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Index

ABBOTT, Mr., on spiders, 36
Aborigines banished from Van Diemen's Land, 475
of Australia, 430 to 458
Abrolhos Islands, 9, 14
Absence of trees in Pampas, 48
Aconcagua, volcano of, 269, 294, 312
Actinia, stinging species, 494
Africa, Southern part desert, yet supports large animals, 89
Ageronia feronia, 39
Agouti, habits of, 72
Ague common in Peru, 389
Albemarle Island, , 420
Allan, Dr., on Diodon, 14
on Holuthuriæ, 494
Alluvium, saliferous, in Peru, 367
stratified, in Andes, 333
Amblyrhynchus, 401, 411
Anas, species of, 210
Animalculæ. See Infusoria
Antarctic islands, 263
Antipodes, 444
Ants at Keeling Island, 485
in Brazil, 36
Antuco volcano, 311
Apires, or miners 364
Aplysia, 6, 493
Apple-trees, 318
Aptenodytes demersa, 209
Araucanian Indians, 66
Areas of alternate movements in the Pacific and Indian oceans, 480
Armadilloes, habits of, 110
fossil animals allied to, 137, 164
Arqueros mines, 369
Arrow-heads, ancient, 109, 381
Ascension, 522, 538
Aspalax, blindness of, 53
Athene cunicularia, 73, 132
Atolls, 490, 495
Attagis, 98
Atwater, Mr., on the prairies, 124
Audubon, M., on smelling-power of carrion-hawks, 195
Australia, 459
Australian barrier, 499
group of weapons, 480
Ava (Macropiper methysticum), 428, 436
Azara on spiders, 39
on rain in La Plata, 49
on habits of carrion-hawks, 58
on range of carrion-hawks, 60
on a thunder-storm, 65
on ostrich-eggs, 95
on bows and arrows, 110
on new plants springing up, 125
on great droughts, 142
on hydrophobia, 378

BACHMAN, Mr., on carrion-hawks, 195
Bahia Blanca, 50, 70, 77 to 110
fossil tooth of horse from, 138
Bahia, Brazil, 11
scenery of, 526
Bajada, 136
Balbi on coral reefs, 499
Bald Head, Australia, 479
Ballenar, Chile, 373
Banda Oriental, 48, 152, 158, 186
Banks's Hill, 221
Barking-bird, 307
Barrier-reef, Bolabola,
reefs, sections of, 500
Basaltic platform of Santa Cruz, 182
Bathurst, Australia, 470
Batrachian reptiles, 101
Bats, vampire, 22, 23
Bay of Islands, New Zealand, 444
Beads, hill of, 158
Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego, 230
Beech-trees, 251, 292
Beetles in brackish water, 22
on a fungus, 32
alive in sea, 168
at St. Julian, 180
dung-feeders, 520, 521
Behring's Straits, fossils of, 140
Bell of Quillota, 270
Benchuca, 352
Berkeley Sound, 199, 214
Rev. J., on Confervæ, 15
on Cyttaria, 250
Berquelo river, 158
Bibron, M., 407
Bien te veo, 56
Birds of the Galapagos Archipelago, 405
tameness of, 424
Birgos latro, 492, 512
Bizcacha, habits of, 73, 130, 273
Blackheath, Australia, 466
Blackwall, Mr., on spiders, 171
Blindness of tucutuco, 53
Blue Mountains, 465
Body, frozen, 93, 263
Bolabola, barrier-reef, 498, 504
Bolas, manner of using, 46, 117
Bombs, volcanic, 524
Bones of the guanaco collected in certain spots, 177
fire made of, 205
recent in Pampas, 142
fossil, 86, 134, 137, 164, 182
Bory St. Vincent on frogs, 407
Boulders, 197, 262
Bramador, El, 358
Brazil, great area of granite, 12
Brazilian whips, etc., 75
Breaches in coral reefs, 502
Breakwater of seaweed, 253
Brewster, Sir D., on a calcareous deposit, 10
Bridge of hide, 334
of Incas, 357, 380, 394
Buckland, Dr., on fossils, 140
Buenos Ayres, 127
trading at, 111
evening camp, 128
bullock-waggons, 150
Buffon on American Animals, 183
Bug of Pampas, 352
Buildings, Indian, 381 to 383, 394
Bulimus on desert places, 371
Burchell, Mr., on food of quadrupeds, 91
on ostrich-eggs, 95
on perforated stones, 285
Butterflies, flocks of, 167
Butterfly producing clicking sound, 34
Button, Jemmy, 218
Byron's account of fox of Falklands, 204
on an Indian killing his child, 228

