frederick Walpole, M.P.  He was third son of Horatio, third Earl of Orford, by Mary, eldest daughter of Mr. W. Fawkner, and was born September 18th, 1822.  In 1837 he entered the Royal Navy, became Lieutenant in 1845, and retired from the service in 1864, as Commander.  He served in the first China War, in India, and in the campaign on the Danube.  Mr. Walpole unsuccessfully contested King’s Lynn at the General Election in November, 1865, when Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton and Lord Stanley (afterwards Earl of Derby) were returned.  At the General Election in November, 1868, he was elected one of the members for the Northern Division of Norfolk, and at the next General Election was returned unopposed.  Mr. Walpole was the author of “Five Years in the Pacific,” “The Ansayrii, or Further East,” and a novel, “May and December.”  He was a Fellow of the Royal Society of Antiquaries and of the Geological Society.  Mr. Walpole also served in the West Norfolk Militia, of which he was Major, and shortly before his death received the honorary rank of Lieut.-Colonel.  He married, on February 12th, 1852, his cousin, Laura Sophia Frances, only daughter of Mr. Francis Walpole, by whom he left issue two sons and p. 265a daughter.  Amy Rachael, who married the Hon. Henry Charles Manners Sutton, eldest son of Viscount Canterbury.  One of the last acts of Mr. Walpole’s Parliamentary career was the introduction of the Bill for the protection of the crab and lobster fisheries on the Norfolk coast.

3.—A serious disturbance took place at Hethersett, on the occasion of the Norfolk and Norwich Steeplechases.  A large number of roughs from Norwich had planned the robbery of the tills of the person who had received the gate-money and had charge of the refreshment department.  An effort was made to unhorse Hickman, Mr. Angerstein’s huntsman, who was engaged in keeping the course, and in the mêlée which ensued an officer of the Carabiniers brought up at the trot a mounted detachment on duty at the races, and speedily quelled the disturbance.

5.—The Norwich Town Council, on the recommendation of the Executive Committee, decided to proceed with the work of widening London Street, from the Market Place to Castle Street, at a cost not exceeding £22,000, and appointed a committee to negotiate with owners of property and to inquire into the best mode of carrying out the improvement.  The subject was discussed in detail at various meetings during the year.  (See April 7th, 1877.)

10.—At the Norfolk Assizes, before Mr. Baron Cleasby, Henry Webster, aged 61, a labourer, was found guilty of the murder of his wife, Sarah Webster, aged 53, at Cranworth, on September 17th, 1875.  Sentence of death was passed, and the culprit was executed at Norwich Castle on May 1st.  Marwood was the executioner.

17.—Mr. Charles Durand’s Grand English Opera Company commenced an engagement at Norwich Theatre, in Rossini’s comic opera, “Cinderella, or the Fairy of the Glass Slipper.”  Miss Florence St. John was a member of the company.

18.—At an early hour in the morning the emigrant ship Humboldt, of Hamburgh, 729 tons register, bound from Hamburgh to the Brazils, with 349 emigrants on board, ran ashore on Winterton beach.  With the assistance of tugs the vessel was got off and taken to Yarmouth Roads for repair.  The master, Henrisch Detlof Busch, had lost his bearings, and believed himself to be off the coast of France!

20.—The first Starr-Bowkett Building Society was established at Norwich, by Mr. Starr, one of the originators of the system.

—The nomination of candidates for the election in the Northern Division of the county, consequent upon the death of the Hon. Frederick Walpole, M.P., took place at Aylsham.  The candidates were Lieut.-Colonel James Duff, of Westwick House, and Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, Bart., of Warlies, Waltham Abbey.  The polling, which took place on the 21st, resulted as follows: Duff, 2,302; Buxton, 2,192.  Colonel Duff, during the election campaign, was confined to his house by sickness.

29.—A meeting of gentlemen interested in the field sports of the county was held at the Royal Hotel, Norwich, to consider the advisability of accepting the offer made by Mr. Angerstein, namely, that he would give to the county his pack of staghounds and deer, on condition that the county subscribed a sufficient sum “to hunt them in a p. 266proper manner.”  The meeting agreed to take over the hounds if adequate funds were forthcoming.

MAY.

15.—Mdlle. Beatrice’s Comedy-Drama Company commenced an engagement at Norwich Theatre.  The repertory included “The School for Scandal,” “Mary Stuart,” “Frou-frou,” “Nos Intimes,” “The Ticket-of-Leave Man,” “John Jasper’s Wife,” and “East Lynne.”

18.—Died at his residence, Theatre Street, Norwich, in his 82nd year, Mr. William Butcher, a well-known land surveyor and auctioneer.  He was a native of Brooke, and entered the office of Mr. Robert Corby, of Kirstead, a land surveyor, who had one of the largest practices in the district, if not in the kingdom.  Mr. Butcher had unusual opportunities of acquiring a practical knowledge of the business at the time when enclosures of commons in Norfolk and Suffolk were being carried out, for Mr. Corby was the surveyor employed.  For nearly sixty years he carried on a most lucrative practice, which was not confined to local limits, but extended throughout the kingdom, from the remotest parts of Scotland to the Land’s End.  Mr. Butcher served one term as an alderman of the city, and was Sheriff of Norwich in 1870–71.

24.—The Queen’s birthday was celebrated in Norwich by an entertainment given to the inmates of the Workhouse by the Sheriff (Mr. Stevenson).  It was stated that the Easter Monday and Whit Monday holidays provided by the Bank Holidays Act had affected the public observance of the day, and Volunteer reviews, sham fights, and civic feasts were no longer held to commemorate the occasion.

27.*—“The early closing of our shops on Thursdays in the summer months seems now to be the universal custom in Norwich, with the solitary exception of the chemists and druggists.”  (See March 26th, 1879.)

—*“Some days since some men at work on Feltwell Fen found a quantity of Roman silver coins, many of them distinctly bearing the names of Hadrian, Antoninus, Trajan, Marcus Aurelius, Divas Antoninus, Vespasian, &c.  They were contained in a vessel which was broken to pieces by the plough which turned it up.”

31.—The ceremony of laying the foundation-stone of the new building in Little Orford Street, of the Norwich Church of England Young Men’s Society, was performed by the President, Mr. F. E. Watson.  The building, which was designed by Mr. Edward Boardman, architect, and erected by Mr. G. E. Hawes, was formally opened on December 6th.

JUNE.

14.—The annual show of the Norfolk Agricultural Association opened at Swaffham.  Sir William ffolkes, High Sheriff of Norfolk, presided at the luncheon.

15.—Died at his residence, South Quay, Great Yarmouth, Vice-Admiral Thomas Lewis Gooch, aged 69, youngest son of Sir Thomas Sherlock Gooch, Bart., of Benacre Hall.  Born at Bramfield, he joined p. 267the Royal Naval College in 1820, and entering the Navy, obtained Lieutenant’s rank in 1828.  He was appointed to the command of H.M.S. Kite, went to the West Coast of Africa, and brought home the survivors of the first ill-fated Niger Expedition.  In 1865 he attained the rank of retired Rear-Admiral, and became Vice-Admiral in 1871.  In 1828 he married Anne, eldest daughter of General the Hon. William Gardner, Lieutenant-Governor of Malta.

18.—Father Ignatius announced that he would commence an eight days’ mission at the Monastery, Elm Hill, Norwich.  Miss Ware, a lady residing at Claydon, to whom, it was stated, the property belonged, was communicated with, and she instructed her solicitors to take the necessary steps for the ejectment of Ignatius.  Mr. J. Clabburn, of Norwich, as agent to the solicitors, went to the Monastery, accompanied by three process-servers, and forcibly removed Ignatius and a brother monk as they were in the act of celebrating mass.  On the 20th Ignatius summoned Mr. Clabburn and his men for assault, and, after a prolonged hearing at the Police Court, the magistrates dismissed the case.  Meanwhile Ignatius held his services in the large room at the Bell Hotel, in the yard of the Rampant Horse Hotel, and at St. Andrew’s Hall.

27.—Died at Ambleside, Miss Harriet Martineau, who was born in Norwich on June 13th, 1802.  “Although she was not a great she was a most industrious writer, and thoroughly in earnest in whatever she undertook.”

28.—The new organ erected at East Dereham church by Messrs. Hill and Son, of London, at a cost of between £700 and £800, was opened by Dr. E. T. Chipp, organist of Ely Cathedral.

30.—Died at Catton House, Norwich, Mr. Robert Chamberlin, aged 74.  He thrice served the office of Mayor—in 1854–5, 1856–7, and 1871–2, and was Sheriff in 1848–9.  Mr. Chamberlin was a magistrate for the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, and for the city of Norwich, and was a Deputy-Lieutenant of the first-named county.

JULY.

1.—The 3rd Norfolk Rifle Volunteers, under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Duff, M.P., went into camp at Hunstanton Park, and were officially inspected on the 6th by Colonel Harenc, commanding the 31st Brigade Depôt at Yarmouth.

2.—Two troops of the 6th Dragoon Guards (Carabiniers) marched from Norwich, en route to York; the headquarters left on the 8th.

19.—Died, Mr. Wace Lockett Mendham, Town Clerk of Norwich.  He was in his 66th year, and was appointed to the office on the death of Mr. J. R. Staff, in 1855.  A Liberal in politics, “previous to his appointment he might have been a warm partisan, but in his office of Town Clerk he most carefully concealed his political feelings, and acted with strict impartiality.”  Mr. Mendham married Miss Tillett, a sister of Mr. J. H. Tillett.  He was succeeded as Town Clerk by Mr. Henry Blake Miller.

21.—The Norwich Central Conservative Club was formally constituted at a meeting of the party, held at the Bell Hotel.

p. 26822.—Died at Cardiff, aged 38, Mr. Henry Powel Smith, fourth son of Mr. George Smith, formerly manager of the Norwich Theatrical Circuit.

24.—In pursuance of a writ from the Exchequer Division of the High Court of Justice, the Sheriff of Norwich, by his Under-Sheriff (Mr. F. Fox), empanelled a jury at the Royal Hotel to inquire what lands and tenements, and their yearly value, were possessed by James Frederick Neale, of St. Andrew’s Hall Plain, grocer, and what goods and chattels any person had in trust for him, as he was truly indebted to the Crown in the sum of £801 10s., “which sum was in danger of being lost unless some method more speedy than the ordinary course of procedure at law be had.”  These proceedings constituted another phase of the notorious Creak case.  The jury found that Mr. Neale possessed property to the amount of £855, including £300 book debts, £505 stock-in-trade, and £50 paid on a life insurance policy, besides freehold property of the value of £16 a year.  The jury thought they were not bound to find what was Mr. Neale’s indebtedness to the Crown, or what was the yearly value of the property he held belonging to the late Margaret Creak.

29.—The 1st Dragoons (Royal)—five troops with headquarters—arrived at Norwich, under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Graham.

AUGUST.

11.—A fire, involving damage to the amount of about £10,000, occurred at Messrs. Boulton and Paul’s Ironworks, Rose Lane, Norwich.

12.—Died at his residence, Unthank’s Road, Norwich, Mr. Josiah Fletcher, aged 70.  He was born at Henley-on-Thames, and in 1822 was apprenticed to Mr. Simon Wilkin, printer, &c., of the Haymarket, Norwich, with whom, on the completion of his term, he entered into partnership.  Mr. Fletcher, in 1834, succeeded to the business, which was subsequently removed to the Market Place, and was there carried on by him until 1871, when, in consequence of his failing health, he retired, and was succeeded by his only son, who erected the extensive premises at Davey Place Steps.  “Mr. Fletcher may be said to have been the originator of the ‘Norfolk News,’ of which journal he was for some time the editor and chief manager.”

18.—Died at Ingoldisthorpe Hall, in his 88th year, Captain John Davy, R.N.  He entered the Navy in 1803, was midshipman of the Barfleur in Sir Robert Calder’s action in 1805, saw much gunboat service in 1807 and 1808 in the Faro off Messina, and was present at the reduction of the islands of Ischia and Procida.

29.—At a meeting of the Norwich Town Council, it was decided to purchase the Oxford Hotel for a sum not exceeding £2,000, for the purpose of converting it into municipal offices.  A special meeting was held on September 19th, at which it was reported that immediately after the decision of the Council a Norwich solicitor had offered £2,250 for the building.  Mr. J. D. Smith, on behalf of the Corporation, offered £2,275, at which price it became city property.  Considerable indignation was expressed at the action of the solicitor in question, which, it was pointed out, involved an increase in the rates of one farthing in the pound.

p. 269SEPTEMBER.

1.—Mr. and Mrs. German Reed appeared at Norwich Theatre, and were assisted in their entertainment by Mr. Corney Grain, Miss Fanny Holland, and Mr. A. E. Bishop.

4.—Madame Blanche Cole’s Crystal Palace Opera Company began a six nights’ engagement at Norwich Theatre.

6.—In compliance with a requisition signed by persons of both political parties, the Mayor of Norwich (Mr. J. H. Tillett) convened a Common Hall, “for the purpose of giving expression to the views entertained by the requisitionists on the atrocities committed in Bulgaria.”  The Mayor presided, and the Lord Bishop and many other leading citizens were present.  Resolutions were adopted expressing indignation and horror at the atrocities perpetrated by troops in the service of the Turkish Government.  Meetings of a similar character were held in many of the towns and villages of the county, sermons were preached in churches and chapels, and relief funds organized.

9.—Mr. R. T. Gurdon was presented with his portrait (painted by Mr. Sidley, of London), in recognition of his political services to the county.  The presentation was made by Sir Francis Boileau, Bart., at the Liberal Club, Norwich.

10.—Swaffham church was re-opened for public worship.  It had undergone extensive restoration, under the superintendence of Mr. W. O. Milne, architect, of London.

11.—Mr. H. Loraine and Miss Edith Kingsley opened Norwich Theatre for a short season with a performance of “Othello.”  Among the other plays produced were “The Gamester,” “Hamlet,” and “Richelieu.”

12.—An explosion occurred on board the Alexandra steamer, which had been chartered for the conveyance of the workpeople of Pockthorpe Brewery, Norwich, on a river excursion.  A case of fireworks placed in the bar exploded, and filled the cabin with fumes by which many of the party were seriously affected.  Four deaths resulted.  At the subsequent inquest, the jury returned a verdict of accidental death, and expressed their strong opinion “that in future no fireworks or combustibles be taken on board steamers without being declared as such and placed under proper charge.”

13.—A disastrous gas explosion occurred at the church of St. John Maddermarket, Norwich.  The Rev. H. L. Rumsey and several members of the choir were at practice when an escape of gas was noticed.  Mr. Rumsey, with a lighted taper in his hand, was in the act of turning off the gas at one of the standards when a brilliant flame shot across the north side of the nave, followed by a terrible explosion, which completely wrecked the interior of the church.  The choir escaped without injury, but Mr. Rumsey was hurled a distance of several yards, and severely shaken and bruised.  The damage was estimated at £1,000.

