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Project Gutenberg's Alden's Handy Atlas of the World, by John B. Alden

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Title: Alden's Handy Atlas of the World

Author: John B. Alden

Release Date: December 31, 2011 [EBook #38457]

Language: English

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ALDEN'S

HANDY ATLAS

OF THE

WORLD.

INCLUDING
ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTY-EIGHT
COLORED MAPS, DIAGRAMS,
TABLES, ETC.



NEW YORK:
JOHN B. ALDEN, PUBLISHER.
1888.



BRILLIANT BOOKS.

The following are A FEW TITLES and prices from my catalogue of standard books:

Alden's Cyclopedia of Universal Literature, publishing in 15 volumes, of about 500 pages each; per volume, paper, 30c.; cloth, 50c.; half Morocco, 60c.

American Patriotism: Famous Orations and Patriotic Papers; cloth 50c., half Morocco 70c.

Ancient Classics for English Readers; 27 volumes; each, paper, 10c.; cloth, 20c. Also bound in 9 vols., half Russia, each 50c.

Argyll's Reign of Law, cloth, 60c.; Unity of Nature, 60c.; Primeval Man, 35c.; the three in one volume, cloth, $1.00.

Bacon's Essays, complete; paper 12c., cloth 25c.

Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress; paper 8c., cloth 20c. and 30c.

Chambers's Cyclopedia of English Literature; 8 volumes in cloth, $2.00.

Chinese Classics: The Works of Confucius and Mencius, translated; cloth 75c.

Classic Comedies, by Goldsmith, Sheridan, and Jonson; cloth 40c., half Morocco 60c.

Classic Prose Wonder-Book; 900 large octavo pages, richly bound. $1.50.

Confessions of St. Augustine; translated, cloth, 50c.

Creasy's Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World; cloth, 40c.

De Quincey's Confessions of an English Opium Eater; cloth, 20c.

Doré's Bible Gallery of Illustrations and Stories; reduced from $5.00 to $1.25.

Doré's Milton's Paradise Lost; text complete, with 52 cartoons, $1.25.

Durfee's Poetical Concordance to the principal Poets of the World; cloth, gilt edges, $1.00.

Emerson's Essays, 2 volumes; each, cl., 40c.; half Morocco, 60c.

Emerson's Nature, Etc.; cloth 35c., half Morocco 50c.

Famous Warriors: Lives of Hannibal, Cæsar, and Cromwell, by famous authors; each, paper, 8c.; all in one vol., cloth, 40c.

Farrar's Seekers after God; cloth, 35c.

—— Lectures, Addresses and Essays; cloth 35c., half Morocco 50c.

Geikie's Hours with the Bible; 6 vols., illustrated; reduced in price from $1.50 per vol. to 45c. in cl., or 60c. in half Morocco.

—— Life and Words of Christ; reduced in price from $8.00 to 45c. for cloth, or 60c. for half Morocco.

John B. Alden, Publisher, 393 Pearl St., New York.



Copyright, 1885 and 1886, by Rand, McNally & Co.



{3}

INDEX

TO

Maps and Descriptive Matter.



PAGE PAGE
Abyssinia 51 Maryland 101
Afghanistan 45 Massachusetts 87
Africa 47 Mexico 77
Alabama 115 Michigan 137
Alaska 75 Minnesota 143
Algeria 49 Mississippi 117
Anam 39, 40 Missouri 125
Andorra 23, 24 Montana 163
Arabia 37, 41 Montenegro 27, 30
Argentine Republic 189, 191 Mozambique 53
Arizona 157 Natal 55
Arkansas 123 Nebraska 147
Asia 37 Netherlands 17, 19
Australasia 63 Netherlands Indies 61
Australia 63 Nevada 167
Austro-Hungary 31 New Brunswick 71
Belgium 17, 19 New Hampshire 83
Beluchistan 45 New Jersey 95
Bolivia 187 New Mexico 155
Brazil 187 New South Wales 63
British Columbia 73 New York 93
British Isles 13 New Zealand 63
Bulgaria 25, 27 Nicaragua 175, 176
Burmah 39, 40 North America 65
California 168 North Carolina 107
Cape Colony 55 Northwest Territories 73
Central America 175 Norway 33
Ceylon 43 Nova Scotia 71
Chili 191 Nubia 51
China 39 Oceania 59, 60
Chinese Empire 38 Ohio 131
Colombia, U.S. of 183, 184 Ontario 67
Colorado 153 Orange River Free State 55
Congo Free State 57 Oregon 171
Connecticut 91 Paraguay 191
Corea 39, 41 Pennsylvania 97
Costa Rica 175, 176 Persia 45
Cuba 179, 180 Peru 187, 188
Dakota 145 Porto Rico 175, 179
Delaware 99 Portugal 21
Denmark 33, 34 Prince Edward Island 71
Ecuador 187, 188 Quebec 69
Egypt 51 Queensland 63
England 14 Rhode Island 89
Europe 9 Rumania 25, 27
Europe, Northern 10 Russia 35
Europe, Southern 11 San Domingo 175, 178
Florida 113 Sandwich Islands 61
France 23 San Salvador 175, 176
Georgia 111 Scotland 16
Germany 19 Servia 25, 27
Great Britain 12 Siam 39, 40
Greece 27 South America 181, 182
Guatemala 175, 177 South Australia 63
Guiana, British 185 South Carolina 109
Guiana, Dutch 185 Spain 21
Guiana, French 185 Sweden 33
Hawaii 61 Switzerland 23, 24
Hayti 175, 178 Tasmania 63
Honduras 175, 177 Tennessee 127
Honduras, British 175, 177 Texas 121
Hong Kong 39, 41 Transvaal 56
Idaho 165 Tripoli 47
Illinois 135 Tunis 49
India 43 Turkey 27
Indiana 133 United States 79
Indian Territory 151 Uruguay 189, 191
Iowa 141 Utah 159
Ireland 15 Venezuela 183, 184
Italy 29 Vermont 85
Jamaica 175, 178 Victoria 63
Japan 39 Virginia 103
Kansas 149 Wales 14
Kentucky 129 Washington 173
Liberia 56, 58 Western Australia 62
Louisiana 119 West Indies 175
Madagascar 53 West Virginia 105
Maine 81 Wisconsin 139
Malay 39, 40 World 7
Manitoba 73 Wyoming 161
Marocco 49 Zanzibar 53



{5}

INDEX

TO

Diagrams and Tables.



Agriculture, Persons Engaged in 114
Agricultural Products of Mexico 76
Angora Hair Exported by Cape Colony, Value of 46
Area and Population of African Countries 46
Area and Population of Asiatic Countries 36
Area and Population of Central America 174
Area and Population of European Countries 8
Area and Population of German States 18
Area and Population of Mexico 76
Area and Population of Oceania 59
Area and Population of South American Countries 181
Area and Population of West Indies 174
Barley, Average Annual Product of 82
Boots and Shoes Manufactured, Value of 86
Butter Product, 1880, Value of 172
Cattle in Territories, Value of 160
Cheese Product, 1880, Value of 92
Cheese Product in Territories, 1880, Value of 158
Cloth Manufactured in the Southern States 116
Cocoa Exported by Venezuela, Value of 181
Coffee Exported by Brazil, Value of 181
Coffee Exported by Venezuela, Value of 181
Coffee Imported by Europe 8
Copper Ingots, Amount of, Produced in Southern States 106
Copper Ingots, Annual Product of 156
Corn Crop, 1870 to 1880, Increase in 104
Corn, Increase in Acreage of 146
Cotton Exported by Brazil, Value of 181
Cotton Manufactures per 1,000 Population, Capital Invested in 88
Crop Productions of Australasia 59
Diamonds Exported by Brazil, Value of 181
Diamonds Exported by Cape Colony, Value of 46
Exports of Africa 46
Exports of Belize 174
Exports of Cuba 174
Exports of Hawaiian Islands 59
Exports of Hayti 174
Exports of Jamaica 174
Exports of Mexico 76
Exports of Philippine Islands 59
Exports of Porto Rico 174
{6} Exports of Society Islands 59
Exports of South America 181
Farm Animals in Australasia, Number of 62
Farm Crops, Comparative Value of 122
Farm Crops, 1870 to 1880, Increase in 164
Farms of Five Hundred Acres or Over Occupied by Owners 110
Farm Products, Comparative Yearly 112
Farm products, 1882, Comparison of 166
Fishery Products, 1880, Value of 170
Flouring and Grist Mills, Capital Invested in 142
Glassware, 1880, Capital Invested in Manufacture of 96
Gold and Silver Deposited at Mints and Assay Offices, 1793 to 1883 168
Gold Produced from Placer Fields in 1880 162
Granite Quarries, Capital Invested in 80
Hardware, Capital Invested in Manufacture of 90
Hides Exported by Brazil, Value of 181
Hogs on Farms, Number of 140
Hops Produced in West in 1880, Pounds of 138
Imports of Belize 174
Imports of Society Islands 59
Indigo Exported by Colombia, Value of 181
Lace, Production of, Europe 8
Lakes of South America, Area of 181
Land, Total Cultivated, Uncultivated and Timber 120
Lead Ore Mined, Annual Value of 124
Limestone and Marble Quarries, 1880, Capital Invested in 84
Linen Production of Europe 8
Lumber Products, 1880, Value of 136
Mineral Productions of Europe 8
Molasses Produced in 1880, Gallons of 118
Mules, Value of 126
Orchard Products per 1,000 Population, Value of 98
Ostrich Feathers Exported by Cape Colony, Value of 46
Oyster Fisheries, 1880, Value of 100
Peanuts, Annual Amount of Crop 102
Plate Glass Manufacture, 1880 132
Population, 1870 to 1880, Increase of 148
Rice Produced in 1880, Pounds of 108
Rivers of Africa, Length of 46
Rivers of Asia, Length of 36
Rivers of Europe, Length of 8
Rivers of South America, Length of 181
Rubber Exported by Brazil, Value of 181
Seal Fisheries, Annual Products of 74
Seas and Lakes of Asia, Areas of 36
Seas and Lakes of Europe, Areas of 8
Sheep in Territories, Comparative Number of 154
Silk Goods Manufactured, Value of 94
Silk Production of France 8
Silk Production of Italy 8
Silver Product of 1882 152
Slaughtering and Meat Packing Products, 1880 134
Sugar Exported by Brazil, Value of 181
Tea Imported by Great Britain 8
Tobacco Crop, 1882, Value of 128
Tobacco Exported by Brazil, Value of 181
Wheat and Corn, Amount Raised Yearly by Different Nations 150
Wheat Production 1870 to 1880, Increase in 144
Wool Product, in Pounds, 1880 130



{7}

Map of the World



{8}

EUROPE.

Northwestern portion of Old World and smallest of its grand divisions. Extreme length northeast and southwest, 3500 miles extreme breadth, over 2,400 miles; coast line not less than 20,000 miles.

Divisions. Area,
Sq. Miles.
Population. Capitals. Population.
Andorra 175 5,800 Andorra 1,000
Austro-Hungary 240,942 37,883,226 Vienna 1,103,857
Belgium 11,373 5,655,197 Brussels 389,782
Bulgaria 24,360 2,007,919 Sophia 20,501
Denmark 13,784 1,969,039 Copenhagen 273,323
England and Wales 58,186 25,974,439 London 4,766,661
France 204,177 37,672,048 Paris 2,269,023
Germany 212,028 45,234,061 Berlin 1,122,360
Greece 25,111 1,979,453 Athens 84,903
Ireland 32,531 5,174,836 Dublin 418,910
Italy 114,410 28,459,628 Rome 273,268
Montenegro 3,550 250,000 Cetigne 2,000
Netherlands 12,648 4,225,065 The Hague 127,931
Norway 122,869 1,806,900 Christiania 124,155
Portugal 36,510 4,306,554 Lisbon 246,343
Rumania 48,307 5,376,060 Bukharest 221,805
Russia 2,041,402 86,486,959 St. Petersburg 929,100
San Marino 32 7,816 San Marino 6,000
Scotland 29,820 3,735,573 Edinburgh 236,002
Servia 18,800 1,865,683 Belgrade 37,500
Spain 191,100 16,064,859 Madrid 397,816
Sweden 170,979 4,603,595 Stockholm 194,469
Switzerland 15,992 2,846,102 Bern 44,087
Turkey 63,850 4,490,000 Constantinople 600,000

LENGTHS OF RIVERS.

Miles. Miles.
Danube 1,725 Loire 600
Don 1,300 Oder 550
Dneiper 1,230 Petchora 900
Dwina 700 Rhine 600
Elbe 737 Vistula 690
Kama 1,400 Volga 2,400

AREAS SEAS AND LAKES.

Square Miles. Square Miles.
Azov 14,000 Geneva 336
Baltic 154,570 Ladoga 5,190
Black 185,000 Ogena 3,400
Constance 200 Wener 3,120
Enara 685 White 4,500

PRODUCTION OF RAW SILK.

Italy 6,600,000 lbs. France 19,149,000 lbs.

LINEN.

Produced. Consumed.
Russia 250,000 tons 90,000 tons
Great Britain 26,000 " 130,000 "
France 50,000 " 70,000 "
Germany 15,000 " 35,000 "
Netherlands 80,000 " 65,000 "

LACE.

Nottingham. Persons employed, 10,500. Value products, $29,782,980
The Continent. Persons employed, 535,000. Value products, 28,128,370

ANNUAL MINERAL PRODUCTIONS.

Lead, Cornwall 70,000 tons Tin, Great Britain 15,000 tons
Lead, Cordova 30,000 " Quicksilver, Spain 1,000 "
Coffee imported, Europe 270,000 tons
Tea " Great Britain 140,000,000 lbs.

{9}

Map of Europe

{10}

Map of Northern Europe

{11}

Map of Southern Europe



{12}

GREAT BRITAIN.

The largest island of Europe, and forming, with Ireland and the adjacent islands, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The union of England and Ireland was effected January 1, 1800.

Area of the kingdom, 120,832 square miles. Pop., 35,241,482. The divisions are: England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland. Capital, London; pop., 4,766,661. Thirty-five cities have over 75,000 population. Climate is variable but healthful. Average temperature, 50°. Rainfall, London, 25 inches; Glasgow, 21; and Dublin, 29.

Middle-class education is entirely unorganized; no complete, trustworthy statistics are to be had. There were, in 1884, 69 universities and colleges, with 23,823 students. In 1881, there were 1,855 schools of science, with 66,000 students. Number of public libraries, 202. The library of the British Museum has 32 miles of shelves, filled with books. Number of daily papers, 169.

Productive area in England is 80 per cent.; in Ireland, 74 per cent.; Scotland, 28.8 per cent.; Wales, 60 per cent. Leading crops in Great Britain, wheat, barley and oats. Acreage, 1884: wheat, 2,676,477; barley, 2,159,485; oats, 2,892,576. In Ireland, oats and potatoes are most important; acreage of former, 1,347,395; of latter, 798,942. Number of acres of flax, 89,197. Orchards of Great Britain cover 180,000 acres, and produce 85,000 tons of apples.

The most important minerals are coal and iron. In 1883, coal product was 163,737,327 tons; value, $230,270,715. Iron ore, 17,383,046 tons; value, $25,611,905. In 1883, 1,724,251 tons of pig iron were used in the manufacture of Bessemer steel, 1,097,174 tons of it being made into steel rails. Over 800 tons of steel are annually consumed in the manufacture of pens, Birmingham alone using 500 tons; the average yearly production is 800,000,000.

The annual value of the fisheries is $50,000,000. Herring fishery alone $10,000,000; salmon, $4,000,000; oysters and shell-fish, $10,000,000. Value of the Scotch fisheries alone in 1884 was $16,431,210, the herring fishery alone being $10,267,755. Total value of imports, 1884, $1,948,872,745; exports of home produce, $1,164,537,875; foreign and colonial produce, $312,218,575. Value of corn and flour imported 1882, $338,111,835. Value of cotton manufactures exported was $382,228,785.

There are 2,674 cotton factories, employing 482,903 persons. Total number of all factories, 7,105; number of persons employed, 975,546, of whom 110,585 are children under 13 years of age. Men employed, 38 per cent.; women, 62 per cent. Amount of cotton imported, 1883, 1,734,333,552 lbs.; wool, 495,946,779 lbs.

Standing army in time of peace unlawful without the consent of Parliament; annual appropriation of Commons for support of troops, based on "estimates" made by the Cabinet. For 1884 and 1885, home and colonial effectives and reserves, 644,753.

Previous to 1815 there was but little emigration from the United Kingdom; in that year the number was 2,081; in 1830-34, 381,956; 1875, 173,809; 1882, 413,288; and in 1884, 304,074, of whom 203,539 came to the United States.

First railway opened in 1825. In 1883, there were 18,681 miles of railway; 13,215 belonging to England and Wales, 2,964 to Scotland, and 2,502 to Ireland. Number of postoffices, 1884, 15,951; and, in addition, 15,749 road and pillar boxes. There are 27,604 miles of telegraph lines, and 140,498 miles of wire.

The colonies and dependencies of Great Britain have an estimated area of 8,000,000 square miles. Of this vast extent of territory, over 3,500,000 square miles are in America, over 250,000 in Africa, over 1,000,000 in Asia, and 3,000,000 in Australasia.

{13}
Map of British Isles

Map of England

{15}

Map of Ireland

Map of Scotland



{17}

BELGIUM.Bel´je-ŭm.

A kingdom of West Central Europe. Formerly united with Holland to form the Netherlands. Independence achieved in 1830. Executive power is vested in a King; legislative, in King, Senate and House of Representatives.

The most densely populated of the European countries, Belgium ranks eighteenth in area, but ninth in population. Area, 11,373 square miles. One-sixtieth of the territory artificially gained by means of dykes. Length of canal and river system, 995 miles. Capital, Brussels. Population, 389,782.

Agriculture chief industry. Only about one-eighth of territory uncultivated. In 1882, population, 5,655,197; average density, 497 per square mile; 1,160,149 freeholders held 88 per cent. of land.

This country is very rich in minerals. Over 17,500,000 tons of coal are produced annually. Belgium is noted for its flax. The chief products are wheat, rye, oats, barley, flax, hemp, tobacco. In 1880 there were 46,210 horses, 411,551 oxen, and 90,100 sheep.

Imports, 1882, $570,320,000; exports, $512,780,000. Manufactures are important. About 190,000 persons employed in flax, hemp, woolen and cotton manufactories. The lace of Brussels and the fire-arms of Liege are among the finest in the world. The value of pig and wrought iron alone, in 1882, was $34,473,260. Product of iron foundries about $3,000,000 per annum; of quarries, $8,459,400.

Roman Catholicism professed by nearly the entire population. Education is zealously promoted by the government; total sum spent, 1881, $6,503,670. Four universities in the kingdom.

Total peace strength of the army, 1885, 47,872 men, with 9,000 horses and 204 guns; war footing, 227,900 men, 13,800 horses, and 240 guns.

Of the 2,682 miles of railroad operated in 1883, 1,902 miles were owned and managed by the government. Number miles telegraph in 1884, 3,713; postoffices, 869.

NETHERLANDS (HOLLAND).

A kingdom of Europe, established by Congress of Vienna, in 1815. Area, 12,648 square miles. Population, 4,225,065. Country protected by dykes from the overflow of rivers and the inundations of the sea.

Constitution dated 1848. Law-making power resides in the States-General, a parliament of two houses. Commercial centre, Amsterdam; pop., 350,201. Capital, The Hague; pop., 127,931.

The soil is highly productive; fruit is grown extensively. In 1882 there were 5,046,210 acres of cultivated garden and pasture land. Number of acres in cereals, 1,267,399; yield of grain, 130,470,000 bu. Horses, 270,900; cattle, 1,427,000; and sheep, 745,100.

Total exports, 1882, $313,330,000; imports, $414,330,000. Value of butter exported to Great Britain alone, was $21,020,605. Holland's merchant marine, 1884, consisted of 701 sailing vessels, of 251,500 tons, and 96 steamers, of 123,400 tons.

In 1884, miles of railway, 1,320. Miles of state telegraph, 2,660; miles of wire, 9,760. Number of postoffices, 1,281.

In 1884, regular army stationed in Holland numbered 65,007 officers and men; navy composed of 157 vessels, with 9,462 officers and men.

Constitution secures religious freedom. Number of Protestants, 2,469,814; Roman Catholics, 1,439,137; Jews, 81,693.

Returns for 1882 gave 2,822 elementary public schools; 11,250 teachers; 1,143 private schools; total number of pupils, 557,932. There are 4 universities, 1 polytechnic school, 5 Roman Catholic, and 3 Protestant seminaries. Total expense of schools, $5,921,515. {18}

GERMANY.

The third country in size in Europe. A confederate empire, composed of 25 States, and the Reichsland of Alsace-Lorraine. Capital, Berlin.

Climate uniform. Mean temperature of whole country, 48°; of the valley of the Rhine, 52°. Rainfall at Berlin, 24 inches.

About 63 per cent. of population is Protestant, and 36 per cent. Roman Catholic. Number of churches, 37,720. Education is general and compulsory. Number of elementary schools, 57,000; normal, 332; high, 1,100; technical high schools, 9; industrial and trade, 994. Universities, 21, with 25,964 students, of whom 89 per cent. are German, and 1 per cent. American. Number of public libraries, 594; number of daily papers, 560. The book fair at Leipzig annually disposes of 8,000 tons of books, valued at $8,000,000.

Every German is liable to service in the army, and no substitution is allowed. All Germans capable of bearing arms have to be in the standing army seven years,—three years in active service, and four in army of reserve; after which they form part of the Landwehr another five years. Army on peace footing numbers 427,274 soldiers, and 18,118 officers. Total war strength of trained soldiers would be 2,650,000; available force of all classes, 5,670,000.

Of the area, 94 per cent. is classed as productive. Leading products, 1882: corn, 16,435,620 tons; potatoes, 17,769,300 tons; beets, 874,654 tons; hay, 17,486,000 tons; 11,500 tons of hops, and over 35,000,000 gallons of wine. Value of farm animals, $1,486,000,000. The mineral products of 1883 were valued at over $116,000,000. Value of imports, 1883, $822,724,000; exports, $833,750. There are 23,940 breweries, producing annually 880,000,000 gallons of beer. The annual butter product is 160,000 tons.

Number of miles of railway, 1884, 22,617, of which 19,230 miles belong to the government. Length of telegraph lines, 47,637 miles; wires, 170,960 miles. Number of telegraph stations, 11,216. Number of postoffices, 13,637.

STATES. Area,
Sq. Ml.
Pop. Capitals. Pop.
Prussia 137,066 27,279,111 Berlin 1,122,360
Bavaria 29,292 5,284,778 Munich 230,023
Wurtemberg 7,675 1,971,118 Stuttgart 117,303
Saxony 6,777 2,972,805 Dresden 808,512
Baden 5,851 1,570,254 Carlsruhe 49,998
Mecklenburg-Schwerin 4,834 577,055 Schwerin 30,146
Hesse 2,866 936,340 Darmstadt 48,153
Oldenburg 2,417 337,478 Oldenburg 20,575
Brunswick 1,526 349,367 Brunswick 75,038
Saxe-Weimar 1,421 309,577 Weimar 19,994
Mecklenburg-Strelitz 997 100,269 New Strelitz 9,407
Saxe-Meiningen 933 207,075 Meiningen 11,227
Anhalt 869 232,592 Dessau 23,266
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha816194,716
brace Coburg
Gotha
15,791
26,525
Saxe-Altenburg 509 155,036 Altenburg 26,241
Waldeck 466 56,522 Arolsen 2,477
Lippe 445 120,246 Detmold 8,053
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt 340 80,296 Rudolstadt 8,747
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen 318 71,107 Sondershansen 6,110
Reuss-Schleiz 297 101,330 Gera 27,118
Schaumburg-Lippe 212 35,374 Buckeburg 5,088
Reuss-Greiz 148 50,782 Greiz 15,061
Alsace-Lorraine 5,580 1,566,670 Strasburg 104,471

{19}

Map of Germany Belgium and the Netherlands



{20}

SPAIN.

A kingdom of Southwestern Europe, forming, with Portugal, the Iberian peninsula. Capital, Madrid; pop., 397,816. Thirty-one towns have over 50,000 pop.

Continental Spain has an area of 191,100 square miles. Population, 16,061,859. Number of Provinces, 49. Length of coast line, 1,370 miles. Object of greatest interest, ruins of the Alhambra, at Granada. This is the only state in Europe permitting slavery in its colonies.

Climate varies greatly. Average temperature at Madrid, 58°. Rainfall in the Sierras averages from 25 to 35 inches; on the table lands of Castile, 10 inches.

About 80 per cent. of the soil is classed as productive, though only 34 per cent. is under cultivation. The vine is the most important culture, and large quantities of oranges, raisins, nuts and olives, are grown and exported. Leading cereals: wheat, rye, barley and corn. The wine product averages yearly 320,000,000 gallons; value, $95,000,000. Average number of oranges exported, 960,000,000.

The mineral productions are of vast importance. The Cordova lead mines are the richest in the world, and the mercury mines of Almaden are second only to those of California. Average yearly lead product, 92,300 tons; value, $8,000,000. Mercury, 1,090 tons; value, $1,199,000. Copper, 21,300 tons. Tin, iron and salt are abundant.

The national religion is the Roman Catholic. The school system is inefficient, though measures tending toward improvement are being introduced. At the last census (1877) 60 per cent. of the adult population could not read. Number public schools, 1880, 29,828; number of pupils, 1,769,456. Number of universities, 10; students, 15,732.

Number miles railway, 1884, 5,157, with 1,747 miles under construction. Length of telegraph lines, 10,733 miles; number miles of wire, 26,160. Number of postoffices, 2,699.

The colonial possessions of Spain have an area of 163,876 square miles, and a population of 7,991,894. The most important are Cuba and the Philippine Islands. Area of Cuba, 43,220 square miles; pop., 1,521,684. Capital, Havana; pop., 25,000. Sugar, tobacco and cigars are principal products; average yearly sugar production, 520,000 tons.

Available home and colonial troops, 400,000.

PORTUGAL.

Name derived from Portus Cale, the ancient name of Oporto. A kingdom of Europe, occupying the western part of the Iberian peninsula.

Area, 36,510 square miles. Population, 4,306,554. Number of Provinces, 6. Length of coast line, 500 miles. Capital, Lisbon; pop., 246,343. Oporto, centre of port wine trade; pop., 105,838.

Climate healthful. Mean temperature at Lisbon, 61°. Rainfall averages 27 inches at Lisbon, and 118 at Coimbra.

About 51 per cent. of soil is productive, and less than 23 per cent. under tillage. Not sufficient grain raised for home consumption. Wine product for 1882, 125,000,000 gallons; value, $28,500,000.

State religion, Roman Catholic. The average amount spent on public education from 1875 to 1879 was $10,000; in 1884 the amount had risen to $966,000. There is one university, established at Coimbra in 1290.

Number of miles of railway, 1884, 950; with 300 miles under construction. Number of miles of telegraph lines, 2,920; number of miles of wire, 7,084; number of telegraph offices, 226. Number of postoffices, 931. {21}

Map of Spain and Portugal



{22}

FRANCE.

A country of Europe, the fourth in size. Named from a Germanic tribe, the Franks, which invaded Gaul, A.D. 486. Area, including Corsica and adjacent islands, 204,177 square miles. Climate one of the finest in Europe. Average temperature ranges from 50° at Dunkirk to 62° at Toulon: that of Paris is 51°. Rainfall: at Paris, 22 inches; at Bordeaux, 30 inches.

France has a coast line of 320 miles; the continental boundary line is 962 miles. Largest river, the Loire. The Alps on the east, and the Pyrenees on the south, connect France with the most magnificent mountain systems of Europe. The French portion of the Alps has a length of 280 miles.

The republic is divided into 87 Departments, Salary of President, $120,000; length of term, 7 years. Paris, the capital and second city in Europe; pop., 2,239,928. Lyons, the second city in size, and centre of silk industry; pop., 376,613. Twenty-nine towns have a population of over 50,000; and 91, over 20,000.

Agricultural pop., census 1881, 18,249,209. Number of acres cultivated, 67,000,000. In 1883, 37,039,040 acres were in cereals, of which five-sevenths were wheat and oats; total production, 742,176,807 bu. Number of acres in orchards, 560,000; yearly production of cider, 220,000,000 gallons. Vineyards, 5,240,340 acres; annual average of wine product, 720,000,000 gals.; value, $225,000,000. Champagne vintage averages 20,000,000 bottles, 17,000,000 of which are exported; 1,204,145 acres under beet-root cultivation in 1883, yielding 32,230,312,000 lbs. of sugar.

Commercially the country ranks with Great Britain. Entrances to and clearances from her ports include annually over 60,000 vessels; total capacity, 12,000,000 tons. Value of yearly imports, exclusive of coin and bullion, $870,000,000; exports, $960,000,000; food imported, $308,000,000 annually. Value of exports, 1883, $912,340,000; imports, $1,277,340,000. Value of silk exports was $93,402,000. There were 151,404 persons engaged in silk culture. Number of pounds of raw silk produced, 19,149,587. France makes yearly 26,000,000 pairs of gloves, of which 18,000,000 are exported. There are 890 umbrella makers, who annually produce $5,900,000 worth. Value of fishery products, $21,445,450. Average production of sardines, 980,000,000; oysters, 380,000,000. There are 83,572 men engaged in the fisheries, with 22,345 vessels; total tonnage, 155,670.

About 79 per cent. of population Roman Catholic; less than 2 per cent. Protestant. Number of elementary schools, 1884, 85,388; pupils, 6,111,236. Number of normal schools, 163. Public libraries, 505. The Imperial Library at Paris has 18 miles of shelving filled with books. Daily papers published, 128.

The reorganization of the French army has been going on since 1872, and is nearly completed. Every Frenchman not declared unfit for military service may be called upon from the age of twenty to that of forty years to enter the active army or the reserves. Substitution or enlistment for money prohibited. In 1884 the army consisted of 524,797 officers and men, and 130,771 horses.

Railway system dates from 1840; number of miles, 1884, 17,000. Number of miles telegraph lines, 46,932; offices, 7,523. Number of postoffices, 1884, 6,486.

The colonial possessions of France cover an area of 429,260 square miles, with a total population of 9,300,000. Of the colonies, Algeria is the largest and most important, having an area of 161,476 square miles, and a population of 3,310,412. Algiers is the capital; population, 70,747. The colonies next in importance commercially are Tunis and Cochin China. {23}

Map of France and Switzerland



{24}

SWITZERLAND.

The most mountainous country of Europe. Formerly a league of semi-independent States, but since 1848 a federal republic. Number of Cantons, 22. President elected for a term of 1 year, and not eligible for two consecutive terms; salary, $3,000.

Area, 15,992 square miles. Pop., 2,846,102. The Alps extend nearly through the length of the country; from many peaks 300 snow-capped summits are visible. Rigi presents the finest view; Monte Rosa, the Matterhorn (steepest in the world), Finsteraarhorn and Jungfrau range from 13,700 to 15,200 ft. high. The Mer de Glace is the largest glacier in the world.

The general climate is milder than that of other mountain countries in the same latitude. Average temperature at Geneva, 52°. Average rainfall at Geneva, 32 inches; at Zurich, 34 inches.

Bern is the capital; pop., 44,087. Geneva, seat of watch and jewelry industry; pop., 68,320. Basel, centre of silk industry; pop., 61,399.

About 59 per cent. of the population is Protestant, and 41 per cent. Roman Catholic. Education is compulsory. Number of public schools, 1882, 5,314; pupils, 516,425; school pop., 573,713. There are four universities,—the one at Basel, founded in 1460; and those of Bern, Zurich and Geneva, since 1832. The government maintains a polytechnic school at Zurich, and a military academy at Thun. Number of public libraries, 1,654.

The laws of the republic forbid the maintenance of a standing army within its limits; but every Swiss is liable to serve in the defense of his country.

Of the total area 17 per cent. is forest, 30 per cent. mountains, lakes, glaciers and rivers; 51 per cent. under crops and grass. Of the cultivable area only 16.5 per cent. is devoted to agriculture. Less than 1 per cent. is in vineyards. Rye, oats and potatoes are most important crops. The dairy products are of most commercial importance.

Number engaged in agriculture and dairy farming, census 1880, 1,138,678. The average yearly production of cheese is 40,000 tons.

The manufacturing industry is one of importance. Latest reports give yearly value of watch manufactures $16,000,000; St. Gallen embroideries, $15,000,000; silk ribbon produced at Basel, $7,200,000; and the silk industry at Zurich, $15,200,000. There are 399 cotton factories, employing 38,500 people; 224 silk factories, with 23,500 people; 838 embroidery factories, with 17,200 people; 45 woolen factories, with 2,500 workers.

Number of miles of railway, January, 1883, 1,810. Telegraph system very complete; with the exception of wires for railway service, it is wholly under the control of the government. January, 1884, there were 4,270 miles of lines, and 10,346 of wire; number of offices, 1,271. Number of postoffices, 807; boxes, 2,081.

ANDORRA.

One of the smallest republics in the world, lying between France and Spain. Its independence dates from Charlemagne, in 790. France and the Spanish Bishop of Urgel have jointly a nominal interest in its government. A permanent delegate has charge of the interests of France in the republic.

Area, 175 square miles. Population, 5,800. Climate healthful, but too cold to produce grain. It possesses rich iron mines, and one of lead. Inhabitants principally shepherds. {25}

BULGARIA.Bŏŏl-gā´re-a.

A principality under the suzerainty of Turkey. Governed by a Prince elected by the National Assembly, with popular legislature and constitution. Area, 24,360 square miles. Population, 1881, 2,007,919. Capital of principality, Sophia; pop., 20,501. Three towns of over 20,000 inhabitants; 20 of over 2,000.

Most of the territory belongs to the basin of the Danube; traversed by many streams. Soil in general very productive; agriculture is the chief pursuit of the inhabitants. Principal exports: grain, wool, skins and timber. About 1,500,000 tons of corn are exported per year. Total imports in 1882 valued at $8,312,700; exports, $6,844,395.

One line of railway, 140 miles in length, extends from Rustchuk to Varna. In 1883 there were in Bulgaria 1,325 miles of state telegraph lines. Military service is obligatory. Peace strength of the army, 17,670 men; war strength, 52,000.

SERVIA.Ser´ve-a.

The independence of this country from Turkey was established in 1878. By the constitution adopted 1869, the executive power is vested in the King and a Council of 8 ministers; the legislative, in the King and a National Assembly. Area, 18,800 square miles. Population, 1,865,683. Capital, Belgrade; population, 37,500.