CABBAGE PALM, 26
Cacti, 174, 278, 399
Cactornis, 405, 424
Cactus, Cereus Peruviana, 278
Calasoma on wing out at sea, 168
Calcareous casts of branches and roots of trees at King George's Sound, 479
incrustations on rocks of Ascension, 9
Callao, 389, 391
Calodera, 132
Calomys bizcacha, 130
Camarhynchus, 405, 424
Camelidæ, fossil animal allied to, 182
Cancer salinus, 69
Canis antarcticus, 204
fulvipes, 287
Cape Horn, 222, 223
False Horn, 229, 243
of Good Hope, 91
Capybara, or carpincho, 40, 51, 182, 307
fossil allied to, 87
Caracara, or Carrancha, 57
Cardoon, beds of, 125, 157
Carizal, 371
Carmichael, Capt., 426
Carrion-hawks, 59, 126, 195
Casarita, 99
Cassava, 23
Castro, Chiloe, 296, 315
old church at, 291
Casuchas, 358
Catamaran, 18
Cathartes, 60, 195
Cats run wild, 123, 523
good to eat, 123
scratch trees, 144
cruelty to mice, 209
Cattle, effects of their grazing on the vegetation, 124
killed by great droughts, 142, 156
know each other, 155
curious breed of, 155
waste of, 158
wild at the Falkland Islands, 200, 203
Caucahue, 295
Cauquenes, hot springs of, 281
Causes of extinction of species among mammalia, 182
of discoloured sea, 15
Cavia Patagonica, 72
Cawa-Cawa, New Zealand, 456
Caylen, 298
Cervus campestris, 50
Ceryle Americana, 147
Chacao, Chiloe, 293
Chagos atolls, 508
Chalk-like mud, 494
Chamisso on drifted seeds and trees, 484, 491
on coral reefs, 496
Changes in vegetation of Pampas, 126
in vegetation of St. Helena, 519
Charles Island, 400, 420
Chatham Island, 399, 420
Cheese, salt required for, 68
Cheucau, 297, 307
Chile, 268, 271, 274
features of country, 270
Chilenos, 194, 337
Chilian miner, 277
spurs, stirrup, etc, 290
vegetation, 359
Chiloe, 291
old church at castro, 291
forests of, and climate, 292
inhabitants of, 292, 294
roads of, 293, 313, 314
Gunnera scabra, 310
Chionis alba, 98
Cholechel, conflict at, 109
Chonos Archipelago, 300, 304
climate of, 292
zoology of, 306
ornithology of, 307
Chupat, Rio, 110
Chuzo, 66
Cicada homoptera, 529
Cladonia, 387
Clearness of atmosphere within Andes, in Chile, 271
Climate of Tierra del Fuego and Falkland Islands, 257
Antarctic Islands, 263
change of, in Chile, 382
Galapagos, 397
Clouds of vapour after rain, 25
on Corcovado, 30
hanging low, 389
at sea, 429
Coloeoptera in Tropics, 35
out at sea, 168
of St. Julian, 180
Colias edusa, flocks of, 168
Colnett, Capt., on spawn in sea, 17
on a marine lizard, 411
on transport of seeds, 418
Colonia del Sacramiento, 153
Colorado, Rio, 73
Compound animals, 211
Concepcion, Chile, 325
Conchalee, 362
Condor, habits of, 193, 196, 287
(Sarcorhamphus gryphus), 187
Confervæ, pelagic, 15
Conglomerate on the Ventana, 113
in Cordillera, 342
Conurus, 147
Convicts of Mauritius, 514
condition, in New South Wales, 473
Cook, Capt., on kelp, 253
Copiapó, river and valley of, 366, 370, 375, 385
town of, 374, 378
Coquimbo, 22, 365
Coral formations, 429, 502 to 509
stinging species of, 493
reefs, sections of, 502, 508
dead, 508
Corallines, 207
Corals, 507
Corcovado, clouds on, 30
volcano, 304
Cordillera, appearance of, 269, 292, 337
different productions on east and west side, 345
passage of, 334
structure of valleys, 335
rivers of, 338
geology of, 339, 354, 355
valley of Copiapó, 385
mountains, 435
Cormorant catching fish, 209
Corral, where animals are slaughtered at Buenos Ayres, 127
Corrientes, Cape, 168
Corrobery, or native Australian dance, 479
Corunda, 135
Coseguina, eruption of, 312, 376
Countries, unhealthy, 389
Couthouy, Mr., on coral-reefs, 504
Crabberies, 83
Crabs, hermit species of, 486
at St. Paul's, 10
at Keeling Island, 492
Craters, number of, at the Galapagos Archipelago, 398
of Elevation, 515
Crisia, 211
Cruelty to animals, 162
Crustacea, pelagic, 171
Ctenomys Brasiliensis, 52
fossil species of, 86
Cucao, Chiloe, 315
Cuckoo-like habits of Molothrus, 55
Cudico, mission at, 320
Cuentas, Sierra de, 158
Cufre, 153
Cumbre of Cordillera, 358
Cuming, Mr., on shells, 416, 520
Cuttlefish, habits of, 7
Cuvier on Diodon, 14
Cynara cardunculus, 125
Cyttaria Darwinii, 250, 251

DACELO IAGOENSIS, 2
Dasypus, three species of, 100
Deer, 50, 139
Degradation of tertiary formations, 368
Deinornis, 455
Deserts, 371, 384
Desmodus, 22
Despoblado, valley of, 379
Dieffenbach, Dr., E., 2
on Auckland Island, 259, 464
Diodon, habits of, 13
Discoloured sea, 15
Diseases from miasma, 389, 464
Distribution of mammalia in America, 138
of animals on opposite sides of Cordillera, 348
of frogs, 407
of Fauna of Galapagos, 419
Dobrizhoffer on ostriches, 98
on a hail-storm, 122
Docks, imported, 455
Dogs, shepherd, 159
Dolichonyx oryzivorus, 404
D'Orbigny, Travels in South America, 81, 97, 125, 137, 159, 177
Doris, eggs of, 211
Dormidor, or horse-tamer, 160
Doubleday, Mr., on a noise made by a butterfly, 34
Drigg, lightning tubes at, 61
Droughts, great, in Pampas, 141
Dryness of St. Jago, 4
of winds in Tierra del Fuego, 245
of air in Cordillera, 348
Dubois, 407
Dung-feeding beetles, 520, 521
Dust, falling from atmosphere, 5