19.—A skating rink, built at the cost of £9,000, including fittings, &c., was opened at St. Giles’ Street, Norwich.  It was 103 feet in length, 55 feet in width, with promenade gallery, smoking rooms, &c.  An outer rink, abutting upon Bethel Street, covered an area of 80 feet by 40 feet.  For some months roller skating proved a very p. 270popular amusement, and weekly returns were published of the number of persons who visited the establishment.  This popularity was, however, of short duration, for on May 26th, 1877, it was announced: “The passion for rinking having fallen to zero, the managers have introduced additional attractions in the shape of a couple of clever bicyclists and a troupe of performing dogs.”  A theatrical licence was subsequently obtained, and the rink was opened, on September 10th, 1877, as “The Vaudeville Theatre of Varieties,” under the management of Mr. Hugh J. Didcott, with Mr. B. Isaacson as musical director.  The originator of the skating rink was Mr. Warner Wright, a local solicitor.

24.—A brilliant meteor “fell about half-past six o’clock directly over the planet Saturn, which was then shining in a cloudless sky.”  It was observed throughout the Eastern and Southern Counties, and upon the Continent.

25.—Messrs. H. M. Pitt and H. Hamilton’s Company commenced a three weeks’ dramatic season at the Theatre Royal, Norwich.  The pieces produced included “False Shame,” “Partners for Life,” “Old Sailors,” “Two Roses,” “Forgiven,” “Queen Mab,” “Still Waters Run Deep,” “New Men and Old Acres,” “Money,” “London Assurance,” &c.  In the company were Miss Fanny Addison, Miss Alma Murray, Miss Dora Santon, Mr. and Mrs. George Canninge, Mr. John Burton, Mr. J. Watkins, Mr. Sidney Weatherilt, Mr. Edward Fowler, Mr. E. D. Ward, Mr. A. Walters, and Mr. Barry.  Mr. H. Cecil Beryl (Mr. W. H. Sparrow, of Norwich) was the acting manager.

27.—Died at Great Yarmouth, Commander Horatio Nelson Atkinson, “named after his god-father, the hero of Trafalgar.”  He was the eldest son of Thomas Atkinson, master attendant on Nelson’s flagships, and entered the Navy in January, 1817.  When mate of the Seringapatam, in 1825, he received three severe gunshot wounds.  He attained the rank of Lieutenant on November 27th, 1827, and served from February 23rd, 1831, until July, 1834, in the Alfred on the Mediterranean station, where he witnessed the establishment of King Otho on the throne of Greece, and was presented, when off Alexandria, with a sword by Mehemet Ali.  From March 31st, 1836, until his retirement he was employed in the Coastguard, owing to his inability to procure further occupation afloat.  Commander Atkinson was in his 74th year.

OCTOBER.

14.—A new County Cricket Club was formed at a meeting held at the Royal Hotel, Norwich.  Lord Suffield was elected president.

30.—The Boileau drinking-fountain, erected at the junction of the Newmarket and Ipswich Roads, Norwich, was inaugurated.  Sir John Boileau, Bart., had bequeathed the sum of £1,000 to defray the cost of the work, which was designed by Mr. T. Jeckyll, St. George’s Terrace, Queen’s Gate, London.  The statuary was designed and executed in bronze by Mr. J. E. Boehm, the well-known sculptor, and the structure was built by Mr. Hubbard, of East Dereham.  Sir Francis Boileau, Bart., performed the ceremony of asking the city to p. 271accept the fountain, and was thanked by the Mayor (Mr. J. H. Tillett), in the name of the citizens.

30.—Norwich Theatre was opened for the winter season by Mrs. W. Sidney, with an excellent production of Dion Boucicault’s Irish drama, “The Shaughraun.”

NOVEMBER.

9.—Mr. Richard Coller was elected Mayor, and Mr. William Cadge appointed Sheriff of Norwich.

13.—The Prince of Wales arrived at Morton Hall, on a visit to Lord Walsingham.

20.—The Prince and Princess of Wales visited Norwich, with the object of furthering an important scheme promoted by the governing body of the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital for enlarging the institution.  Their Royal Highnesses, who travelled by special train from Wolferton, were received at Thorpe Station by the Mayor, Sheriff, and Deputy-Mayor, and presented with an illuminated address, after which they drove to St. Andrew’s Hall, where a distinguished audience had assembled, under the presidency of the Earl of Leicester, Lord Lieutenant of the county.  The High Sheriff (Sir William ffolkes, Bart.) moved, “That the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital fully deserves the confidence and support of the county of Norfolk and city of Norwich, on account of its services, extended over a hundred years, to the sick and suffering poor.”  The Lord Bishop seconded the motion, which was adopted.  His Royal Highness then moved, “That it is desirable, both for the accommodation of the patients and the improvement of the sanitary condition of the Hospital, that the proposed alterations and additions be carried out, and that for this purpose an application be made to the county and city to raise the sum of £35,000 for a building and sustentation fund.”  Votes of thanks were accorded to their Royal Highnesses for attending the meeting, and to Lord Leicester for presiding.  Lord Leicester, who had previously offered to subscribe £5,000, on condition that the remaining £30,000 of the £35,000 required were raised within a stipulated time, now announced that he would give £13,000 to be invested for the future sustentation of the Hospital.  At the conclusion of the proceedings the Prince and Princess were entertained at luncheon at the Bishop’s Palace, where a distinguished company had been invited to meet them; and in the afternoon his Royal Highness attended a Masonic gathering at the Drill Hall, and installed Lord Suffield as Provincial Grand Master.  Later their Royal Highnesses proceeded by rail to Gunton, to spend a few days with Lord and Lady Suffield; and in the evening a concert was given at St. Andrew’s Hall, at which Madame Albani was the principal performer.  (See February 3rd, 1877.)

—A man named William Nelson was severely injured in St. Peter Mancroft Church Alley, by the explosion of a gaspipe charged with gunpowder.  He was removed to the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, where he died on the following day.  At the Coroner’s inquest, on the 22nd, the jury returned a verdict of manslaughter against some person or persons unknown.  A reward was offered by the Mayor for p. 272the discovery of the perpetrator of the outrage, but no information was forthcoming.

DECEMBER.

18.—The Prince and Princess of Wales arrived at Holkham, on a visit to the Earl and Countess of Leicester, who, on the 21st, gave a grand ball in honour of the event.

23.—Died at Norwich, Mr. William Cooke Stafford, aged 83.  Mr. Stafford was one of the oldest journalists in the kingdom.  After a visit to America, he commenced his professional career in London, in 1818, as a contributor to the “Anti-Jacobean Review,” the “White Dwarf,” &c., for which he wrote leading articles.  He afterwards became editor of the “Leeds Intelligencer,” and proceeded to York to edit the “Yorkshire Gazette.”  Leaving York, he established the “Doncaster Chronicle,” and had subsequent engagements on the “Hull Packet” and the Norfolk Chronicle.  His later years were spent in London, where he did a considerable amount of literary work as “publisher’s editor,” by writing a history of the Crimean War, and part of “The World as It Is,” for Mr. Peter Jackson.  Mr. Stafford also re-edited Hume and Smollett’s History, and did much work of a similar character.

26.—The pantomime of “Beauty and the Beast, or Harlequin Prince Azor and the Good Fairy of the Wedding Ring,” produced under the direction of Mrs. Sidney, at Norwich Theatre, was one of the best and most successful pieces of the kind in the annals of the house.  Stoodley and Harmston’s Circus and Edmunds’ Menagerie were exhibited on Castle Meadow; and Madame Rose Hersée, supported by an excellent concert party, appeared before a meagre audience at Noverre’s Rooms.

27.—Died at the Grove, Chapel Field Road, Norwich, Mr. Joshua Swann, aged 71.  He was a partner in the firm of Messrs. Willett, Nephew, and Co., and an alderman of the city.  Mr. Swann’s literary and scientific tastes rendered him a valued and most active member of the committees of the Norfolk and Norwich Museum and Literary Institution, and he was a warm supporter of the School of Art and the East Anglian Art Society, formed shortly before his death.  He left a collection rich in portraits of local celebrities and etchings by Norwich artists.

30.—Died at Catton, Mr. George Gedge, aged 78.  For many years Mr. Gedge carried on an extensive business as a dyer, by which he realised a fortune.  He was a Conservative in politics, and long served the city as a member of the Town Council and of the old Court of Guardians.  He directed his attention especially to the advocacy of a system of national rating, in the furtherance of which he spent both time and money.  It was to Mr. Gedge’s enterprise that the city was indebted for the first visit of Jenny Lind, the precursor of so much benefit to local charitable institutions, and of the founding of the Jenny Lind Infirmary for Sick Children.

p. 2731877.

JANUARY.

1.—A deputation of the clergy and tenantry on the Royal estate waited upon the Prince of Wales at Sandringham, and presented him with a silver casket and an address, congratulating his Royal Highness upon his safe return from India.

4.—Castleacre church was re-opened for public worship after its restoration, at the cost of about £3,000, almost entirely subscribed by the parishioners.  The chancel was renovated through the munificence of the Earl of Leicester, lord of the manor, and holder of the impropriate tithes.

—Died at Ashwicken Rectory, the Rev. John Freeman, aged 61.  He was the author of a life of Kirby, the entomologist, published in 1852.

5.—The trial of a petition filed by Mr. J. D. Smith against the return of Mr. Philip Back and Mr. Josiah Harrison Ladyman, as members for the Fourth Ward, at the Norwich Municipal Election, in November, 1876, commenced in the Sessions Court at the Guildhall, before Mr. Thomas William Saunders, barrister, and Recorder of Bath, the Commissioner appointed for the purpose.  This was the first municipal inquiry of the kind that had been held in the city, and the greatest interest was taken in the proceedings.  The petitioner, who alleged bribery, treating, and other corrupt practices, was represented by Mr. Merewether, Q.C., M.P., and Mr. Blofeld; and the respondents by Mr. Grantham, M.P., and the Hon. John de Grey.  The inquiry lasted eight days, and on the 13th the Commissioner delivered judgment, declaring the respondents to be duly elected.  The scene which ensued in the court was one of the wildest enthusiasm, which was increased by the announcement that costs followed the event.  In the evening the bells of St. Peter Mancroft were rung, and a band paraded the streets of the city.

18.—The first annual meeting of the Norfolk and Norwich Bicycle Club was held at the Grapes Hotel, Norwich.  The first road race of the club took place on April 30th.  Six competitors entered for the run, which was from the Grapes Hotel by way of Unthank’s Road to Wymondham, Wicklewood, &c., and thence to Carleton Forehoe, through Colney and Earlham, to the top of Belvoir Street, Earlham Road—distance about 24 miles.  The winner was J. Campling; F. D. Wheeler second.  The club uniform consisted of “a cloth helmet with a metallic monogram in front, a smart dark gray tunic, and knickerbockers.”  The first sports organized by the club were held, by permission of the Corporation, in Chapel Field, on October 18th.

19.—Died at Bracondale, Miss Fanny Anne Martineau, only daughter of Mr. Philip M. Martineau, aged 64.  She was a cousin of Harriet Martineau, the authoress, and, like other members of the family, possessed intellectual gifts of a high order.

—Died at Nice, Lord George William Loftus, third son of John, second Marquis of Ely, by Maria, daughter of Sir H. W. Dashwood, p. 274Bart.  He was born in May, 1813, and in June, 1846, married Martha, eldest daughter of Mr. J. Fuller, of Norwich.

27.—A meeting was held at the Guildhall, Norwich, under the presidency of the Mayor (Mr. R. Coller), at which it was resolved, on the motion of Mr. C. S. Read, seconded by Mr. George Forrester, “That it is desirable to hold a Christmas show for the county of Norfolk and city of Norwich, of fat stock and other produce of the farm and garden.”  A second meeting was held on February 10th, when the Norfolk and Norwich Christmas Show Association was established, with the Prince of Wales as patron.  The first show commenced on Thursday, November 22nd, and closed on Saturday, the 24th.  The general exhibits were displayed in the Volunteer Drill Hall, and the live stock shown in an annexe erected in Chapel Field.

30.—A severe gale occurred at Yarmouth.  The sea rose to a great height, broke over the Marine Parade, and did considerable damage, and many houses on the North Quay were flooded.  Several fishing vessels were lost in the storm.  The Lords of the Admiralty sent the Valorous and Seamew, Government vessels, in search of the missing boats, but they returned to the Roads on February 24th and 25th, and reported that no intelligence had been gained.  Of the Yarmouth, men alone 112 perished, leaving 46 widows, 11 aged parents, and 101 children.  A fund was raised for their relief, and £5,255 collected, including £2,715 from the Mansion House.

FEBRUARY.

2.—A meeting was held at the Guildhall, Norwich, under the presidency of the Mayor, for the purpose of considering a Bill proposed to be introduced in Parliament for the preservation of fish in the rivers Wensum, Yare, and Waveney.  Mr. Frank Buckland and Mr. Spencer Walpole, inspectors of fisheries, attended the meeting, and resolutions were adopted in favour of legislation.  The Norfolk and Suffolk Fisheries Bill passed the Select Committee of the House of Commons on May 8th, and was reported to the House, and before the end of the year became law.

3.—Died at her residence, High Street, Lowestoft, Dame Pleasance Smith, widow of Sir James Edward Smith, of Norwich, formerly president of the Linnæan Society.  This venerable lady, who was 103 years of age, had received from Queen Victoria a copy of “Our Life in the Highlands,” containing the inscription, in her Majesty’s own handwriting, “To Lady Smith, on her one hundredth birthday, from her friend, Victoria R., May 11th, 1873.”

—The Earl of Leicester presided at a meeting held at the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, “for the purpose of turning to the best account the large sum of money offered to the Hospital by the public.”  It was stated that £24,000 had been subscribed, and that £35,000 was the maximum sum required.  The Sheriff (Mr. Cadge) moved, “That, in the opinion of this meeting, it is expedient that a new hospital should be erected, in lieu of any plan for improving the old building.”  Mr. J. J. Colman, M.P., seconded the motion, which was adopted.  (See June 17th, 1879.)

5.—Mr. C. J. Palmer, author of “The Perlustration of Great Yarmouth,” p. 275was presented with a silver epergne and gold watch by the inhabitants of the borough, in recognition of his labours in antiquarian work and literature.

9.—Died at Norwich, aged 59, Mr. James Frederick Hill, for twenty-five years chorus master of the Norfolk and Norwich Triennial Musical Festival.

15.—A resolution having been passed by the owners and ratepayers, declaring the expediency of the parish of East Dereham being constituted a local government district, Mr. Arnold Taylor, the inspector appointed for the purpose, held an inquiry at the Assembly Rooms, and received evidence on the subject.  The first Local Improvement Board was elected on August 1st.

19.—At Norwich Theatre, Mr. W. H. Pennington, “the celebrated tragic actor, one of the Six Hundred, formerly of the 11th Hussars, and one of the few wounded survivors of the world-famed light cavalry charge at Balaclava, on October 25th, 1854,” made his first appearance, in the character of Hamlet, and was supported by Miss Viola Dacre as Ophelia.  On subsequent evenings Mr. Pennington appeared as Macbeth, Richard the Third, &c., and on the 23rd recited, in the uniform of his old regiment, “The Charge of the Light Brigade.”