The surface of the country is generally mountainous. Vegetation is vigorous in all districts. The climate is mild in the lower and level portions, but extremely rigorous in the mountainous districts. Of the total area, one-third is under cultivation, corn and wheat being the chief products. There are 1,750,000 persons engaged in agriculture. Latest reports of livestock give: swine, 1,067,940; horses, 122,500; cattle, 826,550; sheep, 3,620,750; goats, 725,700.

The imports are estimated at about $10,000,000, and the exports a little below that amount. In 1884 there were 200 miles of railway. Number miles of telegraph, 1,410. The state religion is the Orthodox Greek. There is a university of 158 students. Other schools number about 650, with about 45,000 pupils.

RUMANIA.Roo-mā´ne-a.

A kingdom of Europe, formerly a part of Turkey. Though under the protection of Russia since 1830, it was nominally subject to Turkey until 1878. In 1881 it was raised to a kingdom. Constitution adopted 1866, modified 1879 and 1884. Government vested in the King, an Executive Council, Senate and Chamber of Deputies. Area, 48,307 square miles. Estimated population, 5,376,000. Capital, Bukharest; population, 221,805.

The soil is fertile, and of the total population, 70 per cent. is devoted to agriculture. Number of freehold proprietors, 654,000. Of the area, 68 per cent. is productive; 29 per cent. under cultivation. Grain, oil-seed and wine are the leading products. Average production of cereals, 150,000 tons. Cattle and sheep are extensively reared. Total value of exports, 1883, $44,130,055; imports, $71,981,435. Value of leading exports: cereals, $34,511,400; animals, $2,328,490. Imports: textiles, $23,530,315; metals, $14,632,880; skins and leather, $8,748,370.

Education is free and compulsory. Number of primary schools, 2,743; high schools, 54; normal, 8; universities, 2. The majority of the people belong to the Orthodox Greek Church. In 1884 Rumania had 850 miles of state railway; non-state lines numbered about 150 miles. There were about 3,000 miles of telegraph. {26}

TURKEY (OTTOMAN EMPIRE).

The Ottoman Empire comprehends all countries over which Turkey has supremacy. The area and population are known only through estimates, the latest of which give the area as 2,406,492 square miles, and the population as 42,209,359. The most important part, that in Europe, was in 1878 greatly reduced in area and population. The latest estimates give the immediate possessions in Europe an area of 63,850 square miles, and a population of 4,490,000. The laws of the empire are based on the precepts of the Koran; the government is in the hands of the Sultan, whose will is absolute, unless opposed to the teachings of the Mohammedan religion. Capital, Constantinople; population, 600,000.

While military service is compulsory on all Mohammedans over eighteen years of age, there are some exemptions, and substitution is allowed. Non-Mohammedans are not liable, but must pay an exemption tax. Number of men under arms, 150,000; actual military strength, about 430,000.

The total value of exports, 1882, was $50,828,895; imports, $87,687,400. Principal exports: fruit, fresh and dried, $7,886,375; wool and mohair, $4,330,020. In 1883, the mercantile navy consisted of 10 steamers, of 8,866 tons; and 391 sailing vessels, of 63,896 tons.

As the Koran encourages public education, public schools have long been in existence in most Turkish towns. The Mohammedans are estimated to number 16,000,000.

The first railroad was constructed in 1865, 45 miles being opened for traffic that year. In 1882 the railroads numbered 1,076 miles, of which 904 were in Europe and 172 in Asia. In 1884 there were 14,617 miles of telegraph and 26,060 miles of wire.

GREECE.Grēs.

A kingdom of Southeastern Europe. Area, including Thessaly, but excluding the Albanian territory detached from Thessaly and Epirus, which was added to Greece in 1881, 25,111 square miles. Total population, 1,979,453. Almost wholly mountainous,—an important element in the political history of Greece.

Executive power vested in the King, and the responsible heads of 7 departments; legislative, in the Chamber of Representatives.

Athens, capital and largest city; pop., 84,903. Over 82 per cent. of inhabitants belong to the Greek Orthodox church. Greece has one university and 2,698 other schools, with 140,776 pupils.

Main pursuit of inhabitants is agriculture. Manufactures few. Of total area, 41 per cent. is productive, and 6 per cent. is under cultivation. Land largely owned by a few proprietors. New Provinces of Thessaly unusually fertile; annual yield of wheat, 21,700,000 bushels; oats, 11,528,000. Old Provinces produce 34,000,000 bushels of wheat and 21,700,000 bushels of corn per year. Currant crop covers vast districts. Latest reports give 97,176 horses, 279,445 horned cattle, 45,440 mules, and 97,395 asses. Number of sheep in all the Provinces, 4,421,977; goats, 2,836,663; oxen, 200,000. For 1883, total imports, $27,267,400; exports, mostly raisins, currants, and olive oil, $18,571,400. Chief resource, maritime commerce.

Number of miles of railway now open for traffic, 107; projected railways, 435 miles. Land and submarine telegraphs, 3,720 miles. Postoffices, 213. Army: peace footing, 30,292 men; war footing, 250,500. Commercial marine, at the end of 1884, numbered 74 steamers, of 33,318 tons; and 3,164 sailing vessels, of 239,361 tons. {27}

Map of Turkey Greece and Balkans



{28}

ITALY.It´a-le.

A kingdom in the South of Europe. Consists of a peninsula, the islands of Sicily, Sardinia, Elba, and about 66 smaller ones. Area, 114,410 square miles. Population, 28,459,628. Mean annual temperature: at Milan, 55°; at Rome, 59°; at Naples, 61°. Climate most unhealthy in Europe; due to miasma generated in lagoons and marshes. Has many famous and picturesque lakes.

Government is a constitutional monarchy. Executive power vested in King and responsible ministers: legislative rests conjointly with the King and a Parliament, composed of a Senate, appointed for life; and a Chamber of 508 Deputies, elected by the people for five years. Suffrage universal; freedom of the press unrestricted. Famous rivers are the Po, Arno and Tiber.

Italy abounds in historic and populous cities. Rome, the capital, has pop. of 273,268; Naples, the largest, 463,172; Milan, 295,543; Palermo, 205,712; Genoa, 138,081; Florence, 134,992; Venice, 129,445; 31 cities of over 30,000 inhabitants.

Agriculture chief industry, though in a primitive condition; 87 per cent. of total area productive; 12 per cent. under forest, 36 per cent. cultivated; 28,000,000 acres in crops. Acreage of wheat, 12,000,000; annual yield, 140,000,000 bushels. Vineyards occupy about 5,000,000 acres; olive groves, 2,200,000. About 1,225,000 acres are devoted to chestnut culture. Italy ranks next to France in wine production; average yield per annum, 605,000,000 gallons; average annual value of all agricultural products for last 5 years, $640,000,000.

Number of cattle in 1881, 4,783,232; sheep, 8,596,108; goats, 2,016,307. In 1883, exported 127,003 cattle; sheep, 273,939; swine, 38,668. Wool product insufficient for home consumption; import, in 1883, 20,987,500 lbs.

Mining is an important interest in Italy. Value of iron and steel mined annually, $4,250,000. Sulphur is the chief mineral product; value, in 1882, $9,328,505. Quarries employ 20,000 men. In 1883, total weight of cocoon harvest, 92,886,200 lbs.; value, $26,491,665.

Leading imports, 1883: raw cotton, $18,173,400; coal, $13,166,200; tobacco, $2,321,800; sugar, $10,633,200. Exports for same year: raw silk, $49,712,400; olive oil, $20,156,600; wine in casks, $15,668,200; fruit, $8,685,800. Total imports, 1883, $257,241,023; exports, $236,321,513. In same year, 111,296 vessels, of 18,465,381 tons, entered Italian ports; cleared the same, 110,554 vessels, of 18,367,948 tons.

Length of railway, in 1883, 5,651 miles; about 1,410 miles the property of the state. In 1879, Italian Parliament passed bills for construction of 3,739 miles, to complete the railway system; cost, $200,000,000. Number of postoffices in 1883, 3,497. Miles of telegraph, 17,258; about two-thirds owned by the government; telegraph offices, not including railway and private, 1,747; number of telegrams, 6,454,942.

There is a universal liability to military service. Total war force, 2,119,250: permanent army, 750,765 strong; mobile militia, 341,250; territorial militia, 1,021,954; reserve, 5,281. Navy, 1884, consisted of 89 steamers, manned with 15,055 officers and men.

Roman Catholicism is the prevailing creed; not more than 124,000 Protestants and Jews in the kingdom. The present Roman Pontiff, or Pope Leo XIII., is regarded as about the 263d Pope from St. Peter.

Recent improvements in education have been made. There are 17 state universities, 4 free universities, 11 superior colleges, and 219 special schools. Number of primary public schools, 41,423; sum allowed for expenses, $6,485,505. {29}

Map of Italy



{30}

AUSTRO-HUNGARY.Aws´trŏ Hŭng´ga-re.

A monarchy of Europe. Ranks next to Russia in size. Much of the territory is mountainous, the Carpathians extending over about 800 miles. Four-fifths of the area of Austria is 600 feet above sea-level.

Mean annual temperature ranges from about 48° in the north to 59° in the south. Average temperature at Vienna, 50°; highest, 94°; lowest, 2°. Rainfall: on Hungarian plains, 22 inches; in Alpine regions, 60 inches.

Austria, a German monarchy, and Hungary, a Magyar kingdom, together form a bipartite state. Each has its own Parliament, ministers and government; they are connected by a common ruler, Congress, army and navy. The legislative power of Congress is limited to war and foreign affairs.

Area of Austro-Hungary, 240,942 square miles; area of Turkish Provinces controlled by the monarchy, 24,247 square miles. Population, including military, 37,883,226; in Austria, 10,819,737 males and 11,324,507 females; in Hungary, 7,702,810 males and 7,939,192 females. In Austria, 6,000,000 people engaged in agriculture, 2,117,098 in manufacturing, and 177,870 in mining. Farm population of Hungary, 2,848,868; miners, 25,905; manufacturers, 766,416; traders, 177295

Vienna, the capital, has a population of 1,103,857. Budapest, 360,551. Ninety-four per cent. of whole area is productive. Number of acres under crops, fallow and grass, 67,608,070. Total production of cereals, 586,029,352 bushels; potatoes, 365,574,706 bushels; wines, 178,425,280 gallons. Total number of horses, 3,282,790; cattle, 13,181,620; sheep, 13,093,463.

Value of exports, 1883, $374,960,255. Chief exports: grain and flour, $60,389,350; textiles, $55,516,850; animals, $48,519,015; fuel, $38,979,570; sugar, $35,086,975.

Railway mileage, 1884, 12,820. In 1883 there were 32,684 miles of telegraph line in operation. Commercial marine, 1884, consisted of 9,174 vessels, with a combined capacity of 321,402 tons.

Army, in war, 1,072,300 strong; during peace, 291,078. Military service compulsory on all males over 20 years of age.

The Roman Catholic is the state religion; 67.6 per cent. of inhabitants are Catholics; other creeds are tolerated.

MONTENEGRO.Mon`tā-nā´gro.

A small state of Europe; independence recently admitted by Turkey. Area, 3,550 square miles. Population, 1879, 250,000. The land surface is composed of a series of elevated ridges, with high mountain peaks. Agriculture chief occupation. Main products, maize, potatoes, sumac, sardines, smoked mutton, hides, skins and furs. Total yearly imports amount to $100,000; exports, $1,000,000.

Constitution dates from 1852; government is a limited monarchy; executive power rests with the reigning Prince; legislative, with a State Council. Suffrage is extended to male citizens who are bearing or who have borne arms. There is no standing army; but all male inhabitants are trained for the service. The state could raise an armed force of 21,850 men.

Public schools are supported by the government; education is compulsory. Capital, Cetigne; pop., 2,000. Podgoritza has 4,000 inhabitants; and Dulcigno, 3,000.

Miles of telegraph, 280; number of offices, 15. {31}

Map of Austro-Hungary



{32}

SWEDEN.Swe´den.

This kingdom, united with Norway, forms the Scandinavian peninsula. The government is vested in a King, a Council of State and a Parliament. Area, 170,979 square miles. Population, 4,603,595. Capital, Stockholm; population, 194,469. The armed forces number 172,260 officers and men. The Royal navy consists of 66 vessels, with 4,068 men.

The country has numerous lakes and rivers. In the north it is cold and sterile; but the climate, on the whole, is milder than that of other countries in the same latitude, and south of latitude 59° the country is generally fertile. About 7 per cent. of the land area is cultivated, and 5 per cent. is natural meadows. Agricultural population, 2,309,790. Emigrants in 1883 numbered 29,490, of whom four-fifths came to the United States.

Value of imports, 1882, $63,840,000; exports, $70,524,000. Chief exports: timber, $32,482,290; metals, $11,861,580. Mining is one of the chief industries. In 1883 there were exported 34,319 tons of iron ore, 52,126 tons of bar iron, 3,602 pounds of silver, 945 tons of copper and 54,423 tons of zinc ore. Mining population numbered 410371

The state religion is Lutheran Protestant. The census of 1880 returned 4,544,434 persons of that faith, with 2,408 churches. There are 2 universities, with 2,540 students. Education is free and compulsory. The total number of schools is about 9,800; pupils, 660,000; expenditures, $2,718,390.

The commercial navy numbers 3,356 sailing vessels, of 439,932 tons, and 785 steamers, of 87,524 tons. Number of miles of railway, 1883, 4,000, of which 1,437 miles belong to the state; telegraph, 5,347 miles.

NORWAY.Nor´wā.

In 1814 united with Sweden into a joint kingdom. Area, 122,869 square miles. Population, 1,806,900. Government an hereditary constitutional monarchy; executive power in the hands of the King and Council of State; legislative rests with Storthing, or Great Court. Capital, Christiania; pop., 1884, 124,155.

Norway is an agricultural and pastoral country; but, owing to the light character of the soil, the products are insufficient for home consumption, and one-fourth of the total imports is grain.

Principal imports are metals, minerals, textile manufactures and corn; total value in 1883, $44,810,000. Chief exports are timber and fish; value of all exports, 1883, $32,261,000. Fisheries employ 120,000 people and 25,000 boats, three-fourths employed in the cod fisheries; total product, 1883, $6,757,500. Merchant marine, 7,913 vessels; tonnage, 1,530,004; largest in the world, considering population.

Army raised by conscription and enlistment; war footing, 68,800 officers and men. Armed force to exceed 18,000 unlawful without the consent of Storthing. Navy, 31 sailing vessels and 40 steamers, with 152 guns, manned by a force of 915.

Miles of railway, 1884, 971; 929 miles controlled by the state. Miles of telegraph, 5,629; length of wire, 10,075. Number of postoffices, 1032

Protestants are in the majority; unlimited religious liberty, Jesuitism excepted; none but Lutherans eligible to high offices.

Compulsory education prevails; primary schools, 6,617; 17 public high schools, 1 university; total number of students, 284,035. {33}

Map of Norway and Sweden



{34}

DENMARK.Den´mark.

A constitutional kingdom in Europe. Area, 13,784 square miles. Population, 1,969,039. Almost entirely insular. Temperature at Copenhagen, 47°. Country low and level.

Constitution, dating back to 1849, and modified in 1855, '63, '66, vests executive authority in the King and his responsible ministers; legislative, in the Senate and House of Commons. King must belong to Evangelical Lutheran church. The franchise is extended to all males over 30, who are not recipients of charity.

Pop. of Copenhagen, the capital, 1880, 273,323; Aarhuus, 24,831; Adense, 20,804. In 1882, 11,614 emigrants left Denmark; vast majority of them for the United States. Relatively, Denmark ranks among the first states of Europe in point of agriculture. In 1880, 75 per cent. of area productive; area under cereals, 1882, 2,681,691 acres; product, 86,706,937 bushels. Cattle rearing increasing in importance. In 1881, value of cattle, $7,350,395; number of horses, 347,561; sheep, 1,548,613; swine, 527,417.

There were exported 84,586 cattle, 72,487 sheep, 2,230,000 lbs. of wool, and 253,294 hogs. Total value of exports in 1882, $52,225,300. Total imports, $70,297,280. Army is recruited by conscription; it embraces 36,469 men, with a reserve of 14,000. In 1884, navy consisted of 40 steamers. Miles of railway, 1,106; 932 miles operated by the state. Miles of government telegraph, 2,283.

Education compulsory; number of schools supported by the state, 2,940.

RUSSIA.Rŭsh´e-a.

The Russian Empire comprises one-seventh of the total land area of the globe. The area and population are known only through estimates, the latest of which give the total area as 8,520,637 square miles, and the population as 102,682,124. Area of European Russia, 2,041,402 square miles; population, 86,486,959. Asiatic Russia: area, 6,479,235 square miles; population, 16,195,165. The government of Russia is an absolute hereditary monarchy; the whole legislative, executive and judicial power being vested in the Emperor. Capital, St. Petersburg; population, 929,100.

The established religion of the empire is the Greco-Russian, which numbers 63,835,000 members, 636 cathedrals and 41,807 churches. The mass of the population is uneducated. European Russia has about 375 high schools, 61 normal and 22,770 primary schools; pupils number more than 1,220,000. The empire has 8 universities, with 10,700 students.

Of European Russia, 63 per cent. of the area is productive; 21 per cent. is cultivated. Chief products, cereals; the crop of 1883, exclusive of Finland, was 1,671,012 tons; potatoes, 447,875 tons; tobacco, 119,200,000 lbs. Large areas are covered with forests; value of timber exported 1881, $49,200,000. Value of total exports of Russian Empire, $308,898,000; imports, $283,396,000. Minerals are abundant; the mining population numbers 392,304.

The total strength of the Russian army on a peace footing is 729,770 men and 27,468 officers; war footing, 1,876,358 men and 41,551 officers. The navy numbers 358 vessels, of 349,730 tons.

In 1883, European Russia had 15,274 miles of railway, of which 13,670 miles belonged to the state. Number of miles of telegraph, 65,726. Postoffices, 4,586. The commercial navy, in 1883, consisted of 187 steamers, of 138,291 tons, and 2,155 sailing vessels, of 477,072 tons. {35}

Map of Russia



{36}

ASIA.

Largest continental division of the globe, and oldest known in history. Area, 17,241,538 square miles. Extends from Arctic Ocean to equator, and through 165 degrees longitude; coast line nearly 40,000 miles.

Divisions. Area,
Sq. Miles
Population. Capitals. Pop.
Afghanistan 278,000 2,500,000 Kabul 60,000
Arabia 1,000,000 6,000,000 Mecca 40,000
Beloochistan 140,000 1,000,000 Kelat 10,000
British India 874,220 198,755,993 Calcutta 871,504
Ceylon 25,364 2,822,009 Colombo 111,942
China 1,537,590 350,000,000 Pekin 500,000
Chinese Empire 4,419,150 371,180,000 " 500,000
Corea 82,000 16,227,885 Seoul 199,127
India, Native 509,284 55,150,456 Governed by Chiefs
Japan 148,456 36,700,118 Tokio 823,557
Manchooria 362,310 12,000,000 Saghalinoola
Mongolia 288,000 2,000,000 Governed by Chiefs
Nepaul 53,000 3,000,000 Khatmandu 50,000
Persia 610,000 7,653,600 Teheran 100,000
Russia 6,479,235 16,195,165 St. Petersburg 927,467
Siam 280,564 5,750,000 Bangkok 600,000
Syria 146,070 2,750,000 Damascus 150,000
Thibet 651,500 6,000,000 Lassa and Tishoo-Loomboo
Turkey 729,350 16,172,981 Constantinople 600,000

LENGTHS OF RIVERS.

Miles. Miles.
Amoo-Daria 900 Hong-kiang 800
Amoor 2,600 Irtysh 1,700
Brahmapootra 2,300 Lena 2,700
Cambodia 2,000 Saghalien 514
Euphrates 1,750 Tigris 800
Ganges 1,600 Ural 1,000
Hoang-ho 2,800 Yang-tse-kiang 3,320
Indus 1,850 Yenisei 3,400
Irrawaddy 1,200

AREAS SEAS AND LAKES.

Square
Miles.
Square
Miles.
Alakton-kul 1,300 Palter 1,600
Aral 24,500 Po-yang 2,800
Baikal 12,500 Tingri-noor 2,800
Balkash 8,600 Tong-Lung 3,000
Caspian 180,000 Van 2,000
Dead Sea 400 Zaisang 1,300
Gennesaret 90 Zurrah 4,000
Koko-nor 2,040

{37}

Map of Asia



{38}

JAPAN. Zipangu.
"Sunrise Kingdom."

An empire composed of islands lying east of Asia. Supposed to have been founded 660 B.C. Area, 148,456 square miles. Pop., 36,700,118. The population is divided into classes, as follows: Imperial family, 39; kwazokii, or nobles, 3,204; shizoku, or knights, 1,931,824; common people, 34,765,051. Tokio, formerly known as Jeddo, or Yedo, is the capital; pop., 823,557.

The government is an absolute monarchy. The title of the sovereign is Supreme Lord, or Emperor (Mikado).

Agriculture is followed to a great extent. The chief annual agricultural products are: rice, 155,629,409 bu.; wheat, 62,049,940 bu.; beans, 10,795,717 bu. The annual value of silk production is $20,500,000. The principal manufactures are silk and cotton goods, japanned ware, porcelain and bronze. The value of the exports, 1883, was $35,609,000; of imports, $28,548,000.

A law went into effect in 1874, by which the government gives nine bushels of rice annually to each person over seventy or under fifteen years of age unable to work, and to foundlings until they reach the age of thirteen. Latest reports place the number of paupers at 10,050, and expenditures at $88,975.

School attendance is compulsory. There are 30,275 schools in the empire, of which 71 are normal, 98 are technical, and 2 are universities; also, a military college and military school, with 1,200 students. Latest reports give 82,213 teachers and 2,703,343 pupils. School age is from 6 to 14. Total number of school age, 5,750,946. Public libraries, 21. Shintoism is the ancient religious faith; but Buddhism is the religion of nearly all the common people.

The first railroad in the empire was opened June, 1875; it extended from Hiogo to Osaka, twenty-five miles. At the end of June, 1884, there were 236 miles of railway in the empire. There are 4,880 miles of telegraph, with 13,144 miles of wire. Postoffices were first established in 1871, and now number about 5,200.

CHINESE EMPIRE.

An immense empire of Eastern Asia; in territorial extent, the second in the world; in population, the largest. Area, 4,419,150 square miles. Pop., 371,180,000.

Longest rivers: Yang-tse-kiang, 3,320 miles; with basin, 950,000 sq. miles. Hoang-ho, 2,800 miles; with basin, 715,000 sq. miles.

Capital Pekin; pop., 500,000. Twenty-three cities have more than 100,000 population; and 66, more than 50,000.

The state religion has no outward ceremonial, except a few symbolical rites observed at New Year. It consists in the study of the teachings of Confucius and Lao-tse. The majority of the people are Buddhists. Education is almost universal, there being few adults unable to read and write. The Chinese have had newspapers at least ten centuries.

Value of imports, 1883, $103,071,415; exports, $98,349,895. The chief imports were: opium, valued at $35,510,260; and cotton goods, valued at $30,888,465. Chief exports: tea,—value, $45,077,135; and silk, chiefly raw, $33,537,990. The coal fields of China are among the first in the world; about 3,000,000 tons are mined each year. The mines at Kai-p'ing, in 1883, produced 600 tons per day.

In June, 1876, a railway of twenty miles, between Shanghai and Woosung, was opened for traffic; but the following year it was purchased by the Chinese authorities, and closed. There are 20,000 Imperial roads in the empire. In 1884 there were 3,089 miles of telegraph line, with 5,482 miles of wire. {39}

Map of China Japan etc.



{40}

ANAM.An`nam´.

An empire of Indo-China under the protectorate of France. Area, 198,043 square miles. Population, 12,000,000. Drained by many rivers. In January, temperature 41° throughout the north; in southern part of Cochin China, mean annual temperature is 83°. The elephant, panther and tiger found in the forests of Anam.

Inhabitants essentially agricultural. Country rich in metals. Government is an absolute monarchy. Social equality exists among citizens. Buddhism and doctrines of Confucius are dominant. Hue is the capital; pop., 100,000.

BURMA.Bur´mah.

As a result of the late war with Great Britain, Burma was on Jan. 1, 1886, declared a part of the British Empire. The government is now administered by the Governor General of India, though the country is not yet incorporated with the Indian Empire. The late government was a despotism, dependent on the will of the King. The area is 190,500 square miles. Population estimated to be about 3,000,000. Capital, Mandalay; population, 70,000. Bhamo, on the Chinese frontier, is an important town. Education is in the hands of the priests, but is very general. Buddhism is the prevailing religion.

The country is not so fertile as British Burma; but wheat, corn, rice, pulse, indigo, cotton, tobacco, and a large variety of fruits are grown. The forests produce valuable timber trees in great variety. Minerals abound, but are not generally worked. Petroleum, however, is quite largely produced. Burma possessing no seacoast, the foreign trade is inconsiderable.

SIAM.Sī-am´.

A kingdom of Southeastern Asia, divided into 41 Provinces. The government is an absolute monarchy. Area and population are but imperfectly known; foreign estimates place the former at 280,564 square miles, and the population at about 5,750,000. Prevailing religion, Buddhism. Siam has no public debt. Capital, Bangkok; population, 600,000. There is a small standing army, and a general armament of the people in form of a militia.

Though much of the land is fertile, it is badly cultivated. Chief products, rice, gums, teak, sandalwood, rosewood, spices and fruits. Foreign commerce centres at Bangkok. Total value of exports from there in 1883, $8,525,655; imports, $4,783,570. Commercial marine numbers 44 sailing vessels and 1 steam vessel. In 1883, 884 vessels, of 185,612 tons, cleared the port of Bangkok.

MALAY.Ma-lā´.

A peninsula of Asia; the southernmost point of the continent.

Area about 70,000 square miles. Estimated population, 650,000. Less known of the interior than of any other point in Asia. Surface very uneven. Climate is moist and hot: temperature on the Makran coast and in Persian Gulf, 110°; and at times, 125°. Out of 365 days, 190 are rainy; rainfall from 100 to 130 inches.

Politically, Malay consists of the Straits Settlements of Great Britain, 6 Provinces of Siam, and a number of small Malay States, either tributary to or in treaty with the above powers. The Straits Settlements comprise the Islands of Singapore and Penang and the territories of Malacca and Province of Wellesley. Area, 1,445 square miles; pop., 423,384. {41}

COREA.Ko-ree´a.

A kingdom of Eastern Asia. Area estimated at 82,000 square miles. Population, 16,227,885. Climate variable, on account of the unevenness of the country; the thermometer at times registers 15° below zero.

The history of Corea dates back to 1120, when the Chinese gained possession of it. Seems first to have been subjugated by the Tartars. Japanese ruled it between 1692 and 1698, when it reverted to China. The country pays an annual tribute of 800 ounces of silver to the Chinese Emperor. The King of Corea is an absolute despot. Capital, Seoul; pop., 199,127.

Minerals are said to abound in the peninsula; but the low state of civilization in the country will not admit of their development. The country is mountainous, and the cultivable portion small; principal crops are rice, millet, beans and jute.

Value of imports, 1881, $1,944,735; exports, $1,882,650. Principal exports, ginseng, hides, rice and silk. Wheeled vehicles are unknown, and there are no bridges over the many streams. Doctrine of Confucius the established creed.

HONG KONG.

A colony of Great Britain, formerly a part of China. It consists of the Island of Hong Kong, ceded to Great Britain in 1841, and the opposite peninsula of Kow-loon, ceded to Great Britain, 1861. The government is administered by a Governor, aided by an Executive Council. There is also a Legislative Council. The chief city is Victoria. In 1883 the government sustained 87 schools, with 5,597 pupils. The total population of Hong Kong is 160,420, of whom but 7,990 are white persons.

Hong Kong forms the centre of trade for many different kinds of goods. Its commerce is virtually a part of that of China, and is chiefly carried on with Great Britain, the United States and Germany. Of the exports and imports only mercantile estimates are known; these place the former at about $10,000,000, and the latter at $20,000,000. The tea and silk trade of China is largely in the hands of Hong Kong firms. In 1882, 28,668 vessels, of 4,976,233 tons, entered the ports of Hong Kong.

ARABIA.A-ra´be-a.

A peninsula of Asia. Area, 1,000,000 square miles; length, 1,200 miles; breadth, 900 miles. Sandy desert comprises most of the country; fertile regions are shores of the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. Seacoast, 1,200 miles in length. Heat intense: rainfall light.

Population variously estimated from 8,500,000 to 15,000,000. Claims descent from Ishmael; nomadic habits; Mohammedans in belief.

The pearl fisheries, which are of great commercial importance, begin at the Bahrein Islands, and extend southeast along the Persian Gulf, a distance of nearly 200 miles. The yearly produce is estimated to be worth, over $1,250,000.

Coffee, probably indigenous, chief article of export. Wheat, barley, beans, millet, dates and lentils form food of the natives. Rivers unimportant.

Arabia was never subject to one sovereign. Inhabitants broken up into petty tribes, each ruled by its own chief. {42}

INDIA.In´de-a.

An empire of Asia, divided into British territory and feudatory states, acknowledging sovereignty of Great Britain. Richest and most populous dependency of the English Crown. Area, 1,383,504 square miles. Population, 253,906,449.

Government is entrusted to Secretary of State for India; he is aided by a Council of 15 members. Executive authority vested in Governor General, appointed by the British Crown, and a Council of 7 members. Salary of Governor General, $125,000 per year.

Population dense. The density varies from 441 per square mile to 43; the average for all India being 184. Agriculture backward. Means of transportation poor but improving. Eight famines have visited India, and decimated the population of various Provinces. Soil is productive; rice, corn, millet, barley and wheat are grown; cotton, indigo, opium and sugar cane are largely exported.

Large quantities of bullion are imported for the manufacture of ornaments. In 1884, imports of gold, $27,347,280; silver, $37,042,530. Leading imports, 1883-84: cotton manufactures, $125,584,245; metals, $25,909,250; machinery, $8,955,740. Chief exports: raw cotton, $71,806,605; opium, $56,472,300; seeds, $50,450,990; wheat, $44,399,155; rice, $41,816,400. Total imports, 1884, $318,007,480; exports, $445,006,975.

Capital, Calcutta; population, 871,504; 60 towns of over 50,000 inhabitants. Over 19 dialects and languages spoken in the empire.

Number vessels entered Indian ports, 1884, 5,812; cleared, 5,850; number steamships entered by Suez Canal, 1,091; number vessels engaged in interportal trade, 103,503. Miles of railway, 1854, 21; in 1885 there were 10,832; unfinished, 1,823. Miles of telegraph, 21,740; messages, 1,799,179.

Education progressing. Schools, 109,212; scholars, 2,790,783; universities, 3; governmental schools, 15,845; commission of investigation appointed in 1883.

European and native army, 190,476 men. Native states have an army of 349,835 men; 4,237 guns.

CEYLON.See-lon´.

An island situated in the Indian Ocean, southeast of India. Area, 25,364 square miles; length, 260 miles; average breadth, 100 miles. Climate much pleasanter than that of Southern India. Ceylon was first settled in 1505; formed into a separate colony in 1798; fell under British rule in 1815.

By the constitution of 1831 and 1833, government is administered by a Governor, with an Executive Council and a Legislative Council. Minerals abound; precious stones are often found; pearl fisheries of western coast are famous. Bread-fruit, cinnamon, pepper, rice, cotton and tobacco are among the chief products of the soil.

Principal exports in 1883: coffee (the least since 1853), valued at $6,338,155; tea, $430,000; cinchona bark, $2,105,000; cocoanut oil, $2,030,000. Total exports in 1883, $16,654,500; imports, $22,643,335.

There were 164 miles of railway open for traffic in 1884; 16 miles in course of construction. Miles of telegraph were 989.

Estimated population, 1884, 2,822,009; 1,698,070 Buddhists, 493,630 Hindoos, 197,775 Mohammedans, and 147,977 Christians. The Europeans numbered about 5,000, of whom 4,000 were English. There were 1,703 schools, with nominal attendance of 102,109 pupils.

Colombo is the capital; pop., 111,942. {43}

Map of India and Ceylon



{44}

PERSIA.Per´she-a.

A kingdom of Western Asia. Area, 610,000 square miles. Population, 7,653,600. Temperature ranges from 10° to 110°; winters severe in central territory; summers hot and dry.

The government is an unlimited despotism. The Koran is law, the Shah being looked upon as the vicegerent of the prophet. Persia has no national debt. Persian army numbers 105,500 men on war basis; peace footing, 30,000.

Soil, in some of the extensive valleys, very fertile. Wheat and other cereals, cotton, sugar, rice, tobacco and opium yield well; silk is an important product of the country. Fruit trees and vegetables flourish. Mineral resources undeveloped. Diamonds have been taken from mines in Khorasan for centuries. Pearl fisheries of the Persian Gulf the most extensive in the world.

Commerce centres at Tabriz. Bushire and Lingah principal ports. Imports, by Lingah and Bushire, in 1883, $5,724,665. Exports, by same ports, $3,071,705; opium, $1,403,415; grain and pulse, $342,250. System of telegraph in the hands of Europeans; miles of line, 3,647; of wire, 5,947; offices, 78. Mail service from Julfa to Tabriz and Teheran, thence to Resht, established in 1877.

Capital, Teheran; pop., 100,000. Of total population, 1,963,800 live in cities, 1,909,800 are nomadic tribes, 3,780,000 inhabit country districts and villages. Education among the upper classes advanced; many colleges are sustained by government.

AFGHANISTAN.Af-gan`is-tan´.

Name given to plateau on northwest frontier of India. Estimated area, 278,000 square miles. Temperature at Ghazni, 10° to 15° below zero; at Kandahar, heat in summer reaches 120°. No other country of equal area has such diversities of climate. Distinguished for the mountain passes, through which India has been frequently invaded.

Government is a despotism. Capital, Kabul. Population, 2,500,000, consisting of numerous warlike clans. The Amir is a military dictator, with a yearly revenue of $2,000,000, and a subsidy of $600,000 from India. Two-thirds of inhabitants Mohammedans.

Agricultural and pastoral pursuits the chief industries of the people; wheat the most important crop; rice, barley and millet grown. On terraces, 6,000 and 7,000 feet high, all the vegetables and fruits of Europe grow; in the south, sugar cane and date palm.

BELUCHISTAN.Bel-oo`chis-tan´.

A country of Asia lying east of Persia. Area, 140,000 square miles. Population, 1,000,000. Climate diverse; in higher parts, extremely cold; in valleys, heat is oppressive. Deficiency of water throughout the whole country. Surface rugged and barren.