EARTHENWARE, fossil, 394
Earthquake, accompanied by an elevation of the coast, 331
accompanied by rain, 375
at Callao, 393
at Concepcion, 325
at Coquimbo, 366
at Keeling and Vanikoro, and Society Islands, 504
at Valdivia, 322
causes of, 330
effect of, on springs, 281
on bottom of sea, 327
effects of, on rocks, 274, 324
effects of, on sea, 323, 324, 325
effects of, on a river-bed, 381
line of vibration of, 328
on S.W. coast, 260
tossing fragments from the ground, 208
twisting movement of, 328
Eggs of Doris, 211
Ehrenberg, Prof., on Atlantic dust, 5
on infusoria in Pampas, 87, 137
in the open sea, 172
in Patagonia, 180
in Fuegian paint, 234
in coral mud, 494
in tuff at Ascension, 525
on phosphorescence of the sea, 172
on noises from a hill, 385
Eimeo, island of, 432; barrier-reef, 433
Elater, springing powers of, 32
Electricity of atmosphere within Andes, 348
Elephant, weight of, 91
Elevated shells, 89, 136, 180, 266, 313, 331, 367, 393
Elevation of coasts of Chile, 266, 313, 323, 331, 355, 367, 381
Bahia Blanca, 87
Pampas, 137
Patagonia, 180, 395
mountain-chains, 333
Cordillera, 338, 343, 354
Peru, 393
within human period, 395
fringing-reefs, 508
Entomology of the Galapagos Archipelago, 407, 418, 420
Brazil, 34
Patagonia, 180, 349
Tierra del Fuego, 253
Keeling Island, 485
St. Helena, 520
Entre Rios, geology of, 132
Epeira, habits of, 37 to 39
Erratic blocks, how transported, 262
absent in intertropical countries, 263
on plains of Santa Cruz, 196
of Tierra del Fuego, 262
Estancia, value of, 154
Extermination of species and races, 183, 462, 469, 476
Extinction of shells at St. Helena, 520
of species, causes of, 183
of man in New South Wales, 462, 476
Eyes of tucutuco and mole, 53
Eyre Sound, 260

FALCONER, Dr., on the Sivatherium, 155
on the Indians, 109
on rivers in Pampas, 112
on natural enclosures, 122
Falkland Islands, 199
absence of trees at, 48
carrion-hawks of, 57
wild cattle and horses of, 200
fox of, 204
climate of, 257
peat of, 305
tame birds at, 424
Fat, quantity eaten, 123
Fatahua fall, 436
Fear an acquired instinct, 426
Februa Hoffmanseggi, butterfly, 35
Fennel run wild, 125
Ferguson, Dr., on miasma, 390
Fernando Noronha, 2, 11, 173, 399
Ferns, tree, 259, 477
Fields of dead coral, 488
Fire, art of making, 205, 436
Fireflies, 31
Fish emitting harsh sound, 144
of Galapagos, 416
eating coral, 494
Flamingoes, 69
Fleas, 369
Floods after droughts, 142
clear after snow, 341
Flora of the Galapagos, 399, 418, 421
of Keeling Island, 483
of St. Helena, 523
Flustraceæ, 211
Forests, absence of, in La Plata, 47
of Tierra del Fuego, 220, 250, 305
of Chiloe, 250, 299, 305, 314
of Valdivia, 319, 322
of New Zealand, 436
of Australia, 445
Fossil Mammalia, 36, 134, 137, 164, 182
earthenware, 394
Fox of the Falkland Islands, 204
of Chiloe, 299
Freyrina, 372
Friendly Archipelago, 505
Fringing reefs, 501
Frogs, noises of, 30
bladders of, 409
and toads, not found on oceanic islands, 407
Frozen soil, 93, 257
Fruit-trees, southern limit of, 250
Fucus giganteus, 254
Fuegians, 151, 218 to 243
wigwams, 151, 224
basket and bone weapons, 230
Fulgurites, 62
Fungus, edible, 250
Furnarius, 99