MARCH.

5.—Died at Great Yarmouth, Major-General Francis Montague Ommanney, R.A., aged 50 years.  He was the youngest son of Mr. E. S. Ommanney, formerly of Yarmouth, by Henrietta, daughter of Sir Edmund Lacon, Bart.  With the Royal Artillery he served in the West Indies, and saw much service in the Indian Mutiny, when he commanded a siege train under Sir Hugh Rose, afterwards Lord Strathnairn.  He married Harriet Ellen, youngest daughter of Mr. John Mortlock Lacon.

6.—Died at Scratby, Benjamin Daniels, “the last of the giants of East Anglia.”  His age was 54; height, 6 ft. 6 in.; weight, 24 stones; width, from shoulder to shoulder across the back, 24 inches.  He possessed great strength, and frequently loaded has own waggon by carrying four bushels of wheat under both arms at one time.  “When in great haste to have his farm work done, the horses being much engaged, he has harnessed himself to one of his harrows and cultivated the land.”  Daniels was buried at Ormesby St. Margaret, on March 12th.

10.—An unprecedented incident occurred in the ring at Messrs. Stoodley and Harmston’s Circus, at Norwich, during the performance of “Dick Turpin’s Ride to York.”  After the “ride,” which results in the death of Black Bess, the mare is removed from the scene on hurdles.  On this occasion, when the grooms, at the conclusion of the performance, attempted to raise the animal, it was found that life was really extinct—Black Bess had sustained an internal rupture in leaping the “turnpike” gate.  The animal was the property of a French-woman named Gaertner, and, as a trick horse, was valued at several hundred pounds.

15.—The Norfolk Staghounds had an extraordinary run.  The meet was at Hempnall House, and fifty horsemen were present.  The stag p. 276ran to Shelton and Alburgh, and then made to the right for Redenhall, through Stanton, Pulham St. Mary, and Pulham Market, crossing the turnpike by Carpenter’s Walk, on through Wacton and Moulton, to Tivetshall station, where the first check of two minutes occurred—time, 1 hour 3 minutes; distance, 14 miles.  The hounds again upon the line, went through Gissing to Dickleburgh, Burston, and Diss, made for the right to Shelfanger, when another slight check occurred.  The field by this time had dwindled down to twelve.  On again through Winfarthing to Kenninghall, to the left to Bridgham and East Harling, and back to Kenninghall, where the deer was recaptured and placed in a stable belonging to Messrs. Murton and Turner.  The distance was supposed to be 45 miles, and the run occupied 3 hours 5 minutes.  “Among those who rode straightest to the end of this wonderful run were Hickman, the huntsman, who went like a bird, and handled his horse well; Mr. E. Fellowes, Mr. T. N. Ward, Mr. James Limmer, Mr. Cross, and two officers of the Royal Dragoons, from Norwich.”

23.—A petition having been sent to the Local Government Board by the Corporation of Norwich, asking them to issue a provisional order confirming an improvement scheme made under the Artisans’ and Labourers’ Dwellings Improvement Act, 1875, with reference to an area in the parish of St. Paul which had been declared by the Medical-Officer of Health as unhealthy and unfit for habitation, Lieut.-Colonel Ponsonby Cox, R.E., one of the inspectors of the Local Government Board, held an inquiry at the Guildhall, for the purpose of ascertaining the correctness of the official representation.  The inspector commended the scheme, and stated that it was of a most satisfactory character.

24.—Captain Tyler, inspector of railways, made an official inspection of the newly-constructed railway between Gunton and Cromer, and consented to its being opened for traffic on the 26th.

—At the Norwich Assizes, before Mr. Baron Bramwell, Ann Farrow, a widow living at Nordelph, brought an action against John Robert Childs, stonemason, of Norwich, to recover damages for breach of promise of marriage.  After a trial which lasted two days, and in which the plaintiff made some remarkable allegations, the jury returned a verdict for the defendant.

APRIL.

5.—A new organ, erected at Swaffham church, by Messrs. Bishop and Son, of London, was opened.

7.—At the adjourned Norwich Quarter Sessions, before the Recorder (Mr. W. J. Metcalfe, Q.C.), a special jury was empanelled to assess the value of certain property in London Street, which the Corporation proposed to take under the compulsory provisions of their Act of Parliament for the purpose of widening the thoroughfare.  At a meeting of the Town Council on May 8th, it was agreed that the owners be offered sums amounting to £9,818.

9.—Lieut.-Colonel Bignold was elected president of the Norwich Central Conservative Club, a position which conferred upon him the leadership of the Conservative party in Norwich.

p. 2779.—The Norwich Corporation farms at Whitlingham and Kirby Bedon having entailed a loss to the city of £4,000 in five years, the Town Council accepted the tender of Mr. Garrett Taylor, of Easton, to hire them at the annual rent of £1,710.

12.—At a meeting held at the King’s Arms Hotel, North Walsham, nearly £300 was subscribed to start a pack of harriers in North Norfolk, and an offer by Lord Suffield to keep the pack in his kennels at Gunton was unanimously accepted.

13.—Mr. Samuel Brandram, M.A., gave a dramatic recital at Noverre’s Rooms, Norwich, in aid of the building fund of the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital.  It was the first appearance in Norwich of this accomplished elocutionist, who was regarded as the legitimate successor of the great Bellew.

18.—The 5th Royal Irish Lancers, commanded by Colonel Dunham Massy, of Redan fame, marched into Norwich from Aldershot, to relieve the 1st Dragoons (Royal).

30.—At Norwich Theatre, H. J. Byron’s comedy, “Our Boys,” was presented for the first time by Mr. Duck’s company.  The part of Perkyn Middlewick was played by Mr. F. Marshall.

—Died at Norwich, aged 36, Mr. Robert Edward Gibson, surgeon.  He was the son of a solicitor, a former Mayor of Plymouth, and a nephew of Mr. C. M. Gibson, his predecessor in the office of medical superintendent of the Norwich Bethel.  For some years he was surgeon to the Jenny Lind Infirmary, and held the appointments of surgeon to the City Police, the Post Office staff, and the Workhouse.  Mr. Gibson married a daughter of Mr. I. O. Taylor.

MAY.

19.—Died at his residence at Catton, Mr. Osborn Springfield, in his 65th year.  He was a son of Mr. T. O. Springfield, and served the office of Mayor of Norwich in 1863–4.  For many years he was a member of the Town Council and a magistrate for the city, and was reputed to be one of the largest owners of cottage property in Norwich.  Mr. Springfield was a Liberal in politics.

26.—The Norwich Town Council accepted the resignation of Mr. C. Thwaites, City Engineer, on his appointment to a similar post in the borough of Sunderland.  Mr. Peter Paul Marshall, of Stone, near Dartford, was elected to fill the vacancy.

JUNE.

7.—A grand military tournament, the first of its kind in Norwich, was given on the Lakenham Cricket Ground by the officers and men of the 5th Royal Irish Lancers, in aid of a fund for the widow and orphans of Mr. A. Frayling, late bandmaster of the regiment.

14.—The veteran actor, Mr. Charles Mathews, commenced a three nights’ engagement at Norwich Theatre, as Adonis Evergreen, in the comedy of “My Awful Dad.”

p. 27820.—The two days’ show of the Norfolk Agricultural Association was opened in the grounds of Walcot Hall, Diss.  Sir Edward C. Kerrison, Bart., presided at the luncheon.

24.—Died at 12, Queensbury Place, London, Sir John Henry Thomas Manners Sutton, third Viscount Canterbury and Baron Bottesford.  His lordship was the younger and only surviving son of the first Viscount Canterbury, better known as Sir Charles Manners Sutton, for seventeen years Speaker of the House of Commons.  Educated at Eton and at Trinity College, Cambridge, he sat in Parliament in 1839–40 as member for Cambridge.  He was again elected in 1841, on his appointment as Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department under Sir Robert Peel’s second Administration.  From 1854 to 1861 he was Lieutenant-Governor of New Brunswick, and from 1864 to 1866 Governor of Trinidad.  In the latter year he was appointed Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Victoria.  On his lordship’s return to England in 1873, he resided chiefly on his estate in Norfolk.  He married, July 5th, 1838, Georgiana, youngest daughter of Mr. Charles Tompson, of Witchingham Hall, by whom he had, with other issue, the Hon. Henry Charles Manners Sutton, who married Amyée Rachael, only daughter of the Hon. Frederick Walpole, M.P.

JULY.

5.—Mr. C. S. Read, M.P., gave evidence before the Select Committee appointed by the House of Commons to consider what further legislation might be necessary for the repression of cattle disease, and for the regulation of the importation of foreign cattle.  Mr. Read insisted upon the necessity of slaughtering foreign fat beasts at the port of debarkation, and of a period of quarantine for store stock, which he would only allow to be landed at certain ports.

7.—At the Norwich Police Court, John L’Estrange, of Union Place, “the well-known archæological authority, who has published one or two highly important and valuable works on the archæology of Norfolk,” was charged with forging the name of Francis Gostling Foster, distributor of stamps, with intent to defraud, and with stealing stamps to the amount of £1,400.  The prisoner had been in the office for twenty years, and had charge of the stamp department.  He was committed for trial on the 13th, and at the ensuing Assizes, on August 4th, pleaded guilty, and was sentenced by Sir James Fitzjames Stephen to seven years’ penal servitude.  L’Estrange died in Millbank Prison, from fistula, on October 15th.

14.—The Norfolk team won the China Cup at the Wimbledon meeting.  Exceedingly good shooting was made by Norfolk Volunteers, and upwards of £150 was brought to the county.

21.—Died at St. Leonard’s-on-Sea, the Rev. John Nathaniel Micklethwait, of Taverham, aged 65.  He was the eldest surviving son of Mr. Nathaniel Micklethwait, who was High Sheriff in 1810.  In 1849 he married Emily Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Mr. Charles Mills, of Hillingdon Court, Middlesex, and succeeded to the family estates on the death of his brother, in July, 1856.  Mr. Micklethwait had no family, and was succeeded by his next brother, Henry Nathaniel, born in 1814.  He was a warm supporter of the Conservative party, took p. 279a great interest in agriculture, and, in his later years, turned his attention to the breeding of shorthorns, of which he had formed a fine herd.

21.—Died at Portman Square, London, Mr. William Earle Lytton Bulwer, of Heydon Hall, the chief representative of the old Norman family of Bulwer, which has held a leading position in Norfolk since the time of the Conquest.  Mr. Bulwer was born April 29th, 1799, and was the eldest son of General William Earle Bulwer, who married Elizabeth, daughter and sole heiress of Mr. Richard Warburton Lytton, of Knebworth Park, Herts., and whose other sons were the celebrated novelist and statesman, Lord Lytton, and the well-known diplomatist, Baron Dalling and Bulwer.  Mr. Bulwer succeeded to the estates of his father in 1807, and married, in 1827, Emily, youngest daughter of General Gascoyne, by whom he had three sons and three daughters.  He married subsequently, in 1841, Elizabeth, daughter of William Green, of Forty Hill, Enfield.  He was succeeded by his eldest son, William Earle Gascoyne Lytton, formerly of the Scots Fusilier Guards, who married, in 1855, Marion Dering, daughter and heiress of Mr. W. Lee Warner, of Quebec House, East Dereham.  Mr. Bulwer was a Liberal in politics, and took a leading part in all political movements in North Norfolk, where he was popular as a landlord, and had considerable influence.

—The 3rd and 4th Battalions of Norfolk Rifle Volunteers, commanded respectively by Lieut.-Colonel Duff, M.P., and Lieut.-Colonel Gurdon, went into camp at Yarmouth, and on the 26th were inspected by Colonel Harenc.

25.—The two principal stones of the nave of St. James’ church, Yarmouth, were laid by the Mayor and Mayoress (Mr. and Mrs. T. B. Steward).  The sum of £2,300 had been collected for the erection of the nave.  The architect was Mr. J. P. Seddon, and the contractor Mr. W. E. Martin, of Hereford.  The work was completed at the cost of about £3,250, and the new building was opened on May 1st, 1878, when the sermon was preached by Dean Goulburn.

AUGUST.

7.—The first section of the Yarmouth and Stalham Railway—the portion extending from the first-mentioned town to Ormesby—was inspected by Major-General Hutchinson, R.E., and the first train was run on the 8th.  (See July 15th, 1878.)

20.—The Norwich Rifle Volunteers were, for the first time, officially inspected in their new scarlet uniform.  The inspecting officer was Colonel Harenc.

21.—By the death, on this date, at Duntrune, Forfarshire, of Miss Clementine Stirling Grahame, in her 96th year, Mr. J. Edmund Lacon, of Yarmouth, succeeded to the estate of Duntrune, and to the relics and papers of the great Viscount Dundee.

22.—The first stone of the Hunstanton Convalescent Home was laid by the Countess of Leicester.  The building was erected as a memorial of the convalescence of the Prince of Wales.

24.—Died at Denton Rectory, near Harleston, the Ven. William Arundell Bouverie, B.D., Hon. Canon of Norwich, and formerly Archdeacon p. 280of Norfolk, in his 80th year.  He was appointed to the living of Denton in 1839, accepted the archdeaconry in 1850, and resigned it in 1869, in consequence of ill-health.

SEPTEMBER.

17.—Died, Mr. William Cooper, barrister, and Recorder of Ipswich.  He was the eldest son of Mr. W. Cooper, barrister, of Norwich, and brother of Mr. Carlos Cooper.  Called to the Bar in 1831, he practised in Norwich and on the Norfolk circuit for some years, but ultimately settled in London, and devoted his attention to the Central Criminal Court, where he enjoyed a large practice.  He was the author of several dramatic pieces, the principal of which, “Mokanna, or the Veiled Prophet of Khorassan,” a play in blank verse, was produced at Norwich Theatre, with great success, on April 21st, 1843.  Mr. Cooper was succeeded in the Recordership of Ipswich by Mr. Thomas Calthorpe Blofeld.

22.—Norwich Theatre was re-opened for the winter season, under the management of Mr. G. H. Chaplin.  The house had undergone partial and much-needed cleansing and decoration.

24.—The newly-formed Diocesan Bell Ringers’ Association held its first annual meeting in Norwich.  The society was established by the Rev. G. H. Harris, Mr. Gervas Holmes, and other gentlemen interested in bells and bell ringing.

OCTOBER.

16.—A remarkable case of fraud was tried at the Norwich Quarter Sessions, before the Recorder (Mr. J. W. Metcalfe, Q.C.).  The prisoner, one William Dowman, was charged with defrauding accident insurance companies.  He insured under various names with different companies, and by a peculiar formation of his joints was enabled to assume the appearance of having been injured.  By this means he obtained medical certificates, and made successful claims upon the offices.  He was sentenced to fifteen calendar months’ imprisonment.

25.—The sale of the Taverham Hall herd of pure-bred shorthorns and whole-coloured Jerseys was conducted by Mr. John Thornton.  The total amount realised was £3,041 1s. 6d.

NOVEMBER.