The soil is unproductive, but has been cultivated until it supplies the natives with necessaries. Fruits and vegetables flourish near the towns.

The only exports are horses, grain and dates. Imports: Indian silk, cotton goods, rice, sugar, spices, and dye stuffs in small quantities.

The government is a despotism. Khan has unlimited power over life, person and property; resides at Kelat, the capital, a city with a population of 10,000. Inhabitants divided into many tribes, ruled by chiefs. {45}

Map of Persia Afghanistan and Beluchistan



{46}

AFRICA.

A large insular continent lying south of Europe, from which it is separated by the Mediterranean. Area, 11,512,480 square miles; extreme length, 4,330 miles; extreme breadth, 4,000 miles; coast line, only about 16,000 miles, there being few indentations, and a lack of good harbors.

PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES.

Name. Area,
Sq. Mls.
Population. Capitals. Pop.
Abyssinia 200,000 3,000,000 Gondar 7,000
Algeria 161,476 3,310,412 Algiers 70,747
Cape Colony 229,815 1,027,168 Cape Town 33,239
Congo Free State 1,056,200 27,000,000
Egypt 394,240 6,806,381 Cairo 368,108
Liberia 14,300 1,068,000 Monrovia 3,000
Madagascar 228,500 3,500,000 Tananarivo 100,000
Morocco 219,000 5,000,000 Marocco 50,000
Mozambique 38,000 ? 300,000 Mozambique ? 35,000
Natal 21,150 416,219 Pietermaritzburg 14,231
Nubia ? 35,000 ? 400,000 Dongola
Orange River Free State 70,000 133,518 Bloemfontein 2,567
Transvaal 114,360 750,000 Pretoria 4,440
Tunis 42,000 2,100,000 Tunis 120,000
Zanzibar 625 300,000 Zanzibar 90,000

LENGTHS OF RIVERS.

Miles. Miles.
Congo 2,400 Orange 1,600
Niger 2,900 Senegal 1,000
Nile 5,100 Zambesi 1,800

LATEST REPORTED EXPORTS.

Cape Colony: Madeira:
Ostrich Feathers $4,656,900 Wine $525,740
Angora Hair 1,359,020 Sugar 165,800
Diamonds 13,712,350 Bananas 9,680
Copper 2,270,565 Pineapples 2,110
Marocco: Sierra Leone:
Almonds $394,000 Cola Nuts 819,175 lbs.
Cattle 393,880 Gum Copal 452,196 "
Dates 27,480 Palm Oil 250,730 gals.
Eggs 156,210 Palm Kernels 21,624,681 lbs.
Gums 244,885 Ginger 1,277,635 "
Shoes 527,420 Rubber 1,084,219 "
Liberia: Egypt:
Ivory 1,116 lbs. Cotton $37,328,905
Coffee 250,136 " Rice 606,785
Rubber 133,119 " Sugar 1,971,590
Palm Oil 1,100,222 gals. Cottonseed 8,482,670

{47}

Map of Africa



{48}

MAROCCO.Ma-rok´ko.

An empire of Africa, formerly the largest of the Barbary States. Area, 219,000 square miles. Population, 5,000,000. Atlas Mountains cross the country; rivers few and small. Atlantic coast line, 750 miles long; Mediterranean, 250 miles.

The Sultan's authority is supreme in spiritual and temporal matters. Estimated yearly revenue of Sultan, $2,500,000. Marocco has three capitals: Fez (pop., 80,000) is the chief; Marocco, the old metropolis (pop., 50,000); and Mequinez (pop., 56,000).

Both climate and soil are well suited to the production of wheat, barley, corn and other grains; agriculture is neglected for pastoral pursuits. Marocco supposed to be rich in minerals.

Foreigners control the maritime trade; Tangier is the main port; seven others open to foreign commerce. Import of cotton, 1882, valued at $3,401,130; sugar, $1,390,240; rice, flour, etc., $1,462,090. Exports, 1882: wool, $1,116,850; shoes, $527,420; almonds, $394,000; cattle, $393,880. In 1882, 1,050 vessels, of 314,794 tons, entered, and 1,047, of 315,559 tons, cleared, the ports of Marocco.

ALGERIA.Al-jee´re-a.

Situated in North Africa; the most important French colonial possession. Area, about 161,476 square miles. Coast line, 550 miles. Climate variable; mean annual temperature at Algiers, 66.5°.

Government of settled districts administered by a Governor General; others under military rule. Civil government divided into three departments, each of which sends 2 Deputies and 1 Senator to the French Chambers. Algiers the capital; pop., 1881, 70,747. Total population of Algeria, 1881, 3,310,412; French, 233,937.

Agriculture the principal industry; in 1881, 2,328,636 thus engaged. In 1882, 40,000,000 acres in farms; 5,460,000 under cereals; wheat product, 559,500 tons; barley, 790,000; number of acres devoted to vine culture, 99,000. Olive oil manufactured in 1880, 574,000 gals. Yield of tobacco, from 20,000 acres, 9,490,000 lbs. In 1882 there were 1,027,913 cattle, 5,142,321 sheep, 3,056,660 goats.

Imports, 1883, $47,639,790; exports, $33,788,880. In 1883, 4,803 vessels, of 1,954,423 tons, entered Algerian ports. Number miles railway, 993. Miles of line of telegraph in 1882, 3,645. In 1881 there were 619 students in the higher schools; number of secondary schools, 16; pupils, 3,561; 916 infant and primary schools, with 79,201 pupils.

TUNIS.Tu´niss.

A kingdom or regency of Africa, formerly one of the Barbary States; since 1881 under the protectorate of France. The government is practically administered by a Minister Resident and two Secretaries. The area of the country is about 42,000 square miles, and the population is estimated to number 2,100,000. Capital, Tunis; population variously estimated from 100,000 to 120,000.

There are twelve ports open to foreign trade. The imports average $5,500,000 per annum, and the exports $6,500,000. The principal articles of export are wheat, barley, esparto grass (used in making paper), olive oil, dates, wool and skins. Principal imports, manufactured goods, liquors, sugar and flour.

In 1883, 3,768 vessels, of 1,524,429 tons, entered Tunisian ports; of these 1,222, of 1,018,538 tons, were French. Tunis has about 200 miles of railway, and 2,500 miles of telegraph. {49}

Map of Marocco Algeria and Tunis



{50}

EGYPT.E´jipt.

A dependency of Turkey, situated in North Africa. Estimated area, 394,240 square miles. Population, 6,806,381. Territory covered by sandy deserts, except where the annual inundations of the Nile render it fertile. Rain falls once in three or four years. The agricultural population forms 61 per cent. of the total.

Egypt is a Province of the Ottoman Empire; yet it is independent at the same time, and its sovereignty is dependent on the will of stronger powers, England being dominant. Absolute executive power is in the hands of the Khedive, under the supervision of England. Provincial Councils and a Legislative Council advise with the Khedive on matters purely local. Cairo, capital; pop., 368,106.

Under the Pharaohs, Egypt was an agricultural country. It is distinguished for the prominent part it played in ancient history, its ruins, and situation with reference to the Suez Canal.

Commerce extensive, consists largely of goods in transit; carries on a large trade with Central Africa. In 1883, imports, $42,984,880; exports, $61,549,425. Principal export, cotton; value, 1883, $37,328,905.

The railway system, 1884, consisted of a single line, 1,276 miles long. Miles of government telegraph, 1884, 2,767. Eastern telegraph company have a line to Cairo, 455 miles in length.

Population of chief towns, 1882: Alexandria, 208,755; Damietta, 34,046; Tantah, 33,735; Mansourah, 26,784; Zagazig, 19,046; Rosetta, 16,671; Port Said, 16,560; Suez, 10,913.

The Nile is the only river in Egypt. The Suez Canal connects the Mediterranean with the Red Sea; opened for navigation, November, 1869; length, 100 miles; number of vessels passed through in 1883, 3,307, of 8,106,001 tons; gross receipts, $13,227,530; net profits, $7,172,700. In 1883, postoffice carried 9,587,000 letters.

NUBIA.Nu´be-a.

A country of Eastern Africa. From 1821 to 1884 Nubia was under the dominion of Egypt. Since the southern boundary of Egypt can not yet be regarded as fixed, it is impossible to give trustworthy statistics of the area and population of Nubia. The fertile part of the country lies chiefly in the valley of the Nile. The climate is hot and dry, but generally healthful. Chief products are barley, cotton, indigo, durrah, dates, tobacco, senna and coffee. An extensive transit trade is carried on with Egypt and interior Africa, in gold dust, ostrich feathers and senna. The entire valley contains the remains of ancient buildings, the most numerous lying below Dongola.

ABYSSINIA, (Ab-is-sin´e-a.)
or
HABESH.

An isolated country of Eastern Africa, consisting of three divisions, Amhara, Tigre and Shoa. Tigre and Amhara constitute one kingdom, and Shoa another; they are all divided into a great number of smaller provinces. Gondar, in Amhara, is the capital of all Ethiopia. Capital of Shoa, Ankobar; of Tigre, Adowa. Area about 200,000 square miles. Population about 3,000,000. Drained by numerous rivers emptying into the Nile.

Lowland soil grows wheat, cotton, maize, rice, sugar cane and flax. No foreign trade except exportation of small quantities of ivory, musk, coffee and gold dust; manufactures limited. Inhabitants a mixture of many races, warlike and uncivilized. {51}

Map of Egypt Nubia and Abyssinia



{52}

MADAGASCAR.Mad`a-gas´kar.

The largest African island; the third largest in the world. Area, 228,500 square miles. Population, 3,500,000. Near the centre of island, within an arc of 90 miles, there are 100 extinct volcanoes. Mean yearly temperature about 77°.

Government is an absolute monarchy, limited by powerful customs. The island has been swayed by the dynasty of the Hovas since 1810. Since the treaty of Tamatave, March 17, 1886, the country has been under the protectorate of France. Commercial and diplomatic relations established between the island and United States, Great Britain and France, in this century, previous to 1868. Capital, Tananarivo; population estimated at 100,000.

Soil generally fertile; forests of valuable timber abound. Chief products are rice, sugar, silk, cotton, bananas, potatoes, India rubber. Stock raising and agriculture are the main industries. Chief exports are cattle, hides, coffee, lard, sugar, vanilla, wax, gum, rice and seeds; principal imports are metal goods, rum and cotton goods. Silver five-franc piece the only legal coin; franc is cut into pieces for smaller coins. Tamatave principal port; pop., 6,000; number of ships entering her harbor during last six months of 1882, 116. In the same time the value of imports at Tamatave from the United States was $207,410; value of exports to United States, $257,485.

Standing army, 20,000. Three-fourths of people Pagans. Christianity the state religion. Education is compulsory; 1,167 schools, with 150,906 pupils, in Imerina, the chief Province.

MOZAMBIQUE.Mo-zam-beek´.

A colonial possession of Portugal on the east coast of Africa. Area, 38,000 square miles. A few settlements and military posts exercise feeble authority over the inhabitants. The climate is genial, and the soil capable of producing wheat, maize, tobacco, cotton and sugar cane. The chief towns are: St. Sebastian (pop., 1,510), Ibo (pop. about 2,000), Sofala (pop. 2,000), and St. Thiajo Major. The forests abound in valuable timber trees; pearl fisheries are important, and the mineral deposits are of exceptional value. The gold mines of Mauica are supposed to be the richest in East Africa. Ivory is obtained in large quantities for the Indian market; annual value about $350,000. Other exports are India rubber, gums, oil, beeswax and corn. Shipping trade is carried on by about 400 vessels. The capital is Mozambique.

ZANZIBAR.Zan`ze-bar´.

An empire of Eastern Africa, consisting of the Island of Zanzibar, and settlements along the coast from Cape Delgado as far as 3° north latitude. The limits of the Sultan's dominions inland are not known; but, beyond a few travel routes, his authority extends but a little way from the coast. The island has an area of 625 square miles, and a population variously estimated from 150,000 to 300,000. Population of the town of Zanzibar, 90,000; of Bagamoyo, on the opposite mainland, 10,000.

The religion of the country is Mohammedanism. Christian missions are established on the island and far into the mainland. Value of imports, 1882, $4,000,000; exports, $5,000,000. The exports are ivory, cloves, India rubber and gum. In 1882, 85 vessels, of 89,773 tons, entered the ports. The imports are chiefly cotton cloths, rice, cereals, kerosene oil and guns. {53}

Map of Madagascar and Southeast Africa



{54}

CAPE COLONY.

A colony in South Africa, originally founded by the Dutch, in 1652. Since 1806 controlled by Great Britain. Climate generally dry and salubrious. At Cape of Good Hope, mean annual temperature is placed at about 62°. Average rainfall per year, 24 inches. Total area of Cape Colony, 229,815 square miles. Estimated population, 1,027,168. Capital, Cape Town; pop., 33,239.

The government is administered by a Governor, an Executive and a Legislative Council and House of Assembly. Colonists are employed in agricultural and pastoral pursuits. Ostrich breeding is successfully carried on. Sheep farms often comprise from 8,000 to 15,000 acres and upward. Total cultivated area in 1875, 580,000 acres. Vines occupied 18,000 acres, yielding 4,484,665 gallons of wine. The colony had, in 1875, 1,111,713 head of cattle, 10,976,663 sheep, and 3,065,202 goats. The principal exports from the colony in 1883 were: wool, valued at $8,015,700; ostrich feathers, $4,656,900; grease wool, $1,948,025; hides and skins, $2,180,250; copper ore, $2,270,565; Angora hair, $1,359,020; diamonds, $13,712,350. Total exports in 1883 valued at $22,044,490; total imports, $32,351,955.

Vast majority of the population members of Dutch Reformed church, the Episcopalian ranking next in number. Cape Colony has 1 university and 5 colleges; education not compulsory; 71 per cent. of children who have attained school age are in school.

Army in 1883 consisted of 1,614 officers and men. By a law of 1878, every able-bodied colonist between 18 and 50 years is liable to military service beyond, as well as within, colonial limits. In 1884 the total length of government railway was 1,213 miles; telegraph, 4,031 miles.

ORANGE RIVER FREE STATE.

An independent republic of South Africa. Founded by Boers from Cape Colony, in 1836; constitution proclaimed 1854. Area, 70,000 square miles. Population, 133,518: colored or native, 72,496; whites, 61,022. Annual amount devoted to education, $1,000,000. Capital, Bloemfontein; pop., 2,567.

Law-making power vested in a popular Assembly of 55 members; executive, in President, elected for 5 years. Climate salubrious. Agricultural and pastoral pursuits the chief industries. In 1881 there were 6,000 farms; total number of acres, 23,592,400; cultivated, 114,916; number of horses, 131,594; 5,056,301 merino sheep, 673,924 goats; ostriches, 2,253. There are many rich coal mines. Diamonds and other precious stones are found. Miles of telegraph in operation, 559

NATAL.Na-tal´.

Previous to 1856, Natal formed part of Cape Colony; in that year it was erected into a separate colony under Great Britain. The government is administered by a Governor, an Executive Council, and a Legislative Council. Estimated area, 21,150 square miles. Pop., 1881, 416,210; white, 28,463; native, 329,253; coolies, 20,196. Principal town, Durban; pop., 16,630. Capital, Pietermaritzburg; pop., 14,231.

Value of imports, 1883, $8,755,535; exports, $4,158,735. Principal exports: hides, $255,040; ostrich feathers, $72,530; unrefined sugar, $610,420; wool, $2,595,805. Principal imports are manufactured goods and flour. In 1883, 328 vessels, of 232,097 tons, entered, and 326, of 231,892 tons, cleared, the ports. There are 105 miles of railway built, and 120 under construction. {55}

Map of Cape Colony Natal etc.



{56}

TRANSVAAL.Trans-val´.

A South African republic founded by Boers who left Cape Colony in 1835 for Natal, quitted the latter country on its annexation to Great Britain, and settled in the territory north of the Vaal river. Recognized as an independent state in 1852. Executive authority is in the hands of a President, assisted by a Council of 4 members; legislative vested in a Volksraad of 44 members. Area of republic, 114,360 square miles. Population estimated, 1884, at 50,000 whites, of whom 40,000 are Dutch, and about 700,000 natives. Chief city, Pretoria; population, 4,440.

The country is favorable for agriculture and stock raising. Chief crop, wheat; sugar, coffee and cotton are grown. Cattle, sheep and ostriches are reared. There is a great deal of mineral wealth, which has been but little developed. The yearly exports are valued at $3,000,000, and are principally grain, cattle, hides, wool, ostrich feathers, butter, ivory, gold and other minerals.

LIBERIA.Li-bee´re-a.

A republic of South Africa, founded in 1820 as a colony by the American Colonization Society in behalf of liberated slaves from the United States. Liberia was declared an independent state in 1847. The government is modeled after that of the United States. The republic has 600 miles of coast line, and extends inland about 100 miles; area, 14,300 square miles. The population is wholly African, and numbers 18,000 Americo-Liberians and 1,050,000 aborigines. Capital, Monrovia; population, 3,000. The Liberians have established churches and schools, and possess a number of printing presses. The climate, which is still fatal to Europeans, has been much improved by systematic drainage.

The country is well watered, and the natural resources are very great. Cotton and coffee are both indigenous, the former yielding two crops per year. The oil palm is abundant, palm oil, ivory, India rubber and nuts being the chief exports.

CONGO FREE STATE.

The Act defining and constituting the Congo Free State was signed by the International Congo Conference at Berlin, February 26, 1885. The area of the State is estimated at 1,056,200 square miles, with a population of 27,000,000. While the Congo state is under the sovereignty of the King of Belgium, the latter country or government has no power or responsibility in relation to it. The state is divided into four Provinces,—the Lower Congo, the Upper Congo, Livingstone Falls and the Pool, and the district between the Pool and Equator. The government is in the hands of an Administrator General, under whom are a number of white subordinates, chiefs of Provinces and other officials.

Free commerce, in its widest sense, has been established in the basin of the Congo, and for a distance of 360 miles along the Atlantic. In this territory, no import duties can be levied for twenty years, and the Powers reserve the right to decide if freedom of entry shall be maintained beyond that period. The principal articles for export are said to be palm oil, ivory, rubber, gum copal, ground nuts, orchilla weed and cam-wood; principal imports are textiles, spirits, tobacco, guns and powder. {57}

Map of Congo Free State and West Coast of Africa

{58}

Map of Northwest Coast of Africa



{59}

OCEANIA.

A fifth division of the globe, comprising island groups and the large islands of the Pacific. The divisions are Australasia, Malaysia and Polynesia.

Australasia extends from equator to 47° south latitude, and from 112° to about 170° east longitude. It includes Australia, Papua, New Zealand and Tasmania.

Malaysia comprises the islands and groups lying just off the coast of Southeastern Asia, and contains the large islands of Luzon, Mindanao, Celebes, Java, Sumatra and Borneo.

Polynesia includes Islands and island groups between Philippines and 100° west longitude. Among the most important groups are Caroline, Feejee, Friendly, Gilbert, Hawaiian, Marshall and Society Islands.

Area Sq.
Miles.
Pop. Capital. Pop.
New South Wales 316,320 840,614 Sydney 220,427
New Zealand 105,342 532,000 Wellington 20,563
Queensland 668,224 36,695 Brisbane 36,109
South Australia 903,690 293,509 Adelaide 38,479
Tasmania 26,375 122,479 Hobart 21,118
Victoria 87,884 915,948 Melbourne 291,464
West Australia 975,920 29,708 Perth 5,044
Total Australasia 3,083,755 2,770,953
Hawaiian Islands 6,667 57,985 Honolulu 7,000
Borneo 12,745 2,183,974
brace Brunai
Banjarmasin
20,000
30,000
Celebes 71,791 2,000,000 Macassar 20,000
Java 50,848 20,259,450 Batavia 99,109
Mindanao 36,000 732,802 Selangan 10,000
Luzon 37,505 4,450,191 Manila 160,000
Sumatra 177,000 3,000,000
brace Acheen
Padang
45,000
10,000

AUSTRALASIA.—Crop Production, 1882.

Wheat 81,763,098 bu. Other cereals 889,789 bu.
Oats 16,430,205 " Potatoes 346,834 tons.
Barley 1,928,595 " Hay 862,602 "
Maize 5,611,903 " Wine 1,496,175 gals.
Gold produced 1881 $30,510,709
Coin and bullion exported 1882 38,480,960
Aggregate imports, 1882 310,698,578
Aggregate exports, 1882 246,407,125

PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.—Exports, 1881.

Coffee $959,346 Liquid Indigo $8,256
Cordage 137,031 Rice 7,791
Hemp 8,889,872 Sugar 12,403,993
Indigo 138,958 Sapan-wood 58,230

SOCIETY ISLANDS, 1882.

IMPORTS. EXPORTS.
General Merchandise $702,475 Gen. Mdse. (re-exp'rt'd) $358,604
Cotton, copra, mother-of-pearl
shell and other produce
Cotton, copra, mother-of-pearl shell, etc. 516,583
367,975 Fire Wood & cocoanuts. 1,041
Total $1,070,450 Total $876,228

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, 1883—Domestic Exports.

Sugar 114,107,155 lbs. Rice 11,619,000 lbs.
Molasses 193,997 gals. Coffee 16,057 lbs.
Paddy 1,368,705 lbs. Bananas 44,902 bunches.

{60}

Map of Oceania



{61}

NETHERLANDS INDIES.

The Netherlands Indies are by far the most important colonial possessions of the Netherlands. They cover all the Dutch possessions in the East Indies, and include Java, Madura, Banca, Sumatra, Bingtang, Billiton, Celebes, the Moluccas, Lombok Bali, and many smaller islands and parts of New Guinea, Borneo and Timor. Area of the colonies estimated at 636,329 square miles; population, 27,784,959. The superior administration is in the hands of a Governor General, assisted by a Council of 5 members.

The most important colony is Java, which politically includes the neighboring island of Madura. Total area, 50,848 square miles; population, 20,259,450. Java is governed under what is termed the culture system, which was established in 1832.

The strength of the total army in 1883 was 30,421 men, of whom 15,032 were Europeans, and 15,389 natives. There is a military academy near Batavia, and attached to every battalion is a school for soldiers. The navy, royal and colonial, consisted of 79 vessels and 5,029 men.

By far the larger part of the commerce of Dutch India is with the Netherlands. The average value of the total imports for three years was $62,500,000: exports, $75,000,000. About two-thirds of the imports were from the Netherlands, and three-fourths of the exports were sent to that country. The principal exports are sugar, coffee, rice, indigo and tobacco. Latest reports give value of coffee exported, $13,086,790; sugar, $19,625,470; indigo, $1,245,170; spices, $1,021,720; tobacco, $6,457,680.

The Netherlands Indies had, in 1882, 3,682 miles of telegraph, with 84 offices. Number of postoffices, 221. Java has now about 750 miles of railway.

HAWAII (SANDWICH ISLANDS).Ha-wi´ee.

A kingdom of Oceania, consisting of a group of 15 islands, of which 8 are inhabited. The government is a limited monarchy. Hawaii is the largest island; but Honolulu, the capital, is situated on the island of Oahu. Population of Honolulu, 7,000. Area of the islands, 6,667 square miles. At the last census, the population numbered 57,985: male, 34,103; female, 23,882; native, 44,088; Chinese, 5,916; white, 4,561, of whom 1,276 were Americans, 883 English, 436 Portuguese, 272 Germans, 81 French; half-caste, 3,420.

To a great extent the islands are mountainous, and there are numerous volcanoes, several of which are active. The volcano of Mauna Loa, on the Island of Hawaii, is one of the highest active volcanoes in the world. The soil is exceedingly fertile and productive. Chief products, sugar and rice; but coffee, hides, bone, whale oil and wool are exported in considerable quantities. Value of exports, 1883, $8,121,200; imports, $5,624,240.

In 1883, 267 vessels, of 183,316 tons, entered, and 263 vessels, of 189,494 tons, cleared the ports. Of the former, 195 vessels were American. The islands own 64 vessels, of 15,588 tons. The islands of Hawaii and Maui are provided with telegraphs, and have about 32 miles of railway. Almost every house in Honolulu has its telephone.

There are numerous schools in the islands; the annual sum devoted to public instruction is $95,850. The King is a member of the Church of England; but all forms of religion are permitted and protected. {62}

AUSTRALASIA.Aws-tral-ā´she-a.

Under this bead are grouped all the Australian colonies belonging to Great Britain. They are seven in number, and geographically are comprised in the continent of Australia and the islands of Tasmania and New Zealand and part of New Guinea. Total area, 3,075,135 square miles. Population, 1883, 3,091,897.

Each colony has a Governor, appointed by the Crown, in whom is vested the executive power. The legislative power of each is vested in a Parliament of two houses.

Minerals abound in all the colonies. The most extensive coal mines are those of New South Wales, the product of which in 1884 was 2,521,457 tons; value, $6,009,705. Gold product of the colony, 1883, 122,256 ounces; value, $1,705,620. Coal product of New Zealand, 1883, 421,764 tons. Gold discovered 1857. Value of total exports to March, 1884, $203,535,370. In Queensland, tin, copper, lead and coal are mined. Value of tin raised, 1883, $2,940,060. Gold discovered 1858. Product, 1882, 230,090 oz.; value, $4,148,275. The chief mineral of South Australia is copper, but valuable iron ores also exist. Value of copper and copper ore, 1883, $1,876,625. Tasmania is rich in iron, tin and coal. Value of tin exported, 1883, $1,882,230. Amount of gold produced, 46,577 oz.; value, $882,210. In 1851 gold was discovered in Victoria. Total product to 1883, 52,214,150 oz.; value, $1,044,283,000. Principal minerals of Western Australia are copper, lead and coal.

Principal agricultural products of the colonies: Wheat product of New South Wales, 1884, 4,345,437 bushels; corn, 4,538,604 bushels; sugar, 35,220,640 lbs.; wine, 589,604 gallons. New Zealand—Wheat, 9,827,136 bushels; oats, 9,231,339 bushels. Leading grain crop of Queensland, corn. Yield of sugar, 1883, 73,534,000 lbs.; cotton, 70,020 lbs. South Australia—Wheat, 14,649,230 bushels; wine, 430,520 gallons. Principal products of Tasmania, grain, hops and fruit; value of green and preserved fruits exported 1883, $881,120. Wheat product of Victoria, 1884, 15,570,245 bushels; oats, 4,717,624 bushels; barley, 1,069,803 bushels; potatoes, 161,088 tons; hay, 433,143 tons.

The following table shows the number of farm animals in the colonies in 1884:

Colonies. Sheep. Cattle. Horses. Pigs.
New South Wales 34,000,000 1,646,753 326,964 189,050
New Zealand 14,056,266 698,637 161,736 200,083
Queensland 9,308,911 4,266,172 253,116 51,796
South Australia 6,677,067 319,620 184,360
Tasmania 1,831,069 130,525 26,840 55,774
Victoria 10,739,021 1,297,546 286,779 233,525
Western Australia 1,547,061 71,102 37,111

Value of total exports and imports of the colonies, 1883: New South Wales—Exports, $99,430,090; imports, $104,800,785. New Zealand—Exports, $35,479,995; imports, $39,870,190. Queensland—Exports, $26,383,040; imports, $31,166,755. South Australia—Exports, $24,417,305; imports, $31,550,275. Tasmania—Exports, $8,657,995; imports, $9,163,185. Victoria—Exports, $81,994,315; imports, $88,719,230. Western Australia—Exports, $2,235,050; imports, $2,584,230.

In 1883, New South Wales had 1,320 miles of railway, and 597 under construction; New Zealand, 1,486 miles; Queensland, 1,038 miles, and 454 under construction; South Australia, 990.75 miles, and 225 under construction; Tasmania, 167 miles, and 207 under construction; Victoria, 1,562 miles, and 130 under construction; Western Australia, 55 miles, and 68 under construction. {63}

Map of Australasia



{64}

NORTH AMERICA.

Northern and largest division of Western Continent, separated from South America by Gulf of Mexico, and connected with it by Isthmus of Panama.

Area, 8,918,346 square miles; extends from Arctic Ocean to about 8° north latitude; extreme width, over 3,000 miles. Eastern coast line to southern extremity of Mexico, about 13,000 miles; western, about 11,000 miles. Has remarkable lake and river systems: the latter includes the Mississippi and its tributaries, whose combined navigable length is about 40,000 miles, and it is estimated that the great lakes contain a third of all fresh waters on the globe. The political divisions are Greenland, Iceland, Dominion of Canada, Newfoundland, United States, Central America and Mexico.

Extent in latitude results in great variety of climate, while the Gulf of Mexico and surrounding oceans furnish to most localities abundant moisture.

Ottawa, capital of Dominion of Canada, and great lumber depot; pop., 27,412; St. Johns, capital of Newfoundland, and easternmost seaport of North America; pop., 22,583. Number lighthouses in United States, Canada and Spanish America, 1,127.

Record of great fires: New York, 1835; loss $29,199,000. San Francisco, 1851; loss, 2,500 blocks. Chicago, 1871; loss, $160,594,500. Boston, 1872; loss, $72,997,500.

Rich soil and excellent tillage combine to produce abundant food supply for home consumption and foreign export. Tobacco, cotton, woods, dye-stuffs, grain, flour, meat, eggs and butter are among the supplies exported. Value of grain crops, United States and Canada, $1,114,428,500. Annual import of fruit in United States since 1871, 6 lbs. per inhabitant.

Canada has 900,000,000 acres forest; income, $58,398,000. United States, 560,000,000 acres; income, $374,720,500. Mexico and Central America are rich in mahogany and dye-stuffs. Number acres forest felled daily by United States wood-cutters, 10,000; annual consumption of firewood, United States and Canada, 1,550,000,000 cubic feet; number saw-mills, 1882, 15,740.

Nearly every variety of minerals abundant; iron widely diffused. Copper especially plentiful in region of great lakes; gold and silver in mountain regions of both sides of continent; lead abundant in central United States; quicksilver, in California and Mexico, coal fields numerous, and supply almost inexhaustible; salt also widely distributed. Annual consumption of coal in United States and Canada, 72,000,000 tons; gold production, 1830-1880, United States and Spanish America, 4,262 tons.

Lakes and rivers well stocked with fish; coast fisheries productive and profitable, especially on banks of Newfoundland, and along coasts of Washington and Oregon. Newfoundland has a world-wide reputation for cod fisheries, and seal fisheries rank next in importance. Average annual catch of cod, about 1,500,000 quintals; number seals taken yearly, about 600,000; of herring, about 175,000 bbls. Value fisheries of United States and Canada, $16,546,100,000.

Population, over 60,000,000, Mexico numbering 10,046,872, and Canada, 4,324,810.

Greenland and Iceland are Danish colonies. Canada and Newfoundland belong to Great Britain. Executive power of Canada vested in the Governor General, a representative of the Queen; legislative power exercised by a Senate and House of Commons, each Province having its own Lieutenant Governor and legislature. Public affairs of Newfoundland managed by governor, executive council, and legislative assembly. {65}

Map of North America



{66}

ONTARIO.On-tā´re-o.

The most populous Province of the Dominion of Canada; established in 1867. Previous to 1791 formed part of the Province of Quebec; from 1791 to 1840 known as Upper Canada; in 1840 reunited with Quebec, under the name of Canada.

Area, census of 1881, 101,733 square miles. Total land occupied, 19,259,909 acres; improved, 11,294,109 acres, of which 8,370,266 acres were under crops; 2,619,038 acres in pasture, and 304,805 acres in gardens and orchards.

Temperature at Toronto: winter, 4.8° to 62.5°; summer, 38.7° to 92.7°; mean temperature, 44.16°. Rainfall at Toronto, 28.43 inches.

The surface of the country is diversified by numerous lakes and rivers. The agricultural resources are very great, and the mineral wealth varied and rich.

Public affairs are administered by a Lieutenant Governor, assisted by an Executive Council of 6, and a House of Assembly of 89 members. Capital, Toronto; pop. 86,415. Ottawa, the capital of the Dominion; pop., 27,412. Ontario sends 24 members to the Dominion Senate.

Agricultural products, 1881: wheat, 27,406,091 bushels; barley, 14,279,841 bushels; oats, 40,209,929 bushels; rye, 1,598,871 bushels; peas and beans, 9,434,872 bushels; buckwheat, 841,649 bushels; corn, 8,096,782 bushels; potatoes, 18,994,559 bushels; turnips, 33,856,721 bushels; other root crops, 6,479,222 bushels; hay, 2,038,659 tons; grass and clover seed, 173,219 bushels; flaxseed, 38,208 bushels; tobacco, 160,251 pounds; hops, 615,967 pounds.

Latest reported orchard products: apples, 11,400,517 bushels; grapes, 3,697,555 pounds; other fruits, 644,707 bushels.

Amount of butter produced on farms, 54,862,365 pounds; cheese, 1,701,721 pounds; wool, 6,013,216 pounds; cloth, flannel and linen, 1,440,199 yards. Maple sugar produced 1881, 4,169,706 pounds; honey, 1,197,628 pounds; flax and hemp, 1,073,197 pounds. Value of fur product, $129,578.

Number of farm animals in the Province, 1881: horses, 590,298; oxen, 23,263; milch cows and other cattle, 1,678,904; sheep, 1,359,178; swine, 700,922.

Latest reported timber product: white pine, 12,262,570 cu. ft.; red pine, 1,848,927 cu. ft.; oak, 5,448,263 cu. ft.; tamarack 1,515,360 cu. ft.; walnut, 741,431 cu. ft.; birch and maple, 612,760 cu. ft.; elm, 2,925,382 cu. ft.; all other timber, 26,577,869 cu. ft.; number of pine logs, 14,945,670; other logs, 7,621,610.

The Province has 259 steam vessels, with a tonnage of 44,550; and 289 sailing vessels, with a tonnage of 55,058. There are 5 vessels with 14 men, and 1,129 boats with 2,101 men and 928,008 fathoms of nets engaged in the 681 fisheries. Product for 1881: herring, 15,605 barrels; whitefish, 38,301 barrels; trout, 55,497 barrels; other fish, 18,817 barrels; fish oil, 1,629 gallons.

Population of the Province, 1881, 1,923,228; male, 976,461; female, 946767

Number of churches, 5,075: of which 2,375 are Methodist, 852 Presbyterian, 680 Church of England, 389 Baptist, and 367 Roman Catholic. There are 21 hospitals, and 22 orphanages. Number of colleges and universities, 17; boarding schools, 44.

There is an excellent system of free schools under the control of a Minister of Education and a Chief Superintendent. School pop., 405,857. Number of high schools, public and private, 410; public elementary schools, 5,313. Number miles of railway in the Province, 5223 {67}

Map of Ontario



{68}

QUEBEC.Kwe-bek´.