GALAPAGOS ARCHIPELAGO, 398
natural history of, 403
marked relationship with America, 403
zoology of, 403, 419
finches from, 405
Gale of wind, 228, 300
Gallegos river, fossil bones at, 182
Gallinazo, 60
Gauchos, 46, 160
character of, 161
live on meat, 123
surcingle of, 46
Gavia mountain, 33
Gay, M., on floating islands, 283
on shells in brackish water, 22
Geese at the Falkland Islands, 210
Geographical distribution of American animals, 138, 349
of frogs, 407
of fauna of Galapagos, 419
Geology of Cordillera, 341, 355
of St. Jago, 6
of St. Paul, 8
of Brazil, 12
of Bahia Blanca, 86
of Pampas, 136
of Patagonia, 180, 190
Georgia, climate of, 263
Geospiza, 405, 420
Gill, Mr., on an upheaved river-bed, 382
Gillies, Dr., on the Cordillera, 345
Glaciers in Tierra del Fuego, 237, 260, 261
in lat. 46° 40', 260
in Cordillera, 346
Glow-worms, 31
Goats destructive to vegetation at St. Helena, 520
bones of, 177
Goeree Roads, 230
Goître, 336
Gold-washing, 284
Good Success Bay, 214
Gossamer spider, 169
Gould, Mr., on the Calodera, 132
on birds of Galapagos, 404
Granite mountains, Tres Montes, 301
of Cordillera, 342
Graspus, 10
Gravel, how far transported, 113
of Patagonia, 78, 180
Graves of Indians, 179
Greenstone, fragments of, 274
Gregory, Cape, 245
Gryllus migratorius, 352
Guanaco, habits of, 175, 197
fossil allied genus, 182
Guantajaya, mines of, 387
Guardia del Monte, 124
Guasco, 367, 371, 375
Guasos of Chile, 275
Guava imported into Tahiti, 430
Guinea-fowl, 5, 523
Guitron, 279
Gunnera scabra, 298
Gypsum, great beds of, 342
in salt-lake, 68
in Patagonian tertiary beds, 180
at Iquique with salt, 388
at Lima with shells, 392

HACHETTE, M., on lightning-tubes, 62
Hacienda, condor, and cactus, 271
Hail-storm, 121
Hall, Captain Basil, on terraces of Coquimbo, 367
Hare, Varying, 47
Head, Captain, on thistle-beds, 125, 130
Height of snow-line on Cordillera, 259
Henslow, Prof., on potatoes, 304
on plants of Keeling Island, 483
Hermit crabs, 486
Hide bridge, 334
Hill emitting a noise, 385
Himantopus, 120
Hippah, New Zealand, 458
Hobart Town and Mount Wellington, 475
Hogoleu barrier-reef, 499
Holes made by a bird, 99
Holman on drifted seeds, 484
Holothuriæ feeding on coral, 494
Homeward bound, 531
Hooker, Sir J., on the Cardoon, 125
Dr. J. D., on the kelp, 253
on Galapageian plants, 418, 421
Horn, Cape, 223
Horner, Mr., on a calcareous deposit, 10
Horse, swimming powers of, 152
Horse, wild at the Falkland Islands, 202
fossil of extinct species of, 86, 138
Horse-fly, 180
Horsemanship of the Gauchos, 162, 206
Horses difficult to drive, 115
drop excrement on paths, 125
killed by great droughts, 141
multiplication of, 247
broken in, 160
Hot springs of Cauquenes, 281
Huacas, 394, 396
Humboldt on burnished rocks, 12
on the atmosphere in tropics, 33
on frozen soil, 93
on hybernation, 102
on potatoes, 304
on earthquakes and rain, 375
on miasma, 390, 463
Humming-birds of Rio de Janeiro, 33
of Chiloe, 289
Hurtado, 113
Hybernation of animals, 102
Hydrochærus capybara, 40, 51
Hydrophobia, 377
Hyla, 30
Hymenophallus, 34

IBIS MELANOPS, 175
Ice, prismatic structure of, 347
Icebergs, 197, 237, 260 to 267
Incas' bridge, 357, 380, 394
Incrustations on coast rocks, 9, 12
Indian fossil remains, 395
Indians, attacks of, 66, 80, 136
antiquarian relics of, 48, 109
Araucanian, 66, 321
of the Pampas, 105
decrease in numbers of, 108
grave of, 179, 198
Patagonian, 245
perforated stones used by, 285
Valdivian, 321
powers of tracking, 350
ruins of houses of, 380, 384, 392
Infection, 463
Infusoria in dust in the Atlantic, 5
in the sea, 16, 168
in the Pampas, 87, 137
in Patagonia, 180
in white paint, 234
in coral mud, 494
at Ascension, 525
Insects first colonists of St. Paul's rocks, 10
blown out to sea, 168
of Patagonia, 180, 349
of Tierra del Fuego, 253
of Galapagos, 403, 417, 419
of Keeling Island, 485
of St. Helena, 520
Instincts of birds, 96, 423
Iodine with salt at Iquique, 388
Iquique, 386
Iron, oxide of, on rocks, 12
Irregular troops, 85
Islands, oceanic, volcanic, 8
Antarctic, 263
floating, 283
Low, 429, 497

JACKSON, Col., on frozen snow, 347
Jaguar, habits of, 143
Jajuel, mines of, 276
James Island, 402, 420
Jemmy Button, 218, 233
Juan Fernandez, volcano of, 332
flora of, 418

KANGAROO-HUNTING, 469
Kater's Peak, 224
Kauri pine, 454
Keeling Island, 481
inside an atoll, 481
flora of, 483
birds of, 485, 486
entomology of, 486
subsidence of, 504
Birgos latro, 512
Kelp, or seaweed, 253, 254
Kendall, Lieut., on a frozen body, 263
Kingfishers, 2, 147
King George's Sound, 478
Kororadika, 447, 453