1.—The restored chancel and newly-erected organ of Diss church were opened.  The instrument was built by Messrs. J. Rayson and Sons, of Ipswich, at the cost of £360.

—At Ipswich Assizes (where Norfolk prisoners were, on this occasion, tried), before Mr. Justice Hawkins, Henry March (59), blacksmith, was indicted for the wilful murder of Henry Bidewell, blacksmith, and Thomas Moys, shoeing-smith and farmer, at Wymondham, on October 20th.  The prisoner was found guilty and sentenced to death.  The execution took place at Norwich Castle on November 20th.  Marwood was the executioner.

p. 2813.—Died at Camperdown Place, Great Yarmouth, Mr. William Thurtell, in his 83rd year.  Mr. Thurtell, who was a staunch supporter of Conservative principles, was appointed a magistrate for the borough in 1846.  His father was Mayor of Norwich in 1828.

6.—In the House of Lords, before the Lord Chancellor, Lord Penzance, Lord Blackburn, and Lord Gordon, the action, Read v. Bailey, was heard, on an appeal from a decision by the Lords Justices.  On an inspection of the books of the Bank on the failure of the firm of Harveys and Hudsons, in 1870, it was discovered that Sir Robert Harvey had abstracted large sums of money from the coffers of the Bank, and had sought to cover the deficiency by the opening of fictitious accounts, and by crediting forged bills to his private account.  In consequence, the trustee under the bankruptcy of the firm preferred a claim against the separate estate of Sir Robert Harvey, amounting to the sum of £600,000, for the moneys so abstracted by Sir Robert Harvey in his lifetime.  This claim was, in 1876, supported by a great mass of evidence before the Master of the Rolls, who decided in favour of the claim, and gave the trustee of Harveys and Hudsons the right to rank as a creditor against the private or separate estate of Sir Robert Harvey, in competition with the stockbrokers and other private creditors.  The importance of the decision of the Master of the Rolls, as affecting the interests of the stockbrokers, was great.  But for this claim of £600,000 they would have received 20s. in the pound on their debts, whereas the allowance of the claim to rank in competition with their debts prevented Sir Robert Harvey’s private estate paying more than 6s. 8d. in the pound.  The stockbrokers accordingly appealed to the Lords Justices against the decision of the Master of the Rolls, and their lordships upheld the claim of £600,000, and dismissed the stockbrokers’ appeal, with costs.  The stockbrokers now appealed to the House of Lords, who confirmed the judgments of the Lords Justices and the Master of the Rolls, and dismissed the appeal, with costs; in other words, admitting the trustee’s claim for £600,000.  (See December 3rd, 1880.)

9.—Mr. Joseph De Carle Smith was elected Mayor, and Mr. Harry Bullard appointed Sheriff of Norwich.

10.—It was announced that Mr. Francis Edmund Gladstone, Mus. Bac., Cantab., had been appointed organist of Norwich Cathedral, in the room of Dr. Buck, who resigned the appointment in the month of June.  Regret was expressed that Dr. Bunnett’s claims for the post should have been “so strangely and perversely ignored.”  Much adverse feeling was manifested, and on November 28th a complimentary concert was given to Dr. Bunnett, under the patronage of the leading inhabitants of the county and city.

11.—During a heavy gale at Yarmouth, six vessels were driven ashore, and many other shipping casualties were reported.

21.—A meeting of the promoters of the Lynn and Fakenham Railway was held at Fakenham, and the necessary steps taken in furtherance of the scheme.  (See May 21st, 1880.)

24.—Died, suddenly, at Norwich, in his 65th year, Mr. Thomas Jarrold, the last survivor of the three brothers who comprised the well-known firm of Jarrold and Sons.  Mr. Jarrold took especial interest in the education of the poor, in acknowledgment of which his friends, shortly before his death, presented him with his portrait.

p. 28226.—The new Middle Level Sluice, at Wiggenhall St. Mary, near King’s Lynn, was opened by Mr. E. Fellowes, M.P., chairman of the Middle Level Commission.  This sluice replaced the one designed by Mr. J. Walker and constructed by Brogden, of Manchester, at the cost of £30,000, in 1842, which gave way on May 4th, 1862, with the widespread and disastrous consequences known as the Middle Level inundation.  After many unsuccessful attempts to construct a dam across the drain, Sir John Hawkshaw, C.E., was called in, and he eventually succeeded in that object, and under his advice sixteen large iron syphons, with the necessary engine and apparatus for exhausting air from them, were constructed upon the dam, so as to secure an outlet of the drainage without admitting sea water from the Ouze.  These syphons answered very well for years, but were not equal to the task.  The Commissioners went to Parliament in 1874, and obtained powers to raise money to construct a new sluice, from designs by Sir J. Hawkshaw, at an estimated cost of between £50,000 and £60,000, and the work was commenced by the contractor, Mr. Webster, in September, 1874.

DECEMBER.

3.—Died at Hindringham, in his 93rd year, Mr. William Freeman, formerly resident in Norwich.  He was appointed Sheriff in 1842, and elected Mayor in 1843.

7.—Mr. Harry Bullard, Sheriff of Norwich, was presented by the clerks and heads of departments at the Anchor Brewery with his portrait, painted in oil by Mr. Ventnor.

19.—Died at Birmingham, in his 79th year, Mr. George Smith, for many years manager of the Norwich Theatrical Circuit.  “If unsuccessful in his managerial speculations, he was much esteemed for his kindly disposition, and had in Norwich at one time hosts of friends.”

26.—The pantomime produced at Norwich Theatre, by Mr. G. H. Chaplin, was entitled, “Sinbad the Sailor.”  At the Skating Rink, then known as the Vaudeville Theatre, was performed the extravaganza, “Turko the Terrible; or Prince Amabel and the Fairy Roses.”  Messrs. Stoodley and Hamilton’s Circus was opened on the Castle Meadow.

1878.

JANUARY.

3.—At the Norfolk Quarter Sessions, the Committee of Visitors of the County Lunatic Asylum at Thorpe made certain recommendations as to the best means of raising the sum of £35,000 for the erection of new buildings and for enlarging the Asylum chapel, as decided upon at a previous sessions.  Thirty-five acres of land had been purchased on which to erect the new buildings, which were intended to accommodate 250 additional patients.

p. 2835.—Died at Unthank’s Road, Norwich, in his 96th year, Mr. Stephen Wilde, for many years Governor of the City Gaol.  “He was paymaster-sergeant and last surviving member of Mr. J. Patteson’s Volunteer Corps raised in the year 1798.”

7.—Died at Starston Rectory, the Ven. Augustus Macdonald Hopper, Archdeacon of Norwich, and thirty-two years rector of Starston, aged 61.  He graduated at Trinity College, Cambridge, as Senior Optime, and first class in the Classical Tripos in 1839.  Subsequently he obtained by competition a Fellowship at St. John’s College, and in 1845 was appointed to his living.  After holding the offices of Rural Dean and Proctor for the Diocese in Convocation, Mr. Hopper became Archdeacon of Norwich in 1868.  He was succeeded as Archdeacon by the Rev. T. T. Perowne.

8.—Died at Cassell Road, Small Heath, Birmingham, the residence of her son, Mr. Vivian Crome, artist, grandson of Old Crome, Mary Ann Crome, widow of William Henry Crome, aged 75.  “She was an amateur pupil of that worthy master, and for many years, while yet Miss Steel, was governess in several Norfolk county families.”

—Died at Middle Market Road, Great Yarmouth, Mrs. Gunn, aged 74.  “She was a poet of no inconsiderable merit.  Many of her poems have reference to local events, but the greater number are quite imaginative.  Mrs. Gunn’s writings were printed and published, and found such acceptance that a further edition was necessary.”

25.—Severe weather prevailed at Yarmouth.  Great damage was done to vessels at sea, and several lives were lost.

26.—A special meeting of the Norfolk Agricultural Association was held at the Royal Hotel, Norwich, under the presidency of Lieut.-Colonel FitzRoy, at which it was decided to hold a spring show of cart horses.  The first show took place at Norwich, on March 9th.

FEBRUARY.

2.—A telegram from Shanghai announced the death of Mr. Charles Wyncliffe Goodwin, assistant judge at that place.  Mr. Goodwin, who was 60 years of age, was a scholar of considerable eminence, and the author of several learned works, including the article on the “Mosaic Cosmogony,” in “Essays and Reviews.”  He was a son of Mr. C. Goodwin, solicitor, of King’s Lynn, and elder brother of the Bishop of Carlisle.

8.—The Lynn Town Council unanimously resolved to take steps to abolish “the annual collection of rubbish and roguery which passes under the title of the Cheese Fair.”  The fair, which for many years had been held in King Street, was abolished by an order issued by the Home Secretary in the month of April.

18.—The Amateur Dramatic Club of the 5th Royal Irish Lancers commenced a series of performances at Norwich Theatre, with the production of “Ingomar.”  On succeeding evenings, “The Lady of Lyons,” “Black-eyed Susan,” and other pieces were performed.  The proceeds were in aid of the new uniform fund of the Norwich Rifle Volunteers, and of the Soldiers’ Monument on Norwich Cemetery.

21.—Interesting experiments were made with the telephone in the p. 284counting-house of Messrs. J. and J. Colman, Carrow Works, under the direction of Mr. H. Sack, superintendent of the Great Eastern Railway telegraph department.  Telephones were attached to Messrs. Colman’s private wire to London, viâ Ipswich, and to the railway company’s wire viâ Cambridge to Liverpool Street Station, a distance of about 120 miles.  “Parties of ladies and gentlemen at both ends were able to converse freely with each other, the words being clearly understood and distinctly heard.  This was considered to be a very successful experiment, although it does not appear that at present the telephone can be adapted to public use.”

22.—Died at Heckingham, in her 100th year, Kezia, widow of Richard Haywood.

MARCH.

7.—Sir Wilfrid Lawson, M.P., addressed a meeting held at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, in furtherance of the Permissive Bill.

9.*—“The rules approved by the Secretary of State for the regulation of prisons in England and Wales under the Act of Parliament (the Prisons Act) passed last year have been issued.  From these it appears that upon an order being directed for the discontinuance of Norwich Gaol and Wymondham Bridewell, the prisoners therein will be transferred to the County Gaol, Norwich Castle.”  The prisoners were transferred from the Gaol to the Castle in the early part of May.

11.—Mr. H. M. Pitt’s Comedy-Drama Company commenced an engagement at Norwich Theatre.  The company re-appeared at the Theatre on November 25th, for a season of eighteen nights—its farewell visit.

15.—Died at the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, from cancer on the tongue, Mr. John Joseph Cotman, aged 63.  “As an artist he would have rivalled his father, John Sell Cotman, but unhappily his unquestionably great genius was marred by an eccentricity which at times verged on insanity, and ruined a career which should have been one of honour and renown to himself and of profit to his family.”

—Died at Lewes, Sussex, Mr. George P. Bacon, in his 71st year.  He was the second son of Mr. Richard Mackenzie Bacon, proprietor and editor of the “Norwich Mercury.”  In 1843 he became proprietor of the “Sussex Advertiser,” which he conducted in a very spirited manner.  Mr. Bacon joined his brother in forming the “Norwich Mercury” Company.  He was also well-known as secretary to the Association for the Repeal of the Hop Duty.

16.—A silver inkstand and a purse of 200 gs. were presented to Mr. H. J. Martin, in recognition of his services as honorary secretary of the Norwich Central Conservative Club.

17.—Died at the Cathedral Close, Norwich, Mr. Henry Hansell, proctor, solicitor and notary public, and registrar of the Archdeaconry of Norfolk, aged 71.  Mr. Hansell was a warm supporter of the local charities, and was for several years honorary secretary of the Jenny Lind Infirmary.  His knowledge of ecclesiastical law and of the rules and practices of the courts was most profound.  He was succeeded in his registrarship and other appointments by his son, Mr. Thomas William Hansell.

p. 28525.—The celebrated Vokes Family commenced an engagement at Norwich Theatre, in “Belles of the Kitchen,” “The Wrong Man in the Right Place,” &c.

28.—The 5th Royal Irish Lancers gave a mounted and dismounted assault-at-arms at the Circus building, Castle Meadow, Norwich, in aid of the local charities and other objects.  The performance was repeated on the 30th.  The regiment received from the Town Council the thanks of the city for its valuable services.

APRIL.

13.*—“The death is announced of Mr. Thomas Hoseason, of Lynn, at the age of 68.  It is said that he was the last representative of one of the famous Dutch families who came over to England with William III., and took a foremost part in the settlement and cultivation of the country of Marshland, so much resembling their native land.  The Hoseasons were for many years large landed proprietors, but their estates have changed hands, and the deceased had gradually fallen into a state of utter destitution, and for a long time past had been dependent upon the aid of friends, and lived in a secluded lodging in a back street in the town.”

17.—A public meeting was held at Yarmouth, in opposition to the proposal of the Corporation to erect a new town hall, with courts and public offices, at the cost of £24,000.  A resolution condemning the scheme, and asserting that the outlay would be £36,000, and would involve an addition to the rates of 3d. in the pound for the next fifty years, was adopted.  The Town Council, on July 15th, approved the plans of Mr. J. B. Pearce, architect, Norwich.  (See May 31st, 1882.)

22.—Died at the Wilderness, Bracondale, the Rev. Joseph Crompton, rector of St. Lawrence’, Norwich, in his 65th year.  Mr. Crompton began his career in Norwich as a Nonconformist minister, in about 1848.  For many years he was minister at the Octagon chapel; but his views underwent such a change that he relinquished the pastorate and established what was known as the Free Christian Church, which assembled at the Dutch church, Elm Hill.  After a ministry of several years, Mr. Crompton, whose views had approximated to those of the Broad Church party, began to show strong sympathy with that section of the Establishment.  He avowed himself “a Dissenter against his will,” and stated that the Athanasian Creed was the last stumbling-block in his way to joining the Church of England.  At his own request the Bishop shortly afterwards admitted him to Holy Orders, and he officiated as curate to the Rev. Charles Morse, both at St. Mary’s and St. Michael-at-Plea.  On the Rev. E. A. Hillyard leaving St. Lawrence’, Mr. Crompton was appointed rector of the parish.  He took great interest in scientific pursuits, and his name was associated with the Norfolk and Norwich Museum as a lecturer with Professors Lindley and Sedgwick, Thomas Brightwell, and the Rev. R. Lubbock.  Mr. Crompton was a zealous supporter of the Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists’ Society, of which he was President in the first two years of its existence.  In politics he was a decided Liberal.  A window erected to his memory by public subscription was unveiled at St. Lawrence’ church by Mr. Harry Bullard, Mayor of Norwich, on November 6th, 1879.

p. 28622.—The farcical comedy, “Pink Dominoes,” was produced at Norwich Theatre by a company under the management of Mr. S. Genese.  “It is a class of piece which we are sorry to see introduced on the English stage.  Originating in France, it had better be kept in an atmosphere for which it may be specially adapted.”

26.—Mr. Frank Buckland and Mr. Spencer Walpole, fishery commissioners, held a public inquiry at Lynn into the use of trawl and seine nets, and into the alleged destruction of the fry and spawn of sea fish.  A similar inquiry was held at Yarmouth.