One of the most important of the Canadian Provinces. Earliest settlement made by Europeans, in 1541; first permanent settlement made by the French on the present site of the city of Quebec, 1608. Country occupied by the French until 1759, when, through the victory of Gen. Wolfe, it fell into the hands of the English.

Area, census of 1881, 188,688 square miles. Total amount of land occupied, 12,625,877 acres; improved, 6,410,264 acres, of which 4,147,984 were under crop, 2,207,422 in pasture, and 54,858 in gardens and orchards. Population, 1,359,027: male, 678,175; female, 680,852.

While the climate is similar to that of Ontario, it is colder in winter, and warmer in summer. At Montreal the winters are very severe, the temperature often ranging from zero to 10° and even 30° below it, and in summer it is frequently 90° in the shade.

Public affairs are administered by a Lieutenant Governor, assisted by an Executive Council, a Legislative Council of 24 members, and a Legislative Assembly of 65 members. The Province sends 24 members to the Dominion Senate. Quebec is the capital; population, 62,446. Montreal the commercial metropolis of the Province, and also of the Dominion; population, 140,747.

The surface of the country is varied, consisting of extensive forests, large rivers, lakes and prairies, and bold, rocky heights. The Province abounds in numerous minerals.

Agricultural products for 1881: wheat, 2,019,004 bushels; barley, 1,751,539 bushels; oats, 19,990,205 bushels; rye, 430,242 bushels; peas and beans, 4,170,456 bushels; buckwheat, 2,041,670 bushels; corn, 888,169 bushels; potatoes, 14,873,287 bushels; turnips, 1,572,476 bushels; hay, 1,612,104 tons; grass and clover seed, 119,306 bushels; tobacco, 2,356,581 pounds; hops, 218,542 pounds.

This Province produces three times as much maple sugar as all the others combined; total amount produced 1881, 15,687,835 pounds; amount of honey produced, 559,024 pounds; apples, 777,557 bushels; grapes, 158,031 pounds. Value of fur product, $163,310. Butter produced on farms, 1881, 30,630,397 pounds; cheese, 559,278 pounds; wool, 2,730,544 pounds; cloth and flannel, 2,958,180 yards; flax and hemp, 865,310 pounds; linen, 1,120,301 yards.

Farm animals in the Province, 1881: horses, 273,852; oxen, 49,237; milch cows and other cattle, 900,096; sheep, 889,833; swine, 329,199.

Public instruction is under a Superintendent of Education. School pop., 209,623. Number of elementary public schools, 4,404; pupils, 170,858; colleges, 44; academies, 246; special schools, 18; normal, 3; model, 333.

The forests are extensive, and the lumbering and shipbuilding interests are large. Timber product, 1881: pine, 5,495,183 cu. ft.; oak, 59,587 cu. ft.; tamarack, 2,707,745 cu. ft.; birch and maple, 2,784,395 cu. ft.; all other timber, 14,612,669 cu. ft. Number of logs produced, 13,582,407; masts and spars, 104,248.

There are in the Province 293 steam vessels; tonnage, 132,097: 757 sailing vessels; tonnage, 110,356. The fisheries furnish employment to 14,744 men; there are 146 vessels and 6,761 boats engaged in this industry. Products of the fisheries, 1881: cod, 462,388 quintals; herring, 130,354 barrels; mackerel, 10,725 barrels; sardines, 4,360 barrels; canned lobsters, 517,734 pounds; all other fish, 101,861 barrels; fish oil, 263,374 barrels.

The prevailing religion is Roman Catholic. The number adhering to that faith is 1,170,718, or about seven-eighths of the entire population. Number of churches in the Province, 1,280, of which 712 are Roman Catholic. Number of hospitals, 29; orphanages, 11. There are 1,911 miles of railway. {69}

Map of Quebec



{70}

NOVA SCOTIA.No´va Sko´she-a.

A Province of the Dominion of Canada, created in 1784; became part of the Dominion, 1867. Area, 20,907 square miles. Population, 1881, 440,572. Executive authority vested in Lieutenant Governor and Executive Council; legislative, in Legislative Council and House of Assembly.

Capital, Halifax; pop., 36,100. Capital of Cape Breton Island, Sydney. Soil generally fertile. Principal products are wheat, rye, oats, barley, potatoes and Indian corn. Grain product, 1880, 5,570,444 bushels; potatoes, 6,961,016 bushels; hay, 414,046 tons. Timber product, 1881, 3,144,323 cubic feet. Fisheries employ 755 vessels, 13,214 boats and 26,900 men; latest reports give 715,781 quintals of cod, haddock and hake; other fish, 301,756 barrels; lobsters, 3,841,467 lbs.; fish oil, 275,352 gallons.

There is a good system of common schools, organized In 1864. Annual expenditure for educational purposes, about $700,000. Miles of railway, 500; many short canals.

NEW BRUNSWICK.

Settled by French, 1639, and formed with Nova Scotia part of Arcadia. First British settlers came from Scotland, 1764. Province created 1784; became part of the Dominion, 1867.

Government vested in a Lieutenant Governor, an Executive, a Legislative Council and a House of Assembly. Area, 27,174 square miles. Population, 321,233. Capital, Fredericton; pop., 6,218.

Climate subject to extremes; temperature in winter, 30°; in summer, 95°. Soil exceedingly fertile. In 1881, acres in crops, 849,678; in pasture, 392,169. Products: grain, 5,490,896 bushels; potatoes, 6,961,016; hay, 414,046 tons. In 1881, wool product, 760,531 pounds. The number of horses in 1881 was 52,975; oxen, 8,812; horned cattle, 203,748; sheep, 221,163; swine, 53,087.

There is a good system of non-sectarian free schools in the Province. Telegraphic and railway communication throughout the Province. Number miles of railway, 1,148.

PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND.

A Province of the Dominion of Canada, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. First settled by the French, who ceded it to Great Britain in 1758. Province created 1768; admitted into the Dominion, 1873. Area, 27,174 square miles. Total land occupied, 1,126,653 acres; improved, 596,731 acres; under crops, 467,211 acres.

Climate milder than that of the adjoining continent. All ordinary cereals may be cultivated. Grain product, 1881: 4,301,110 bu.; potatoes, 6,042,191 bu.; turnips, 1,198,407 bu.; butter, 1,688,690 pounds; cheese, 196,273 pounds. Farm animals, 328,734.

Population, 108,891: male, 54,729; female, 54,162. Capital, Charlottetown; population, 11,485.

The government is vested in a Lieutenant Governor, an Executive and a Legislative Council and a House of Assembly.

The fisheries are very valuable. Products, 1881: cod, 18,736 quintals; herring, 21,501 bbls; mackerel, 91,792 bbls; canned lobsters, 3,275,316 lbs; oysters, 175,408 bbls; fish oil, 8,139 gals.

The Province owns 11 steam vessels, and 224 sailing vessels, with a tonnage of 45,237. Timber product, 1881, 910,200 cu. ft.

Number of churches, 231. Free school system introduced 1853. School population, 22,711. Number of district schools, 355; grammar, 15; high, 46; colleges, 3. Number of miles of railway, 200. {71}

Map of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia



{72}

MANITOBA.Man-i-to´ba.

A Province of the Dominion of Canada, formerly known as the Red River Settlement, and also Assiniboia; admitted into the Confederation in 1870. Area, 123,200 square miles. Population, 65,954. The climate is healthful and cold; average summer temperature, 65°; winter, 3° below zero.

Government is in the hands of a Lieutenant Governor, appointed by the Governor General of the Dominion, with an Executive Council of 6 members and a Legislative Assembly. Manitoba sends 3 Senators to the Dominion Senate. Capital, Winnipeg; pop., 7,985.

Surface level. Land occupied, 2,384,337 acres; improved, 250,416 acres; under crops, 230,264 acres. Principal crop, wheat; latest reported product, 1,033,673 bu.; oats, 1,270,268 bu.; barley, 253,604 bu. Farm animals, 1881: horses, 16,739; oxen, 12,269; milch cows and other cattle, 48,012. Butter made on farms, 957,152 lbs.; cheese, 19,613 lbs. Timber produced, 895,445 cu. ft.

The Canadian Pacific Railway has 670 miles in the Province. There are 4 colleges and 5 boarding schools. No. of churches, 88.

NORTHWEST TERRITORIES.

This large possession was purchased by the Dominion from the Hudson's Bay Company in 1870. In 1882 a portion of it was subdivided into four districts: Assiniboia, 95,000 square miles; Saskatchewan, 114,000 square miles; Alberta, 100,000 square miles; Athabasca, 122,000 square miles.

Area of the Territories, 2,665,252 square miles. Total land occupied, 314,107 acres, of which 28,833 acres are improved. Furs from this country are found in every market of the world; value of the product for 1881, $428,177. Timber product, 109,873 cu. ft.

The country is well watered by numerous large lakes and rivers. There are at least 600,000 square miles fitted for agriculture. One of the most fertile belts is the Saskatchewan, through a portion of which the Canadian Pacific Railway passes.

Public affairs in the hands of a Lieutenant Governor and Council. Capital, Regina. Number of churches, 44. School population, 578.

Population, census of 1881, 56,446: male, 28,113; female, 28,333.

BRITISH COLUMBIA.Ko-lŭm´be-a´.

Colony established 1858; admitted into the Dominion, 1871. Area, including Vancouver's Island, 341,305 square miles. Population, 49,459. Climate milder than that of same latitude on the Atlantic coast. Country traversed by Rocky and Cascade Mountains. Loftiest peak, Mount Browne, 16,000 feet high. Government consists of a Lieutenant Governor, an Executive Council, and a Legislative Assembly, elected by the people. Capital, Victoria; pop., 5,925.

Amount of land occupied, 441,255 acres; improved, 184,885 acres. Grain product, 1881, 559,220 bu.; potatoes, 556,193 bu.; hops, 24,899 lbs. Farm animals, 151,202. Butter made on farms, 343,387 lbs.; cheese, 33,252. Value of fur product, $153,442. Timber product, 2,427,882 cu. ft. There are 406 fisheries. Salmon product, 50,105 bbls.; other fish, 12,767 bbls. Fish oil 237,492 gals.

The mineral wealth of the Province is very great, the chief source being coal. On the mainland and Vancouver's Island large deposits of bituminous coal are found, and on Queen Charlotte's Island a fine grade of anthracite. Gold is found in various localities. In ten years the yield in the Province exceeded $22,000,000. {73}

Map of British Columbia etc.



{74}

ALASKA.A-las´-ka.

At the time of its discovery by the Russians, it was called by the natives Alayeska, which has changed through Alaksa and Alashka to its present form. Largest possession of United States; discovered by Vitus Behring, 1741; purchased from Russia, 1867.

Area, 531,409 square miles: Arctic division, 125,245; Yukon, 176,515; Kuskokvim, 114,975; Aleutian, 14,610; Kadiak, 70,884; Southeastern, 28,980. Extreme length, north and south, 1,100 miles; extreme breadth, 800 miles. Yukon, the great highway through the country, navigable in summer about 700 miles; coast line, exclusive of smaller indentations, over 4,000 miles.

Climate of Pacific coast much modified by the Pacific gulf stream and the long days of summer: mean annual temperature of Yukon country, about 25°; at Sitka, about 44°; winter temperature at latter place about that of Washington, D.C. Rainfall copious, and foggy weather common on coasts and islands; Sitka one of rainiest places in the world outside the tropics, the annual precipitation being 65 to 90 inches, and number rainy days 200 to 285.

Sitka is seat of Bishop of Greek church, and headquarters of the Governor, who assumed official control, December, 1884. Pop., 995: white, 163; creole, 219; Thlinket, 613. Other settlements next in importance are Fort St. Nicholas, Cook's Inlet and Fort St. Michael, Norton's Sound. Harbors at Port Clarence, Michaelooski and Captain's Harbor.

Salaries Territor'l Officers.
Governor $3,000
District Judge 3,000
Clerk of Dist. Court & ex-officio Sec. & Treas. 2,500
Dist. Attorney 2,500
Marshal and Surveyor General 2,600
Col. of Customs 2,500
& fees
3 Deputy Colls. 1,500
1 Deputy Col. 1,200
2 Inspectors, per day 3
Chart of Products of Seal Fisheries by State - headed by Alaska

Number persons employed in fisheries, 6,130; capital invested, $447,000; value of products, $2,661,640; value of seal fisheries, $2,096,500; value general fisheries, $564,640.

Total pop., 33,426; white, 430; creole, 1,756; Innuit, 17,617; Aleut, 2,145; Tinneh, 3,927; Thlinket, 6,763; Hyda, 788.

Aleutian and Sitka districts are the agricultural regions. Most fertile land near Cook's Inlet; good oats, barley and root crops are raised here without much difficulty. Rich grass land in the valley of Yukon, but extreme dampness and want of summer heat prevent the ripening of grain. Timber abundant on mainland; yellow cedar the best, being of great value for boat-building. Edible berries are plentiful.

A fine quality of white marble is found on Lynn Channel; coal, amber and lignite on Aleutian Islands, the best coal being on Cook's Inlet. Gold, silver, copper, cinnabar and iron are found; sulphur is abundant in volcanic districts.

Noted for its fur-bearing animals, the chief of which are beaver, ermine, fox, marten, otter, squirrel and wolf. The main source of revenue is the fur seal, the taking of which is regulated by law. The United States receives a revenue from the company to which the monopoly of the trade is granted. The walrus is of value in furnishing ivory and oil. Whales, cod, herring and halibut abound, and various species of salmon are found. {75}

Map of Alaska



{76}

MEXICO.

A large republic, forming southwestern boundary of the United States. Area, 743,948 square miles; northern frontier, 1,400 miles; southern frontier, 345 miles; seacoast, 6,086 miles. Number of States, 27; Federal District, 1; Territories, 2.

POLITICAL DIVISIONS.

Name. Area,
Sq. Mls.
Population. Capitals. Pop.
Aguascalientes 2,895 139,800 Aguascalientes 39,000
Campeche 25,832 90,413 Campeche 12,600
Chiapas 16,048 200,000 San Cristobal 15,000
Chihuahua 83,746 245,657 Chihuahua 20,006
Coahuila 50,890 144,594 Saltillo 24,000
Colima 3,743 65,827 Colima 31,744
Durango 42,510 200,000 Durango 28,000
Guanajuato 11,411 898,072 Guanajuato 73,500
Guerrero 24,550 325,000 Chilpancingo 3,300
Hidalgo 8,163 500,000 Pachuca 25,000
Jalisco 39,168 934,850 Guadalajara 93,875
Mexico 7,838 710,579 Toluca 13,500
Michoacan 25,689 784,108 Morelia 25,000
Morelos 1,776 160,300 Cuernavaca 16,000
Nuevo Leon 23,635 210,000 Monterey 50,000
Oaxaca 33,591 754,468 Oaxaca 26,708
Puebla 12,021 784,466 Puebla 78,000
Querétaro 3,207 203,290 Querétaro 36,000
San Luis Potosi 27,500 650,000 San Luis Potosi 56,800
Sinaloa 36,198 201,918 Culiacan 9,000
Sonora 79,021 141,000 Ures 5,000
Tabasco 11,851 104,759 San Juan Bautista 12,000
Tamaulipas 30,225 141,000 Victoria 8,000
Tlaxcala 1,620 138,988 Tlaxcala 18,000
Vera Cruz 26,232 595,780 Jalapa 12,000
Yucatan 29,567 450,000 Merida 61,000
Zacatecas 22,998 470,000 Zacatecas 16,500

TERRITORIES.

Federal District 461 439,769 Mexico 350,000
Lower California 61,562 30,000 La Paz 4,000
Tepic Tepic 9,000

LATEST REPORTED EXPORTS.

Coffee $1,193 Brazil Wood $54,450
Eagle Dollars 176,123 Silver Coin and Bullion 69,541
Gold Bullion 79,640 Silver Ore 55,446
Fruit 60,681 Cattle Hides 127,847



Number cattle ranches, 20,574; value, $501,249,500. Number cattle in Northern Mexico,—area, 300,000 square miles,—1,500,000; goats, 2,500,000; horses, 1,000,000; sheep, 1,000,000.

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS.

Cotton $6,429,454 Wheat $16,970,789
Pulque 8,769,700 Corn 109,169,429
Total Ag. Prod. $172,721,803

{77}

Map of Mexico



{78}

UNITED STATES.

A republic occupying the central portion of North America, together with Alaska, in extreme northwest.

Area land surface, 3,547,000 square miles; greatest length, east and west, about 2,800 miles; average breadth, about 1,200 miles; British American boundary, 3,540 miles; Mexican, 1,550 miles; coast line, exclusive of land indentations, 5,715 miles; lake shore line, 3,450 miles. Number States, 38; Territories, 10.

New York ranks first in population; Pennsylvania, second; Ohio, third; Illinois, fourth. New York City, metropolis of republic; Philadelphia ranks second; Brooklyn, third; Chicago, fourth. Washington, capital; population, 147,293.

Railway mileage, 1830, 23, having increased to 126,718, January, 1886. Increase, 1885, 3,214

Salt Industry. Breweries.
Capital $8,225,740 Number 2,741
Bushels 29,800,298 Quantity Brewed 513,192,120 gals.
Value $4,817,636 Consumption per head 10 gals.
Imported Merchandise. Immigrants.
Gums $4,400,166 Professional occupations 2,284
Tea 13,636,053 Skilled 55,061
Breadstuffs 6,704,543 Miscellaneous 184,195
Laces, etc. 10,012,894 Occupations not stated 31,665
Manuf. of Silk 36,673,646 Without occupation 245,387
Wines 5,660,833 Total 518,592

STATISTICS FOR YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1884.

Whale Fisheries $1,517,353 Breadstuffs exported $162,544,715
Other Fisheries 4,731,043 Cotton and manuf. of,
Total $6,248,396 exported 208,900,415
Coal, exported 5,031,959
Total value of dutiable merchandise imported $457,813,509
Total value merchandise imported free from duty 209,884,184
IMPORTS. EXPORTS.
Merchandise $667,697,693 $740,513,609
Coin and Bullion 37,426,262 67,133,383
DOMESTIC EXPORTS. FOREIGN EXPORTS.
Merchandise $724,964,852 $15,548,757
Coin and Bullion 50,225,635 16,907,748

Commerce of Pacific Coast.

IMPORTS. EXPORTS.
Europe $5,156,311 $31,225,433
Asia, Australasia and Oceanica 18,766,855 4,166,516
Hawaiian Islands 7,925,925 3,109,697
Mexico, Central and South America 2,738,444 3,321,938
British Columbia 1,283,931 2,502,954
All other 1,308,064 2,059,746
Totals $37,179,530 $46,386,284
——
Total value of products of industry $10,000,000,000
Average annual coal production 77,908,874 tons.
Average annual value exports domestic merchandise $794,060,103
Average annual value imports domestic merchandise 635,227,511
Average annual value exports of cotton 12,322,428
Average annual value imports cotton manufactures 32,285,660

{79}

Map of the United States



{80}

MAINE. Mān.
"Pine Tree State."

Settled by the English at Bristol, 1624; admitted 1820.

Area, 33,040 square miles; extreme length, 300 miles; extreme breadth, 210 miles; shore line over 2,400 miles, including islands; the Penobscot, Androscoggin, Saco, St. Croix, Aroostook and St. John are the most important streams. Number counties, 16.

Temperature of Portland: winter, 23° to 38°; summer, 63° to 69°. Rainfall at Brunswick, 45 inches.

Portland, the metropolis and principal seaport; pop., 31,413. Augusta, the capital; pop., 8,665. Bangor, a port of entry and lumber centre; pop., 16,856. Biddeford, an important manufacturing town; pop, 12,651. Lewiston, principal seat cotton manufactures; pop., 19,083.

Number farms, 64,309; average value per acre, cleared land, $12.87; woodland, $12.66. Hay the most valuable crop, yielding l,214,033 tons in 1883; corn crop, 1884, 1,062,000 bu.: wheat, 629,400 bu.; oats, 2,428,000 bu.; latest reported dairy products, 3,720,783 gallons milk, 14,109,966 lbs. butter and 1,945,095 lbs. cheese.

Lumbering one of chief industries, forests covering over 10,000,000 acres; number saw-mills, 848; total products, $7,933,868.

Fisheries give employment to 11,071 persons, and produce an income of $3,614,178, including oyster fisheries, valued at $37,500.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $2,000
Sec'y of State 1,200
Treasurer 1,600
Attorney Gen. 1,000
Adjutant Gen. 900
Sup. Com. Schls 1,000
Sec. Bd. of Agr. 600
State Librarian 600
Chief Justice 3,000
7 Asso. Justices 3,000
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$150;
mileage,
20 cents.
District Judge 3,500
Col. Int. Rev. 2,500
Col. Customs 6,000
Surveyor Cus. 4,500
Pension Agt. 4,000
Chart of Capital Invested in Granite Quarries by State - headed by Maine
Presidential P. O.
Auburn $2,200
Augusta 3,100
Bangor 2,700
Bath 2,200
Belfast 1,800
Biddeford 2,200
Brunswick 1,700
Calais 1,600
Eastport 1,500
Ellsworth 1,500
Gardiner 1,800
Hallowell 1,600
Lewiston 2,500
Portland 3,300
Rockland 2,100
Saco 1,700
Skowhegan 1,700
Waterville 2,000
19 P.O. 1,500 to 1,000

Valuable slate quarries from the Kennebec to the Penobscot; granite is obtained in blocks of immense size; latest reported product, 2,203,670 cubic feet; value, $1,175,286. Ranks fifth in buckwheat and copper; eighth in hops and potatoes.

The State has 379 shipbuilding establishments; number new vessels built, 88; boats, 970; total value, $2,909,846.

Pop., 648,936: male, 324,058; female, 324,878; native, 590,053; foreign, 58,883; white, 646,852; colored, 1,451; Chinese, 8; Indians, 625.

State elections, second Monday in September; congressional and presidential, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 31; Representatives, 151; sessions biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting first Wednesday in January; limit of session, none; terms of Senators and Representatives, 2 years each.

Number electoral votes, 6; number voters, 187,323; paupers and Indians not taxed excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 3; system of common, high and normal schools excellent; of 519,669 persons 10 years old and upward, 3.5 per cent. are unable to read; school age, 4-21.

Legal interest rate, 6; by contract, any rate. {81}

Map of Maine



{82}

NEW HAMPSHIRE. Nū Hamp´shir.
"Granite State."

One of the thirteen original States; settled by English Puritans at Dover and Portsmouth, 1623.

Area, 9,335 square miles; length, 180 miles; average breadth, 45 miles; seacoast, 18 miles; best harbor at Portsmouth. Number counties, 10.

Average temperature at Concord, 46°; Hanover,43°; Manchester, 49°; Portsmouth, 46°. Rainfall at Hanover, 40 inches.

Manchester, chief city and manufacturing town, pop., 32,630. Pop. Nashua, 13,397; Concord, 13,843; Dover, 11,687; Portsmouth, 9690

Number farms, 32,181; average value per acre, cleared land, $15; woodland, $32. Hay the most valuable crop, yielding nearly 600,000 tons by last report; corn crop, 1884, 1,286,000 bu., 33 bu. to the acre; wheat, 170,700 bu., 14.6 bu. to the acre; oats, 993,000 bu., 32.4 bu. to the acre.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $1,000
Sec. State $800 & fees
Treasurer 1,800
Attorney Gen. 2,200
Supt. Pub. Ins. 2,000
3 R. R. Commission'rs 2,000 to 2,500
Adjutant Gen. 1,000
Sec. Bd. Agr. 1,000
Librarian 800
Chief Justice 2,900
6 Asso. Justices 2,700
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$3 a day
and mileage.
District Judge 3,500
Pension Agent 4,000
Col. Int. Rev. 1,125
Chart of Average Annual Product of Barley by State - headed by New Hampshire
Presidential P. O.
Claremont $1,800
Concord 2,700
Dover 2,300
Exeter 1,600
Franklin Falls 1,400
Great Falls 1,700
Hanover 1,500
Keene 2,300
Laconia 1,700
Lancaster 1,500
Lebanon 1,700
Littleton 1,600
Manchester 2,300
Milford 1,400
Nashua 2,500
Plymouth 1,500
Portsmouth 2,400
Rochester 1,600
14 P.O. $1,300 to 1,000

Ranks third in manufacture of cotton goods, value, $18,228,573; value woolen goods, $8,113,839; worsted goods, $2,694,232; sawed lumber, $3,842,012; leather, $4,477,350; paper, $1,731,170; boots and shoes, $7,230,804; flouring and grist mill products, $2,542,784; hosiery and knit goods, $2,362,779.

Mica is quarried at Grafton, and is very valuable; soapstone is found at Haverhill, Keene and Francestown; granite of fine quality is quarried at Plymouth, Troy, Roxbury, Concord and elsewhere.

Population, 346,991: male, 170,526; female, 176,465; native, 300,697; foreign, 46,294; white, 346,229; colored, 685; Chinese, 14; Indians, 63.

State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 24; Representatives, 321; sessions of legislature biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting first Wednesday in June; limit of session, none; terms of Senators and Representatives, 2 years each.

Number electoral votes, 4; number voters, 105,138. Paupers are excluded from voting.

Dartmouth College, at Hanover, founded 1769; compulsory education law; common schools excellent; school age, 5-15.

Mount Washington, highest point east of the Mississippi excepting two or three peaks in North Carolina; a three-mile railroad extends to the summit.

No asylum for deaf, dumb or blind.

Legal interest, 6; usury forfeits thrice the excess. {83}

Map of New Hampshire



{84}

VERMONT. Ver-mont´.
"Green Mountain State."

First settled by Massachusetts emigrants near Brattleboro, 1724; admitted 1791,—the first State to join the original thirteen.

Area, 9,565 square miles, a little larger than New Hampshire; length, 150 miles; breadth, 35 to 50 miles. Lake Champlain frontage, over 100 miles; Burlington the chief harbor. Number counties, 14.

Temperature at Burlington: winter, 18° to 33°; summer, 66° to 71°; rainfall, 34 inches. Death rate, only 1.07 per cent. per annum.

Burlington, seat of Vermont lumber trade; pop., 11,365. Montpelier, capital. Rutland, famous for its marble works; pop., 12,149. Pop. of Bennington, 6,333; of Saint Albans, 7,193.

First railroad, 1849, from Bellows Falls to Burlington by way of Rutland; present mileage, 937.

Number farms, 35,522. Average value per acre, cleared land, $15.28; woodland, $17.73. Corn crop, 1884, 1,998,700 bushels; wheat, 364,500 bushels; oats, 3,625,000 bushels. Latest report for hay, 1,148,100 tons; potatoes, 4,708,550 bushels; cheese, 6,121,130 lbs.; butter, 25,245,826 lbs.

Salaries State Officers.
Governor $1,000
Lieut. Gov. $6 a day.
Sec'y of State 1,700
Treasurer 1,700
Auditor 2,000
Insp. Finances 500
R. R. Com'r 500
Adjutant Gen. 750
Supt. Pub. Inst'n 1,400
Chief Justice 2,500
6 Asso. Justices 2,500
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$3 a day.
Dist. Judge 3,500
Col. Int. Rev. 2,650
Col. of Customs 1,000 & fees
Chart of Capital Invested in Limestone and Marble Quarries by State - headed by Vermont
Presidential P. O.
Barre $1,400
Bellows Falls 1,800
Bennington 1,700
Bradford 1,600
Brandon 1,500
Brattleboro 2,400
Burlington 2,600
Fair Haven 1,400
Middlebury 1,700
Montpelier 2,300
Poultney 1,400
Rutland 2,500
St. Albans 2,100
St. Johnsbury 2,200
Springfield 1,500
Vergennes 1,600
West Randolph 1,500
Woodstock 1,500
11 P. O. $1,400 to 1,000

Mineral wealth of great value; manganese, copper pyrites, iron ore, and gold deposits have been found. Black, white, red and variegated marbles are abundant; annual value marble, over $3,000,000, and of slate, about $1,000,000.

Number different industries, 2,874, giving employment to 17,540 persons. Number butter and cheese establishments, 85; flour and grist, 227; furniture, 56; leather tanning, 53; lumber sawing, 688; marble and stone work, 69; wares of tin, sheet-iron and copper, 95.

Ranks fourth in copper, and seventh in hops and buckwheat.

Population: 332,286; male, 166,887; female, 165,399; native, 291,327; foreign, 40,959; white, 331,218; colored, 1,057: Indians, 11.

State elections biennial, first Tuesday in September; congressional and presidential, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 30; Representatives, 240; sessions of legislature biennial, in even-numbered years, meeting first Wednesday in October; limit of session, none; terms or Senators and Representatives, 2 years each.

Number electoral votes, 4; number voters, 95,621. Bribers excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 2; school population, 99,463: school age, 5-20.

Legal interest rate, 6; usury forfeits excess of interest. {85}

Map of Vermont



{86}

MASSACHUSETTS. Măs-sa-chū´sets.
"Old Bay State."

One of the thirteen original States; first permanent settlement made by English Puritans, at Plymouth, 1620.

Area, 8,315 square miles; length, northeast and southwest, 160 miles; breadth, 47 to 100 miles. Number counties, 14.

Temperature at Boston: winter, 27° to 38°; summer, 66° to 71°; rainfall, 45 inches.

Boston, capital and metropolis; pop., 390,406. Lowell, Lawrence and Fall River famous for cotton manufactures; pops., 64,051, 38,845 and 56,863. Worcester, great railroad and manufacturing centre; pop., 68,383. Cambridge, seat of Harvard College, the oldest in America, pop., 59,660. Lynn, famous for manufacture of boots and shoes; pop., 45,861. New Bedford, greatest whaling port in the world; pop., 33,393. Springfield contains greatest arsenal in the United States; pop., 37,577.

Number of farms, 38,406; average value per acre, cleared land, $85; woodland, $43.25. Hay, the most valuable crop; wheat, 1884, 19,000 bushels; oats, 717,000; corn, 1,941,300 bu. Ranks first in cotton, woolen and worsted goods, and in cod and mackerel fisheries, owning over half of the fishing vessels of the United States; second in wealth and commerce; third in manufactures and in printing and publishing; fourth in silk goods; fifth in soap; sixth in iron and steel; ninth in agricultural implements.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $5,000
Lt. Governor 2,000
Sec'y of State 3,000
Treasurer 4,000
Auditor 2,500
Attorney Gen. 4,000
Chief Justice 6,500
6 Asso. Justices 6,000
District Judge 4,000
Senators, Representatives $650 per year.
Pension Ag't 4,000
3 Collectors Int. Rev. 3,000 to 4,500
Coll. of Customs, Boston 8,000
Naval Officer 5,000
Chart of Value of Manufactured Boots and Shoes by State - headed by Massachusetts
Presidential P. O.
Boston $6,000
Brockton 2,500
Fall River 2,800
Fitchburg 2,600
Gloucester 2,500
Haverhill 2,600
Holyoke 2,700
Lawrence 2,700
Lowell 3,200
Lynn 3,100
New Bedford 3,000
Northampton 2,500
Pittsfield 2,700
Salem 2,700
Springfield 3,200
Taunton 2,600
Worcester 3,300
101 Offices 2,400 to 1,000

Population 1,941,465; male, 932,429; female, 1,009,036; native, 1,459,982; foreign, 481,483; white, 1,920,498; colored, 20,361; Chinese, 229; Japanese, 8; Indians, 369.

State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday in November. Number Senators, 40; Representatives, 240; sessions annual, meeting first Wednesday in January; limit of session, none; terms of Senators and Representatives, one year each. Number electoral votes, 14; number voters, 544,192; native white, 353,347; foreign white, 184,439; colored, 6,406; Paupers, persons under guardians, non-taxpayers, and men unable to read and write excluded from voting.

Number quarries, 113; ports of entry, 9; customs districts, 11. First American newspaper, Boston, 1690; first freight railroad in United States, Quincy; first American library at Harvard College.

Number colleges, 7; education compulsory; schools excellent; school age, 5-15.

Legal interest rate, 6; by contract, any rate. {87}

Map of Massachusetts



{88}

RHODE ISLAND. Rōd I´land.
"Little Rhody."

One of the thirteen original States and smallest in the Union; supposed temporary settlement by Icelanders as early as 1000; settled by Roger Williams at Providence, 1636; last of the thirteen colonies to ratify the Constitution, which it did in 1790.

Area, 1,250 square miles; extreme length, north and south, 47 miles; extreme width, 40 miles. Good harbors at Providence, Bristol, Warren and Newport, the latter one of the finest in the world. Number counties, 5.

Temperature at Newport: Winter, 29° to 43°; summer, 64° to 71°: rainfall, 43 inches.

United States customs districts at Newport, Providence, Bristol and Warren; two capitals, Providence and Newport; populations, 117,628 and 19,552. Population of Lincoln, 17,269; of Pawtucket, 22,894; of Warwick, 13,284; of Woonsocket, 16,145.

Number farms, 6,216. Hay the most valuable crop; yield of 1883, 81,708 tons; potato crop, 845,185 bushels; corn crop, 1884, 890,000 bushels; oats, 161,000 bushels. Latest reported dairy products: milk, 3,831,706 gallons; butter, 1,007,103 lbs.; cheese, 67,171 lbs.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $1,000
Lieut. Gov 500
Sec'y of State 2,500
Gen. Treasurer 2,500
State Auditor
Ins. Com'r
brace
2,500
Railroad Com'r 500
Attorney Gen 2,500
Adjutant Gen 600
Com. Pub. Schls 2,500
Chief Justice 4,500
4 Asso. Justices 4,000
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$1 pr. day
mileage 8 cents.
District Judge $3,500
Apr. of Cust'ms 3,000
Clerk 1,200
3 Collectors Fees.
Chart of Capital Invested in Cotton Manufactures - headed by Rhode Island
4 Dep. Colls. $1,000 to 2,000
Col. Int. Rev 2,750
5 Dep. Colls. 1,200 to 1,400
Supt. Life Saving Ser. 1,800
Asst. Supt. 1,000
36 Keepers 700
Presidential P. O.
Bristol $1,700
Central Falls 1,700
E. Greenwich 1,600
Lonsdale 1,300
Newport 2,700
Olneyville 1,700
Pawtucket 2,600
Providence 3,500
Warren 1,300
Westerly 2,100
Woonsocket 2,300

Outranks, in proportion to its size, all other States in value of manufactures. Number looms, 30,274; spindles, 1,649,295, using 161,694 bales of cotton, and giving employment to 22,228 persons. Ranks second in cotton, flax and linen goods.