LABOURERS, condition of, in Chile, 285
Lagoon-islands, 429, 482, 489, 495
Lagostomus, 130
Lake, brackish, near Rio, 22
with floating islands, 283
formed during earthquake, 395
Lamarck on acquired blindness, 53
Lampyris, 31
Lancaster, Capt., on a sea-tree, 105
Land-shells, 371, 519, 520
Las Minas, 43
Lazo, 46, 160, 201
Leaves, 250
fossil, 477
Leeks in New Zealand, imported, 455
Lemuy Island, 295, 297
Lepus Magellanicus, 203
Lesson, M., on the scissor-beak, 147
on rabbit of the Falklands, 203
Lichen on loose sand, 387
Lichtenstein on ostriches, 96
Lightning storms, 63
tubes, 61
Lima, 389, 392
and San Lorenzo, 360
elevation of a river near, 383
Lime, changed by lava into crystalline rock, 6
Limnæa in brackish water, 2
Lion-ant, 470
Lizard, 102
marine species of, 407
Lizards, transport of, 404
Llama or guanaco, habits of, 175
Locusts, 351
Longevity of species in Mollusca, 87
Lorenzo, San, island of, 393
Low Archipelago, 429, 497
Luciano, story of, 117
Lumb, Mr., 158, 164
Lund, M., on antiquity of man, 382
Lund and Clausen on fossils of Brazil, 138, 183
Luxan, 130, 351
Luxuriant vegetation not necessary to support large animals, 89
Lycosa, 36
Lyell, Mr., on terraces of Coquimbo, 367
on longevity of Mollusca, 87
on change in vegetation, 126
on fossil horses' teeth, 137
on flocks of butterflies, 168
on extinct mammals and ice-period, 184
on stones twisted by earthquakes, 329
on frozen snow, 347
on distribution of animals, 349
on subsidence in the Pacific, 498

MACCULLOCH on infection, 464
Macquarie river, 471
Macrauchenia, 86, 182
Macrocystis, 253
Madrina, or godmother of a troop of mules, 336
Magdalen channel, 255
Magellan, flora of, 265
H.M.S. Beagle in Straits of, Beagle
Straits of, 229, 244
Port Famine, 246
kelp of, 267
Malays, 482
Malcolmson, Dr., on hail, 122
Maldiva atolls, 496, 505, 507
Maldonado, 41, 47, 61, 65, 145
Mammalia, fossil, 86, 134, 137, 164, 182, 183, 395
Man, antiquity of, 382
body frozen, 264
fossil remains of, 395
fear of, an acquired instinct, 427
extinction of races, 463, 476
Mandetiba, 20
Mandioca or cassava, 23, 27
Mare's flesh eaten by troops, 107
Mares killed for their hides, 163
Mastodon, 134, 137
Maté pots and Bambillio, 118
Matter, granular, movements in, 104
Mauritius, 513
Maypu river, 338
Megalonyx, 86, 139
Megatherium, 86, 88, 139
Mendoza, 352
climate of, 345
Mercedes on the Rio Negro, 156
Mexico, elevation of, 139
Miasmata, 389, 463
Mice inhabit sterile places, 384
number of, in America, 51
how transported, 307, 404
different on opposite sides of Andes, 348
of the Galapagos, 403
of Ascension, 523
Millepora, 493
Mills for grinding ores, 284
Mimosæ, 26
Mimus, 56, 420, 424
Miners, condition of, 277, 283, 362, 370
Mines, 277, 365, 369
how discovered, 340
Miranda, Commandant, 105
Missionaries at New Zealand, 446
Mitchell, Sir T., on valleys of Australia, 466
Mocking-bird, 56, 420, 424
Molina omits description of certain birds, 289
Molothrus, habits of, 54
Monkeys with prehensile tails, 29
Monte Video, 41, 151, 152
Moresby, Capt., on a great crab, 493
on coral-reefs, 509
Mount Sarmiento, 247, 256
Tarn, 249
Victoria, 47
Mountains, elevation of, 333
Movements in granular matter, 104
Mud, chalk-like, 494
disturbed by earthquake, 328
Mules, 336
Muniz, Signor, on niata cattle, 155
Murray, Mr., on spiders, 170
Mylodon, 86, 140, 164
Myopotamus Coypus, 306

NARBOROUGH ISLAND, 401
Negress with goître, 336
Negro, Rio, 65, 192
lieutenant, 78
Nepean river, 444
New Caledonia, reef of, 499, 501, 507
New Zealand, 444
Niata cattle, 155
Noises from a hill, 385
Noses, ceremony of pressing, 451
Nothura, 47
Notopod, crustacean, 171
Nulliporæ, incrustations like, 9
protecting reefs, 529

OCTOPUS, habits of, 7
Oily coating on sea, 17
Olfersia, 10
Opetiorhynchus, 425
Opuntia, 278
Darwinii, 175
Galapageia, 427
Orange-trees self-sown, 126
Ores, gold, 284
Ornithology of Galapagos, 404, 420
Ornithorhynchus, 470
Osorno, volcano of, 292, 294, 312
Ostrich, habits of, 44, 94
Ostrich's eggs, 119
Otaheite, 429
Otter, 307
Ova in sea, 17
Oven-bird, 99
Owen, Capt., on a drought in Africa, 141
Professor, on the Capybara, 51
fossil quadrupeds, 86-89, 137
nostrils of the Gallinazo, 195
Owl of Pampas, 73, 132
of Galapagos Islands, 406
Oxyurus, 252, 308
Oysters, gigantic, 180