MAY.

9.—At a meeting held at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, a branch of the Church of England Temperance Society was established.  The Lord Bishop presided, and addresses were delivered by the Rev. Canon Ellison, the Rev. Canon Wilberforce, Mr. Cadge, and Dr. Eade.

12.—A fire occurred on premises on the South Denes Road and Exmouth Road, Yarmouth, by which damage was done to the amount of £3,000.

15.—Died at Norwich, Mr. Edward Press, in his 77th year.  He was a son of the Rev. Edward Press, B.A., and was born at Barnham Broom.  For many years he practised as a solicitor at Hingham, and held several local appointments of a public character.  He was, however, more widely known as County Coroner, the duties of which office he discharged with marked ability for fifty years.  In politics Mr. Press was a Liberal.  He was succeeded as County Coroner by Mr. Robert Thomas Culley, who was elected unopposed on June 6th.

23.—The 5th Royal Irish Lancers’ Christy Minstrel Troupe gave performances at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, in aid of the local charities.

JUNE.

1.—Died at his residence, Theatre Square, Norwich, Mr. Frank Noverre, aged 71.  Mr. Noverre was descended from a French family long associated with Norwich.  His father was one of the original directors of the Norwich Union Life Insurance Society, and he was himself for many years a director of the same institution.  At one time he was honorary treasurer of the Norwich Choral Society, honorary secretary of the Norwich Philharmonic Society, and a member of the sub-committee of management of the Norfolk and Norwich Musical Festival.

10.—The celebration of the coming of age of Lord Hastings, on April 4th, commenced on this date, at Melton Constable.  The festivities lasted five days.

19.—The Summer Show of the Norfolk Agricultural Association was opened at North Walsham, and was continued on the 20th.  Lord Suffield presided at the luncheon.

—At a meeting of the Governors of the Norwich Dispensary, it was agreed, on the motion of Mr. John Gurney, to adopt the provident system in the working of the institution.

p. 28724.—Colonel Massy and the officers of the 5th Royal Irish Lancers, on the occasion of the departure of the first detachment of the regiment from Norwich, were entertained at a civic luncheon, given at the Guildhall, under the presidency of the Mayor (Mr. J. D. Smith).  The Mayor, on behalf of the citizens, presented to the officers a massive silver-gilt cup, “in appreciation of the exemplary conduct of the regiment during its stay among them, and in grateful remembrance of the many benefits conferred by it upon the city and its institutions.”  The remainder of the regiment marched on the 25th.  The Town Council, on July 1st, passed a special resolution, recording its high estimation of the regiment, and ordering the entry in the minutes of the fact that “no complaint has been made nor any collision taken place between the military and the citizens during the time the regiment has been quartered in the city.”  The Lancers were relieved by the 21st Hussars, commanded by Colonel Wake.

29.—Died at Constantinople, aged 32, Mr. Robert Pulvertoft Master, Commissioner of the Turkish Compassionate Fund.  He was the second son of Mr. Alfred Master, of Norwich, and rendered great services in the cause of humanity during the Russo-Turkish War.  Mr. Master was educated at Norwich Grammar School, and, after spending a year in Germany, and a like period in a commercial house in London, proceeded to Ceylon, where he became manager of a coffee estate, and married Amelia, second daughter of Sir Edward Creasy, Chief Justice of the island.

JULY.

4.—Died at Pottergate Street, Norwich, Mr. William Smith, veterinary surgeon, aged 61.  Mr. Smith attained to considerable eminence in his profession.  During the time of the Cattle Plague, he did good service to the county in his official capacity as inspector to the Central Committee, and at the meeting of the British Association at Norwich read an able paper on the disease, its origin and treatment.

9.—Winterton church was re-opened by the Bishop of Norwich.  It had been restored at the cost of £3,000.

13.—The 3rd and 4th Battalions of Norfolk Rifle Volunteers went into camp at Yarmouth, under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Duff, M.P., and Lieut.-Colonel Gurdon.

15.—The Hemsby to Martham extension of the Yarmouth and Stalham Railway was opened on this date.  Powers having been obtained for carrying the line to North Walsham, it was thereafter known as the North Norfolk Railway.  (See June 8th, 1881.)

20.—Died at Norwich, in his 93rd year, Commander Crane, R.N.  He was the son of Mr. Edward Crane, Coroner of Norwich, and entered the Royal Navy as midshipman on board the Repulse, in 1798.  During the summer of 1805 he accompanied Nelson in his pursuit to the West Indies of the combined French and Spanish fleets.  After continuous service he joined the Reynard, 18 guns, as Acting Commander in the advance on Riga, and was the first to bring to the Admiral of the station lying off Carlscrona news of the great defeat of Napoleon at Moscow.  He was in May, 1813, while in charge of a p. 288prize, driven by a gale into Frederickstadt, in Norway, where he was detained a prisoner for some months.  In 1843 he received the rank of commander, and since 1848 had resided in Norwich.

AUGUST.

3.—At the Norfolk Assizes, before Lord Justice Thesiger, Mr. W. G. Loftus, of Bracon Lodge, brought an action against the Rev. T. T. Berney, rector of Braconash, for trespass.  The defendant claimed the right, as lord of the manor, of shooting over thirty-four acres’ of land around Bracon Lodge.  This land was principally garden ground.  The plaintiff objected to defendant sporting in his kitchen garden, and wished to put an end to the nuisance.  In the course of argument between Mr. Day, Q.C., for the plaintiff, and Sir Patrick Colquhoun, Q.C., for the defendant, reference was made to several “musty deeds” produced by Mr. Berney.  The jury found for the plaintiff, damages 40s.

5.—A singular claim to the Stanfield Hall estate was made at the Norfolk Assizes, before Lord Justice Thesiger.  The action was brought by George Taylor, a railway guard, against Mr. Reginald Gwyn and the Rev. Henry H. H. Lubbock, the owners of the estate, who pleaded that they had a possessory title, and that plaintiff’s title and right of action were barred by the Statute of Limitations.  The estate was originally in the possession of William Jermy, of Bayfield, who died in 1752, and plaintiff alleged that, as a lineal descendant of Robert Jermy, who died in 1758, he was heir-at-law.  Mr. Bulwer, Q.C., after opening the case for the plaintiff, said he was not justified in occupying the time of the court and putting the parties to further trouble in the matter, when he knew perfectly well that he must be beaten in the end.  The jury returned a verdict for the defendants, for whom his lordship gave judgment.

18.—Died at Whitwell Hall, Mr. Robert Leamon, aged 56.  Mr. Leamon, who was described as “a good specimen of the old Norfolk yeoman,” broke down the Whig monopoly in East Norfolk, “and became the political godfather of Mr. C. S. Read, for whom he entertained the warmest personal regard.”  Mr. Leamon was born in 1822, and inherited from his father a fine property and extensive business.  He married, in 1848, a daughter of Mr. John Brooke Gill, of Wood Norton.

22.—Died at Runton, aged 76, Favell Lee, widow of the Rev. Thomas Mortimer.  She was the authoress of “The Peep of Day,” and other works of a similar character.

24.—A fire took place at Messrs. Bagshaw’s paper mills, St. Miles’, Norwich, and did damage amounting to several thousands of pounds.

30.—Among the most notable of architectural improvements in Norwich was the new building known as Cooper’s Restaurant, which was opened on this date.  It was designed by Mr. Edward Boardman, architect, and occupies a site on which stood the old business premises of Messrs. Butcher, cheese factors.

SEPTEMBER.

5.—Mr. and Mrs. German Reed, assisted by Miss Fanny Holland, p. 289Mr. Dale, Mr. Corney Grain, and Mr. Arthur Law, commenced a three nights’ engagement at St. Giles’ Hall, Norwich.

9.—Mr. Henry Walsham opened an operatic season at Norwich Theatre.  The company included Madame Rose Hersée, Miss Palmer, Madame Telma, and Mr. Ludwig.

11.—The Sheriff of Norwich (Mr. Harry Bullard) provided the first of his annual excursions for the employés at the Anchor Brewery.  The workpeople in the service of the firm (with their wives), to the number of 600, were conveyed to the Crystal Palace and back by special train.

OCTOBER.

2.—A four-oared race, between a crew of the 21st Hussars (Capt. Lovewell, stroke) and of the Norwich Police, took place between Field’s boat-house, Thorpe, and Trowse railway-bridge—distance, a mile and a quarter.  After a very close race, the police crew won.

10.—Died, the Rev. Henry Lombe, of Bylaugh Park, aged 86.  He was fifty years a parochial clergyman, and for twenty-six years rector of Lyng.  At Swanton Morley, in 1831, when the poor-rates were at an appalling figure, and poverty excessive, he set on foot and carried on for years on his own responsibility an extensive cotton weaving business, reduced a turbulent population to order, and saved the whole parish from starvation.  In the days of incendiarism he was the main instrument in hunting down into their hiding-places the leaders of that infamous movement, and the means of bringing the notorious Nockolds to justice (q.v. Vol. I., p. 304).  Before the days of the rural police, he organized a voluntary system of constabulary in his desperately disturbed parish of Lyng.  In company with the farmers, he patrolled the parish during the whole winter, visited every farmstead, and preserved the village from utter ruin.  Clubs, coal charities, and penny banks were under his personal superintendence to the last day of his active life.  Mr. Lombe was succeeded in the possession of his extensive landed estates by his son, Mr. Henry Evans Lombe, of Melton Hall, a B.A. of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, and a magistrate for Norfolk and Suffolk.

14.—Died at his residence, St. Giles’, Norwich, Mr. George Warren Watts Firth, F.R.C.S., aged 64.  He was senior surgeon to the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, a magistrate of the city, and honorary consulting surgeon to the Norfolk County Lunatic Asylum, a distinction conferred upon him after his retirement from the office of surgeon to that institution.

15.—The Norfolk and Norwich Triennial Musical Festival commenced at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, with an evening performance of “Acis and Galatea,” and of “Spring” (from “The Seasons”).  The morning performances were as follow:—16th, “Joseph,” and 1st Mass in C (Mozart); 17th, “Elijah”; 18th, “The Messiah.”  On the evening of the 16th a grand ballad concert was given, and on the evening of the 17th an operatic concert.  The vocalists were Madame Albani, Miss Catherine Penna, Miss Anna Williams, Madame A. Sterling, Madame Trebelli, Mr. Edward Lloyd, Mr. H. J. Minns, Mr. W. Shakespeare, Mr. R. Hilton, and Mr. Santley.  Sir Julius Benedict p. 290conducted.  The total receipts amounted to £4,140 4s. 9d., and the expenditure to £3,898 2s. 6d.

17.—The Rev. Sidney Pelham, curate-in-charge of Aylsham, was elected vicar of St. Peter Mancroft, Norwich, in place of the Rev. Charles Turner, who had accepted the living of Bixley with Framingham Earl, after 31 years’ ministry at St. Peter’s.

—The monument erected at Norwich Cemetery “to the memory of deceased soldiers of regiments stationed in this city or who may die while on service here,” was unveiled by Lord Waveney.  It was designed by Mr. John Bell, a Norfolk man.  The figure forming the finial, called by the designer “The Spirit of the Army,” was cast in terra cotta by Messrs. Doulton, of the Lambeth Pottery.  Colonel Wake, of the 21st Hussars, in the name of the British Army and on behalf of his brother officers, thanked the representatives of the county of Norfolk and city of Norwich for erecting the memorial.

20.—Died at Norwich, James Truman, aged 70, for upwards of fifty years a member of the St. Peter Mancroft Company of Ringers.  In 1831 he rang with the St. Peter’s company an intricate peal of Double Norwich Court Bob Major, at St. Michael at Coslany tower, and in 1844 conducted a long peal of Stedman’s Cinques on the twelve bells of St. Peter’s.  The peal consisted of 7,126 changes, and occupied 5 hours 17 minutes in ringing.  At that time it was the longest peal that had been accomplished in the method.

28.—Mr. J. B. Gough, the American temperance advocate, gave an “oration” at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, at a meeting presided over by Canon Lee Warner.

—Died at Norwich, aged 27, Mr. W. Wilson Turnbull, a member of the literary staff of the “Eastern Daily Press.”  He was the author of Messrs. Weldon’s annual, “Benjamin D---,” illustrated by a Norwich amateur, and of several able pamphlets on the Permissive Bill.  At the time of his death, Mr. Turnbull was engaged in the preparation of another annual for Messrs. Weldon.

29.—A meeting of the clergy and lay representatives of the diocese was held at Noverre’s Rooms, Norwich, “for the purpose of deciding upon the question of the institution of a diocesan conference or synod.”  The Lord Bishop presided.  The Very Rev. Dean Goulburn moved, “That this meeting do advise the Lord Bishop that, in their judgment, it is inexpedient to constitute a diocesan conference to meet periodically.”  Lord Walsingham seconded the motion.  Mr. C. S. Read, M.P., moved a direct negative—“That it is desirable that a conference of the clergy and laity be established in this diocese.”  The Ven. Archdeacon Groome seconded.  After a long discussion, Mr. Read’s proposition was adopted by the votes of 140 laity and 115 clergy, against the votes of 15 laity and 6 clergy.

NOVEMBER.

5.—The marriage of Viscount Anson, eldest son of the Earl of Lichfield, and Lady Mildred Coke, youngest daughter of the Earl of Leicester, was solemnised at Holkham church.

6.—The first general meeting of the shareholders of the Norwich Café Company was held at the Guildhall, under the presidency of Mr. p. 291John Gurney.  The company was incorporated in July, with a nominal capital of £20,000, in 20,000 shares of £1 each.  About 8,000 shares had been subscribed for at this date, by about 90 shareholders.

7.—The extension of the franchise to female householders was advocated at a public meeting held at St. Giles’ Hall, Norwich, presided over by the Mayor (Mr. J. D. Smith), and addresses were delivered by Miss Helen Taylor and Miss P. H. Downing.

9.—Mr. Harry Bullard, on the expiration of his term of office as Sheriff of Norwich, was elected Mayor.  For the office of Sheriff there were two nominees, Mr. William Howlett and Mr. Donald Steward.  After a long and acrimonious discussion, Mr. Steward was appointed.

16.—At a meeting of the Board of Management of the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, Mr. Samuel Herbert Burton was elected house-surgeon, Mr. Charles Williams surgeon, and Mr. H. S. Robinson assistant surgeon.