Value of cotton goods manufactured, $24,609,461; woolen goods, $15,410,450; worsted goods, $6,177,754; boots and shoes, rubber, $1,455,420; dyeing and finishing textiles, $6,874,254; foundry and machine-shop products, $6,281,707; jewelry, $5,650,133.

Population. 303,816; male, 146,135; female, 157,681; native, 222,697; foreign, 81,119; white, 296,585; colored, 7,127; Chinese, 27; Indians, 77.

State elections, first Wednesday in April; congressional, and presidential, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 36; Representatives, 72; sessions annual; meeting last Tuesday in May, at Newport, and an adjourned session annually at Providence; limit of session, none; terms of Senators and Representatives, 1 year each.

Number electoral votes, 4; number voters, 84,460; persons without property to the value of $134 excluded from voting.

Number colleges. 1; Brown's University, at Providence, founded 1764; common school system excellent; school age, 5-15.

Legal interest rate, 6; by contract, any rate. {89}

Map of Rhode Island



{90}

CONNECTICUT Kon-net´e-kut.
"Nutmeg State."

Name of Indian origin, signifying Long River.

One of the thirteen original States; first permanent settlement made by English at Hartford, 1635.

Area, 4,990 square miles; average length, 86 miles; average breadth, 55 miles; seacoast, over 100 miles. Principal river valleys: Thames, Connecticut and Housatonic. Most important harbors: Bridgeport, New Haven, New London, Saybrook and Stonington. Number counties, 8.

Temperature at New Haven: winter, 27° to 40°; summer, 68° to 74°: rainfall, 44 inches.

Hartford the capital, and noted for banking and insurance business; population, 42,015. New Haven, "City of Elms," the metropolis, and noted for educational institutions; population, 62,882. Bridgeport, noted for manufacture of fire-arms and sewing machines; population, 27,343. Waterbury, an important manufacturing city; population, 17,806. Fairfield, Middletown, New Haven, New London and Stonington are ports of entry.

Number farms, 30,598. Average value per acre, cleared land, $29; woodland, $24.50. Corn crop of 1884, 1,767,790 bu.; wheat, 86,200 bu.; oats, 1,112,000 bu. Latest reported dairy products: milk, 12,289,893 gals.; butter, 8,292,360 lbs.; cheese, 1,028,015 lbs.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $4,000
Lieut. Gov. 500
Sec'y of State 1,500
Treasurer 1,500
Comptroller 1,500
Sec. State Bd. Ed. 3,000
Adjutant Gen. 1,200
Ins. Com'r. 3,500
3 R. R. Com'rs. 3,000
Chief Justice 4,500
4 Asso. Justices 4,000
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$300 and
mileage
District Judge 3,500
2 Colls. In. Rev. 3,000
13 Deputy Collectors 800 to 1,775
Stmpd. En. Agt. 2,500
Chart of Capital Invested in Manufacture of Hardware by State - headed by Connecticut
Presidential P. O.
Ansonia $2,100
Birmingham 2,200
Bridgeport 3,100
Bristol 1,900
Danbury 2,400
Hartford 3,400
Meriden 2,700
Middletown 2,600
New Britain 2,500
New Haven 3,400
New London 2,600
Norwalk 2,000
Norwich 2,700
South Norwich 2,000
Stamford 2,400
Waterbury 2,700
Willimantic 2,100
38 Offices 1,800 to 1,000

Number different industries, 4,488. Capital invested in manufacture: rubber goods, $1,681,600; carpets, other than rag, $3,085,000; clocks, $1,816,400; cotton goods, $21,104,200; woolen goods, $7,907,452; sewing machines and attachments, $6,490,650.

Ranks first in clocks, third in silk goods, fourth in cotton goods, eighth in tobacco.

Population, 622,700: male, 305,782; female, 316,918; native, 492,708; foreign, 129,992; white, 610,769; colored, 11,547; Chinese, 123; Japanese, 6; Indians, 255.

State elections, annual, at same date as congressional and presidential; number Senators, 21; Representatives, 249; meeting of legislature, Wednesday after first Monday in January; limit, none; term of Senators, 2 years; of Representatives, 1 year.

Number electoral votes, 6; number voters, 177,291. Convicts and those unable to read are excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 3, having about 160,000 volumes in libraries; Yale College, at New Haven, founded, 1701. School age, 4-16.

Legal interest rate, 6; no penalty for usury, but more than 6 per cent. can not be collected by law. {91}

Map of Connecticut



{92}

NEW YORK."Empire or Excelsior State."

One of the thirteen original States; named in honor of the Duke of York to whom the patent was granted; first settled by Dutch, on Manhattan Island, 1614.

Area, 49,170 square miles; extreme length, east and west, 412 miles; extreme breadth, 311 miles; two-thirds of boundaries formed by navigable rivers; total water frontage, 880 miles. Number counties, 60. Temperature at Albany: winter, 22° to 36°; summer, 67° to 73°. Rainfall at Buffalo, 34 inches, and at Penn Yan, 28 inches.

New York City, chief commercial point of United States, ranking 1st in exports and imports; pop., 1,206,299,—greater by nearly three-fifths than that of the Territories. Brooklyn is 2d in size; pop. 566,663. Buffalo, "Queen City of the Lakes," is, next to Chicago, most important shipping point for grain on the lakes; pop., 155,134. Rochester, noted for manufactures and extensive nurseries; pop., 89,366. Syracuse has extensive salt works; pop., 51,792. Albany, the capital; pop., 90,758; customs districts, 10.

First railroad, from Albany to Schenectady, 1831; present railroad mileage, 7,349; artificial waterways, 907 miles.

Number farms, 241,058; average value per acre, cleared land, $58.48; woodland, $40.88

Salaries of State Officers.
Gov'r $10,000 and house
Lieut. Gov. 5,000
Sec'y of State 5,000
Treasurer 5,000
Comptroller 6,000
Attorney Gen. 5,000
Chief Justice 7,500
Senators &
Representatives
brace
1,500
m'l'ge 10 cts.
3 Dist. Judges 4,000
Pension Agt. 4,000
Pos. Stamp Agt. 2,500
D. Supt. R'y Ser. 2,500
12 Colls. Int. Revenue 2,750 to 4,500
Col. Customs New York 12,000
Supt. Assay O. 4,500
Chart of Cheese Production by State - headed by New York
Presidential P. O.
Albany $3,500
Auburn 2,900
Binghamton 3,000
Brooklyn 3,800
Buffalo 3,800
Elmira 3,000
Lockport 2,700
Newburgh 2,700
New York 8,000
Oswego 2,700
Poughkeepsie 2,900
Rochester 3,600
Saratoga Spr. 2,700
Syracuse 3,400
Troy 3,300
Utica 3,200
Watertown 2,700
204 Post Offices 2,600 to 1,000

Corn crop, 1884, 22,674,300 bu.; wheat, 12,729,000 bu. Latest reported dairy products: milk, 231,965,533 gallons; butter, 116,119,847 lbs.; cheese, 117,085,442 lbs. Ranks first in value of manufactures, soap, printing and publishing, hops, hay, potatoes, buckwheat and milch cows; second in salt, silk goods, malt and distilled liquors, miles railway and barley; third in agricultural implements, iron ore, iron and steel, oats and rye.

Population, 5,082,871: male, 2,505,322; female, 2,577,549; native, 3,871,492; foreign, 1,211,379; white, 5,016,022; colored, 65,104; Chinese, 909; Indians, 819. Governor and State officers elected quadrennially, and legislature every two years; State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 32; Representatives, 128; sessions of legislature annual, meeting first Tuesday in January; limit of session, none; term of Senators, 2 years; of Representatives, 1 year.

Number electoral votes, 36; number voters, 1,408,751; native white, 852,094; foreign white, 536,598. Election betters or bribers, and convicts, excluded from voting.

Number of colleges, 28; school pop., 1,681,101; school age, 5-21.

Legal interest rate, 6; usury forfeits principal and interest. {93}

Map of New York



{94}

NEW JERSEY. Jer´zee.
"Jersey Blue."

Named in honor of a grantee, Sir George Carteret, at one time Governor of the Island of Jersey. One of the thirteen original States, settled by Dutch, at Bergen, 1620. Area, 7,815 square miles; extreme length, 157 mls.; breadth, 37 to 70 mls.; frontage on Atlantic and Delaware Bay, about 120 miles each. Number counties, 21.

Temperature at Atlantic City: winter, 32° to 42°; summer, 66° to 73°. Rainfall at Newark, 45 inches.

Newark, Perth Amboy, Great Egg Harbor, Tuckerton, Bridgeton and Lumberton are ports of entry. Newark, metropolis; population, 152,988. Jersey City, a suburb of New York; population, 153,513. Trenton, capital; pop. 34,386. Paterson, manufacturing city; pop., 63,273. Extensive zinc works at Newark and Jersey City. Pop. Elizabeth, 32,119; Hoboken, 37,721; Camden, 52,884.

Number farms, 34,307. Average value per acre, cleared land, $82.52; woodland, $56.82. Number engaged in agriculture, 59,214.

Hay the most valuable crop; potato yield, 1883, 4,275,857 bu.; wheat, 1884, 2,022,000 bu.; corn 10,992,032 bu.; cranberry growing a specialty, Burlington, Ocean and Atlantic counties being especially adapted to this industry. Central region a vast market garden.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $5,000
Sec'y of State 6,000
Treasurer 4,000
Comptroller 4,000
Attorney Gen. 7,000
Supt. Pub. Inst. 3,000
Adjutant Gen. 1,200
Librarian 1,500
Chief Justice 7,500
8 Asso. Justic's 7,000
Chancellor 10,000
Senators,
Representatives
brace
500 a year
District Judge 3,500
Supt. Life Saving Service 1,800
39 Keepers 700
3 Collectors Int. Rev. $2,375 to 4,500
Chart of Value of Manufactured Silk Goods by State - headed by New Jersey
Presidential P. O.
Asbury Park $2,300
Atlantic City 2,400
Bridgeton 2,100
Camden 2,800
Elizabeth 2,700
Hoboken 2,400
Jersey City 3,200
Morristown 2,400
Newark 3,400
New Brunswick 2,500
Orange 2,300
Paterson 2,800
Plainfield 2,500
Rahway 2,200
Trenton 3,100
Washington 3,100
46 P.O., 2,000 to 1,100

Latest reports give, for cotton used, 20,569 bales; 108 factories for silk and silk goods, and number hands employed, 12,549; 2,234 hands employed in jewelry factories; number of flour and grist mills, 481; brick and tile factories, 107.

Latest figures received for iron ore, 757,372; value sea fisheries, $1,115,154; oysters sold, $2,080,625; marl dug in 1882, 1,080,000 tons.

Ranks first in fertilizing marl, zinc and silk goods; fourth in iron ore; fifth in iron and steel; sixth in buckwheat and soap; seventh in rye.

Population, 1,131,116: male, 559,922; female, 571,194; native, 909,416; foreign, 221,700: white, 1,092,017; colored, 38,853; Chinese, 172; Indians, 74.

State elections annual; same date as congressional and presidential; number of Senators 21, of Representatives, 60; meeting of legislature, 2d Tuesday in January; limit of session, none; term of Senators, 3 years; of Representatives, 1 year. Number electoral votes, 9; number voters, 300,635. Paupers, idiots, insane and convicts excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 4; number enrolled in public schools, 209,526; school age, 5-18.

Legal interest rate, 6; usury forfeits entire interest. {95}

Map of New Jersey



{96}

PENNSYLVANIA. Pen-sil-va´ne-ah.
"Keystone State."

Named in honor of William Penn, the grantee. One of the thirteen original States. First permanent settlement made by Swedes at Chester, 1638.

Area, 45,215 square miles; extreme length, 303 miles; greatest breadth, 176 miles. Largest rivers, Delaware, Susquehanna, Alleghany Monongahela, Ohio. Number counties, 67. Temp. at Philadelphia: winter, 31° to 42°; summer, 70° to 75°: rainfall, 44 in.

Philadelphia founded 1682; chief city of State, and second in U. S.; contains U. S. mint and navy yard; pop., 846,984. Pittsburg, extensive manufacturing city; pop., 156,389. Harrisburg is capital; pop., 30,762. Philadelphia, Pittsburg and Erie are ports of entry.

Number farms, 156,357, averaging about 100 acres each. Average value per acre, cleared land, $45.75; woodland, $29.75. Corn crop, 1884, 43,466,000 bushels; wheat, 20,820,000 bushels; annual value butter, milk and cheese, over $35,000,000.

Manufacture of pig iron the great industry; total production in U. S., 1880, 4,295,414 tons, of which Penn. produced 2,083,121 tons. Number manufacturing establishments, 10,381; flour and grist, 2,873; iron and steel, 321; sawed lumber, 2,826; paper, 78; woolen goods, 324.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $10,000
Lieut. Gov. 3,000
Sec'y of State 4,000
Treasurer 5,000
Auditor Gen. 3,000
Attorney Gen. 3,500
Chief Justice 8,500
6 Asso. Justices 8,000
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$1,000 for 100 days.
$10 per d.
Mileage 5 cents.
2 Dist. Judges 4,000
2 Pension Agts. 4,000
10 Colls. Int. Revenue 4,500 to 2,375
Col. Customs, Philadelp'ia 8,000
Chart of Capital Invested in Manufacture of Glassware by State - headed by Pennsylvania
Presidential P. O.
Alleghany $2,900
Allentown 2,600
Altoona 2,500
Bradford 2,700
Easton 2,600
Erie 3,000
Harrisburg 3,100
Lancaster 2,900
Meadville 2,500
Philadelphia 6,000
Pittsburg 3,800
Reading 3,000
Scranton 2,900
Titusville 2,500
Wilkesbarre 2,700
Williamsport 2,800
York 2,700
149 Offices. 2,400 to 1,000

Anthracite coal field central division; bituminous in west and southwest. Produces all the anthracite and more than half the bituminous coal of the United States.

Ranks first in rye, iron and steel, petroleum and coal; second in buckwheat, potatoes and printing and publishing; third in milch cows, hay, soap and miles railway; fourth in oats and tobacco; fifth in silk goods, malt and distilled liquors; sixth in salt, copper, and agricultural implements; eighth in horses and sheep.

Population, 4,282,891: male, 2,136,655; female, 2,146,236; native, 3,695,062; foreign, 587,829; white, 4,197,016; colored, 85,535; Chinese, 148; Japanese, 8; Indians, 184.

State elections annual, same date as congressional and presidential; number Senators, 50; of Representatives, 201; sessions biennial, meeting first Tuesday in January; limit of session, 150 days; term of Senators, 4 years; of Representatives, 2 years. Number electoral votes, 30; number voters, 1,094,284. Non-taxpayers and political bribers excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 26; enrolled in public schools, 945,345; school age, 6-21.

Legal interest rate, 6; usury forfeits excess of interest. {97}

Map of Pennsylvania



{98}

DELAWARE. Del´a-war.
"The Diamond State."

One of the thirteen original States; named in honor of Lord Delaware, Governor of Virginia, who entered the bay, 1610. First permanent settlement made by Swedes, near present city of Wilmington, 1638. First to ratify Federal constitution, 1787.

Area, 2,050 square miles; extreme length, 96 miles; breadth, about 36 miles on south, and 10 miles on north. Number counties, 8. Temperature at Delaware breakwater: winter, 30° to 38°; summer, 69° to 74°: rainfall, about 50 inches.

Wilmington, metropolis, and has important coasting trade; population, 42,478. Dover is capital. Breakwater protecting Delaware Bay at Cape Henlopen greatest work of its kind in America, cost the United States $2,127,400, and was over 40 years in course of construction.

Number farms, 6,658, of which 5,041 are occupied by owners. Average value per acre, cleared land, $19; woodland, $15.

Corn crop of 1884, 3,975,000 bushels; wheat, 1,007,000 bushels; peaches, berries and garden products find ready market. Value peach crop, over $1,500,000 annually. The growing of sweet potatoes a valuable industry.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $2,000
Secy' of State 1,000
Treasurer 1,450
Auditor 700
Adjutant Gen. 200
Attorney Gen. 2,000
Supt. Pub. Ins. 1,500
State Librarian 450
Chief Justice 2,500
Chancellor 2,500
3 Asso. Justices 2,200
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$3 pr. day
and mileage.
District Judge 3,500
Dist. Att. $200 & fees
Col. Inter. Rev. 2,875
Chart of Values of Orchard Products per 1000 population - headed by Delaware
6 Deputy Collectors $900 to 1,600
Clerk 1,000
Collector of Customs 500 & fees
2 Deputy Collectors 500 to 1600
5 Boatmen 300
Presidential P. O.
Dover $1,700
Middletown 1,300
Milford 1,400
Newark 1,200
Newcastle 1,100
Smyrna 1,400
Wilmington 3,100

Number different industries, 746; flour and grist mills, 81; canning and preserving, 33; shipbuilding, 18; lumber sawing, 86.

Canning and preserving fruits and vegetables an important industry; capital invested, $396,379; value of products, $634,940.

Capital invested in fisheries, $268,231; persons employed, 1,979. Value products general fisheries, $309,029: menhaden, $941; oysters, $687,725: total, $997,695.

Value manufactured cotton goods, $1,057,257; iron and steel, $2,347,177; iron pipe, wrought, $2,000,000; leather, dressed skins, $1,886,597; shipbuilding, $2,162,503. Products of all manufacturing and mechanical industries, $20,514,438.

Pop., 146,608: male, 74,108; female, 72,500; native, 137,140; foreign, 9,468; white, 120,166; colored, 26,442; slaves, 1860, 1,798.

State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 9; Representatives, 21; sessions of legislature biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting first Tuesday in January; limit of session, 21 days; term of Senators, 4 years; of Representatives, 2 years. Number electoral votes, 3; number voters, 38,298. Idiots, insane, paupers and criminals excluded from voting.

Colleges at Newark and Wilmington; school age: 6-21.

Legal interest rate, 6; usury forfeits the principal. {99}

Map of Delaware



{100}

MARYLAND.Mā´re-land.

One of the thirteen original States; named in honor of Maria, wife of Charles II., King of England; first permanent settlement made by English Roman Catholics at St. Mary's, 1634.

Area, 12,210 square miles; greatest length, east and west, 196 miles; seacoast, 83 miles, or, including the tidewater region of Chesapeake Bay, 411 miles, and, with shores of islands, 509 miles. Number counties, 23. Temperature at Baltimore: winter, 33° to 41°; summer, 73° to 79°; rainfall, 41 inches.

Baltimore, the metropolis; laid out 1730; port of entry and commercial centre; has regular lines European steamers; pop., 332,313. Annapolis, capital; contains United States Naval Academy; pop. 5,744. Cumberland, depot of western mining region; pop., 10,693.

Number farms, 1860, 25,494; 1880, 40,517. Average value per acre cleared land, $24.65; woodland, $35.50.

Value principal orchard products,—peaches, pears, plums and apples,—nearly $2,000,000; canned and preserved fruits and vegetables, over $2,000,000; oyster fisheries, nearly $5,000,000.

Wheat crop, 1884, 8,260,000 bu.; corn, 15,237,000 bu.; oats, 1,980,000 bu.; buckwheat, 1883, 117,800 bu.; tobacco, 31,570,793 lbs.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $4,500
Sec'y of State 2,000
Treasurer 2,500
Comptroller 2,500
Attorney Gen. 3,000
Chief Justice 3,500
7 Asso. Justices 3,500
District Judge 4,000
Senators,
Repres'ntatives
brace
$5 pr. day
and mileage.
2 Colls. Int. Revenue 2,625 to 4,500
Col. of Customs 7,000
2 Colls. 250 and 1,200 fees.
Auditor 2,500
Naval Officer 5,000
Surveyor 4,500
Chart of Value of Oyster Fisheries by State - headed by Maryland
Presidential P. O.
Annapolis $2,400
Baltimore 5,000
Bel Air 1,200
Cambridge 1,400
Centreville 1,300
Chestertown 1,300
Cumberland 2,300
Easton 1,700
Elkton 1,500
Ellicott City 1,300
Emmittsburgh 1,300
Frederick 2,200
Frostburgh 1,300
Hagerstown 2,300
Havre de Grace 1,300
Port Deposit 1,100
Salisbury 1,400
Towson 1,100
Westminster 1,500

Number manufacturing establishments, 6,787; capital invested $58,742,384; hands employed, 74,945; bales cotton used, 46,947; pig iron produced, 61,437 tons; flour and grist mills, 546; tons coal mined, 2,227,844.

Ranks fourth in coal, seventh in tobacco, eighth in copper, ninth in iron ore. Copper is found in Frederick and Carroll counties; iron ore, in Alleghany, Anne Arundel, Carroll, Baltimore, Frederick and Prince George's counties.

Population, 934,943: male, 462,187; female, 472,756; native, 852,137; foreign, 82,806 white, 724,693; colored, 210,230; Chinese, 5; Indians, 15. Slaves, 1860, 87,189.

State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 26; Representatives, 91; sessions biennial, in even-numbered years; meeting of legislature, first Wednesday in January; limit of session, 90 days; term of Senators, 4 years; of Representatives, 2 years.

Number electoral votes, 8; number voters, 232,106; native white, 144,586; foreign white, 38,936; colored, 48,584. Insane, convicts and bribers excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 11; school population, 319,201; school age, 5-20.

Legal interest rate, 6; usury forfeits excess of interest. {101}

Map of Maryland



{102}

VIRGINIA. Ver-jin´e-ah.
"Old Dominion."

Named in honor of Elizabeth, the Virgin Queen. One of the thirteen original States. Settled by English at Jamestown, 1607. Slavery introduced 1619. Seceded May, 1861; re-admitted Jan., 1870.

Area, 42,450 square miles; greatest length, east and west, 440 miles; greatest breadth, 190 miles. Coast line, about 120 miles, or tidal frontage, 1,500 miles. Number counties, 100. Temperature at Norfolk: winter, 40° to 48°; summer, 75° to 80°. Rainfall at White Sulphur Spring, 38 inches.

Richmond, capital and metropolis; pop., 63,600. Pop. of Norfolk 21,966; of Petersburg, 21,656. Hampton Roads is one of the best harbors on Atlantic coast. Seven ports of entry.

Number farms, 118,517; 51 per cent. of laborers are engaged in agriculture. Average value per acre, cleared lands, $9.42; woodland, $7.48.

Marble quarried on Potomac. Number sandstone quarries, 10; shipbuilding establishments, 65; saw-mills, 907; sawed lumber, $3,434,163; flour and grist mills, 1,385; value products, $12,210,272; foundry and machine-shop, $1,361,231; iron and steel, $2,585,999; cotton goods, $1,040,962; leather tanned, $1,011,830; slaughtering and meat packing, $1,054,500. Total number industries, 5,710; capital invested, $26,968,990; value products, $51,780,992.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $5,000
Lieut. Gov. 900
Sec'y of State 2,000
Treasurer 2,000
Auditor 3,000
Sec. Auditor 2,000
Attorney Gen. 2,500
Supt. Pub. Ins. 2,500
Adjutant. Gen. 600
Com'r of Agr. 1,500
Supt. of Land O. 1,300
Pres. Sup. Ct. 3,250
4 J'dg's Sup. Ct. 3,000
2 Dist. Judges 3,500
Senators, Representatives $540 per year.
5 Colls. Int. Revenue 3,000 to 4,500
Chart of Annual Amount of Peanut Crop by State - headed by Virginia
Presidential P. O.
Abingdon $1,500
Alexandria 2,400
Charlottesville 1,900
Danville 2,400
Freder'cksb'gh 1,800
Hampton 1,600
Harrisonbu'gh 1,600
Lexington 1,600
Liberty 1,600
Lynchburgh 2,800
Norfolk 3,100
Petersburgh 2,600
Portsmouth 1,900
Richmond 3,400
Roanoke 2,100
Staunton 2,400
Winchester 1,900
5 Post Offices 1,500
10 P.O. $1,400 to 1,000

Gold produced, 1882, $15,000; latest reported iron ore product, 182,326 tons; zinc, 10,448 tons; lead, 11,200 tons.

Ranks first in peanuts, second in tobacco, eighth in salt and iron ore.

Population, 1,512,565; male, 745,589; female, 766,976; native, 1,497,869; foreign, 14,696; white, 880,858; colored, 631,616; Chinese, 6; Indians, 85; slaves, 1860, 490,865.

State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 40; Representatives, 100; sessions of legislature biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting first Wednesday in December; limit of session, 90 days; term of Senators, 4 years; of Representatives, 2 years.

Number electoral votes, 12; number voters, 334,505; colored, 128,257; native white, 198,277; foreign white, 7,971. Lunatics, idiots, convicts, duelists, United States army, and non-taxpayers of capitation tax excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 7; school population, 555,807; school age, 5-21.

Legal interest, 6; by contract, 8: usury forfeits excess over 6 per cent. {103}

Map of Virginia



{104}

WEST VIRGINIA. Ver-jin´e-ah.
"Pan-Handle State."

Composed of northern and western counties of the original State of Virginia; denounced passage of secession ordinance. April 22d, 1861; became a State, 1863.

Area, 24,780 square miles; greatest length north and south, about 240 miles; greatest breadth, 160 miles. Big Sandy, Great and Little Kanawha, Guyandotte and Monongahela are navigable rivers. Number counties, 54. Temperature at Morgantown: winter, 34° to 42°; summer, 70° to 75°. Rainfall at Romney, 45 inches.

Charleston, capital; pop. 4,192. Wheeling metropolis, principal seat of manufactures, and port of delivery; pop. 30,737. Parkersburg, port of delivery; pop. 6,582. Pop. of Martinsburg, 6,335.

Number farms, 1870, 39,778; 1880, 62,674. Average value per acre cleared land, $21.05; woodland, $9.39. A rich agricultural tract, 61 per cent. of laborers engaged in agriculture; staples are tobacco, wheat and corn, the last being the most valuable crop; number bu. grown 1884, being 11,900,000; wheat, 3,318,000; oats, 2,212,000; tobacco, 1883, 1,952,872 lbs.

On farms, Jan., 1884: Sheep, 671,226; swine, 424,626: annual wool clip, 2,000,000 lbs. The yield of butter, 1880, was 9,315,895 lbs; of fruit, over $1,000,000. Wine made 1880, 71,026 gallons; total value lumber products, $2,431,857.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $2,700
Secretary of State 1,000 and fees.
Treasurer 1,400
Auditor 2,000 and fees.
Supt. of Free Schools 1,500
Attorney Gen. 1,000
Presiding Jdg. Supm. Court 2,250
Asso. Judges 2,250
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$4 per d.
mileage 10 cents.
District Judge 3,500
2 Colls. Int. R. 2,875
30 Deputy Colls. $700 to 1,600
Chart of Increase in Corn Crop 1870-1880 by State - headed by West Virginia
Presidential P. O.
Charleston $2,100
Charlestown 1,500
Clarksburg 1,600
Fairmont 1,200
Grafton 1,400
Huntington 1,700
Lewisburgh 1,000
Martinsburgh 1,800
Morgantown 1,000
Moundsville 1,200
Parkersburg 2,300
Piedmont 1,300
Pt. Pleasant 1,000
Wellsburgh 1,300
Weston 1,200
Wheeling 3,000

Iron ore yields 50 to 80 per cent. pure metal, latest amount reported, 61,216 tons; coal, 1,792,570 tons; salt, 2,679,438 bu.; petroleum is extensively produced in Ritchie, Pleasants, Wood and Wirt counties. Ranks fifth in salt and coal; eighth in buckwheat, iron and steel.

Population, 618,457; male, 314,495; female, 303,962; native, 600,192; foreign, 18,265; white, 592,537; colored, 25,886; Indians, 29; 40 per cent. increase in pop. 1870 to 1880; number slaves, 1860, 18,371. Governor and State officers elected quadrennially, and legislature every two years; State elections, second Tuesday in October; congressional and presidential, Tuesday after the first Monday in November; number Senators, 26; Representatives, 65; sessions biennial, in odd-numbered years; limit of session, 45 days; term of Senators, 4 years; of Representatives, 2 years. Number electoral votes, 6; number voters, 139,161; native white, 123,569; foreign white, 9,208; colored, 6,384. Insane, paupers and convicts excluded from voting.

Flourishing free school system; school population, 216,605; school age, 6-21.

Legal interest, 6; by contract, 6; usury forfeits excess of interest. {105}

Map of West Virginia



{106}

NORTH CAROLINA."Old North State," "Tar State."

One of the thirteen original States; discovered by Lord Raleigh, 1584; settled by English at Albemarle, 1650; seceded May, 1861, re-admitted June, 1868.

Area, 52,250 square miles; length, 450 miles; breadth, 185 miles; coast line, over 400 miles; area dismal swamp, 150,000 acres; number counties, 96.

Temperature at Wilmington: winter, 46° to 51°; summer, 76° to 80°. Frost seldom occurs before November. Rainfall at Gaston, 43 inches. Deaths by consumption, 1.5 per 1,000 of population.

Wilmington, principal seaport and chief city; pop., 13,446; Raleigh, capital, and contains the State institutions; pop., 7,790 Charlotte contains assay office; pop., 4,473; pop. New Bern, 5,849.

Farms in 1860, 75,203, increased to 157,609 in 1880; average value per acre, cleared land, $9.77; woodland, $5.53.

Agriculture the leading industry; corn the most valuable crop; tobacco the leading product; value orchard products over $900,000. Latest reports give 4,576,148 bu. sweet potatoes; 5,609,191 lbs. rice; value tar and turpentine products, $1,758,488; tobacco crop, 1883, 29,048,213 lbs.; wheat crop, 1884, 4,650,000 bu.; oats, 4,632,000 bu.; corn, 31,499,000 bu.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $3,000
Sec'y of State 2,000
Treasurer 3,000
Auditor 1,500
Attorney Gen. 2,000
Supt. Pub. Inst. 1,500
Adjutant Gen. 600
Com'r of Agr. 1,200
State Librarian 750
Chief Justice 2,500
2 Asso. Justices 2,500
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$4 a day
mileage 10 c.
4 Collectors Int. Rev. 2,500 to 3,750
64 Deputy Collectors 300 to 1,700
2 Dist. Judges 3,500
Chart of Copper Production in Southern States - headed by North Carolina
Presidential P. O.
Asheville $1,900
Charlotte 2,400
Durham 1,600
Elizabeth City 1,200
Fayetteville 1,600
Goldsborough 1,800
Greensborough 1,800
New Berne 1,900
Oxford 1,200
Raleigh 2,600
Reidsville 1,200
Salisbury 1,500
Statesville 1,400
Tarborough 1,500
Wilmington 2,600
Wilson 1,400
Winston 1,800
10 P.O. 1,200 to 1,000

Ranks first in tar and turpentine, second in copper, third in peanuts and tobacco, fourth in rice, ninth in cotton.

Number of different industries, 3,802; flour and grist mills, 1,313; saw mills, 776; latest reported value oyster fisheries, $60,000; number boats engaged in general fisheries, about 3,000; copper mined, 1,640,000 lbs.

State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 50; Representatives, 120; sessions biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting Wednesday after first Monday in January; limit of session, 60 days; terms of Senator and Representatives, two years each. Number electoral votes, 11; number voters, 294,750; native white, 187,637; foreign white, 2,095; colored, 105,018. Convicts are excluded from voting.

Population, 1,399,750: male, 687,908; female, 711,842; natives, 1,396,008; foreign, 3,742; white, 867,242: colored, 531,278; Indians, 1,230. Slaves, 1860, 331,059.

Public school system adopted 1840; at present over 2,000 public schools in operation; school age, 6-21.

Legal interest rate, 6; by contract, 8; usury forfeits interest. {107}

Map of North Carolina



{108}

SOUTH CAROLINA. South Kar-o-lī´na.
"Palmetto State."

Named in honor of Charles II. of England, by whom the province was created in 1663. One of the thirteen original States. First permanent settlement made by English at Port Royal, 1670. Famous nullification troubles occurred 1832-33; led by J. C. Calhoun, and opposed vigorously by Pres. Jackson, during which his famous expression "by the Eternal" was first used. Seceded November, 1860; re-admitted June, 1868.

Area, 30,170 square miles; extreme length, 275 miles; greatest breadth, 210 miles; coast line, 200 miles. Largest rivers, Savannah, Great Pee Dee, Santee and Edisto. Number counties, 84.

Temperature at Charleston: summer, 79° to 83°; winter, 50° to 54°; rainfall, 43 inches; frosts seldom occur. Aiken, noted winter resort for consumptives. Deaths, consumption, 1.5 per 1,000 population.

Charleston, largest city; laid out 1680; population, 49,984; port of entry; seat of a Catholic bishop. United States customs districts at Beaufort, Charleston and Georgetown.

First railroad to use American locomotives, the South Carolina, built 1830-33; number miles railroad January 1, 1886, 1,693.

Number farms, 1860, 33,171; 1870, 51,889; 1880, 93,864. Average value per acre, cleared land, $6.24; woodland, $8.64.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $3,500
Lieut. Gov. 1,000
Sec'y of State. 2,100
Treasurer 2,100
Compt'ller Gen. 2,100
Attorney Gen. 2,100
Supt. Pub. Inst. 2,100
Com'r Agricult. 2,100
Adj & Insp. Gen. 1,500
Chief Justice 4,000
Asso. Justices 3,500
Clerk of Supreme
Court 1,000
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$5 pr. day
mileage 10 cents.
District Judge 3,500
Col. Int. Rev. 3,250
Chart of Rice Production by State - headed by South Carolina
Presidential P. O.
Aiken $1,600
Anderson C.H. 1,400
Beaufort 1,400
Camden 1,300
Charleston 3,200
Chester C.H. 1,400
Columbia 2,500
Florence 1,200
Georgetown 1,100
Greenville C.H. 2,000
Marion 1,100
Newberry C.H. 1,500
Orangeb'h C.H. 1,300
Rock Hill 1,000
Spart'nb'h C.H. 1,800
Sumter C.H. 1,600
Union 1,000
Winnsborough 1,200
Yorkville 1,000

Number of flour and grist mills, 720; value of lumber products, $2,031,507; tar and turpentine, $1,893,206; oyster fishery, $20,000; sea, river and lake fisheries, $192,482. Ranks first in phosphates; production, 332,077 tons; value, $1,992,462.

Gold mines in Abbeville, Edgefield and Union counties; first mint deposits, $3,500 in 1827; aggregate to June 30, 1883, $1,468,854. White and variegated marbles found in Spartanburgh and Laurens counties.