PAINT, white, 234
Pallas on Siberia, 69
Palm-trees in La Plata, 48
south limit of, 260
in Chile, 272
Palms absent at Galapagos, 400
Pampas, halt at a pulperia on the, 64
number of embedded remains in, 165
southern limit of, 80
changes in, 130
giant thistle of, 125
not quite level, 134, 137, 153
geology of, 136, 165
view of, from the Andes, 348
Pan de Azucar, 47
Papilio feronia, 34, 39
Parana, Rio, 136, 148, 156
River, 133
islands in, 143
Parish, Sir W., on the great drought, 142
Park, Mungo, on eating salt, 116
Parrots, 147, 259
Partridges, 47
Pas, fortresss of New Zealand, 445
Passes in Cordillera, 356
Pasture altered from grazing of cattle, 124
Patagones, 65
Patagonia, geology of, 190, 349
birds of, 93
zoology of, 174, 180, 189
raised beaches, 182
Patagonian bolas, etc, 248, 249
Patagonians, Cape Gregory, 245
Paypote ravine, 383
Peach-trees self-sown, 126
Peat, formation of, 305
Pebbles perforated, 158, 285
transported in roots of trees, 491
Pelagic animals in southern ocean, 172
Penas, glacier in Gulf of, 261
Penguin, habits of, 209
Pepsis, habits of, 36
Pernambuco, reef of, 529
Pernety on hill of ruins, 208
on tame birds, 425
Peru, 386, 396
dry valleys of, 382, 386
Peruvian pottery, 396
Petrels, habits of, 309
Peuquenes, pass of, 341
Phonolite at Fernando Noronha, 11
Phosphorescence of the sea, 172
of land insects and sea animals, 31
of a coralline, 213
Phryniscus, 101
Pine of New Zealand, 454
Plains at foot of Andes in Chile, 282, 337
almost horizontal near St. Fé, 135
Planariæ, terrestrial species of, 28
Plants of the Galapagos, 402, 418, 421
of Keeling island, 483
of St. Helena, 517
Plants, fossil, in Australia, 477
Plata, R., 40
thunderstorms of, 65
Plover, long-legged, 120
Polished rocks, Brazil, 12
Polyborus chimango, 58, 209
Braziliensis, 57
Novæ Zelandiæ, 59
Ponsonby Sound, 229, 233, 239, 241
Porpoises, 40
Port Desire, 97, 174
river of, 112, 178
St. Julian, 180
Famine, 246, 247
Jackson, 459
Portillo Pass, 335 to 352
Porto Praya, 2
Potato, wild, 304
Potrero Seco, 375
Prairies, vegetation of, 124
Prévost, M., on cuckoos, 55
Priestley, Dr., on lightning-tubes, 61
Prisoner, bringing in a, 84
Procellaria gigantea, habits of, 309
Proctotretus, 102
Proteus, blindness of, 53
Protococcus nivalis, 345
Pteroptochos, two species of, 288
species of, 297, 307
Puenta del Inca, 356, 380
Puffinuria Berardii, 309
Puffinus cinereus, 309
Puma, habits of, 144, 193, 287
flesh of, 122
Puna, or short respiration, 344
Punta Alta, Bahia Blanca, 83
Gorda, 136, 380
Huantamó, 317
Pyrophorus luminosus, 32

QUADRUPEDS, fossil, 83, 136, 141, 164, 182
large, do not require luxuriant vegetation, 89
weight of, 91
Quartz of the Ventana, 122
of Tapalguen, 122
of Falkland Island, 207
Quedius, 10
Quellaypo volcano, 312
Quilimari, 362
Quillota, valley of, 270
Quinchao Island, 296
Quintero, 270
Quiriquina Island, 324
Quoy and Gaimard on stinging corals, 493
on coral-reefs, 505

RABBIT, wild, at the Falkland Islands, 203
Rain at Coquimbo, 361, 371, 372
at Rio, 30
effects on vegetation, 361
and earthquakes, 375
in Chile, formerly more abundant, 381
in Peru, 389, 390
Rana Mascariensis, 407
Rat, only aboriginal animal of New Zealand, 455
Rats at Galapagos, 403
at Keeling Island, 485
at Ascension, 523
Rattlesnake, species with allied habit, 100
Red snow, 345
Reduvius, 352
Reef at Pernambuco of sandstone, 529
Reefs of coral, 495 to 512
barrier, 498, 504
fringing, 501
Reeks, Mr., analysis of salt, 68
bones, 164
salt and shells, 394
Remains, human, elevated, 394
Remedies of the Gauchos, 135
Rengger on the horse, 247
Reptiles absent in Tierra del Fuego, 252
at Galapagos, 407
Respiration difficult in Andes, 344
Retrospect, 51
Revolutions at Buenos Ayres, 149
Rhea Darwinii (Avestruz Petise), 110
Rhinoceroses live in desert countries, 92
frozen, 93, 264
Rhynchops nigra, 145, 146
Richardson, Dr., on mice of North America, 404
on frozen soil, 92, 263
on eating fat, 123
on geographical distribution, 139
on polished rocks, 267
Rimsky atoll, 496
Rio de Janeiro, 19 to 39
Botofogo Bay, 19
Plata, 40
Negro, 65, 192
Colorado, 73
Sauce, 112
Salado, 124
S. Cruz, 187
River-bed, arched, 383
River-courses dry in America, 113
Rivers, power of, in wearing channels, 191, 339
Rocks burnished with ferruginous matter, 12
Rodents, number of, in America, 51, 189
fossil species of, 87
Rolor, General, 149
Rosas, General, 73, 116, 149
Rozario, 129, 133, 147, 153
Ruins of Callao, 391
of Indian buildings in Cordillera, 380, 382