—The memorable and disastrous flood occurred at Norwich.  A heavy fall of snow on the 12th, followed by a rapid thaw and continuous rain, had the effect of greatly swelling the tributaries of the Yare and Wensum.  Simultaneously, a north-west wind occasioned a high tide at Yarmouth, so that the river waters were denied their natural outlet.  Instead of ebbing with the tide, the Yare rose steadily on the 15th, and many thousand acres of marshes lying between Norwich and Yarmouth were inundated on the following day.  The New Mills at Norwich, were, however, responsible for the greater part of the damage from which the city suffered.  The obstruction caused the waters to overflow the banks of the river, and, in a short time, many of the streets in the low-lying localities were flooded, and hundreds of the inhabitants were compelled to leave their houses by means of boats.  An enormous amount of distress prevailed.  The Mayor (Mr. Harry Bullard) convened a meeting at the Guildhall on the 17th (Sunday), at which it was decided to establish centres for the distribution of provisions; and permission was obtained from the Government authorities to make use of the governor’s house at the disused City Gaol for the accommodation of the houseless people, of whom 200 found refuge there.  The Sessions Court at the Guildhall was opened during the day as a store-house, in which 2,600 loaves of bread and many hundreds of blankets, received from the County Gaol, Asylum, Workhouse, and Cavalry Barracks, were placed ready for distribution.  At 6.30 on the same evening another influential meeting was held at the Guildhall, when the Mayor and the Sheriff (Mr. Donald Steward) were publicly thanked for the active part they had taken in mitigating the distress of the people.  On the 18th a third meeting took place, at which a relief fund was inaugurated, when, in a few minutes, £2,271 13s. 6d. was subscribed, an amount which, by the end of the week, was increased to £4,200.  Three or four persons lost their lives in the flood.  In various parts of the county rivers overflowed their banks, and much damage was done to property.  (See January 4th, 1879.)

18.—An art loan exhibition, largely contributed to by noblemen and others in the Eastern Counties, was opened at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, by the Mayor (Mr. Harry Bullard) in aid of a fund for the restoration of the church of St. Peter Mancroft.  An inaugural ode, specially written by Mr. E Oxenford, and composed by Dr. Bunnett, p. 292was performed by members of the Norfolk and Norwich Musical Union.  The exhibition remained open until December 14th, when a balance of £820 3s. 6d. was handed over to the credit of the fund.  (See October 4th, 1881.)

19.—At a meeting of the Norwich Town Council, the Provincial Tramways Company applied for permission to construct tramways in the city.  The proposed route was to commence at the Cemetery and to proceed by Dereham Road, St. Giles’ Road, Chapel Field Road, Queen’s Road, Upper Surrey Street, All Saints’ Green, Golden Ball Street, Castle Meadow, Prince of Wales Road, Foundry Bridge, and Thorpe Road to Whitlingham Railway Station.  An adjourned meeting was held on December 17th, at which it was agreed not to oppose the Bill, provided the Tramways Company consented to the insertion of such clauses, conditions, and restrictions as, in the opinion of the Parliamentary and Bylaws Committee might be deemed necessary.  The Norwich Tramways Bill was considered by a Select Committee of the House of Commons, on May 6th, 1879.  It was opposed by the Great Eastern Railway Company and Mr. Foster, a local resident, and thrown out after only the promoters’ case had been heard.  (See January 16th, 1883.)

21.—The Norfolk and Norwich Fat Cattle Show was opened at Chapel Field, Norwich.

DECEMBER.

12.—The old parish church of St. Bartholomew, Heigham, Norwich, which had undergone complete restoration and enlargement, by the addition of a north aisle, at the cost of £2,500, was opened by the Lord Bishop of Norwich.

17.—A special meeting of the Norwich Town Council adopted a vote of sympathy with the Queen and other members of the Royal Family, on the death of the Grand Duchess of Hesse (Princess Alice of England), and a muffled peal was rung upon the bells of St. Peter Mancroft.  Similar votes were adopted by the Corporations of Yarmouth and Lynn; and the county magistrates voted an address to her Majesty on January 4th, 1879.

19.—Mr. E. C. Bailey resigned the office of Clerk to the Norwich Board of Guardians, after a service of thirty-four years.  He was succeeded in the appointment by Mr. John Cross.

22.—Died at his residence, Surrey Street, Norwich, Mr. William Peter Nichols, F.R.C.S., aged 77.  Mr. Nichols was born at Yelverton, and was educated at King Edward VI. School, Norwich, under Valpy.  He was subsequently articled to Mr. Dalrymple, and, having studied at St. Thomas’ and Guy’s Hospitals, under Sir Astley Cooper, passed his examinations, and in 1823 established himself in Norwich, where he speedily made a reputation, although it was not until late in life that he reaped the full honours he deserved.  On the death of Mr. J. G. Crosse, Mr. Nichols was elected surgeon of the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, a position he held for twenty-two years, and relinquished the post in 1872, when probably the highest possible testimony was paid to his skill as an operator by Dr. Copeman, who mentioned that in lithotomy his average of successful cases was higher p. 293than that of Dr. Donne, Dr. Martineau, or Mr. Norgate, all giants in their day.  On his retirement from office he was unanimously appointed honorary consulting surgeon.  Mr. Nichols was also consulting surgeon to the Bethel Hospital, and, with Mr. J. F. Watson, successfully carried on for many years the private asylum at Heigham Hall.  He was elected Mayor of Norwich in 1865, and had the honour to take the lead in the reception of the Prince and Princess of Wales, the Duke of Edinburgh, and the Queen of Denmark, when they visited the city in 1866.  In politics he was a Liberal, and occupied at various times a seat in the Town Council.  He was also a magistrate of the city.

23.—Died at his town residence, 36, Upper Brooke Street, Lieut.-Colonel James Duff, M.P.  He was born at Innis House, Elgin, on July 29th, 1831, and was the son of General Sir James Duff, who married Miss Eliza Charlotte Prescott, eldest daughter of General Sir Beeston Prescott, Bart., of Theobald’s Park, Herts.  Educated at Rugby, he entered the Army in 1851, as ensign in the 23rd Fusiliers, with which regiment he afterwards went to the Crimea, and obtained his captaincy in 1854.  At the battle of Inkerman he was taken prisoner, and on his release acted as aide-de-camp to General Syssons, who commanded the Second Brigade Light Division until the end of the war.  Captain Duff then embarked with his regiment for China, but the Indian Mutiny breaking out meanwhile, they were ordered to Calcutta, to assist in its suppression.  Captain Duff was present with Lord Clyde at the capture of Lucknow, and was specially mentioned in dispatches for his services.  He received the Crimean medal with two clasps, the Turkish medal, the 5th class of the Medjidie, &c.  In 1858 he left the service, and the following year married Mary, only daughter of Mr. Edward Dawkins, of Upper Brooke Street, London, and niece of Mr. John Berney Petre, of Westwick House.  On taking up his residence in the county, he was appointed to the command of the 3rd Administrative Battalion of Norfolk Rifle Volunteers, and, on the death of the Hon. Frederick Walpole, was returned as Conservative member for North Norfolk.  In conjunction with Sir Robert Buxton, Mr. Clare Sewell Read, Mr. Colman, and Sir Edmund Lacon, he was unwearied in his exertions to secure the passing of the Norfolk and Suffolk Fisheries Preservation Act, and the modification of Mr. Mundella’s Fisheries Bill to the advantage of the district which he represented.

26.—The Christmas amusements at Norwich included Messrs. Edwards and Waldegrave’s pantomime of “The Children in the Wood, or Harlequin Good Humour, the Wicked Uncle, and the Good Fairy Birds of the Forest,” at the Theatre; and Bostock and Wombwell’s Menagerie on the Castle Meadow.

1879.

JANUARY.

4.—A meeting, convened by the Mayor (Mr. Harry Bullard), and attended by many of the riparian owners of the county, was held at p. 294the Guildhall, Norwich, “for the purpose of determining whether an inquiry should be made into the causes of the recent floods, and for devising some means to prevent their recurrence.”  A committee was appointed to hold an inquiry, and in the month of June Sir John Hawkshaw, C.E., made a report, in which he stated that floods might be prevented by suitable works, the cost of which would be heavy if charged entirely on the flooded lands, but moderate if spread in suitable proportions.  Mr. Bullard, on November 10th, was presented with his portrait, painted by Mr. Ventnor, in recognition of the services he had rendered to his fellow-citizens during the floods.

5.—Died at St. Giles’ Street, Norwich, Mr. Horatio Bolingbroke, aged 80.  He was educated at Norwich Grammar School, under Valpy, was for many years engaged in business as a manufacturer, and did much to enhance the reputation of Norwich for the production of textile fabrics.  Mr. Bolingbroke was a prominent figure in the political life of the city, was the first Sheriff appointed under the Municipal Corporations Act, and was amongst the first of the Liberal members returned to the “reformed” Corporation.  He was a generous supporter of local charities, chairman of the Norwich Charity Trustees (General List), and a Justice of the Peace.  Labouring under the affliction of blindness, he had for some years prior to his death retired from active public life.

16.—The nomination of candidates to fill the vacancy in the representation of North Norfolk, occasioned by the death of Colonel Duff, took place at Aylsham.  Mr. Edward Birkbeck, of Horstead Hall, was the Conservative, and Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, Bart., the Liberal nominee.  The polling took place on the 21st, and the result was declared on the 22nd, as follows:—Birkbeck, 2,742; Buxton, 2,252.

FEBRUARY.

8.—At the Norfolk Assizes, before the Lord Chief Baron, an action was brought by Mr. Hamon le Strange, lord of the manor of Snettisham, and his tenant, William Harding, against Richard Auker, for trespassing upon the foreshore at Snettisham and removing shingle, mussels, and cockles.  Mr. le Strange in 1866 took legal proceedings to maintain his proprietary rights on the foreshore, and obtained a verdict, against which an appeal was entered; but a full bench of judges confirmed the verdict.  Since then he had issued licences to persons to remove mussels from the foreshore, and had leased it to Harding, who had found the defendant carrying mussels away.  The special jury returned a verdict for the plaintiffs, damages one shilling, and the learned Judge said he would make the injunction issued against the defendant perpetual.  (See January 21st, 1885.)

13.—Died at Kirstead, the Rev. Jonathan Bates, rector of Kirstead with Langhale.  He was the son of a Wesleyan minister, and was born at New Buckenham, on June 13th, 1829.  When still a child he removed with his family to Edinburgh, where he was placed in the High School.  Thence he went to Huddersfield College, and at eighteen became junior master.  He had not only passed the examinations of the London University, but had saved sufficient money, with the help of the scholarships he had won, to enable him, p. 295on leaving Huddersfield, to enter St. John’s College, Cambridge, where he graduated in 1854, taking his place as eleventh Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos.  On completing his University career, he was appointed second classical and mathematical master of the Colchester Grammar School.  This post he held four years, and was then chosen senior or classical tutor and chaplain to the Queen’s Medical College at Birmingham.  Ordained deacon in 1854, and priest in 1855, by the Bishop of Rochester, he returned to Colchester as mathematical master at the Grammar School, and did duty as a curate in the vicinity.  In 1860 he was appointed Vice-Principal of the Chester Diocesan College, and in 1862 was presented by Caius College to the living of Kirstead.  Mr. Bates married the youngest daughter of the celebrated Dr. Medhurst, for many years a missionary in China.

16.—Died at the Rectory, Toppesfield, the Rev. Professor Brewer, M.A., Preacher at the Rolls Chapel, and rector of Toppesfield.  He was a son of Mr. John Sherren Brewer, of Mile End House, Norwich, and was born at Calvert Street, in March, 1809.  After receiving his early education at the hands of his father, he proceeded to Queen’s College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. in 1833, taking first class honours in Classics.  In 1841 he was appointed to a Professorship, and in November, 1870, was elected an honorary Fellow of his College.  Professor Brewer was editor of “Fuller’s Church History,” published by the University of Oxford, and of the Calendars of State Papers relating to the Reign of Henry VIII., published by the Master of the Rolls.  He was for some time honorary librarian to the Marquis of Salisbury at Hatfield House, and, in addition to his appointment as Preacher at the Rolls Chapel, he held the Professorship of English Literature in King’s College, London.  In 1876 he was presented by Lord Beaconsfield to the Crown living of Toppesfield, which had a gross income of £1,120 and a parsonage house.

21.—Edward Payson Weston, the American pedestrian, passed through Norwich, on his walk of 2,000 miles in 1,000 consecutive hours (except on Sundays).  He arrived from Dereham, and at one o’clock lectured at the Victoria Hall, St. Andrew’s, where a large audience had assembled, under the presidency of the Mayor (Mr. Harry Bullard).  In the afternoon Weston continued his walk, and arrived at Yarmouth in the evening.

—Died at Wandsworth, Mr. P. Le Neve Foster, secretary of the Society of Arts.  He was born in 1809, and educated at Norwich Grammar School, prior to studying at Cambridge, where he took his degree in 1830.  A few years afterwards he was called to the Bar, and, after working zealously with the Prince Consort to promote the success of the Exhibition of 1851, was appointed Secretary of the Society of Arts in 1853.

24.—Under the auspices of the Anglo-American Electric Lighting Company, Limited, a descriptive lecture was given at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, upon the possibilities of the electric light, by Mr. H. Edmunds, a representative of the company.  The hall was brilliantly illuminated by a special electric installation.

27.—Died at Bournemouth, Lieut.-Colonel Hugh FitzRoy, formerly of the Grenadier Guards.  He was born in 1808, and was second son of the Rev. Lord Henry FitzRoy.  He married, in 1831, Lucy Sarah, second daughter of Sir Thomas Buller Lethbridge, who died in 1855.  p. 296In December, 1856, he married, secondly, Emily Louisa, widow of Mr. Charles William Marsham, of Stratton Strawless.  Colonel FitzRoy was an active county magistrate, and chairman of the Great Yarmouth Haven and Pier Commissioners.

MARCH.

6.—The twelve hours’ roller skating championship of the Eastern Counties was competed for at St. Giles’ Hall, Norwich.  The winner was Candler, of Norwich, who, between eight a.m. and eight p.m. covered 77 miles 7 laps; second, G. Woolsey, of Yarmouth, 74 miles 20 laps.

13.—The marriage of the Duke of Connaught and Princess Louise Marguerite was celebrated in Norwich by the ringing of St. Peter Mancroft bells, and by a civic luncheon given in the Council Chamber, Guildhall, by the Mayor (Mr. Harry Bullard).  A congratulatory address adopted by the Corporation was presented to the Queen by the Mayor and Sheriff, at St. James’s Palace, on May 3rd.

22.—The first of the Saturday evening popular concerts, inaugurated in Prince’s Street Schoolroom, and transferred to St. Andrew’s Hall, was given, under the presidency of the Mayor of Norwich.

26.—A Common Hall was held at the Guildhall, Norwich, under the presidency of the Mayor, “to consider the question of the continuance of the half-holiday movement on Thursdays during the approaching summer months.”  A memorial was presented by the traders of the city, affirming that the two o’clock closing was not conducive to the welfare of the assistants nor to the commercial prosperity of the city.  After much discussion, the meeting was adjourned sine die, and a few weeks later official notice was given that “the shops of Norwich, with few exceptions, remain open on Thursdays till five o’clock.”

APRIL.

6.—Died at Great Yarmouth, Sir Thomas Branthwayt Beevor, Bart., of Hargham.  Born on April 7th, 1798, he was thrice married—in 1819, to Elizabeth Bridget, daughter of Dr. Richard Lubbock, of Norwich; in 1832, to Martha, daughter of Mr. Archibald Hardiment, of Old Buckenham; and in 1845, to Mary, daughter of Mr. F. Davies.  Sir Thomas had for some years resided in a quiet and unostentatious manner at Yarmouth, but in his early years, as a Liberal of the advanced school, he took a leading part in the political contests of the county.