Population 995,577: male, 490,408; female, 505,169; native, 987,891; foreign, 7,686; white, 391,105; colored, 604,332; Chinese, 9; Indians, 131. Number persons per square mile, 33. Slaves, 1860, 402,406.

State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday in November; State Senators, 35; Representatives, 124; sessions annual, meeting fourth Tuesday in November; limit of session, none; term of Senators, 4 years; of Representatives, 2 years.

Number electoral votes, 9; number voters, 205,789; colored, 118,889; native white, 82,910; foreign white, 3,990. Insane, inmates of asylums, alms-houses and prisons, U. S. army and duelists excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 9; school population, 262,279; school age, 6-16.

Legal interest rate, 7; by contract, any rate. {109}

Map of South Carolina



{110}

GEORGIA. Jor´je-a.
"Empire State of the South."

Farthest south and latest settled of the thirteen original States; named in honor of George II., King of England; settled by English at Savannah, 1753; seceded Jan., 1861; re-admitted Dec. 1870.

Area 59,475 square miles; extreme length, 320 miles; extreme breadth, 254 miles; coast line, 480 miles; number harbors, 3. Savannah, Ogeechee, Altamaha, Satilla, St. Mary's, Flint, Chattahoochee and Upper Coosa are navigable rivers. Number counties, 137.

Temperature at Augusta: winter, 46° to 52°; summer, 79° to 83°. Rainfall at Savannah, 48 inches.

Savannah, Brunswick and St. Mary's are ports of entry. Savannah, chief seaport; pop., 27,891. Columbus contains largest cotton mill in the South; pop., 10,123. Atlanta is capital; pop., 37,409. Andersonville, seat of largest rebel prison during the Rebellion.

Number farms, 1860, 62,003; 1880, 138,626. Average value per acre, cleared land, $6.93; woodland, $5.45. 72 per cent. of laborers engaged in agriculture; rural income, $155 per individual.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $3,000
Sec'y of State 2,000
Treasurer 2,000
Compt'ller Gen. 2,000
Attorney Gen. 2,000
Com'r Agricult. 2,500
Chief Justice 2,500
Asso. Justices 2,500
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$4 pr. day
and mileage.
3 Dist. Judges 3,500
D. Supt. R'y Ser. 2,500
Collectors Inter. Rev. 2,500 to 3,125
24 Deputy Collectors 300 to 1,700
Customs Surveyor 1,000 & fees.
Chart of Large Farms by State - headed by Georgia
Presidential P. O.
Albany $1,600
Americus 1,600
Athens 1,900
Atlanta 3,300
Augusta 2,800
Brunswick 1,700
Columbus 2,500
Cuthbert 1,500
Dalton 1,400
Gainesville 1,500
Griffin 1,600
Macon 2,700
Madison 1,500
Marietta 1,500
Rome 2,300
Savannah 3,200
Thomasville 1,600
13 Offices 1,400 to 1,000

Sheep on farms, Jan., 1884, 543,415. Corn crop, 1884, 30,925,000 bu.; wheat, 3,130,000; oats, 6,270.000 bu.; cotton, 760,000 bales. Latest reported rice crop, 25,369,687 lbs.; sweet potatoes, 4,397,778 bu.; tobacco, 228,590 lbs; wool, 1,289,560 pounds. Ranks second in rice and sweet potatoes, third in cotton and molasses, fourth in sugar, seventh in mules, tenth in hogs.

Gold production, 1793-1883, $8,043,250. Latest mining reports give 100,000 tons coal and 91,416 tons iron ore.

Population, 1,542,180: male, 762,981; female, 779,199; native, 1,531,616; foreign, 10,564; white, 816,906; colored, 725,133; Chinese, 17; Indians, 124. State elections, first Wednesday in October; congressional and presidential, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 44; Representatives, 175; sessions biennial, in even-numbered years, meeting first Wednesday in November; limit of session, 40 days, unless extended by special vote; terms of Senators and Representatives, 2 years each.

Number electoral votes, 12; number voters, 321,438; colored, 143,471; native white, 172,044; foreign white, 5,923. Idiots, insane, criminals and non-taxpayers excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 7; State University at Athens, organized 1801; public schools excellent; school age, 6-18.

No State license law governing commercial travelers; but Atlanta, Athens, Augusta and Savannah exact a tax.

Legal interest, 7; by contract, 8; usury forfeits excess of interest. {111}

Map of Georgia



{112}

FLORIDA. Flor´e-dah
"Peninsula State."

Discoverer landed on Easter Sunday, or "Flowery Easter;" hence the name.

Settled by Spaniards at St. Augustine, 1565; organized as a Territory, 1822; admitted as a State, 1845; seceded 1861; re-admitted 1868

Area, 58,680 square miles; coastline, 1,146 miles, 472 being on the Atlantic; length, north and south, 350 miles; length, east and west, 340 miles; mean width of peninsula, 100 miles; greatest elevation, 250 feet. Number counties, 39.

Temperature at Jacksonville: winter, 55° to 61°; summer, 80° to 83°. Rainfall at Fort Myers, 57 inches.

Key West, the metropolis, and has good harbor and naval station pop., 9,890. Jacksonville, an important commercial point; pop., 7,650. St. Augustine, oldest town in United States. Tallahassee, the capital. Pop. Pensacola, 6,845.

Number farms, 23,438; owned by State, 15,000,000 acres; value per acre, cleared land, $9.48; woodland, $3.03; swamp, $1; school lands, $1.25.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $3,500
Lieut. Gov. 500
Sec'y of State 2,000
Treasurer 2,000
Comptroller 2,000
Attorney Gen. 2,000
Supt. Pub. Ins. 2,000
Adjutant Gen. 2,000
Land Com'r. 1,200
Chief Justice 3,500
2 Asso. Justices 3,000
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$6 a day
and 10c a mile.
2 Dist. Judges 3,500
Col. Int. Rev. 3,000
Surveyor Gen. 1,800
Chief Clerk 1,600
Draftsman 1,200
38 Lighthouse Keepers 370 to 820
Chart of Farm Production by Crop (Florida)
Presidential P. O.
Cedar Keys $1,300
De Land 1,300
Eustis 1,000
Fernandina 1,600
Gainesville 1,600
Jacksonville 2,800
Key West 1,600
Ocala 1,500
Orlando 1,500
Palatka 1,800
Pensacola 2,200
St. Augustine 1,700
Sanford 1,600
Tallahassee 1,700
Tampa 1,400

Corn most valuable crop, returns of 1884, 3,837,200 bushels; oats, 494,000 bu.; cotton, 60,000 bales; latest reported tobacco, 24,239 pounds; rice, 1,294,677 pounds; peaches, 89,028 bushels; sugar, 1,273 hogsheads; honey, 210,357 pounds; molasses, 1,029,868 gallons. Over 3,000,000 orange trees planted since 1870, and millions of oranges exported yearly.

Latest reported fisheries, $78,408; lumber products, $3,060,291; oysters, 20,000 bushels.

Ranks third in sugar and molasses, sixth in rice, tenth in cotton.

Population, 269,493: male, 136,444; female, 133,049; native, 259,584; foreign, 9,909; white, 142,605; colored, 126,690; Indians, 180; slaves, 1860, 61,745.

State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 32; Representatives, 76; sessions of legislature biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting Tuesday after first Monday in January; limit of session, 60 days; term of Senators, 4 years; of Representatives, 2 years.

Number electoral votes, 4; number voters, 61,699; colored, 27,489; native white, 30,351; foreign white, 3,859. Idiots, insane, criminals, betters on elections and duelists excluded from voting.

School population, 88,677; enrolled in public schools, 39,315 school age, 4-21.—Legal interest rate, 8; by contract, any rate. {113}

Map of Florida



{114}

ALABAMA.Al-a-bah´mah.

Name derived from an Indian word signifying, "Here we rest."

Settled near Mobile Bay by French, 1702; admitted as a State, 1819; seceded 1861; re-admitted 1868.

Area, 52,250 square miles, same as North Carolina; length, 330 miles; average breadth, 154 miles; seacoast, about 60 miles. Inland steam navigation about 1,500 miles; Mobile the only seaport. Number counties, 66.

Temperature at Augusta: winter, 46° to 52°; summer, 79° to 83°. Rainfall at Huntsville, 55 inches. July the hottest month. Fruit trees blossom February 1st to March 1st.

Montgomery, capital; pop., 16,713. Huntsville, the northern trade centre; pop., 4,977. Selma, an important railroad centre; pop., 7,529. Mobile, metropolis; pop., 29,132.

Number farms, 135,864. Average value per acre, cleared land, $6.53; woodland, $4.08. Sugar product, 94 hogsheads; molasses, 795,199 gallons; tobacco crop, 1882, 475,456 lbs.; hay, 10,882 acres, or 12,513 tons; oats, 1884, 405,830 acres, or 5,015,000 bu.; corn, 30,197,000 bu.; cotton, 661,000 bales.

Number industries, 2,070; flour and grist mills, 807; saw mills, 354. Total capital invested, $9,668,008; value products, $13,565,504.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $3,000
Sec'y of State 1,800
Treasurer 2,150
Auditor 1,800
Attorney Gen. 1,500
Supt. Pub. Inst. 2,250
Librarian 1,500
3 R. R. Commissioners 2,000 to 3,500
Chief Justice 3,000
2 Asso. Justices 3,000
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$4 pr. day
and 20c mileage.
3 Dist. Judges 3,500
2 Colls. Int. Rev. 2,500
16 Colls. Int. Revenue 1,000 to 1,400
Chart of Persons Engaged in Agriculture by State - headed by Alabama
Presidential P. O.
Anniston $1,400
Birmingham 2,500
Eufaula 1,800
Florence 1,200
Gadsden 1,300
Greenville 1,400
Huntsville 1,800
Marion 1,500
Mobile 3,100
Montgomery 2,700
Opelika 1,500
Selma 2,500
Talladega 1,500
Troy 1,300
Tuscaloosa 1,700
Union Springs 1,400
Uniontown 1,100
6 Postoffices 1,000

Mineral region in northeast corner, extending southwest, about 160 miles, with average width of about 80 miles; contains three distinct coal fields, area over 5,000 square miles, and beds, 1 to 8 feet thick; limestone, sandstone, and iron ore near the coal.

Ranks fourth in cotton, fifth in mules and molasses, sixth in sugar, seventh in rice and iron ore.

Population, 1,262,505: male, 622,629; female, 639,876; native, 1,252,771; foreign, 9,734; white, 662,185; colored, 600,107; Indians, 218; slaves, 1860, 435,080.

State elections biennial, first Monday in August; congressional and presidential, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 33; Representatives, 100; sessions of legislature biennial, in even-numbered years, meeting Tuesday after second Monday in November; limit of session, 50 days; term of Senators, 4 years; of Representatives, 2 years.

Number of electoral votes, 10; number of voters, 262,737; colored, 118,423; native white, 136,058; foreign white, 8,256. Indians, idiots and persons convicted of crime excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 4; school population, 401,002; school age, 7-21.

Legal interest rate, 8; usury forfeits entire interest. {115}

Map of Alabama



{116}

MISSISSIPPI. Mis´sis-sip´pi.
"The Bayou State."

Name of Indian origin, signifying "Father of Waters."

First permanent settlement at Natchez, 1716; admitted 1817; seceded 1861; re-admitted 1870.

Area, 46,810 square miles; extreme length, 332 miles; extreme breadth, 189 miles; mean breadth, 142 miles; gulf frontage, including irregularities and islands, 287 miles; harbors at Pascagonia, Biloxi, Mississippi City and Shieldsborough. Number counties, 74.

Temperature at Vicksburg: winter, 47° to 56°; summer, 80° to 83°. Rainfall, Natchez, 54 inches.

Jackson, the capital; pop., 5,204. Natchez, an important shipping point; pop., 7,058. Vicksburg, an extensive cotton market; pop., 11,814.

Railroad mileage, 1844, 26; Jan. 1, 1886, 1,947.

Number farms, 101,772. Average value per acre: cleared land, $7.88; woodland, $3.78.

Latest reports give 3,501 acres in rice; sugar cane, 4,555 acres; tobacco, 1,595 acres; corn, 1,889,600 acres; cotton, 847,000 bales; sweet potatoes, 3,610,660 bu.; wine, 209,845 gals.; molasses, 536,625 gals.; bales cotton used, 6,411; looms, 704; spindles, 26,172.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $4,000
Lieut. Gov. 800
Sec'y of State 2,500
Treasurer 2,500
Auditor 2,500
Atty. General 2,500
Supt. Pub. Edu. 2,000
Com'r Agricult. 1,000
Land Com'r. 1,000
Adjutant Gen. 500
Librarian 800
Chief Justice 3,500
2 Asso. Justices 3,500
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$400 a year
3 Dist. Judges 3,500
Col. Int. Rev. 2,750
Chart of Cloth Manufacture in the Southern States - headed by Mississippi
Presidential P. O.
Aberdeen $1,500
Brookhaven 1,300
Canton 1,500
Columbus 1,800
Corinth 1,500
Greenville 1,600
Grenada 1,400
Holly Springs 1,500
Jackson 2,300
Kosciusko 1,200
Meridian 2,100
Natchez 2,100
Okolona 1,300
Oxford 1,600
Vicksburgh 2,500
West Point 1,300
Winona 1,200
Yazoo City 1,400
5 P.O. $1,100 and 1,000

Forest area very large; pine, oak, chestnut, walnut and magnolia trees grow on uplands and bluffs, and long-leafed pine on islands and in sandy regions of the south; cotton lands mostly in Yazoo and Mississippi bottoms.

Ranks second in cotton, fifth in rice, sixth in mules and molasses, seventh in sugar.

Population, 1,131,597: male, 567,177; female, 564,420; native, 1,122,388; foreign, 9,209; white, 479,398; colored, 650,291; Chinese, 51; Indians, 1,857; slaves, 1860, 436,631.

Governor and State officers elected quadrennially, and legislature every two years; State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday in Nov.; sessions of legislature biennial, in even-numbered years, meeting Tuesday after first Monday in January; limit of session, none; number Senators, 37; Representatives, 120; term of Senators, 4 years; of Representatives, 2 years.

Number electoral votes, 9; number voters, 238,532; colored, 130,278; native white, 102,580; foreign white, 5,674. Idiots, insane and criminals excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 8; school population, 444,131; school age, 5-21.

Legal interest, 6; by contract, 10; usury forfeits excess of int. {117}

Map of Mississippi



{118}

LOUISIANA. Loo-ee-ze-ah´na.
"Creole State."

Named in honor of Louis XIV., King of France, when Louisiana was first colonized; first permanent settlement made by French at New Orleans, 1718: admitted 1812; seceded January, 1861; re-admitted June, 1868.

Area, 48,720 square miles; greatest length, east and west, 300 miles; breadth, 240 miles; coast line, 1,256 miles; internal water communication, 2,500 miles; number counties, 58.

Temperature at New Orleans: winter, 53° to 61°; summer, 81° to 83°; rainfall, 51 inches.

New Orleans, metropolis, port of entry and largest cotton market in the world; pop., 216,090; capital until 1847, and again from 1868 to 1881. Baton Rouge, capital; pop., 7,197. Pop. Shreveport, 8,009. Morgan City, port of entry. State institution for insane at Jackson; for deaf mutes and blind, Baton Rouge.

Number farms, 1860, 17,328; 1870, 28,481; 1880, 48,292. Average value per acre, cleared land, $14.36; woodland, $3.53; 57 per cent. of laborers are engaged in agriculture; rural income, per capita, $209. Latest statistics give 312,000 bu. salt; 1,318,110 bu. sweet potatoes; 175,000 acres sugar cane; 122,982 hhds. sugar; 11,696,248 gals. molasses; 23,188,311 lbs. rice; corn crop, 1884, 11,007,000 bu.; acreage of oats, 35,119, producing 404,000 bu.; cotton, 995,000 bales.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $4,000
Lieut. Gov. $8 pr day
Treasurer 2,000
Sec'y of State 1,800
Auditor 2,500
Attorney Gen. 3,000
Adjutant Gen. 2,000
Supt. Pub. Inst. 2,000
Com'r of Agr. and Immig. 2,000
Chief Justice 5,000
4 Asso. Justices 5,000
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$4 pr day
and mileage
2 District Judges 3,500 to 4,500
Col. of Customs, N. O. 7,000
Col. Inter. Rev. 3,875
Surveyor Gen. 1,800
Chart of Molasses Production by State - headed by Louisiana
Chf. Draftsman $1,500
Supt. of Mint 3,500
Chief Clerk 2,000
Cashier 2,000
Presidential P. O.
Alexandria $1,300
Baton Rouge 1,700
Donaldsonville 1,400
Franklin 1,100
Lake Charles 1,300
Monroe 1,400
New Iberia 1,500
New Orleans 3,700
Opelousas 1,100
Plaquemine 1,200
Shreveport 2,200
Thibodeaux 1,300

Ranks first in sugar and molasses, third in rice, seventh in cotton, ninth in salt. Total number industries, 1,553; capital invested, $11,462,468; value products, $24,205,183.

Population, 939,946: male, 468,754; female, 471,192; native, 885,800; foreign, 54,146; white, 454,954; colored, 483,655; Chinese, 489; Indians, 848; slaves, 1860, 331,726. Legislature and State officers elected quadrennially; members Congress, biennially. State elections, Tuesday after third Monday in April; number Senators, 36; Representatives, 98; sessions biennial, in even-numbered years, meeting second Monday in May; limit of session, 60 days; terms of Senators and Representatives, 4 years each.

Number electoral votes, 8; number voters, 216,787; colored, 107,977; native white, 81,777; foreign white, 27,033. Idiots, insane and criminals excluded from voting.

Sugar cane first cultivated in the United States, near New Orleans, 1751, and first sugar mill used 1758.

Exports, 1882, $90,238,503; imports, $10,611,353; duties collected, $2,046,804; railroad mileage, Jan. 1, 1886, 1,397.

Legal interest, 5; by contract, 8; usury forfeits entire interest. {119}

Map of Louisiana



{120}

TEXAS. Tex´as.
"Lone Star State."

Origin of name not definitely known; supposed by some have been name of Indian tribe.

First settlement by French on the Lavaca, 1685; admitted 1845; seceded February, 1861; re-admitted 1868.

Area, 265,780 square miles; extreme length, 825 miles; extreme breadth, 740 miles; coastline, 400 miles; number counties 230. Temperature at Galveston: winter, 53° to 63°; summer, 82° to 84°. Rainfall at Fort Brown, 33 inches.

Brownsville, El Paso, Indianola and Galveston are ports of entry. Houston, important railroad centre; pop., 16,513. Galveston, metropolis, has best harbor, and is chief shipping point; pop., 22,248. Austin, the capital; pop., 11,013. San Antonio, oldest town; pop., 20,550. Pop. Dallas, 10,358.

Number farms, 174,184; average value per acre, cleared land, $8.98; woodland, $4.

Cotton most valuable crop; acreage, 1883, 3,034,922; crop, 1,118,000 bales. Latest reported products, 4,951 hhds. sugar, 13,000 bbls. molasses, 1,460,079 bu. sweet potatoes, 5,560,600 bu. wheat, 60,290,000 bu. corn, 35,528 gals. wine, 13,899,320 lbs. butter, 50,600 bu. salt, 3,600 tons iron ore; coal area, 6,000 square miles.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $4,000
Lieut. Gov. $5 a day
Sec'y of State 2,000
Treasurer 2,500
Attorney Gen. 2,000
Adjutant Gen. 2,000
Land Com. 2,500
Railroad Com. 3,000
Chief Justice 3,500
2 Asso. Justices 3,500
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$5 a day
and mileage.
3 Dist. Judges 3,500
Colls. Inter. Revenue 2,500 to 2,750
17 Deputy Collectors 300 to 1,850
Chart of Cultivated Uncultivated and Timber Land (Texas)
Presidential P. O.
Austin $3,000
Brenham 1,900
Corsicana 1,900
Dallas 3,000
Denison City 2,200
El Paso 2,100
Fort Worth 2,700
Gainesville 1,900
Galveston 3,200
Houston 3,000
Laredo 2,000
Marshall 2,000
Palestine 2,400
San Antonio 2,800
Sherman 2,300
Waco 2,500
54 Offices 1,900 to 1,100
7 Offices 1,000

Cotton picking, July to December; corn planting, middle of February; grain harvest, May; corn harvest, July.

Ranks first in cattle and cotton; second in sugar, sheep, mules and horses; sixth in miles railway; seventh in milch cows; eighth in rice and hogs.

Value flouring and grist mill products, $7,617,177; sawed lumber, $3,673,449; total number industries, 2,996; capital invested, $9,245,561; value products, $20,719,928.

Pop., 1,591,749: male, 837,840; female, 753,909; native, 1,477,133; foreign, 114,616; white, 1,197,237; colored, 393,384; Chinese, 136; Indians, 992.

State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 31; Representatives, 106; sessions of legislature biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting second Tuesday in January; limit of session, 60 days; term of Senators, 4 years; of Representatives, 2 years.

Number electoral votes, 13; number voters, 380,376. U. S. army, lunatics, idiots, paupers and convicts excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 10; school pop., 295,344; school age, 8-14.

Legal interest, 8; by contract, 12; usury forfeits entire interest. {121}

Map of Texas



{122}

ARKANSAS. Ar´kan-saw.
"Bear State."

Name of Indian origin, signifying "Smoky Water," with prefix from French meaning "Bow."

Settled at Arkansas Post by French, 1685; became a Territory, 1819; admitted as a State, 1836; seceded March 4, 1861; re-admitted 1868

Area, 53,850 square miles; length, north and south, 240 miles; breadth, from 170 to 250 miles; Mississippi river frontage, about 400 miles. Number counties, 75.

Temperature at Little Bock: winter, 42° to 51°; summer, 79° to 82°. Rainfall, at Fort Smith, 40 in.; and at Washington, 55 in.

Hot Springs, in Garland county, famous for valuable medicinal springs; temperature of water, over 140°. Little Rock, the capital and metropolis; population, 13,138.

Number farms, 94,433. Average value per acre, cleared land, $11.78; woodland, $3.48.

Corn crop, 1884, 32,465,000 bushels; wheat, 1,885,000 bushels; cotton, 513,000 bales. Latest reported tobacco crop, 1,952,872 pounds; oats, 3,542,000 bushels; sweet potatoes, 881,260 bushels. Ranks sixth in cotton, and ninth in mules.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $3,500
Sec'y of State 1,800
Treasurer 2,250
Auditor 2,250
Attorney Gen. 1,500
Supt. Pub. Inst'n 1,600
Land Com'r. 1,800
Chief Justice 3,000
2 Asso. Justices 3,000
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$6 a day.
2 Dist. Judges 3,500
Dist. Atty. $200 & fees
2 Asst. Dist. Attys. $1,200, 1,000
Col. Int. Rev. 2,750
10 Deputy Collectors 1,200 to 1,500
Chart of Comparative Values of Farm Crops (Arkansas)
Presidential P. O.
Arkadelphia $1,200
Batesville 2,200
Camden 1,200
Dardanelle 1,000
Eureka Springs 1,700
Fayetteville 1,500
Forest City 1,000
Fort Smith 2,000
Helena 1,800
Hope 1,400
Hot Springs 2,400
Jonesborough 1,100
Little Rock 2,800
Newport 1,400
Pine Bluff 1,800
Prescott 1,100
Texarkana 2,000
Van Buren 1,300

Number different industries, 2,070; for tar and turpentine, 26; sawing lumber, 354; flour and grist, 807.

Coal along Arkansas river; iron ores in Ozark Mountains; salt springs near Ouachita; oilstone near Hot Springs; kaolin in Pulaski county.

Population, 802,525; male, 416,279; female, 386,246; native, 792,175; foreign, 10,350; white, 591,531; colored, 210,666; Chinese, 133; Indians, 195; slaves, 1860, 111,115.

State elections biennial, in even-numbered years, meeting first Monday in September; congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 31; Representatives, 94; sessions of legislature biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting second Monday in January; limit of session, 60 days; term of Senators, 4 years; of Representatives, 2 years.

Number electoral votes, 7; number voters, 182,977; native white, 129,675; foreign white, 6,475; colored, 46,827. Idiots, Indians, and persons convicted of crime excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 5; school population, 289,617; school age, 6-21.

Legal interest rate, 6; by contract, 10; usury forfeits principal and interest. {123}

Map of Arkansas



{124}

MISSOURI. Mis-soo´ree.
"The Pennsylvania of the West."

Name signifies "Mud River," and was taken from that of the river of same name. First settled at Ste. Genevieve by the French in 1755; organized as a Territory, 1812; admitted 1821.

Area, 69,415 square miles, nearly that of combined ares of New England States; length, north and south, 275 miles; average breadth, 245 miles; Mississippi river frontage, nearly 500 miles; number counties, 115.

Temperature at St. Louis: winter, 30° to 43°; summer, 75° to 80°; rainfall, 42 inches.

St. Louis, largest city west of the Mississippi, port of entry and great commercial and manufacturing point; pop., 350,518. Capital, Jefferson City; pop., 5,271. Pop. St. Joseph, 32,431; of Kansas City,—Chicago of the West,—55,787.

Number farms, 215,575; average value per acre, cleared land, $14.52; woodland, $8.25.

Corn crop, 1884, 197,850,000 bu.; wheat, 27,500,000 bu.; oats, 30,774,000 bu.; potatoes, 1883, 6,535,570 bu.; tobacco, 10,540,000 lbs.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $5,000
Sec'y of State 3,000
Treasurer 3,000
Auditor 3,000
Attorney Gen. 3,000
Adjutant Gen. 2,000
Supt. Pub. Sch'ls 3,000
Register Lands 3,000
3 Railr'd Com'rs 3,000
Supt. Ins. Dep't. 4,000
Chief Justice 4,500
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$5 a day &
mileage and $30
2 Dist. Judges 3,500
5 Collectors Int. Rev. 2,250 to 4,500
Surveyor of Cust. St. L. 5,000
Chart of Lead Ore mined by State - headed by Missouri
Presidential P. O.
Carthage $2,300
Chillicothe 1,800
Clinton 1,800
Columbia 1,900
Hannibal 2,500
Jefferson City 2,100
Joplin 1,800
Kansas City 3,600
Louisiana 1,800
Maryville 1,800
Mexico 1,900
Moberly 1,900
Nevada 1,300
Saint Joseph 3,200
Saint Louis 6,000
Sedalia 2,600
Springfield 2,400
Warrensburgh 1,800
60 P.O. 1,700 to 1,000

Latest reports give 548,990 tons coal; iron ore, 388,197 tons, value at $1,674,875; marble and limestone, 4,419,300 cubic feet. Lead is found in southwest, centre and southeast, having area of over 5,000 square miles.

Latest reported stock on farms; horses, 701,702; milch cow, 674,565; cattle other than cows and oxen, 1,410,507; sheep, 1,439,880; swine, 4,087,566. Hogs packed winter 1881-82, 804,239.

Ranks first in mules; third in oxen, hogs, corn and copper; sixth in iron ore, milch cows and horses; seventh in oats; eighth in wheat and tobacco; ninth in railroad mileage, sheep and potatoes.

Population, 2,168,380; male, 1,127,187; females 1,041,193; native, 1,966,802; foreign, 211,578; white, 2,022,826; colored, 145,350; Chinese, 91; Indians, 113.

Governor and State officers elected quadrennially, and legislature every two years. State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after 1st Monday in November; number Senators, 34; Representatives, 141; sessions of legislature biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting Wednesday after January 1st; limit of session 70 days; term of Senators, 4 years; Representatives, 2 years. Number electoral votes, 16; number voters, 541,207. U. S. army and inmates of asylums, poorhouses and prisons, excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 17; school population, 741,632; school age, 6-20.

Legal interest rate, 6; by contract, 10; usury forfeits entire interest. {125}

Map of Missouri



{126}

TENNESSEE. Tĕn-nê-see´.
"Big Bend State."

Name derived from "Tannassee," Indian name for Little Tennessee river. First permanent settlement, 1756, on Tennessee river about 30 miles from present site of Knoxville; first Anglo-American settlement west of the Alleghanies and south of Pennsylvania; admitted 1845; seceded February, 1861; re-admitted 1868.

Area, 42,050 square miles, nearly that of Virginia; greatest length east and west, 432 miles; greatest breadth, 109 miles. Number of counties, 96.

Temperature at Nashville: winter, 37° to 48°; summer, 75° to 81°. Rainfall at Memphis, 45 inches.

Nashville, capital and metropolis, also most wealthy and prosperous city; population, 43,350. Memphis, principal grain and cotton market between St. Louis and New Orleans; pop., 33,592. Population Chattanooga, 12,898; of Jackson, 8,377; of Knoxville. 9,693.

First railroad; a portion of the Nashville & Chattanooga, between Nashville and Bridgeport, 1853; mileage, Jan. 1, 1886, 2,178.

Number farms, 165,650. Value per acre, cleared land, $13; woodland, $7.28. Corn crop of 1884, 65,723,000 bu.; wheat, 9,320,000 bu.; cotton, 314,000 bales; potatoes, 1883, 2,404,647 bu.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $4,000
Secretary of State 1,800 & fees
Treasurer 2,750
Comptroller 2,750
Attorney Gen. 3,000
Supt. Pub. Inst'n. 1,800
Adjutant Gen. 1,200
Com'r Agr. 3,000
3 RR. Comm'rs 2,000
Librarian 1,000
Chief Justice 4,000
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$4 a day &
16c. a mile.
3 Dist. Judges 3,500
Pension Agent 4,000
3 Colls. Int. Rev. 4,375 to 2,250
Chart of Value of Mules by State - headed by Tennessee
Presidential P. O.
Bristol $1,700
Brownsville 1,300
Chattanooga 2,800
Clarksville 2,000
Columbia 1,800
Dyersburgh 1,000
Gallatin 1,400
Jackson 1,900
Jonesborough 1,000
Knoxville 2,900
Lebanon 1,500
Memphis 3,300
Murfr'sborough 1,600
Nashville 3,300
Pulaski 1,500
Shelbyville 1,400
Union City 1,500
6 Post Offices 1,200
4 Post Offices 1,100

Most valuable minerals are iron, copper and coal; area coal fields, over 5,000 square miles; product of pig iron, 70,873 tons; copper region in southwest, producing, from 1870 to 1880, nearly 13,000,000 lbs. ingot copper; excellent marbles and limestones, $131,700 being invested in quarries.

Ranks second in peanuts, average yield being 40 bu. per acre; third in mules; sixth in tobacco, yield being 707 lbs. per acre; seventh in copper; seventh in hogs; ninth in corn and cotton. Hemp, broom corn and flax are also valuable products.

Population, 1,542,359: male, 769,277; female, 773,082; native, 1,525,657; foreign, 16,702; white, 1,138,831; colored, 403,151; Chinese, 25; Indians, 352. Slaves, 1860, 275,719.

State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 33; Representatives, 99; sessions biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting first Monday in January; limit of session, 75 days; terms of Senators and Representatives, 2 years each. Number electoral votes, 12; number voters, 571,244; native white, 240,939; foreign white, 250,055; colored, 80,250. Non-payers of poll-tax excluded from voting.

Legal interest rate, 6; by contract, any rate; usury forfeits excess of interest and $100 fine. {127}

Map of Tennessee



{128}

KENTUCKY."Corn Cracker State."

Name signifies "Dark and Bloody Ground," the country being the ancient hunting grounds of the Indians.

Earliest explorations made by John Finley and others, 1767; Daniel Boone established himself there, 1769, admitted as a State, 1792. Area, 40,400 square miles; greatest length, 350 miles; greatest breadth, 178 miles; river frontage, 812 miles; navigable waters, about 4,000 miles. Number counties, 118.

Temperature at Louisville: winter, 34° to 44°; summer, 75° to 80°. Rainfall at Springdale, 49 inches.

Louisville, the commercial emporium of the State, has large tobacco warehouses and pork-packing establishments; population, 123,758. Frankfort, the capital: population, 6,958. Population of Covington, 29,720. Lexington, former capital, founded 1776; population, 16,666. Newport connected with Covington by suspension bridge; population, 20,433. Louisville and Paducah, ports of entry.

Number farms, 166,453. Average value per acre, cleared land, $18.86; woodland, $12.82.

Ranks high as an agricultural State. Corn crop, 1884, 71,880,800 bu.; wheat, 13,425,000 bu.; oats, 7,865,000 bu.; tobacco, 1882, 198,905,994 lbs.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $5,000
Sec'y of State 1,600
Treasurer 2,400
Auditor 2,600
Atty. Gen. $500 & fees
Reg. Ld. Office 2,400
Com'r of Agr. 2,000
Ins. Com'r. 4,000
3 R. R. Com'rs 2,000
Chief Justice 5,000
3 Asso. Justices 5,000
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$5 pr. day
mileage 15 cents.
District Judge 3,500
Pension Agent 4,000
6 Cols. Int. Rev. 4,600
60 Deputy Collectors 300 to 2,000
Chart of Tobacco Crop by State - headed by Kentucky
Presidential P. O.
Bowling Green $1,800
Covington 2,600
Danville 1,800
Frankfort 2,300
Georgetown 1,600
Henderson 1,800
Hopkinsville 1,800
Lexington 2,700
Louisville 3,700
Maysville 2,000
Mt. Sterling 1,700
Newport 2,100
Owensborough 2,000
Paducah 2,300
Paris 1,800
Richmond 1,600
Shelbyville 1,600
22 Offices 1,500 to 1,000

Has a world-wide reputation for thoroughbred horses and cattle. Latest reports give for stock on farms, horses, 370,028; milch cows, 304,720; cattle other than cows and oxen, 505,746; sheep, 980,166; swine, 1,954,919. Ranks first in tobacco; fourth in malt and distilled liquors; sixth in hogs; seventh in corn; eighth in rye, coal and mules.

Population, 1,648,690; male, 832,590; female, 816,100; native, 1,589,173; foreign, 59,517; white, 1,377,179; colored, 271,451; Chinese, 10; Indians, 50; slaves, 1860, 225,483.

State elections biennial, first Monday in August, in odd-numbered years; congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 38; Representatives, 100; sessions of legislature biennial, in even-numbered years, meeting last day of December; limit of session, 60 days, unless extended by vote; term of Senators, 4 years; of Representatives, 2 years.

Number electoral votes, 13; number voters, 376,221. Bribers, robbers and forgers excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 15; public school system framed, 1838; school age, 6-20.

Legal int., 6; by contract, 10; usury forfeits excess over 10 per cent. {129}

Map of Kentucky



{130}

OHIO. O-hi´o.
"Buckeye State."

Name of Indian origin, signifying "Beautiful River."