SALADO, RIO, 124
Saladillo river, 134
Salinas at the Galapagos Archipelago, 402
in Patagonia, 66, 177
Saline efflorescences, 81
Salt with vegetable food, 116
superficial crust of, 388
with elevated shells, 393
Salt-lakes, 68, 177, 402
San Carlos, 313
Nicolas, 133, 147
Felipe, 276
Pedro, 299
Pedro, forests of, 299
Lorenzo Island, 393
Sand-dunes, 78
Sand, hot from sun's rays, at Galapagos Archipelago, 403
noise from friction of, 385
Sandstone of New South Wales, 465
reef of, 529
Sandwich Archipelago, no frogs at, 407
Land, 263
Santa Cruz, river of, 187
Santiago, Chile, 282
Sarmiento, Mount, 247, 256
Sauce, Rio, 112, 371
Saurophagus sulphureus, 55
Scarus eating corals, 494
Scelidotherium, 86
Scenery of Andes, 335 to 341
Scissor-beak, habits of, 145, 146
Scissor-tail, 147
Scoresby, Mr., on effects of snow on rocks, 340
Scorpions, cannibals, 165
Scrope, Mr., on earthquakes, 376
Scytalopus, 252, 308
Sea, open, inhabitants of, 172
phosphorescence of, 172
explosions in, 327
Sea-pen, habits of, 104, 212
Seals, number of, 303
Seaweed, growth of, 253
Seeds transported by sea, 418, 484
Serpulæ, 529
Sertularia, protecting reef, 494
Shark killed by Diodon, 14
Shaw, Dr., on lion's flesh, 122
Sheep, infected, 464
Shelley, lines on Mont Blanc, 178
Shells, land, in great numbers, 368
elevated, 86, 137, 180, 343, 367, 395
tropical forms of, far south, 258
fossil, of Cordillera, 343
decomposition of, with salt, 393
of Galapagos, 416
at St. Helena, 519
Shepherd's dogs, 159
Shingle-bed of Patagonia, 78, 189
Shongi, New Zealand chief, 447
Siberia compared with Patagonia, 69
zoology of, related to North America, 140
Siberian animals, how preserved in ice, 264
food necessary during their existence, 93, 96
Sierra de la Ventana, 112
Tapalguen, 119
Silicified trees, 354, 376
Silurian formations at Falkland Islands, 207
Silurus, habits of, 144
Sivatherium, 155
Skunks, 83
Slavery, 20, 25, 530
Smelling power of carrion-hawks, 195
Smith, Dr. Andrew, on the support of large quadrupeds, 88
on perforated pebbles, 158
Snake, venomous, 100
Snow, effects of, on rocks, 340
prismatic structure of, 347
red, 345
Snow-line on Cordillera, 259, 358, 347
Socêgo, 23
Society, state of, in La Plata, 42, 165
state of, in Australia, 471, 474
Archipelago, 440
volcanic phenomena at, 505, 510
Soda, nitrate of, 388
sulphate of, 81
Soil, frozen, 92, 263
South American bit, 338
Spawn on surface of sea, 17
Species, distribution of, 136, 391
extinction of, 182
Spiders, habits of, 37 to 39
gossamer, 169
killed by and killing wasps, 37 to 39
on Keeling Island, 485
on St. Paul's, 10
Spurs of Guaso, 275
Springs, hot, 281
Stevenson, Mr., on growth of seaweed, 253
St. Helena, 517
Jago, C. Verds, 1
unhealthiness of, 390
Paul's rocks, 8
Fé, 135
Maria, elevated, 333, 338
introduction of spirits into, 439
Louis, Mauritius, 513
Stinging animals, 493
Stones perforated, 158, 285
transported in roots, 490
Storm, 223, 300
in Cordillera, 338, 374
Streams of stones at Falkland Islands, 207
Strongylus, 34
Struthio rhea, 44, 94
Darwinii, 97
Strzelecki, Count, 476
Suadiva atoll, 496
Subsidence of coral-reefs, 495 to 512
of Patagonia, 180
of Cordillera, 343, 355
of Coasts of Chile, 354
cause of distinctness in Tertiary epochs, 367
of coast of Peru, 379
of Keeling Island, 496, 504
of Vanikoro, 504
of coral-reefs great in amount, 509
Sulphate of lime, 69, 180, 386
soda with common salt, 69, 81, 386
soda incrusting the ground, 81
Swainson, Mr., on cuckoos, 54
Sydney, 459