7.—Mr. T. W. Robertson, son of the author of “Caste,” and other favourite comedies, made his first appearance with the Caste Company at Norwich Theatre.  The company made a return visit on November 3rd.  Mr. Robertson, junior, who had been articled to a veterinary surgeon in the city, afterwards became very popular as an actor.

11.—Died at Hereford, Miss Christiana Glover, second and last surviving daughter of the Rev. Edward Glover, M.A., of Norwich, aged 91.  For several years she lived with the family of Sir Thomas p. 297Fowell Buxton, and afterwards became a devoted coadjutor of her talented sister, Miss Sarah Glover, in the work of imparting Christian education in accordance with the principles of the Church of England to the poorer classes in the city.  The sisters originated the Norwich Sol-Fa System of Psalmody, “which may be said to be entirely unrivalled in its results, as producing perfect intonation and good harmony at comparatively small expense of time and labour.  The system in a somewhat modified form has been very widely and successfully diffused by Mr. Curwen.”

15.—A new oratorio, “Nehemiah,” by Dr. Hill, of Norwich, was performed for the first time.  It was produced at the Corn Hall, Diss, by the members of the Diss Choral Society.

—Considerable excitement was caused at Thorpe, near Norwich, by the action of Mr. Henry Blake, who had enclosed the strip of grass land known as Thorpe Green, by the side of the river.  Mr. William Birkbeck, as lord of the manor, announced that if the palings, &c., were not removed by noon on this day they would be forcibly taken down.  The notice was disregarded, and Mr. P. E. Hansell, as steward of the manor, directed the removal of the obstruction.  After the posts and palings had been taken down, Mr. Hansell intimated that Mr. Birkbeck was prepared to take the matter into the law courts, and to the House of Lords, if necessary.

16.—A remarkable scene was witnessed at a meeting of the Norwich School Board.  A motion to increase the staff was supported by the majority and opposed by the Denominational minority, the latter of whom asserted that the proposal could be carried out only by rescinding a resolution passed almost unanimously at a previous meeting.  “Finding their last effort useless to stem the current of expenditure into which the Board had plunged, and justly indignant at the treatment they received, the minority left the room, and Canon Heaviside intimated that it would be a matter for consideration whether they ever again entered it.”  On May 8th a deputation went to Canon Heaviside’s residence and presented to the gentlemen constituting the minority a memorial, signed by the ratepayers, urging that by their presence at the Board they could “continue to protest against reckless extravagance, and so keep the ratepayers better informed of what is going on.”  Ultimately the minority agreed to resume their duties, “at the request of their constituents, and in the hope that the public attention called to the proceedings which led to their withdrawal would have the effect of strengthening their hands in the endeavour to discharge effectively the duties that devolved upon them.”

28.—Mr. Sims Reeves sang at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich.  His engagement was originally announced for April 17th, but the usual postponement occurred.

—Application having been made by the Norfolk Court of Quarter Sessions that nine disturnpiked roads in the county should, by a provisional order, be declared ordinary, not main, roads, Mr. Courteney Boyle, an inspector of the Local Government Board, attended at the Shirehall, to hear the grounds of the application and any objections thereto.  The application had been made on the following grounds: (1) That in consequence of the increase of railways, there was comparatively but little through traffic along the disturnpiked reads; p. 298(2) there being no highway districts in the county, the Court was not prepared to encounter the difficulty and expense of dealing separately with the surveyors of the large number of parishes through which the disturnpiked roads passed; (3) that should a highway board be established in the county, the unions through which the disturnpiked roads passed would not be unfairly burdened by their maintenance, while it would be hard upon outlying districts of the county to contribute to the repair of roads which they never used; and (4) that the Court having previously expressed itself in favour of county boards, hesitated to sanction so novel and large an expenditure for the county rate as would be involved in paying half the cost of repairing the disturnpiked roads until the ratepayers were more directly represented in the county authority.  Mr. C. S. Read, M.P., stated his reasons for moving these resolutions at the Court of Quarter Sessions, and after evidence had been taken in regard to each road in question, the Inspector said that he should make his report.

MAY.

19.—A glove fight took place at the Corn Hall, Norwich, in the presence of an immense audience, between Walter Emms and Arthur Shaw.  At the Police Court, on the 26th, the principals, and John Hicks, James Clarke, James Laxton, Robert Watson, sub-editor of the “Sporting Life,” London; Thomas Snelling, and Edwin Cunningham were summoned for unlawfully assembling together for the purpose of a prize-fight.  Emms and Shaw were ordered to enter into their own recognisances of £100, to find two sureties of £50 each, and to keep the peace for six months.  The other defendants were bound over in the sum of £20 each to keep the peace for six months.

20.—The Norwich Omnibus Company, Limited, was formed.  The first omnibuses were put upon the Dereham Road route on June 23rd.

—Died at the Crescent, Norwich, Mr. John M. Croker, aged 57.  His ample leisure enabled him to be of great service to many of the public institutions of the city, and he was for several years honorary secretary of the Norfolk and Norwich Cricket Club.

21.—A fire occurred on Messrs. Willis and Southall’s shoe premises, the Upper Market, Norwich.  The damage was estimated at £1,000.

JUNE.

2.—A case of considerable importance to the agricultural community, in which the Earl of Leicester, Lord Lieutenant of the county, was defendant, was heard by the Walsingham magistrates.  His lordship was alleged to have infringed the Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act, 1878, and the Animals Order of 1878.  The informations, laid by the Veterinary Inspector of the district (Mr. Edward Case), charged his lordship (1) with unlawfully causing to be driven on March 3rd a sheep affected with sheep scab; and (2) with causing 200 suspected animals to be removed.  After a hearing which lasted eight hours, the Bench dismissed the case, “because the defendant had satisfied them that there was no cause for suspecting the animals removed.”

p. 2995.—A singular accident occurred at Wells railway station.  The driver of engine of a passenger train from Norwich was unable to control the brakes, and the engine dashing into the station, knocked down the buffer stops, ran through the end platform, and, crashing into the lavatories and porter’s room, demolished the outer wall of the station, and came to a standstill when partly in the public street.  A young man named John Cook was killed.  At the inquest a verdict of accidental death was returned, and at the subsequent Board of Trade inquiry the engine-driver was exonerated of blame.

9.—St. Giles’ Hall, Norwich, originally opened as a skating rink, and afterwards used as a variety hall and theatre, was on this date opened for the summer season as a circus by Mr. Stoodley.

11.—The Summer Show of the Norfolk Agricultural Association was opened at East Dereham, when the entries were larger than on any previous occasion.  Mr. R. T. Gurdon was president.

15.—The Norwich Artillery Volunteers paraded for the first time in their new uniform.  The regulation scarlet facings and helmet of the Royal Artillery had been substituted for the white facings and busby previously worn.

17.—The Prince of Wales visited Norwich, for the purpose of laying the foundation-stone of the new Norfolk and Norwich Hospital.  The visit was of a semi-private character.  His Royal Highness, who was received at Thorpe Station by the Mayor (Mr. Harry Bullard), the Sheriff (Mr. Donald Steward), the Earl of Leicester, Lord Suffield, and Lord Carrington, proceeded to the site of the new building, and having performed the ceremony, returned to the station and travelled by special train to Yarmouth.  The cost of the new Hospital was originally estimated at £35,500, but the Board of Governors subsequently decided to purchase adjoining property, at an additional outlay of £5,000.  The Board afterwards adopted a building design jointly prepared by Mr. T. H. Wyatt, of London, and Mr. Edward Boardman, of Norwich, and accepted the tender of Messrs. Lacey and Co. for the completion of the work.  (See June 30th, 1881.)

—The Prince of Wales arrived at Yarmouth, and on the 18th inspected the Prince of Wales’ Own Norfolk Artillery.  His Royal Highness left on the morning of the 19th.  On both evenings of his stay in the town, the Prince attended performances given by the Gaiety Company at the Theatre Royal.

27.—At a special meeting of the Norwich Town Council, Mr. J. H. Tillett moved, “That this Council objects to the proposed schemes of the Charity Commissioners, particularly to those relating to the Boys’ Hospital and the Girls’ Hospital Schools, on the ground that educational and other funds given expressly and emphatically for the benefit of the poor are thereby diverted from their proper objects, and applied to the increase of the endowments in middle and upper schools, which schools, if in need, should be helped otherwise than at the expense of the poor.”  The motion was adopted, and the Parliamentary and Bylaw Committee were requested to prepare a petition against the scheme.  A Common Hall was held on July 16th, at which resolutions were adopted expressing dissatisfaction with the scheme; and at a meeting of the Town Council, on August 26th, the Parliamentary and Bylaws Committee, in a draft report upon the scheme, urged that to apply grants originally given for the maintenance, education, and p. 300advancement of the children of the poor, in aid of the Grammar and Commercial Schools, or either of them, would involve a misappropriation of the funds and a violation of the intentions of the founders.  (See October 24th, 1882.)

JULY.

3.—At the Norfolk county magistrates’ meeting, a report was received from the Committee of Visitors that several serious cases of erysipelas, sore throat, and diarrhoea had occurred at Thorpe Asylum, “and it would appear that the very offensive smell which pervades the Asylum whenever the wind blows from the Sewage Farm on the opposite side of the river is the cause of the above-named epidemics.”

4.—In the House of Commons, Mr. C. S. Read supported, in a long and able speech, Mr. Chaplin’s motion, for a Royal Commission to enquire into the depressed condition of the agricultural interest.

6.—Died at the Vyne, Basingstoke, Mr. W. L. Wiggett Chute, aged 79, formerly of Pickenham Hall, near Swaffham.  He was called to the Bar by the Middle Temple in 1827, in which year he assumed, by Royal licence, the additional name and arms of Chute, on inheriting the estates of that ancient family in Hampshire and Norfolk.  He was elected with Sir William Bagge in the Conservative interest at the General Election of 1837, and held the seat until 1847, when he retired.  In 1837 he married Martha, second daughter of Mr. Theophilus Russell Buckworth, of Cockley Cley.

9.—A “silver cradle,” in the form of a massive epergne, was presented by the Corporation to the Mayor of Norwich (Mr. Harry Bullard), “in commemoration of the birth of his daughter, Hilda May, on May 13th, 1879.”

11.—Died at Kett’s Castle Villa, Mousehold, Norwich, Mr. John Berney Ladbrooke.  Born in 1803, he was a son of Robert Ladbrooke, painter and drawing master, and nephew of Old Crome, whose pupil he became after he had received rudimentary instruction from his father.  “Crome’s influence is traced in nearly all his pictures, although of late years in tone and colour they more closely resemble the best works of Henry Bright.  He especially excelled in the representation of woodland scenery.”  As a drawing master Ladbrooke was much valued.

12.—Died at Norwich, Mr. John Withers Dowson.  A son of Mr. Benjamin Dowson, merchant, of Geldeston, he was born in 1800.  Educated at Norwich Grammar School, he was articled to a London firm of solicitors, and afterwards commenced practice in Norwich.  The pursuit of professional emolument was, however, less an object with him than the furtherance of the education and the improvement of those around him, especially the poor, and probably no one in the city or county had in his time done more practical work in the cause of education.

14.—An inter-county bicycle race, between Norfolk and Suffolk cyclists, was ridden from Ipswich to Norwich.  The competitors started from Ipswich at 3.5 p.m., and the race was won by Popplewell, of Ipswich, who arrived at the Boileau fountain, Norwich, at 6.5 p.m.  Morgan, of Yarmouth, was second.  The distance ridden was forty-three miles.

p. 30115.—An important question affecting the boundary of the city came before the Norwich Town Council.  The Town Clerk reported that, in the preparation of the Ordnance Survey, a question had arisen as to whether two pieces of land, one containing about 38 acres, situate in the parish of Catton, and the other of about 45 acres, with 150 houses thereon, situate in the parish of Sprowston, should not be included within the Parliamentary and municipal boundary of the city and county of the city of Norwich.  On investigating the matter, it appeared that, by the charter of Philip and Mary, granted to the city in 1556, these two inclosures of land were clearly defined as being within the city boundary, and by several ancient manuscripts and books, including Blomefield’s “History of Norfolk,” reference was also made to these lands as belonging to the city.  It also appeared by the report of the Commissioners appointed to report on the boundaries of boroughs and corporate towns, by order of the House of Commons, on April 25th, 1837, that such lands were within the city jurisdiction, and a plan attached to such report corroborated the fact.  The matter being important, and the Town Clerk having been requested to state whether the city authorities were willing in the new survey to allow such lands to be shown as forming part of the county of Norfolk, it was referred to the Parliamentary and Bylaws Committee, for further investigation and consideration.  On August 26th, the Committee reported that they had consulted the Town Clerk and Major Jones, of the Ordnance Survey, had referred to extracts from charters and from Blomefield, and had resolved that sufficient evidence had not been produced to set forth where the boundary of the city of Norwich should be drawn, and that, therefore, they left Major Jones to define it as he might think best, without prejudice to the rights of any party.

19.—The 3rd and 4th Battalions of Norfolk Rifle Volunteers went into camp on Yarmouth South Denes.  Colonel Bulwer, who had succeeded Colonel Duff, was in command of the 3rd Battalion, and Lieut.-Colonel Gurdon commanded the 4th Battalion.

20.—Owing to a heavy and continuous downpour of rain and a strong wind blowing from the north-west, the waters of the Yare were “backed up,” overflowed the banks of the river, and submerged many thousand acres of marshes between Norwich and Yarmouth.  Most of the hay crop in Norfolk was ruined by the wet weather.

23.—A silver epergne was presented to Mr. E. H. H. Combe, Mayor of Yarmouth, as a “silver cradle,” to commemorate the birth of a daughter in his year of office.

26.—Particulars were published on this date of the establishment of the Norwich Steam Laundry and Public Baths, at North Heigham.

27.—A remarkable landslip occurred at Attleborough.  As Mr. Gathergood, a farmer, whose land lay partly in Attleborough and Rockland, was crossing a turnip field, he was stunned by a loud report resembling the roar of a cannon, immediately followed by a rustling noise within a yard or two of him.  On recovering his presence of mind, he discovered that a space of land twenty-four yards in circumference had sunk out of sight, and water was rising in its stead.  On the 28th the water subsided, and revealed a chasm from thirty-five to forty feet deep, with perfectly perpendicular sides.  This strange phenomenon was attributed to the action of the heavy rainfall.

p. 302AUGUST.

2.—A terrible thunderstorm and hurricane commenced in the night and prevailed during the early hours of the morning of the 3rd (Sunday).  It was accompanied by a deluge of rain and a heavy hailstorm.  Great damage was done to property in city and county.  But the greatest calamity was the destruction of Wells church, the tower of which was struck by lightning at 5.50 a.m. on the 3rd.  The roof of the nave was soon in flames, and fell in with a crash, and by nine o’clock the whole church was reduced to a state of utter ruin.  The fine peal of bells was totally destroyed, and the entire damage was estimated at from £10,000 to £15,000.  (See April 18th, 1883.)