First permanent settlement at Marietta, 1788; admitted as a State, 1802.

Area, 41,060 square miles; greatest length east and west, 225 miles: extreme breadth, 200 miles; Ohio river frontage, 430 miles; lake frontage, 230 miles; number counties, 88.

Temperature at Cleveland: winter, 27° to 38°; summer, 68° to 72° At Cincinnati: winter, 34° to 45°; summer, 74° to 79°. Rainfall at Cleveland, 38 inches.

Cincinnati, "Queen City of the West," founded 1789, the metropolis; pop., 255,139. Cleveland has one of the best harbors on the lake; pop., 160,146. Columbus, capital and great railroad center; pop., 51,647. Chillicothe, capital, 1800 to 1810; Zanesville, 1810 to 1812; Chillicothe, 1812 to 1816; Columbus, 1816. Toledo, Sandusky, Cleveland and Cincinnati ports of entry.

Number farms, 247,189, of which 199,562 are occupied by owners; average value per acre, cleared land, $47.53; woodland, $41.37 wheat crop, 1884, 41,186,000 bu.; corn, 85,393,000 bu.; Oats, 23,419,000 bu.; potatoes, 1883, 16,452,315 bu.; tobacco, 29,947,536 lbs. Average value corn, 1881, 41 cents; wheat, 75 cents; oats, 29 cents.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $4,000
Sec'y of State 3,000
Treasurer 3,000
Auditor 3,000
Attorney Gen. 2,000
School Comm'r. 2,000
Supt. Ins. Dep't 1,800
Railroad Com'r 2,000
Sec'y Board Ag. 1,800
Com. Lab. Stati. 2,000
Chief Justice 3,500
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$600 a y'r
and 12c. mileage.
2 District Judges 3,500, 4,000
Pension Agt. 4,000
8 Collectors Int. Rev. 2,500 to 4,500
Chart of Wool Production by State - headed by Ohio
Presidential P. O.
Akron $2,800
Canton 2,700
Chillicothe 2,400
Cincinnati 6,000
Cleveland 3,700
Columbus 3,400
Dayton 3,200
Delaware 2,400
Hamilton 2,400
Lima 2,400
Mansfield 2,700
Newark 2,400
Portsmouth 2,400
Sandusky 2,500
Springfield 3,100
Steubenville 2,400
Toledo 3,400
Youngstown 2,600
Zanesville 2,700
118 P.O. 2,300 to 1,000

Latest reported dairy products give: milk, 46,801,537 gallons; butter, 67,869,604 lbs.; cheese, 19,978,436 lbs. Pork packing extensively carried on; hogs packed winter 1881-82, 618,348.

Ranks first in agricultural implements and wool; second in petroleum, iron and steel; third in wheat, sheep, coal, malt and distilled liquors; fourth in printing and publishing, salt, miles railway and soap; fifth in milch cows, hogs, horses, hay, tobacco and iron ore.

Population, 3,198,062; male, 1,613,931; female, 1,584,126; natives 2,803,119; foreign, 394,943; white, 3,117,920; colored, 79,900; Chinese, 109; Indians, 130.

State and congressional elections, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 33; Representatives, 105; sessions biennial, but "adjourned sessions" practically amount to annual meetings; time, first Monday in January; limit of session, none; terms of Senators and Representatives, 2 years each.

Number electoral votes, 23; number voters, 826,577; insane and idiots excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 35; school population, 1,081,321; school age, 6-21.

Legal interest rate, 6; by contract, 8; usury forfeits excess above 6 per cent. {131}

Map of Ohio



{132}

INDIANA. In-de-ah´nah.
"Hoosier State."

First settled by Canadian voyagers at Vincennes, 1702; organized as a Territory, 1800; admitted 1816.

Area, 36,350 square miles; extreme length, 276 miles; average breadth, 140 miles; shore line on Lake Michigan, 40 miles. Michigan City the lake port. Number counties, 92.

Temperature at Indianapolis: winter, 29° to 41°; summer, 73° to 78°. Rainfall at Richmond, 43 inches.

Indianapolis is the capital and most flourishing city, and contains deaf and dumb, blind, and insane asylums; pop., 75,056. Terre Haute, extensive iron, whisky and pork market; pop., 26,042 Evansville, commercial centre of the southwest; pop., 29,280. Fort Wayne, emporium of the northeast; pop., 26,880.

Number farms, 194,013; average value, per acre, cleared land, $30.46; woodland, $26.90. Corn the most valuable crop; yield of 1884, 104,757,000 bu.; wheat, 31,270,000 bu.; oats, 78,650,000 bu. Dairy interest large and increasing; also the business of pork packing. Latest reports give 37,659,029 lbs. butter, and 1,521,275 lbs. cheese. Number hogs packed, winter 1881-82, 349,261.

Coal fields, about 6,500 square miles, extending from Warren county south to the Ohio; varieties are coking coal, Indiana block and cannel.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $5,000
Lieut. Gov. $8 a day
Sec'y of State 2,000
Treasurer 3,000
Auditor 1,500
Attorney Gen. 2,500
Supt. Pub. Inst. 2,500
Sec. Bd. of Agr. 1,200
Librarian 1,200
5 Judges. 4,000
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$6 a day and
20c. per mile.
District Judge 3,500
Pension Agent 4,000
6 Colls. Int. Rev. 2,375 to 4,500
Surveyor Customs $1,000 & fees
Chart of Plate Glass Manufacturing by State - headed by Indiana
Presidential P. O.
Crawfordsville $2,100
Elkhart 2,400
Evansville 2,900
Fort Wayne 2,900
Goshen 2,200
Indianapolis 3,500
La Fayette 2,700
La Porte 2,200
Logansport 2,400
Madison 2,000
New Albany 2,300
Peru 2,000
Richmond 2,700
South Bend 2,600
Terre Haute 2,800
Valparaiso 2,200
Vincennes 2,200
36 Offices 1,900 to 1,500
40 Offices 1,400 to 1,000

Ranks second in wheat; fourth in corn, hogs and agricultural implements; sixth in coal; seventh in horses, oxen and other cattle, malt and distilled liquors, and miles of railway; ninth in hay and milch cows.

Pop., 1,978,301: male, 1,010,361; female, 967,940; native, 1,834,123; foreign, 144,178; white, 1,938,798; colored, 39,228; Chinese, 29; Indians, 246.

State, congressional and presidential elections. Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 50; Representatives, 100; sessions of legislature biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting Thursday after first Monday in January; limit of session, 60 days; term of Senators, 4 years; of Representatives, 2 years.

Number electoral votes, 15; number voters, 498,437. Fraudulent voters and bribers excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 15; State University at Bloomington; medical school at Indianapolis; university at Notre Dame; flourishing common-school system; school population, 708,596; school age, 6-21.

Legal interest rate, 6; by contract, 8; usury forfeits excess of interest. {133}

Map of Indiana



{134}

ILLINOIS Il-lin-oí
"Prairie or Sucker State."

From a tribe of Indians, signifying "a superior class of men."

First permanent settlement by French at Kaskaskia, 1682; organized as a Territory, 1809; admitted as a State, 1818.

Area, 56,650 square miles; greatest length, 385 miles; greatest breadth, 218 miles; highest land, 1,150 feet. Number of counties, 102. Has 4,000 miles navigable streams. Temperature at Chicago: winter, 25° to 37°; Summer, 68° to 73°. At Cairo: winter, 35° to 54°; summer, 76° to 80°. Rainfall at Peoria, 35 inches.

Kaskaskia, first capital, which was removed to Vandalia, 1818; and to Springfield, 1836. Chicago, "Garden City of the West;" pop., 503,185. Peoria ranks second; pop., 29,259. Quincy, third; pop., 27,268. Springfield, capital; pop., 19,743.

Number of farms, 255,741, of which 175,497 are occupied by owners. Value per acre, cleared land, $33.03; woodland, $23.68; 8,151,463 acres in corn, 1884, producing 244,544,000 bu.; wheat, 2,790,900 acres, producing 32,374,000 bu.; oats, 2,990,983 acres, producing 98,153,000 bu.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $6,000
Sec'y of State 3,500
Treasurer 3,500
Auditor 3,500
Attorney Gen. 3,500
Chief Justice 5,000
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$5 pr. day,
mileage 10c. & $50
2 Dist. Judges 4,000, 3,500
Pension Agent 4,000
8 Colls. Int. Rev. 2,125 to 4,500
Col. of Customs 7,000
Auditor 2,200
Appraiser 3,000
Examiner 2,000
Chart of Slaughtering and Meat Packing by State - headed by Illinois
Presidential P. O.
Aurora $2,500
Bloomington 2,900
Cairo 2,400
Chicago 6,000
Decatur 2,700
Elgin 3,200
Freeport 2,600
Galesburgh 2,600
Jacksonville 2,500
Joliet 2,600
Moline 2,500
Ottawa 2,400
Peoria 3,200
Quincy 3,000
Rockford 3,000
Rock Island 2,500
Springfield 2,800
173 Offices 2,400 to 1,000

First recorded coal mine in America located near Ottawa, 1669. Coal area, over three-fourths of entire State; estimated to contain one-seventh of all known coal in North America; product, 1882, 9,000,000 tons.

Superior quality limestone on Fox and Desplaines rivers; lead most important mineral; Galena in centre of richest diggings of the Northwest. Rich salt wells in Saline and Gallatin counties, 75 gallons brine making 50 pounds salt.

Ranks first in corn, wheat, oats, meat packing, lumber traffic, malt and distilled liquors and miles railway; second in rye, coal, agricultural implements, soap and hogs; fourth in hay, potatoes, iron and steel, mules, milch cows and other cattle.

Population, 3,077,871: male, 1,586,523; female, 1,491,348; native, 2,494,295; foreign, 583,576; white, 3,031,151; colored, 46,368; Chinese, 209; Japanese, 3; Indians, 140.

State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 51; Representatives, 153; sessions biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting first Monday in January; limit of session, none; term of Senators, 4 years; Representatives, 2 years. Number electoral votes, 22; number voters, 796,847; convicts are excluded from voting.

School system excellent; number colleges, 28: school age, 6-21.

Legal interest, 6; by contract, 8; usury forfeits entire interest. {135}

Map of Illinois



{136}

MICHIGAN. Mish´e-gan
"Wolverine or Lake State."

Name of Indian origin, signifying Lake country.

First white settlement within limits of State, Sault Ste. Marie, 1668; organized as Territory, 1805; admitted 1837.

Area, 58,915 square miles; length of lower peninsula, from north to south, 277 miles; greatest breadth, 259 miles. Length of upper peninsula, east to west, 318 miles; width, 30 to 164 miles. Length lake shoreline, 1,620 miles. Number counties, 82.

Temperature at Detroit, winter, 24° to 36°; summer, 67° to 72°: rainfall, 30 inches.

Detroit the metropolis; pop., 133,269. Grand Rapids, manufacturing city; pop., 41,934. Lansing, the capital; pop., 9,776. Pop. Bay City, 29,413; East Saginaw, 29,100; Jackson, 19,136; Muskegon, 17,845; Saginaw, 13,767. Detroit, Marquette, Port Huron and Grand Haven are ports of entry.

Number farms, 154,008. Value per acre, cleared land, $34.39; woodland, $20.27. Corn crop, 1884, 26,022,000 bu.; wheat, 29,772,000 bu.; oats, 19,990,000 bu. Fruit raising an important industry.

Copper mines in Houghton, Ontonagon, and Keweenaw counties; valuable iron ores in Marquette and Delta counties; coal in Shiawassee, Eaton, Ingham and Jackson counties. Salt manufactured in year ending November 30, 1884, 3,252,175 barrels.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $1,000
Lieut. Gov. $3 a day
Sec'y of State 800
Treasurer 1,000
Auditor Gen. 2,000
Supt. Pub. Inst'n 1,000
Adjutant Gen. 1,000
Secy Bd. Agr. 1,500
Insur. Com'r. 2,000
R. R. Com'r. 2,500
Immig. Com'r. 2,000
Chief Justice 4,000
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$3 a day and
10c per mile
Representatives
2 Dist. Judges 3,500
Pension Agt. 4,000
4 Colls. Int. Revenue 3,875 to 2,625
Chart of Lumber Production by State - headed by Michigan
Presidential P. O.
Adrian $2,400
Ann Arbor 2,600
Battle Creek 2,600
Bay City 2,700
Big Rapids 2,300
Detroit 3,700
East Saginaw 2,700
Flint 2,400
Grand Rapids 3,200
Jackson 2,700
Kalamazoo 2,700
Lansing 2,700
Marshall 2,300
Muskegon 2,500
Port Huron 2,400
Saginaw 2,300
52 P.O. $2,200 to 1,500
38 P.O. 1,400 to 1,100
9 P.O. 1,000

Ranks first in copper, lumber and salt; second in iron ore; third in buckwheat; fifth in sheep, hops and potatoes; sixth in wheat and barley; seventh in agricultural implements; eighth in miles railway; ninth in oats.

Grand Haven, Au Sable and Detroit are centres of valuable fishing interests; principal catch is trout and whitefish.

Population, 1,843,369: male, 958,551; female, 884,818; native, 1,419,395; foreign, 423,974; white, 1,817,562; colored, 17,548; Indians, 8,259.

State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 32; Representatives, 100; sessions of legislature biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting first Wednesday in January; limit of session, none; terms of Senators and Representatives, 2 years each.

Number electoral votes, 13; number voters, 467,687. Duelists are excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 9; efficient public schools; school age, 5-20.

Legal interest, 7; by contract, 10; usury forfeits excess of interest. {137}

Map of Michigan



{138}

WISCONSIN. Wĭs-kŏn´sĭn.
"Badger State."

From river of same name; an Indian word signifying "Wild-rushing River." First settled by French, at Green Bay, 1669; organized as a Territory, 1836; first Territorial legislature at Belmont, Sept. 1, 1836; admitted as a State, 1847.

Area, 56,040 square miles; greatest length, 300 miles; greatest breadth, 260 miles; Mississippi river navigable throughout southwest boundary; excellent harbors in Lake Superior on north, and Lake Michigan on east. Port Washington, one of the finest natural harbors in tie world. Number counties, 67. Temperature at Milwaukee; winter, 19°to 31°; summer, 63° to 70°; rainfall, 30 inches.

Milwaukee, port of entry, great pork packing and beer brewing centre; also grain and wheat market: pop., 158,509. Madison, capital; pop., 12,064. Population Eau Claire, 21,668; Fond du Lac, 12,726.

Number farms, 102,904; average value per acre, cleared land, $26.27; woodland, $19.55. Wheat most valuable crop; cultivation of flax increasing; many acres devoted to culture of cranberries; buckwheat crop, 1883, 177,792 bu.; hay, 2,354,835 tons; corn, 1884, 26,200,000 bu.; oats, 45,940,000 bu.; wheat, 20,083,000 bu. Latest reported dairy products: milk, 25,156,977 gals.; butter, 33,739,055 lbs.; cheese, 19,088,405 lbs.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $5,000
Sec'y of State 5,000
Treasurer 5,000
Attorney Gen. 3,000
Railr'd Com'r. 3,000
Chief Justice 5,000
4 Asso. Justices 5,000
2 Dist. Judges 3,500
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$500 per y'r,
mileage 10c.
Pension Agent 4,000
Indian Agent 1,500
4 Colls. Int. Revenue 4,500 to 2,750
23 Deputy Collect'rs 1,800 to 300
Collect'r of Customs 1,000 & fees.
Chart of Hops Production in Western States - headed by Wisconsin
Presidential P. O.
Appleton $2,400
Beloit 2,300
Chippewa Falls 2,100
Eau Claire 2,600
Fond du Lac 2,500
Green Bay 2,200
Janesville 2,500
La Crosse 2,600
Madison 2,700
Milwaukee 3,600
Oshkosh 2,600
Racine 2,700
Sheboygan 2,100
Watertown 2,000
Waukesha 2,000
Wausau 2,000
Whitewater 1,900
66 Offices 1,800 to 1,000

Extensive lead mines in Grant, Lafayette and Iowa counties; native copper in the north, in Crawford and Iowa counties. Milwaukee clay famous for making cream-colored brick. Iron ores in Dodge, Sauk, Jackson and Ashland counties.

Ranks second in hops, third in barley and potatoes, fourth in rye and buckwheat, fifth in oats and agricultural implements, seventh, in iron and steel, eighth in hay and milch cows, and ninth in copper.

Population, 1,563,423: male, 811,051; female, 752,372: native, 1,069,433; foreign, 493,990: white, 1,555,152; colored, 5,576; Indians, 2695

State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 33; Representatives, 100; sessions biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting second Wednesday in January; limit of session, none; term of Senators, 4 years; of Representatives, 2 years. Number electoral votes, 11; number voters, 340,482; insane, idiots, convicts, bribers, betters and dualists excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 7; number public schools, 6,588; school population, 495,233; school age, 4-20.

Legal interest, 7; by contract, 10; usury forfeits entire interest. {139}

Map of Wisconsin



{140}

IOWA Ī´o-wah.
"Hawkeye State."

Name is of Indian origin, and means "The Beautiful land."

Part of the Louisiana purchase; merged into Missouri Territory, 1812; into Michigan, 1834; into Wisconsin, 1836. First white settlement at Dubuque, 1788. Admitted as a State, 1846.

Area, 56,025 square miles, about that of Illinois; extent north and south, 208 miles; east and west, about 300 miles. Principal rivers within State: Des Moines, Iowa and Little Sioux. Number counties, 99. Temperature at Davenport: winter, 21° to 37°; summer, 70° to 76°. Rainfall at Mascutine, 43 inches.

Des Moines, metropolis and capital: pop., 32,469. Pop. of Dubuque, 26,330; of Davenport, 23,830; of Burlington, 23,459; of Council Bluffs, 21,557. Keokuk, Burlington and Dubuque are United States ports of delivery.

Number farms, 185,351; average value per acre, cleared land, $27.36; woodland, $39.36. Corn crop, 1884, 252,600,000 bu.; wheat, 31,270,000 bu.; oats, 78,650,000 bu.; potatoes, 1883, 13,216,868 bu.; barley, 4,638,348 bu.; sorgham syrup, 2,640,000 gals.

Dairy interest growing in importance, creamery and factory products bringing high prices. There were 60,940,553 lbs. of butter and 3,378,924 lbs. cheese made in 1880.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $3,000
Lieut. Gov. 1,100
Sec'y of State 2,200
Treasurer 2,200
Auditor 2,200
Attorney Gen. $1,500 and $5 a day
Supt. Pub. Inst. 2,200
3 R. R. Comm'rs 3,000
Librarian 1,500
Chief Justice 4,000
4 Asso. Justices 4,000
Senators, Representatives $550 per year
2 Dist. Judges 3,500
Pension Agent 4,000
4 Colls. Int. Rev. 2,500 to 4,500
Chart of Hogs on Farms by State - headed by Iowa
Presidential P. O.
Burlington $3,000
Cedar Rapids 2,900
Clinton 2,400
Council Bluffs 2,800
Creston 2,300
Davenport 2,900
Des Moines 3,300
Dubuque 3,000
Iowa City 2,400
Keokuk 2,600
Le Mars 2,100
Marshalltown 2,500
Muscatine 2,400
Oakalsosa 2,400
Ottumwa 2,500
Sioux City 2,700
Waterloo 2,400
63 Offices, 2,000 to 1,500
52 Offices, 1,400 to 1,000

Manufacturing establishments are numerous, including canning factories, stove and other foundries, engine-building, paper and woolen mills, lumber and saw mills, etc.

Ranks first in hogs; second in milch cows, oxen and other cattle, corn, hay and oats; third in horses; fifth in barley and miles of railway: sixth in potatoes and rye; seventh in wheat and coal.

Pop., 1,753,980: male, 911,759; female, 842,221: native, 1,443,576; foreign, 310,404: white, 1,753,980; colored, 9,310; Chinese, 33; Indians, 466

State elections annual, Tuesday after second Monday In October, excepting years of presidential elections, when State congressional and presidential elections occur together; number Senators, 50; Representatives, 100; sessions of legislature biennial, in even-numbered years, meeting second Monday in January; limit of session, none; term of Senators, 4 yrs.; of Representatives, 2 yrs.

Number electoral votes, 13; number voters, 416,658. Idiots, insane and criminals excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 19: school pop., 604,739; school age, 5-21.

Legal interest rate, 6; by contract, 10; usury forfeits 10 per cent. per year on amount. State has adopted prohibition. {141}

Map of Iowa



{142}

MINNESOTA. Min´ne-sōta.
"Gopher State."

Named from the river; term of Indian origin, signifying "whitish or sky-colored water."

Explored by Hennepin and La Salle, 1680; Fort Snelling built 1819; organized as a Territory, 1849; admitted 1858.

Area, 83,365 square miles, extreme length, 380 miles; breadth near north line, 337 miles; near middle, 183 miles; and on the south line, 262 miles. Number counties, 80.

Temperature at St. Paul: winter, 11° to 30°; summer, 67° to 74°. Rainfall at Fort Snelling, 25 inches.

Pembina, port of entry on Red river. St. Paul, port of delivery and capital; population, 148,074. Minneapolis, metropolis and great commercial centre for lumber, wheat and flour; population, 147,810. Land offices at Taylor's Falls, Fergus Falls, Worthington, Redwood Falls, Benson and Duluth.

Number farms, 140,000; value per acre, cleared land, $20; woodland, $15. Total acreage of the State, 53,353,600; in farms, 16,000,000; in forests, 1,800,000.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $3,800
Lieut. Gov. 600
Sec'y of State 1,800
Treasurer 3,500
Auditor 3,000
Attorney Gen. 2,500
Supt. Pub. Ins. 2,500
Adjutant Gen. 1,500
Pub. Examiner 3,000
Ins. Comm'r 2,000
Com. Statistics 2,000
R. R. Commis'nr 3,000
State Librarian 2,000
Chief Justice 4,500
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$5 a day and
15c. mileage.
Dist. Judge 3,500
Chart of Capital Invested in Flouring and Grist Mills by State - headed by Minnesota
Presidential P. O.
Brainerd $2,000
Crookston 1,800
Duluth 2,500
Faribault 2,100
Fergus Falls 2,000
Mankato 2,200
Minneapolis 3,500
Morehead 1,800
Northfield 1,800
Red Wing 2,300
Rochester 2,200
Saint Cloud 1,900
Saint Paul 3,500
Stillwater 2,400
Winona 2,500
9 P.O. 1,700 to 1,500
14 " 1,400 to 1,200
10 " 1,100
4 " 1,000

Wheat the staple, and milling the great industry, giving employment to nearly 4,000 people. Capital invested in flour and grist mills, $21,000,000; value of products, $45,000,000. Corn crop, 1884, 28,630,000 bu., valued at $7,797,900; wheat, 50,117,481 bu., valued at $25,000,000; oats, 36,100,000 bu., valued at $7,220,000. Average value of corn, 1884, 33 cents; of wheat, 50 cents; of oats, 20 cents.

Ranks fourth in wheat and barley, sixth in hay, eighth in oats.

Dairy interest increasing in value; production of butter and cheese becoming one of great industries; latest reports give 19,223,835 lbs. butter; cheese, 975,329 lbs.

Population, 1,118,486: male, 605,551; female, 512,935: native, 733,320; foreign, 381,340: white, 1,115,358; colored, 1,814; Chinese, 99: Indians, 1,215.

State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 47; Representatives, 103; sessions of legislature biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting Tuesday after first Monday in January; limit of session, 60 days; term of Senators, 4 years; of Representatives, 2 years.

Number electoral votes, 7; number voters, 306,435; idiots, insane and convicts excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 5; school population, 400,000; school age, 5-21.

Legal interest rate, 7; by contract, 10; usury forfeits excess over 10 per cent. {143}

Map of Minnesota



{144}

DAKOTA.Da-kō´ta.

So called from a tribe of Indians of the same name.

First permanent white settlements made by Lord Selkirk at Pembina, 1812; organized as a Territory, 1861; first legislature at Yankton, March, 1862.

Area, 149,100 square miles; average length, 450 miles; breadth, 350 miles; ranks in size next to Texas and California. General elevation, 1,000 to 2,500 feet; Red river frontage, about 250 miles; the Missouri navigable throughout the Territory. Number counties, 136.

Temperature at Bismarck: winter, 4° to 27°; summer, 63° to 71°. Climate dry, and cold not so penetrating as in moister regions further east. Rainfall at Fort Randall, 17 inches; 73 per cent. of year's rain falls in spring and summer.

Fargo, the metropolis of Northern Dakota, an enterprising city, does a large business; has gas, electric lights, and street railway. Bismarck, capital, rapidly developing into an important business centre. Yankton, chief town of the south. Land offices at Fargo, Bismarck, Huron, Deadwood, Yankton, Mitchell, Aberdeen, Watertown and Grand Forks. Railway mileage, 1870, 65; 1884, 2,494. The Northern Pacific has a mileage of 375, crossing the northern central portion from Fargo through Bismarck in an almost direct westerly line through the Territory.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $2,600
Secr'y of Terri'y 1,800
Treasurer 2,000
Auditor 1,000
Supt. Pub. Inst. 1,500
Chief Justice 3,000
5 Asso. Justices 3,000
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$4 a day;
mileage, 20c.
10 Indian Agents 1,000 to 2,200
Surveyor Gen. 2,500
Chief Clerk. 1,800
Chf. Draftsman 1,500
Assistant" 1,200
Col. Int. Rev. 2,750
4 Dep. Colls. 1,600
Chart of Increase in Wheat Production 1870-1880 by Territory - headed by Dakota
Presidential P. O.
Aberdeen $1,900
Bismarck 2,200
Deadwood 1,800
Fargo 2,700
Grafton 1,600
Grand Forks 2,300
Huron 2,300
Jamestown 2,000
Mitchell 1,700
Pierre 1,800
Sioux Falls 2,200
Wahpeton 1,600
Watertown 1,700
Yankton 1,900
5 Post Offices 1,500
5"" 1,400
3"" 1,300
16"" 1,200 to 1,000

Finest wheat-growing country on the continent; corn crop, 1884, 13,950,000 bu.; oats, 11,812,000; wheat, 22,330,000 bu.; 2,800,000 bu. reported as freighted over Northern Pacific in four months of 1883, 76 per cent. being of best grade. Oats yield 50 to 75 bu. per acre; potatoes yield well and are of great size. Nutritious grasses at all seasons and abundant water offer remarkable advantages for stock raising; wool growing an important industry; climate especially favorable for sheep. Ranks fourth in gold, and ninth in silver; latest reported gold product, $4,123,081; mineral wealth centred in Black Hills; coal found in workable quantities west of the Missouri.

Population, 135,177 in 1880, with sufficient increase since then to entitle her to admission as a State: male, 82,296; female, 52,881; native, 83,382; foreign, 51,795; white, 133,147; colored, 401; Chinese, 238; Indians, 1,391.

Territorial, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 12; Representatives, 24; sessions biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting 2d Tuesday in January; limit session, 60 days; terms of Senators and Representatives, 2 years each. Number voters, census 1880, 51,003.

Legal interest rate, 7; by contract, 12; usury forfeits excess. {145}

Map of Dakota



{146}

NEBRASKA.Ne-bras´ka.

Name first applied to the river, and is of Indian origin, signifying Shallow Water. Organized as a Territory, 1854; admitted 1867.

Area, 76,855 square miles; width, north and south, about 210 miles; greatest length in centre, about 420 miles. Platte, the principal river, extending through the State east and west. Number counties, 80.

Temperature at Omaha: winter, 20° to 34°; summer, 72° to 78°. Rainfall, Fort Kearney, 25 inches.

Omaha, U. S. port of delivery, principal city and commercial centre; population, 61,835. Lincoln, a thriving city, containing State University; population, 1870, 2,441, and 1885, 20,004. Population Plattsmouth, 5,796; of Nebraska City, 5,597.

Number farms, 63,387. Average value per acre, cleared land, $8.93; woodland, $25.85.

Corn crop, 1884, 122,100,000 bushels; wheat, 28,325,000 bushels; oats, 21,630,000 bushels. Rye, buckwheat, barley, flax and hemp yield abundant crops. Apples, pears, plums, grapes and berries are plentiful. Ranks eighth in corn and barley, and ninth in rye.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $2,500
Lieut. Gov. $6 a day
Sec'y of State 2,000
Aud'r Pub. Ac'ts 2,500
Attorney Gen. 2,000
Supt. Pub. Ins. 2,000
Sec'y Bd. Agr. 1,000
Com'r Pub. L'ds 2,000
Chief Justice 2,500
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$3 a day;
mileage, 10 cents.
District Judge 3,500
Col. Int. Rev. 4,500
Surveyor Gen. 2,000
3 Indian Agents 1,200 to 1,600
Chart of Acreage of Corn by Year (Nebraska)
Presidential P. O.
Beatrice $2,100
Columbus 1,700
Crete 1,700
Falls City 1,600
Fremont 2,200
Grand Island 1,900
Hastings 2,100
Kearney 2,000
Lincoln 2,900
Nebraska City 2,100
Norfolk 1,300
Omaha 3,300
Plattsmouth 1,800
Seward 1,700
Tecumseh 1,600
Wahoo 1,600
York 1,700
10 P.O. $1,500 & 1,400
24 P.O. 1,200 to 1,000

Herd law excellent, and grazing land good. Cattle raising the great industry of the State, next to agriculture.

Manufacturing establishments show a wonderful increase of from 670 in 1870 to 1,403 in 1880. Capital invested, $4,881,150; number hands employed, 4,773.

Homesteads obtained under timber claims or by pre-emptions; cash expense of first, $18 to $36; of second, $14. U.S. land offices at Dakota City, Norfolk, Grand Island, Lincoln, Beatrice, Bloomington and North Platte.

Population, 452,402: male, 249,241; female, 203,161; native, 354,988; foreign, 97,414; white, 449,764; colored, 2,385; Chinese, 18; Indians, 235.

State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 33; Representatives, 100; sessions biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting first Tuesday in January; limit of session, 40 days; terms of Senators and Representatives, 2 years each. Number electoral votes, 5; number voters, 129,042. U.S. army, idiots and convicts excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 9; school population, 135,511; school age, 5-21.

Legal interest, 7; by contract, 10; usury forfeits interest and cost.

Railroad mileage, 1865, 122; 1885, 2,891. {147}

Map of Nebraska



{148}

KANSAS. Kăn´zas.
"Garden of the West."

From Kansas river. Indian name, signifying "Smoky Water". Visited by Spaniards, 1541, and by French, 1719. Part of Louisiana purchase, and afterward of Indian Territory. Organized as a Territory, 1854. Admitted as a State, January, 1861.

Area, 82,080 square miles. Length, 400 miles; breadth, 200 miles. Geographical centre of United States, exclusive of Alaska. Missouri river frontage, 150 miles; largest rivers, Solomon, Neosho, Saline, Arkansas, Republican and Kansas. Number counties, 100.

Temperature at Leavenworth: summer, 74° to 79°; winter, 25° to 35°: rainfall, 81 inches.

Metropolis, Leavenworth; population, 29,268. Capital, Topeka; population, 23,499. State University at Lawrence; State asylums for insane and feeble-minded at Topeka and Osawatomie; institution for education of the blind, Wyandotte; for deaf-mutes, Olathe.

First railroad built, 1865; length, 40 miles. Railroad mileage, 1875, 2,150; Jan. 1, 1886, 4,888.

Number farms, 1860, 10,400; 1880, 138,561. Average value per acre, cultivated land, $11.82; woodland, $19.12. Peculiarly adapted for stock raising. Gain, per cent., in horses, for ten years, 138; cows, 149; mules, 1,040; other cattle, 203; sheep, 210; hogs, 132.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $3,000
Secretary of State 2,000
Treasurer 2,500
Auditor 2,000
Attorney Gen. 1,500
Supt. Pub. Inst. 2,000
Sec. Bd. of Agr. 2,000
Insurance Com. 2,500
3 R. R. Coms. 3,000
State Librarian 1,500
Chief Justice 3,000
2 Asso. Justices 3,000
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$3 pr. day
mileage 15 cents.
District Judge 3,500
Pension Agent 4,000
Col. Int. Rev. 2,750
9 Deputy Collectors $1,650 to 400
Indian Agent 1,000
Chart of Increase of Population 1870-1880 by State - headed by Kansas
Presidential P. O.
Atchison $2,700
Emporia 2,500
Fort Scott 2,400
Lawrence 2,600
Leavenworth 2,800
Newton 2,000
Ottawa 2,100
Parsons 2,100
Salina 2,000
Topeka 3,100
Wellington 2,000
Wichita 2,400
Winfield 2,100
Wyandotte 2,400
78 Offices 1,900 to 1,000

Latest reported crop: castor beans, 765,143 bu.; cotton, 33,589 lbs.; flax, 622,256 bu.; hemp, 557,879 bu.; corn, 1884, 168,500,000 bu.; wheat, 34,990,000 bu.; oats, 27,419,000 bu.

Number hands employed in manufactories, 1860, 1,735; in 1870, 6,844; in 1880, 12,064. Net value of manufactured products increased 67 per cent. in first period, 95 per cent. in second.

Ranks fifth in cattle, corn and rye; seventh in hay, and ninth in hogs, horses, wheat and coal. Coal area, 17,500 square miles.

Population, 996,096: male, 536,667; female, 459,429; native, 886,010; foreign, 110,086; white, 952,155; colored, 43,107; Chinese, 19; Indians, 815. State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday in Nov.; Senators, 40; Representatives, 125; sessions biennial, meeting second Tuesday in January in odd-numbered years; limit of session, 50 days; term of Senators, 4 years; of Representatives, 2 years.

Number electoral votes, 9; number voters, 265,714. Idiots, insane, convicts and rebels excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 8; number schoolhouses, over 5,000; school attendance, 69 per cent. of school population; school age, 5-21.

Legal interest, 7; by contract, 12; usury forfeits excess of interest. {149}

Map of Kansas



{150}

INDIAN TERRITORY.

Portion of great Louisiana purchase set apart for home of peaceable Indian tribes; organized 1834.

Cut down to form States and Territories, leaving but 64,690 square miles, or 41,401,600 acres; nearly 26,000,000 acres being Indian reservations.

Length east and west on the north, 470 miles; breadth west of 100th meridian, 35 miles, and east of that line, about 210 miles. Reservations of Cherokees, 5,000,000 acres in north and northeast; Seminoles, 200,000 in east central; Creeks, 3,215,495 in east; Chickasaws, 4,377,600 in south; the Oklahoma country near centre. Principal rivers, Arkansas and Red. Number nations, agencies and reservations, 22.