TABANUS, 180
Tahiti (Otaheite), 429
three zones of fertility, 432
Fatahua fall, 436
Christianity in, 437, 441
Tahitian, 438
Talcahuano, 311, 324
Tambillos, Ruinas de, 380
Tameness of birds, 425
Tandeel, pumas at, 287
Tapacolo and Turco, 288
Tapalguen, Sierra, flat hills of quartz, 122
Tarn, Mount, 249
Tasmania, 474
Tattooing, 430, 439
Temperance of the Tahitians, 438
Temperature of Tierra del Fuego and Falkland Islands, 244
of Galapagos, 399, 403
Tercero, Rio, fossils in banks of, 134
Terraces in valleys of Cordillera, 337
of Patagonia, 181, 190
of Coquimbo, 367
Tertiary formations of the Pampas, 86, 136, 165
of Patagonia, 180, 349
in Chile, epochs of, 368
Teru-tero, habits of, 120
Testudo, two species of, 420
Abingdonii, 397
nigra, habits of, 408
Theory of lagoon-islands, 499
Theristicus melanops, 175
Thistle beds, 125, 130, 157
Thunder-storms, 63
Ti, liliaceous plant, 437
Tierra del Fuego, 215 to 257
climate and vegetation of, 250, 257
zoology of, 251
entomology of, 253
Tinamus rufescens, 119
Tinochorus rumicivorus, 98
Toad, habits of, 101
not found in oceanic islands, 407
Torrents in Cordillera, 338, 343
Tortoise, habits of, 408, 420
Toxodon, 86, 134, 137, 164
Transparency of air in Andes, 358
in St. Jago, 4
Transport of boulders, 190, 262
of fragments of rock on banks of the St. Cruz river, 190
of seeds, 418, 484
of stones in roots of trees, 491
Travertin with leaves of trees, Van Diemen's Land, 479
Tree-ferns, 478
southern limits of, 258
Trees, absence of, in Pampas, 48
time required to rot, 322
silicified, vertical, 376
size of, 377
floating, transport stones, 490
Tres Montes, 301
Trichodesmium, 15
Trigonocephalus, 100
Tristan d'Acunha, 426, 485
Trochilus forficatus, 268
Tropical scenery, 526
Tschudi, M., on subsidence, 393
Tubes, siliceous, formed by lightning, 61
Tucutuco, habits of, 52
fossil species of, 87
Tuff, craters of, 398
infusoria in, 525
Tupungato, volcano of, 347
Turco, El, 288
Turkey buzzard, 60, 192, 303
Turtle, manner of catching, 488
Type of organisation in Galapagos Islands, American, 423
Types of organisation in different countries, constant, 182
Tyrannus savana, 147

ULLOA on hydrophobia, 377
on Indian buildings, 380
Unanùe, Dr., on hydrophobia, 377
Uruguay, Rio, 147, 152
not crossed by the Bizcacha, 131
Uspallata range and pass, 353

VACAS, RIO, 355
Valdivia, 318
forests of, 319, 322
Valley of St. Cruz, how excavated, 190
dry, at Copiapó, 380
Valleys, excavation of, in Chile, 343, 383
of New South Wales, 46
in Cordillera, 343
of Tahiti, 437, 439
Valparaiso, 268, 335
Vampire bat, 22, 23
Van Diemen's Land, 474
Vanellus cayanus, 120
Vanessa, flocks of, 168
Vanikoro, 500, 504
Vapour from forests, 25
Vegetation of St. Helena, changes of, 519
luxuriant, not necessary to support large animals, 89
on opposite sides of Cordillera, 349
Ventana, Sierra, 71, 112
Verbena melindres, 42
Vilipilli, 315
Villa Vicencio, 353
Villarica volcano, 332
Virgin forest, 25
Virgularia Patagonica, 104
Volcanic bombs, 524
cellular formation of, 524
islands, 8
phenomena, 331
Volcanoes near Chiloe, 294, 300, 312, 332
their presence determined by elevation or subsidence, 496
Vultur aura, 60, 192, 303

WADERS, first colonists of distant islands, 405
Waimate, New Zealand, 452
Waiomio, 456
Walckenaer on spiders, 39
Walleechu tree, 71
Wasps preying on spiders and killed by, 37 to 39
Water-hog (Hydrochærus capybara), 51
Water-serpents, 103
Water sold at Iquique, 386
Water, fresh, floating on salt, 41, 487
Waterhouse, Mr., on Rodents, 51, 485
on the niata ox, 156
on the insects of Tierra del Fuego, 253
of Galapagos, 406, 417
on the terrestrial mammals of Galapagos, 403
Waves caused by fall of ice, 237, 260
from earthquakes, 326, 330
Weather, connection with earthquakes, 375
Weatherboard, N.S. Wales, 465
Weeds in New Zealand, imported, 455
Weight of large quadrupeds, 88
Wellington, Mount, 477
Wells, ebbing and flowing, 487
at Iquique, 388
West Indies, banks of sediment, 468
zoology of, 143
coral-reefs of, 502, 510
Whales, oil from, 17
leaping out of water, 236
White, Mr., on spiders, 36
Whitsunday Island, 495, 497
Wigwam cove, 223, 228
Wigwams of Fuegians, 151, 224
Williams, Rev. Mr., on infectious disorders, 452, 463
Winds, dry, in Tierra del Fuego, 245
at the Cape Verds, 3
on Cordillera, 345
cold, on Cordillera, 384
Winter's Bark, 250, 299
Wolf at the Falklands, 204
Wollaston Island, 224, 244
Wood, Captain, on the Agouti, 72
Woollya, 239

YAQUIL gold mines, 283
Yeso, Valle del, 341
York Minster, 215, 227, 241, 294

ZONOTRICHIA, 54
Zoological provinces of N. and S. America, 140
Zoology of Galapagos, 403
of Tierra del Fuego, 251
of Chonos Islands, 306
of Keeling Island, 485
of St. Helena, 520
Zoophytes, 104, 211
at Falkland Islands, 210
Zorillo, or skunk, 83


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