4.—Died at Oxford Street, Unthank’s Road, Norwich, Mr. Thomas William Bond, in his 76th year.  Mr. Bond was some time subeditor, and afterwards publisher, of the “Norfolk News,” and before removing to Norwich kept a school at Barton Mills, near Stoke Ferry.  He was the compiler of a small book for children, known as “Bond’s Catechism,” which was published by Jarrold, and for many years extensively used in all parts of the country.

5.—Died at the residence of his son, Belmont House, Newport, Essex, Zachariah Buck, Mus. Doc.  He was born at Norwich on September 19th, 1798, and at an early age attracted the attention of Dr. Beckwith, the then organist of the Cathedral, who took him into the choir.  Dr. Beckwith died in 1809, and was succeeded as organist by his son, Mr. John Beckwith, with whom young Buck continued, and to whom he was articled.  On the death of Beckwith, in 1819, Buck, at the early age of twenty-one, succeeded in obtaining the appointment of Cathedral organist, his chief competitor being Alfred Pettet, a fellow-pupil, who was appointed to St. Peter Mancroft.  Buck soon obtained a large and lucrative practice as a teacher, and established his reputation as a trainer of boys.  For nearly forty years he continued to perform the active duties of organist and choirmaster, but during the last twenty years of his life he relinquished the organ to his subsequent assistant and partner, Dr. Bunnett.  Besides instructing during his long career some 7,000 amateur pupils, Dr. Buck trained a very large number of professional students, most of whom were selected from his choir.  He composed no great work, but was the author of a number of pleasing anthems, and of the hymn, “Come hither, angel tongues invite,” which, it was understood, gained for him his Lambeth degree of Doctor of Music, conferred upon him by the Archbishop of Canterbury.  He resigned, on June 5th, 1877, his appointment at the Cathedral, after seventy years’ connection therewith.  Dr. Buck was twice married—first to Miss Hansell, and secondly to Miss Holloway, and left three sons.

11.—The British, Archæological Association opened its congress at Yarmouth.  Lord Waveney, as president, delivered an inaugural address.  The members of the Congress visited Norwich on the 18th.

26.—Mr. C. S. Read, M.P., having declined the invitation of the Government to become a member of the Royal Commission appointed to enquire into the depressed state of agriculture and its causes, and believing that he could serve farmers better another way, sailed on this date from Liverpool for America, in the City of Montreal liner, in company with Mr. Albert Pell, M.P.  The object of the hon. gentlemen p. 303was to collect, in the United States, information conducive to the inquiry, and this duty they undertook as unpaid assistant commissioners.  They made a tour through the Western agricultural regions of Manitoba, Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Kentucky, went south-west to Texas, and returned to Philadelphia on November 26th.  They thoroughly examined the system of cultivation, transportation, and ocean shipment of provisions and grain; they travelled an average of 120 miles each day, besides making minute investigations; and in this work they were greatly assisted by the St. Paul and Sioux City Railway, who gave them the use of a special train for a week.  They examined the terminal and shipping facilities of the Pennsylvania railroad, the American steamship line at Philadelphia, and the Abbatoir Company’s arrangements for the shipping of live and dead meat.  After visiting Baltimore, Washington, and New York, Mr. Read and Mr. Pell sailed for home on December 10th.  Mr. Read arrived in Norfolk on December 22nd, and was welcomed at Wymondham station by Mrs. Read and several personal friends.

26.—The Town Clerk reported, at a meeting of the Norwich Town Council, that the Norwich Improvement Act received the Royal assent on July 22nd.  Among the works which it enabled the city to undertake was to remove Foundry Bridge and construct a new one forty-five feet wide; to build a bridge across the Wensum at St. Martin-at-Oak, and to exercise increased powers in the sanitary administration and local government of the city.

30.—The death was announced, at Brussels, of Lord Gordon of Drumearn, who, when Lord Advocate for Scotland, in 1867, was returned as member of Parliament for the borough of Thetford.

SEPTEMBER.

16.—The Norwich Town Council adopted a resolution authorising the paving of the Provision Market with wood, at a cost not exceeding £1,100.  (See August 31st, 1880.)

—The improvement of Chapel Field, Norwich, was, after many delays, ordered by the Town Council to be undertaken, at a sum not exceeding £1,000, the cost to be charged to the sanitary rate.  On November 7th the Mayor and Mayoress (Mr. and Mrs. Bullard) and Mrs. Donald Steward planted the first of the new trees.  (See November 4th, 1880.)

OCTOBER.

6.—Died at Norwich, in his 70th year, the Rev. William Grigson, M.A., for thirty-three years rector of Whinburgh and Westfield.  A son of Mr. Edward Harvey Grigson, of Saham Toney, he was educated at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, and married, in 1844, Margaret, third daughter of Mr. James Hales, of Norwich.  The first of his ancestors to settle in the county was the Rev. William Grigson, M.A., rector of Hardingham, in 1584, and since that period they have continued to reside in Norfolk, where they once held a large extent of landed property.  Mr. Grigson’s favourite studies were archæology p. 304and genealogy.  As an authority upon the latter, his assistance was sought from all parts of the kingdom, and his name will always be remembered in connection with the “Visitations of Norfolk,” of which work he was a joint editor.

15.—Died at the Chantry, Norwich, in his 77th year, Mr. G. Pinson, formerly Governor of Norwich Castle.

28.—Died at Knapton House, Sir Henry Robinson, K.B., in his 76th year.  He was a son of Mr. George Robinson, and served for some years in her Majesty’s Bodyguard of Gentlemen-at-Arms, of which he was appointed Standard-Bearer in 1840, and Lieutenant-Commanding in 1845.  In 1842 he married Lucy, daughter of Mr. W. D. Cooper-Cooper, of Toddington Manor, Bedford.

NOVEMBER.

6.—The Norwich Diocesan Conference was opened at Noverre’s Rooms, Norwich, under the presidency of the Lord Bishop.  The proceedings were continued on the 7th.

10.—The Norwich Town Council, owing to political differences, were unable to elect a Mayor.  Mr. Willis was nominated and declared elected, but refused to take office.  Mr. Philip Back having been appointed Sheriff, the meeting was adjourned until the 22nd, when the Liberal party declining to nominate, Colonel Bignold proposed Mr. Samuel Newman, who refused to accept the position.  Another adjournment was made to the 28th, when Mr. Harry Bullard declared his readiness, by accepting the office for another year, to relieve the city of the stigma cast upon it.  The meeting then adjourned until December 2nd, when Mr. Bullard was re-elected.

18.—Mr. Frank Buckland and Mr. Spencer Walpole, Inspectors of Fisheries, opened an inquiry at Cromer as to an application for an Order prohibiting either entirely or subject to such exceptions and restrictions as the Board of Trade might determine, the fishing for and taking of small edible crabs and berried hen lobsters.  A similar inquiry was held at Sheringham on the 19th.

20.—The Norwich Fat Cattle Show was opened at Chapel Field, and was continued on the 21st and 22nd.

DECEMBER.

3.—Died at Westbourne Terrace, Hyde Park, London, Mr. John Unthank.  The third son of Mr. William Unthank, of Norwich, a solicitor in considerable practice and agent to Mr. Coke, afterwards Earl of Leicester, he was born in 1798.  In 1842 he was called to the Bar at Lincoln’s Inn, and joined the Northern Circuit, where, for several years, he practised as a special pleader.  In 1859 he was appointed a Master of the Court of Queen’s Bench, and held the post until 1878, when he retired, in consequence of ill-health.

7.—Died at 18, Bethel Street, Norwich, Mr. Frederick Lawrence Phillips, journalist, for many years editor and part proprietor of the “Norwich Argus.”  Mr. Phillips, who was sixty years of age, was p. 305originally intended for the legal profession, but took to the stage, upon which he achieved fair success, and married Miss Ellen Daly, a prominent actress of her day.  An unfortunate accident, while playing Rob Roy, at Norwich Theatre, terminated his hope of advancement in the theatrical profession.  Confined to his couch for some time, he employed himself in the study of languages, and subsequently devoted himself to the translation of tales and dramas, and to the production of original dramatic works.

9.—The Rev. Osborne W. Tancock, M.A., of Exeter College, Oxford, seventeen years master at Sherborne School, was appointed master of Norwich Grammar School, in place of the Rev. Dr. Jessopp, on his presentation to the rectory of Scarning.

18.—The marriage of William Heveagre Legge, Viscount Lewisham, Member of Parliament for West Kent, eldest son of the Earl of Dartmouth, with Lady Mary Coke, fourth daughter of the Earl of Leicester, took place at Holkham.

25.—Died at Threxton, aged 68, Mr. Thomas Edward Walter Barton.  The Watton and Thetford Railway was originated mainly through Mr. Barton’s instrumentality.  His favourite study was archæology, and he possessed a valuable antiquarian collection and library.

26.—The Christmas pantomime produced at Norwich Theatre by Mr. R. Hall was entitled, “Aladdin the Great.”

27.—Died at his residence, Upper Surrey Street, Norwich, aged 68, Mr. Thomas Brightwell, a well-known solicitor, and clerk to the Charity Trustees, in which office he was succeeded by Mr. E. S. Bignold.

1880.

JANUARY.

17.—Died at St. Giles’ Street, Norwich, in his 63rd year, Mr. Arthur Morris Foster Morgan, surgeon.  He was third son of Mr. Richard Morgan, actuary of the Norwich Union Life Insurance Society, and after completing his professional studies was appointed medical-officer of the Norwich Dispensary, a post which he relinquished on entering into private practice.  Mr. Morgan was president of the Board of Directors of the Norwich Equitable Fire Insurance Company, and held several other public appointments.  For twenty years he was a member of the Corporation, and for some time was an alderman of the city.  In polities he was a Liberal.

FEBRUARY.

12.—Died at his residence, Stradsett Hall, near Downham Market, Sir William Bagge, Bart., M.P.  One of twins born on June 17th, 1810, he was a son of Mr. Thomas Philip Bagge, and priority of birth entitled him to the family estates, to which he succeeded on the death of his father, on June 30th, 1827.  In 1833 he married Frances, p. 306fourth daughter of Sir Thomas Preston, Bart., of Beeston Hall, and two years after made his entry into public life by acceding to a request to contest the Parliamentary representation of West Norfolk, which had hitherto been in undisturbed possession of the Whigs.  In this first attempt to break down the political monopoly exercised in the division Mr. Bagge was unsuccessful; three years subsequently, however, he and Mr. Chute were returned.  In 1841 he and his colleague were returned unopposed.  In 1847 the Liberals made another attempt, and succeeded in electing one of their candidates, the Hon. E. K. Coke, but were unable to displace Mr. Bagge from his position.  In 1852 Mr. Bagge was joined by Mr. G. W. P. Bentinck, and the contest resulted in an easy victory over Mr. Hamond.  It was deemed advisable by both sides in 1857 to have a compromise, and Mr. Bagge, “from private reasons, and a desire not to disturb the peace of the county,” retired to make room for Mr. Gurdon, who, with Mr. Bentinck, thereafter represented the division.  At the General Election in 1865 the Conservatives resolved to take the entire representation, and Mr. Bentinck’s state of health not allowing him to undertake the fatigue of a contest, Mr. Bagge was asked to come forward with the Hon. T. de Grey.  The result was a large increase of Conservative strength and the return of both candidates.  In 1867 the honour of a baronetcy was conferred upon Mr. Bagge, in recognition of his valuable political services.  Sir William was succeeded by his eldest son, William Henry Ernest, who was born in 1840.

14.—A public meeting was held at St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich, for the purpose of making known in the county the aims and objects of the Farmers’ Alliance.  Mr. Henry Birkbeck presided, and it was asserted that the society was non-political.  “Everything passed smoothly until the hon. member for South Norfolk, Mr. C. S. Read, ventured to take a different view from that of preceding speakers, and he was subjected to persistent interruption by certain well-known Liberal politicians.”  Mr. J. Howard, president of the Alliance, and Mr. J. W. Barclay, M.P. for Forfarshire, were among the speakers.

17.—Two monster pike were captured in private waters in the county.  One, taken by Mr. Joseph English, of Upper St. Giles’ Street, Norwich, weighed 30½ lbs., and measured from the nose to the fork of the tail nearly 46 inches; its girth was 24 inches, and the length of its head 13 inches.  The other, killed by Mr. Frank Thorns, of Exchange Street, Norwich, was 47 inches in length, and 27 inches in girth; its head from the tip of the lower jaw to the edge of the gill covers was 13½ inches.

21.—Died at Yarmouth, Mr. James Henry Orde.  He was born in Jersey, graduated at Oriel College, Oxford, and was appointed a clerk in the War Office through the influence of his uncle, Lord Raglan.  Mr. Orde was appointed private secretary to General Peele, Secretary of State for War, and held that office until 1859, when he went to Yarmouth, and devoted himself to public affairs in that town.  He married Margaret Barclay, fourth daughter of Mr. Daniel Gurney, of North Runcton.

24.—Died at Ber Street, Norwich, Mr. Samuel Richardson, aged 73.  He was well-known in scientific circles as a geologist and antiquary, and as a contributor to various periodicals.

25.—Died at his residence, the Upper Close, Norwich, Dr. Edward p. 307Copeman.  For nearly half a century he occupied a prominent position in the medical profession of East Anglia.  The eldest son of Mr. Edward Breese Copeman, merchant, he was born at Great Witchingham on December 26th, 1809, and was educated at Trunch Grammar School, then conducted by the Rev. W. Rees.  He became a pupil of Mr. Arthur Brown, of Norwich, on whose death he was transferred to Mr. J. G. Crosse; he subsequently studied at St. George’s Hospital, London, and became M.R.C.S. and L.A.C. in 1832.  Soon afterwards he was elected house-surgeon of the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, which institution he left to enter into general practice with Mr. W. Taylor, at Coltishall.  In 1848 he returned to Norwich, and, having graduated as M.D. at Aberdeen University, established himself in consulting practice.  Dr. Copeman was afterwards elected a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, became a member of the Royal College of Physicians, and in 1871 was made a Fellow of that body.  In 1851 he was elected physician of the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital; he was also physician to the Norwich Eye Infirmary, the Norwich Magdalen, and the Lying-in Charity, and was one of the founders of the Jenny Lind Infirmary for Sick Children, of which institution he was the first physician.  Dr. Copeman was a magistrate of the city and a trustee of Doughty’s Hospital.  A frequent contributor to the medical literature of the day, he was the author of several standard works, among which were “A Treatise on Apoplexy,” “Records of Obstetric Practice,” “Illustrations of Puerperal Fever,” “Cerebral Diseases of Infancy,” “A History of the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital,” &c.

MARCH.

6.—A disastrous fire occurred at New Buckenham, in a range of shops and private houses.  Damage was done to the amount of £3,000.

8.—Mr. William Amhurst Tyssen-Amherst was returned unopposed as the representative of the division of West Norfolk, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Sir William Bagge, Bart., M.P.

16.—At a meeting of the Norwich Town Council, the Town Clerk reported the receipt of a letter from the Home Office, informing him that the old City Gaol had been sold for £7,505, a