Temperature at Fort Gibson: winter, 35° to 48°: summer, 77° to 82°. Rainfall in extreme northwest, 20 inches, and at Fort Gibson, 36 inches.

Most important town, and capital of Cherokees, Tahlequah. Railroad mileage, 372. Capital of Chickasaws, Tishomingo; of Choctaws, Tushkahoma; of Creeks, Muscogee; of Osages, Pawhuska; of Seminoles, Seminole Agency; of Pawnees, Pawnee Agency; of Kiowas and Comanches, Kiowa and Comanche Agency.

Indian Agencies.
ARAPAHOE.
Agent $900
CHEYENNE.
Agent $2,200
Physician 1,200
KAW.
Superintend't $1,600
Physician 1,200
KIOWA AND COMANCHE.
Agent $1,000
Physician 1,000
OAKLAND.
Superintend't. $1,000
8 Teachers 600
Chart of Wheat and Corn raised by Indian Nations
OSAGE.
Agent $1,600
Physician 1,200
OTOE.
Agent $1,500
Physician 1,000
PAWNEE.
Clerk $1,200
Physician 1,000
PONCA.
Superinden't $1,200
Clerk 720
QUAPAW.
Agent $1,500
Physician 1,200
SAC AND FOX.
Agent $1,200
2 Physicians 1,000

Corn, wheat, tobacco, cotton and potatoes yield luxuriantly. Number horses, January, 1883, 125 per cent. of previous year; mules, 110 per cent.; hogs, 80 per cent.; milch cows, 85 per cent.; number sheep, 55,000, at average value of $2; oxen and other cattle, January, 1884, 520,000, valued at $8,840,000.

Stringent laws to protect from encroachments by whites. They can hold land only by marrying into one of the tribes. Recent official reports give Indian population about 80,000: Cherokees, 20,000; Choctaws, 16,500; Creeks, 14,500; Chickasaws, 7,000; Seminoles, 2,500; Osages, 2,390; Cheyennes, 3,298; Arapahoes, 2,676; Kiowas, 1,120; Pawnees, 1,438; Comanches, 1,475.

No Territorial government has as yet been organized, owing to differences in the views of Congress and the tribes. For each agency, a deputy is appointed by the President to represent the United States, but each tribe manages its own internal affairs. Most of the tribes governed by chiefs.

Of first five tribes, 33,650 can read, and have 16,200 houses, 195 schools, and 6,250 pupils. Expended from tribal funds for educational purposes, $156,856; from government appropriations for freedmen, $3,500. {151}

Map of Indian Territory



{152}

COLORADO. Kol-o-rah´do.
"Centennial State."

Part of Louisiana purchase of 1803. First explored by Vasquez Coronado under the Spanish, 1540. First expedition sent out by United States Government, under Major Pike, 1806; a second under command of Col. S.H. Long, 1820, and in 1842-44, Gen. John C. Fremont made his celebrated trip across the Rocky Mountains. First settlements made by miners, 1858-9; formed from parts of Kansas, Nebraska, Utah and New Mexico; organized as a Territory, February, 1851; admitted August 1, 1876.

Area, 103,925 square miles; length, 380 miles; breadth, 280 miles; principal rivers, North and South Platte, Arkansas, Snake, White and Green. Number counties, 40. Temperature at Denver: winter, 25° to 37°; summer, 72° to 74°. Rainfall of the State from 15 to 20 inches, falling mostly between May and July.

Five United States land districts, with offices at Denver, Pueblo, Fairplay, Lake City and Central City. Denver, capital and metropolis, and contains assay office; pop., 54,308; Leadville, 10,925; Silver Cliffs, 900; Colorado Springs, 4,563. State University at Boulder; Agricultural College at Fort Collins; School of Mines at Golden City.

Richest State in the Union in mineral productions, ranking first in silver, and fourth in gold.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $5,000
Lieut. Gov. 1,000
Sec'y of State 3,000
Treasurer 3,000
Auditor 2,500
Attorney Gen. 2,000
Chief Justice 5,000
2 Asso. Justices 5,000
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$4 pr. day
mileage 15 cents.
District Judge 3,500
Col. Int. Rev. 2,875
Surveyor Gen. 2,500
Ute Indian Agt. 1,400
DENVER MINT.
Assay'r in Chg. $2,500
Chart of Silver Production by State - headed by Colorado
Presidential P. O.
Boulder $1,900
Canon City 1,600
Central City 1,700
Colorado Spgs. 2,400
Denver 3,400
Durango 1,700
Fort Collins 1,700
Georgetown 1,700
Golden 1,600
Greeley 1,800
Gunnison 1,900
Leadville 2,800
Pueblo 2,400
Salida 1,600
Silverton 1,800
South Pueblo 2,200
Trinidad 1,800
17 Offices 1,600 to 1,000

Corn crop, 1884, 710,000 bushels; wheat, 2,348,000 bushels; oats, 1,516,000 bushels; 1,209,000 bushels produced 1883, the yield being 29.3 bushels per acre; hay, 114,505 tons, valued at $1,545,818. Cattle raising a safe and profitable business; sheep husbandry still more profitable; latest reported estimate gives 815,674 cattle, 1,248,360 sheep and 12,342 swine.

Population, 243,910: male, 144,781; female, 99,129: native, 192,568; foreign, 51,342: white, 239,585; colored, 3,262; Chinese, 861; Indians, 202.

State, congressional and presidential elections, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 26: Representatives, 49; sessions biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting first Monday in January; limit of session, 40 days; term of Senators, 4 years; of Representatives, 2 years.

Number electoral votes, 3; number voters, 93,608; native white, 65,215; foreign white, 26,873; colored, 1,520. Persons in prison excluded from voting.

Not a mile of railroad in use in 1870; mileage, January 1, 1886, 2,857. Number colleges, 3; school population, 40,208; school age, 6-21.

Legal Interest rate, 10; by contract, any rate. {153}

Map of Colorado



{154}

NEW MEXICO.

Named in honor of one of the gods of the Aztecs, the ancient inhabitants of Mexico.

Colonized by Spaniards, 1582; Santa Fé being oldest town in United States, next to St. Augustine; organized 1850.

Area, 122,580 square miles; length eastern boundary, 345 miles; western, 390 miles; average breadth north of 32°, 335 miles; altitude, 3,000 to 4,000 feet. Number counties, 13.

Temperature at Santa Fé, winter, 27° to 37°; summer, 66° to 70°. Rainfall, Fort Marcy, 17 inches.

Santa Fé is capital and principal city; pop., 6,635. Las Vegas, Silver City and Albuquerque are growing in importance.

But 8 miles railroad in operation in 1878, having increased to 1,140, January 1, 1884.

Crops abundant wherever water can be obtained, and corn will ripen almost anywhere; 6,060 square miles irrigable land; number farms, 5,053; corn crop, 1884, 950,000 bu.; wheat, 930,000 bu.; oats, 252,000 bu. Total acreage of the Territory, 78,451,200; in farms, 631,131; in forests, 219,224; unoccupied, 77,820,069; proportion woodland area in the farm lands, 35 per cent. Average value corn, 1884, 68 cents; wheat, 90 cents; oats, 40 cents.

Salaries Territor'l Officers.
Governor $2,600
Secretary 1,800
Treasurer 1,000
Auditor 1,000
Com'r Immig'n 900
Librarian 600
Chief Justice 3,000
2 Asso. Justices 3,000
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$4 a day &
20c. mileage.
Col. Int. Rev. 2,500
2 Dep Colls. Int. Rev. 1,200 to 1,700
Surveyor Gen. 2,500
Translator and Chief Clerk 2,000
2 Spec'l Draftsmen $1,500
Clerk 1,500
Messenger 500
Chart of Number of Sheep in Territories - headed by New Mexico
Indian Agents
Jicarilla $1,200
Mescalero 1,500
Navajo 1,500
Pueblo 2,000
Presidential P. O.
Albuquerque $2,300
Deming 1,500
Las Vegas 2,100
Raton 1,200
Santa Fe 2,000
Silver City 1,800
Socorro 1,600

Grazing interest extensive and valuable. Recent reports give mules, 10,183; sheep, 4,435,200, valued at $7,539,840; hogs, 23,353, valued at $187,758.

Mineral wealth is rapidly developing. Gold is found in Grant, Lincoln, Colfax and Bernalillo counties; rich copper mines on the San Pedro Grant, in Bernalillo county, and in the Pinos Altos region. Zinc, quicksilver, lead, manganese, and large deposits of coal have been found. Gold production, 1882, was $150,000; silver, $1,800,000.

Population, 119,565: male, 64,496; female, 55,069; native, 111,514; foreign, 8,051; white, 108,721; colored, 1,015; Chinese, 57; Indians, 9772

Territorial and congressional elections, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 12; Representatives, 24; sessions of legislature biennial, in even-numbered years, meeting first Monday in January; limit of session, 60 days; terms of Senators and Representatives, 2 years each. Voting population, 34,076; native white, 26,423; foreign white, 4,558; colored, 3,095.

School population, 20,255; school age, 7-18.

Legal interest rate, 6; by contract, 12. {155}

Map of New Mexico



{156}

ARIZONA.Ar-ĭ-zō´na.

First visited by Spanish explorers as early as 1526; set off from New Mexico and became a Territory, 1863.

Area, 113,020 square miles; greatest length, 375 miles; greatest breadth, 340 miles. Country drained by Colorado and Gila, with their tributaries; number counties, 11.

Temperature at Prescott: winter, 34° to 42°; summer, 71° to 73°. Rainfall at Fort Defiance, 14 inches.

Tucson, the largest town: population, 7,007. Prescott, the capital. Railroad mileage, 865; Southern Pacific crosses from east to west near southern boundary, and Atlantic & Pacific north of the central portion, making ready communication with East and West.

Crop reports, 1883: wheat, 222,200 bu.; barley, 330,775 bu.; potatoes, 52,936 bu.: hay, 10,710 tons; corn acreage, 1884, 2,850, producing 60,300 bu. Soil fertile in river bottoms and among valleys of Middle and Eastern Arizona, corn planting following wheat or barley harvest, giving two crops yearly; oranges and other fruits and potatoes produce well wherever there is water; principal portion of irrigable land lies in valley of Gila and its northern branches; rich and abundant grasses, together with mild climate, make much of the Territory well adapted to stock raising; valuable timber on the mountains and along the streams.

Salaries Territorial Officers.
Governor $2,600
Secretary 1,800
Treasurer 1,000
Auditor 1,000
Supt. Pub. Inst. 2,000
Librarian 600
Chief Justice 3,000
2 Asso. Justices 3,000
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$4 a day and
20c. mileage.
3 Dist. Judges. 3,000
Col. Int. Rev. 2,250
2 Deputy Collectors 1,600 to 1,700
Clerk 1,100
Chart of Copper Production by State - headed by Arizona
Surveyor Gen. $2,500
Chief Clerk 2,400
Land Clerk 1,600
Land Copyist 1,200
Spanish Trans'r 2,500
Indian Agents.
Colorado River $1,500
Pima & Maricopa 1,800
San Carlos 2,000
Presidential P. O.
Clifton $1,000
Globe 1,100
Phœnix 1,500
Prescott 1,800
Tombstone 1,900
Tucson 2,300

Abundant mineral wealth, which can now be developed with profit, owing to completion of railways; nearly all mountain ranges contain gold, silver, copper and lead; gold production, 1882, $1,065,000; silver, $7,500,000.

Ranks second in silver, and ninth in gold.

Superior quality of lime found near Prescott and Tucson; beds of gypsum in San Pedro valley; remarkable deposits of pure, transparent salt near Callville.

Population, 40,440: male, 28,202; female, 12,238; native, 24,391; foreign, 16,049; white, 35,160; colored, 155; Chinese, 1,630; Indians, 3493

Territorial and congressional elections, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 12; Representatives, 24; sessions of legislature biennial, in even-numbered years, meeting first Monday in January; limit of session, 60 days; terms of Senators and Representatives, 2 years each. Voting population, 20,398; native white, 9,790; foreign white, 8,256; colored, 2,352.

School population, 10,283; school age, 6-21.

Legal interest rate, 10; by contract, any rate; no penalty for usury. {157}

Map of Arizona



{158}

UTAH.Yoo´tah.

Settled by Mormons under the leadership of Brigham Young, Salt Lake, 1847. Territorial government formed 1850.

Area, 84,900 square miles, very nearly same as Idaho; average length, 350 miles; breadth, 260 miles. Largest rivers, Grand and Green, together with the Colorado, which they unite to form. Number counties, 24.

Temperature at Salt Lake City: winter, 29° to 40°; summer, 69° to 77°: rainfall, 24 inches.

Salt Lake City, capital and metropolis; pop., 20,768. Ogden, at junction of Union and Central Pacific, pop., 6,069. Railroad mileage, 1,134; Union and Central Pacific through the north.

Number farms, 9,452; land under cultivation, over 400,000 acres; value farm products, $10,000,000. Valleys of the Cache, Salt Lake, Jordan, Sevier and Rio Virgin, are irrigable, and produce fine crops of cereals and vegetables. Wheat crop of 1884, 1,675,000 bushels.

Annual income from stock raising, about $2,000,000, though grazing interest perhaps not so important as in neighboring States and Territories.

Salaries of Territorial Officers.
Governor $2,600
Secretary 1,800
Treasurer 600
Auditor 1,500
Supt. Pub. Ins. 1,500
Librarian 250
Chief Justice 3,000
2 Asso. Justices 3,000
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$4 a day
mileage 20 cents.
Dist. Attorney 250 & fees.
11. U.S. Commissioners Fees.
Col. Int. Rev. 2,500
2 Dep'y Collectors 1,600 to 1,800
Chart of Cheese Production by Territory - headed by Utah
Surveyor Gen. $2,500
Chief Clerk 1,800
Chief Draftsman 1,500
Indian Agents
Ouray $1,500
Clerk 1,000
Uintah Valley 1,500
Clerk 1,000
Presidential P. O.
Logan $1,200
Ogden City 2,400
Park City 1,500
Provo City 1,100
Salt Lake City 2,900

Gold, copper and silver found in Wahsatch Mountains, the metal found being mostly silver. Gold production, 1882, $190,000; silver, $6,800,000.

Production coal, 1882, 250,000 tons; principal source of supply in valley of Weber river.

Ranks third in silver, and seventh in salt, an inexhaustible supply of the latter being furnished by the lake.

Population, 143,963: male, 74,509; female, 69,454; native, 99,969; foreign, 43,994; white, 142,423; colored, 232; Chinese, 501; Indians, 807

Territorial elections annual, first Monday in August; congressional elections, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 12; Representatives, 24; sessions of legislature, biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting second Monday in January; limit of session, 60 days; terms of Senators and Representatives, 2 years each.

Voting population, 32,773: native white, 13,795; foreign white, 18,283; colored, 695.

School population, 43,303; school age, 6-18; number colleges, 1.

Legal Interest rate, 10; by contract, any rate. {159}

Map of Utah



{160}

WYOMING.Wī-ō´ming.

First settlements, trading posts of Forts Laramie and Bridger; organized 1869.

Area, 97,890 square miles; very nearly a rectangle, and about the same area as Oregon; length, 350 miles; breadth, 275 miles. Largest rivers, Green, Snake, Big Horn, Powder, Big Cheyenne and North Platte. Number counties, 9. Temperature at Cheyenne: winter, 23° to 33°; summer, 63° to 69°. Rainfall at Fort Laramie, 15 inches.

Cheyenne is the capital and principal distributing point. Railroad mileage, 625; Union Pacific runs through extreme south from east to west, and connects Cheyenne with Denver.

Wheat, rye, oats and barley flourish, but frosts too frequent for corn. Big Horn country, in northwest, has area 15,000 square miles; fine agricultural country; water plentiful; game and fur-bearing animals numerous, rendering it one of most desirable hunting grounds of America. Grazing interest important, and increasing rapidly, more than half the area being rich grazing land. Mountains covered with forests of coniferæ, which will prove very useful for lumber.

Salaries of Territorial Officers.
Governor $2,600
Secretary 1,800
Treas., $800 and com.
Auditor 1,000
Supt. Pub. Inst. 400
Librarian 400
Chief Justice 3,000
2 Asso. Justices 3,000
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$4 a day and
20c. mileage.
Col. Int. Rev. 2,000
2 Dept. Colls. Inter. Rev. 1,400 to 1,500
Surveyor Gen. 2,500
Chief Clerk 2,000
Chief Draftsman 1,800
Chart of Value of Cattle in Territories - headed by Wyoming
8 Asst. Draftsmen $1,400
6 Asst. Draftsmen 1,200
2 Transcribing Clerks 1,400
6 Transcribing Clerks 1,200
Messenger 600
Supt. Yellowstone Nat. Pk. 2,000
10 Assistants 900
Presidential P. O.
Cheyenne City $2,400
Evanston 1,500
Laramie City 1,800
Rawlins 1,400

Mineral resources extensive; iron ore abundant; copper, lead, plumbago and petroleum found; gold, in the Sweetwater country and near Laramie City; valuable deposits of soda in valley of the Sweetwater. Coal abundant and of good quality at Evanston, Carbon, Rock Springs and other points; these deposits extensively worked, and furnish nearly all the coal used by the railroads and by settlements hundreds of miles east and west.

But little attention has as yet been given to mechanical and manufacturing industries. Capital, as last reported, $364,673, of which $212,603 is invested in manufacture of iron and steel. Value of products of the latter is $491,345; total value of products, $898,494. Number hands employed, 391.

Population, 20,789: male, 14,152; female, 6,637; native, 14,939; foreign, 5,850; white, 19,437; colored, 298; Chinese, 914; Indians, 140.

Territorial and congressional elections, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 12; Representatives, 24; sessions of legislature biennial, in even-numbered years, meeting second Tuesday in January; limit of session, 60 days; terms of Senators and Representatives, 2 years each. Voting population, 10,180; native white, 6,042; foreign white, 3,199; colored, 939.

Good school system started; school pop., 4,112; school age, 7-21.

Legal interest rate, 12; by contract, any rate. {161}

Map of Wyoming



{162}

MONTANA.Mŏn-ta´nah.

Formerly a part of Idaho; became a Territory, 1864; received about 2,000 square miles from Dakota, 1873.

Area, 146,080 square miles; length, east and west, 460 to 540 miles; average breadth, 275 miles. Drained by the Missouri and its tributaries and the tributaries of the Colorado. Number of counties, 14

Temperature at Virginia City, winter, 17° to 30°; summer, 55° to 65°: rainfall seldom exceeds 12 inches per annum.

Three U.S. districts; court held twice a year at Helena, twice at Virginia City, and three times at Deer Lodge. Helena, the capital and most important town. Railroad mileage, 1,032; Northern Pacific extends through the Territory from east to west.

Immense areas cultivable land; cereal productions, 1882, were 1,857,540 bu., of which 1,100,000 were oats; potatoes yielded 300,000 bu., and hay 93,000 tons. Wheat crop in 1884, 1,372,000 bu.; oats, 1,740,000 bu. Some varieties of corn grown in portions of Territory, but generally too cold.

Grazing interest of value; estimated area valuable grazing land, 100,000 square miles; great extent of plains and mountain valleys yet untouched by herdsmen. Latest returns give 686,839 cattle, 465,750 sheep, and 17,544 swine.

Salaries Territorial Officers.
Governor $2,600
Secretary 1,800
Treasurer 1,500
Auditor 1,500
Supt. Public Instruction 1,200
Chief Justice 3,000
2 Asso. Justices 3,000
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$4 pr. day and
20 c. mileage.
Surveyor Gen. 2,500
Chief Clerk 1,800
Chf. Draftsman 1,600
Col. Int. Rev 2,500
5 Deputy Colls. Internal Rev. 1,600
Assayer 2,500
Melter 2,250
Chart of Gold Production from Placer (alluvial) Fields by Territory - headed by Montana
Indian Agents.
Blackfeet $1,800
Crow 2,000
Flathead 1,500
Presidential P. O.
Billings $1,500
Bozeman 1,800
Butte City 2,500
Deer Lodge City 1,500
Dillon 1,400
Fort Benton 1,600
Glendive 1,100
Helena 2,500
Livingston 1,600
Miles City 1,600
Missoula 1,700
Virginia City 1,000

One of richest mining countries in the world; mineral wealth almost inexhaustible. Product for 1879 was $3,629,000, of which ⅔ was gold and ⅓ silver; product, 1880, was $3,822,379, of which ⅔ was silver and ⅓ gold; production, 1882, $6,920,000, of which ⅔ was silver and ⅓ gold.

Manufacturing interests mainly smelting works, and flour and lumber mills. Ranks fifth in silver and in gold.

Population, 39,139; male, 28,177; female, 10,982; native, 27,638; foreign, 11,521; white, 35,385; colored, 346; Chinese, 1,765; Indians, 1663

Territorial and congressional elections, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 12; Representatives, 24; sessions of legislature, biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting second Monday in January; limit of session, 60 days; terms of Senators and Representatives, 2 years each. Voting population, 21,544; native white, 12,162; foreign white, 7,474; colored, 1,908.

School population, 10,482; school age, 4-21; graded schools in Deer Lodge City, Virginia City and Helena.

Legal interest rate, 10; by contract, any rate. {163}

Map of Montana



{164}

IDAHO.Ī´dah-ho

White population previous to 1850, mainly trappers, prospectors and missionaries; permanent settlement began with discovery of gold, 1860; organized as Territory, 1863.

Area, 84,800 square miles; length in west, 485 miles, and on Wyoming boundary, 140 miles; width, 45 miles in north, and nearly 300 miles in south. Drainage mainly by Salmon and Snake rivers and their tributaries. Number counties, 15.

Temperature at Boisé City: winter, 30° to 40°; summer, 68° to 75°.

Boisé City, the capital, and contains national bank and penitentiary. Florence and Silver City are flourishing mining towns. Railroad mileage, 777; Northern Pacific crosses northern part.

Extreme north well timbered and much fertile land; extreme southeast populated almost entirely by Mormons, chiefly farmers; 4,480,000 acres suitable for agriculture, and 5,000,000 for grazing, most of the ranges being as yet unoccupied. Latest reports give, cattle, 220,612; sheep, 187,500; swine, 24,780.

Cash value per acre of corn in 1883, $18; wheat, $13.77; rye, $11.79; oats, $21.31; barley, $21.30; potatoes, $73.44; hay, $10.40.

Salaries Territorial Officers.
Governor $2,600
Secretary 1,800
Treasurer 1,000
Auditor 1,800
Librarian 250
Chief Justice 3,000
2 Asso. Justices 3,000
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$4 a day and
20c. mileage.
2 Dist. Attorneys 250 & fees
Col. Int. Rev. 2,250
3 Dep. Collectors 1,400 to 1,600
Assayer 2,000
Asst. Assayer 1,440
Chart of Increase in Farm Crops 1870-1880 (Idaho)
Clerk $1,000
Asst. Melter 1,200
Surveyor Gen'l 2,500
Chief Clerk 1,800
Draftsman 1,500
Messenger 600
Indian Agents.
Fort Hall $1,500
Lemhi 1,100
Nez Perces 1,600
Presidential P. O.
Bellevue $1,200
Boise City 1,800
Hailey 1,200
Ketchum 1,000
Lewiston 1,200

Most of the gold is found in Idaho, Boisé and Alturas counties; silver, in Owyhee county; some of the mines being very rich. Gold production, 1883, $1,500,000; silver, $2,000,000. Wood River District on southern slope of Salmon River Mountains, at headwaters of Wood or Malade river, gives promise of valuable mining operations. Coal in vicinity of Boisé City. Ranks sixth in gold and silver.

Manufactures, chiefly production of flour and lumber, and smelting of ores.

Population, 32,610: males, 21,818; female, 10,792; native, 22,636; foreign, 9,974; white, 29,013; colored, 53; Chinese, 3,379; Indians, 165

Territorial and congressional elections, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 12; Representatives, 24; sessions of legislature biennial, in even-numbered years, meeting second Monday in December; limit of session, 60 days; terms of Senators and Representatives, 2 years each.

Voting population, 14,795; native white, 7,331; foreign white, 4,385; colored, 3,126.

School population, 9,650; school age, 521.

Legal interest rate, 10; by contract, 18; usury forfeits three times excess of interest. {165}

Map of Idaho



{166}

NEVADA. Ne-vah´dah.
"Sage Hen State."

Name of Spanish derivation, signifying "Snow-covered."

First white settlements in Washoe and Carson valleys, 1848; organized as a Territory from Utah, 1861; admitted, 1864.

Area, 110,700 square miles; extreme length, 485 miles; length western boundary, 210 miles; extreme breadth, 310 miles. Humboldt the longest river; its valley, extending east and west, determined course of Central Pacific. Number counties, 15.

Temperature at Winnemucca: winter, 30° to 38°; summer, 66° to 73°.

Virginia City, metropolis and chief commercial centre; population, 10,917. Carson City, capital, and contains a branch mint; population, 4,229. Railroad mileage, 948; Central Pacific extends through the State, east and west. Waters of rivers usually fresh, and abound in fish.

Number farms, 1,404; many valleys easily cultivated, and crop yield good. Corn, 1884, 830 acres; wheat, 5,515 acres; oats, 7,858 acres. Area grazing land, 7,508,060 acres. Reported January 1, 1884, 40,732 horses and mules; 385,350 sheep, valued at $793,821; 13,200 hogs, valued at $110,880.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $5,000
Lieut. Gov. 3,000
Sec'y of State 3,000
Treasurer 3,000
Comptroller 3,000
Attorney Gen. 3,000
Supt. Pub. Inst. 2,400
Chief Justice 6,000
2 Asso. Justices 6,000
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$8 a day and
40c. a mile.
District Judge 3,500
Surveyor Gen. 3,000
Chief Clerk 2,000
Draftsman 1,500
Col. Int. Rev. 2,375
Chart of Farm Production by Crop (Nevada)
4 Deputy Collectors $1,850 to 1,950
Supt. of Mint 3,000
Melt. & Refiner 2,500
Coiner 2,500
Assayer 2,500
Cashier 2,000
Weigh. Clerk 2,000
Reg. Deposits 1,800
2 Indian Agts. 1,800
Presidential P. O.
Austin $1,400
Carson City 1,800
Elko 1,200
Eureka 1,700
Gold Hill 1,000
Reno 1,800
Tuscarora 1,200
Virginia City 2,000
Winnemucca 1,200

Mineral resources of enormous value; Comstock lode supposed to be richest silver mine in the world; Eureka one of the most productive. Amount of gold produced, 1882, $2,000,000; silver, $6,750,000. Rich lead and copper ores; also zinc, platinum, tin and nickel have been found. Extensive deposits of borax in Churchill and Esmeralda counties.

Ranks second in gold, and fourth in silver.

Population, 62,266; male, 42,019; female, 20,247; native, 36,613; foreign, 25,653; white, 53,556; colored, 488; Chinese, 5,416; Indians, 2803

Governor and State officers elected quadrennially, and legislature every 2 years; State, presidential and congressional elections Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 20; Representatives, 40; sessions of legislature biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting first Monday in January; limit of session, 60 days; term of Senators, 4 years; of Representatives, 2 years. Voting population, 31,255; native white, 11,442; foreign white, 14,191; colored, 5,622. Idiots, insane and convicts excluded from voting.

Number colleges, 1; school population, 10,483; school age, 6-18.

Legal Interest rate, 10; by contract, any rate. {167}

Map of Nevada



{168}

CALIFORNIA. Kal-e-for´ne-ah.
"The Golden State."

Name of Spanish origin, signifying "Hot Furnace."

First settlement by Spaniards at San Diego, 1768; admitted 1850.

Area, 158,360 square miles, the second largest State; extreme length, 770 miles; extreme breadth, 330 miles; least breadth, 150 miles; coastline, over 700 miles; San Francisco Bay, best harbor on western coast. Number counties, 52.

Temperature at San Francisco: winter, 50° to 55°; summer, 58° to 69°. Rainfall, Sacramento, 20 inches.

San Francisco, metropolis and only port of entry. Regular line of steamers to Australia, Panama, Mexico, China and Japan; pop., 233,959. Sacramento, capital; pop., 21,420. Population Oakland, 34,555; San José, 12,567; Stockton, 10,282; Los Angeles, 11,183; U.S. navy yard at San Pablo Bay.

Number farms, 35,934. Average value per acre, cleared land, $27.16; woodland, $8.55.

One of the richest agricultural tracts in the Union; rich soil and favorable climate, often insuring two crops per year on same field; wheat the most valuable crop; crop of 1884, 44,320,000 bu.; corn, 8,800,000 bu.; oats, 2,149,000 bu.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $6,000
Sec'y of State 3,000
Treasurer 3,000
Comptroller 3,000
Supt. Pub. Inst. 3,000
Attorney Gen. 3,000
Surveyor Gen. 3,000
State Librarian 3,000
District Judge 5,000
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$8 a day,
mileage 10c.
& $25
2 Colls. Int. Revenue 3,125 to 4,500
Col. Customs San Francisco 7,000
Pension Agent 4,000
Supt. Mint 4,500
Assayer 3,000
M'lt'r & Refinr. 3,000
Chart of Gold and Silver deposited at Mints and Assay Offices 1793-1883 by State - headed by California
Presidential P. O.
Chico $1,800
Fresno City 1,900
Los Angeles 3,000
Marysville 1,900
Napa City 2,000
Oakland 3,100
Petaluma 1,900
Red Bluff 1,800
Sacramento 3,000
San Bernardino 1,800
San Diego 1,800
San Francisco 5,000
San Jose 2,700
Santa Barbara 1,900
Santa Cruz 1,900
Santa Rosa 1,900
Stockton 2,500
40 P. O. 1,700 to 1000

Ranks very high as a fruit-growing state; fruits of temperate climates, about 4,000,000 trees; sub-tropical fruits and nuts, 250,000 trees; grape region north to 41°, with an average breadth of 100 miles, and contains over 21,000,000 vines.

Fine sheep-raising country. Cashmere goats have been introduced and are doing well.

Ranks first in barley, grape culture, sheep, gold and quicksilver; third in hops; fifth in wheat and salt; seventh in silk goods; eighth in soap and silver.

Population, 864,694: male, 518,176; female, 346,518; native, 571,820; foreign, 292,874; white, 767,181; colored, 6,018; Chinese, 75,132; Japanese, 86; Indians, 16,277.

Governor and State officers elected quadrennially, and legislature every two years; number Senators, 40; Representatives, 80; sessions of legislature biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting first Monday after January 1st; limit of session, 60 days; term of Senators, 4 years; of Representatives, 2 years.

Number electoral votes, 8; number white voters, 262,583. Idiots, Indians, convicts and Chinese excluded from voting.

School population, 216,330; school age, 5-17.

Legal interest rate, 7; by contract, any rate. {169}

Map of California



{170}

OREGON.Or´e-gon.

Name derived from Spanish word signifying "Wild Thyme," so called on account of the abundance of the herb found by early explorers. Credit of discovery generally given to Captain Gray, of Boston, 1792; Fur Company's trading post at Astoria, 1811; organized as a Territory, 1848; admitted 1859.

Area, 96,030 square miles; average length, 360 miles; breadth, 260 miles; coast line, 300 miles; Columbia river frontage, 300 miles. Number counties, 27. Temperature at Portland: winter, 38° to 46° summer, 62° to 68°: rainfall at Dalles, 22 inches, and at Fort Hoskins, 67 inches.

Portland, Astoria and Coos Bay are ports of entry; Oregon City, Roseburgh and La Grande are land offices. Portland, the metropolis; population, 33,400. Salem is capital.

Number farms, 16,217; about 25,000,000 acres arable land, and same of grazing land; forest, 10,000,000 acres. Average value per acre, cleared land, $21.71; woodland, $4.50.

Wheat the staple; noted for superiority of its flour and for weight, often reaching 65 pounds per bu. Wheat crop, 1884, 15,462,000 bu.; oats, 5,470,000 bu.

Salaries of State Officers.
Governor $1,500
Sec. of State,
Aud. & Comp.
brace
1,500
Treasurer 800
Supt. of Pub. In. 1,500
State Librarian 500
Chief Justice 2,000
2 Asso. Justices 2,000
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$3 a day and
15c. per mile.
District Judge 3,500
District Attorney 200 & fees.
Col. Int. Rev. 2,500
Col. Customs, Astoria 3,000
Appraiser 3,000
Surveyor Gen. 2,500
Chart of Fishery Production by State - headed by Oregon
Chief Clerk $1,800
Draftsman 1,500
5 Indian Agents 1,000 to 1,800
Presidential P. O.
Albany $1,500
Ashland 1,000
Astoria 1,900
Baker City 1,400
Corvallis 1,300
East Portland 1,500
Eugene City 1,400
Jacksonville 1,200
Oregon City 1,200
Pendleton 1,600
Portland 3,200
Roseburgh 1,100
Salem 2,100
The Dalles 1,700

Cattle raising ranks 2d only to agriculture; wool is of fine quality.

Extremely rich in minerals; gold found in Jackson, Josephine, Baker and Grant counties; copper, in Josephine, Douglas and Jackson counties; iron ore, throughout the State; coal, along Coast Range.

Principal exports are wheat, flour, lumber and canned salmon. Over 10,000,000 feet lumber out annually, and over 600,000 cases salmon packed.

Population, 174,768: male, 103,381; female, 71,387; native, 144,265; foreign, 30,503; white, 163,075; colored, 487; Chinese, 9,510; Indians, 1694

Governor and State officers elected quadrennially, and legislature every two years; number of Senators, 30; Representatives, 60; sessions of legislature biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting first Monday in January; limit of session, 40 days; term of Senators, 4 years; of Representatives, 2 years.

Number of electoral votes, 3; voting population, 59,629. U.S. army, idiots, insane, convicts, and Chinese excluded from voting.

Number of colleges, 7; school population, 65,216; school age, 4-20.

Legal interest rate, 8; by contract, 10; usury forfeits principal and interest. {171}

Map of Oregon



{172}

WASHINGTON.Wŏsh-ing-ton.

First settlement of white Americans at Tumwater, 1845, though trading posts had before been established by fur traders; organized 1853

Area, 69,180 square miles, nearly same as Missouri; greatest length, 340 miles; greatest breadth, 240 miles; Pacific coast line, about 180 miles. Number counties, 33.

Temperature at Olympia: winter, 37° to 44°; summer, 59° to 62°. Rainfall, Ft. Colville, 10 inches; at Ft. Vancouver, 39 inches, and at Neah Bay, 123 inches.

Olympia is the capital, and Walla Walla and Seattle the largest towns. Harbors of Puget Sound numerous and excellent. Railroad mileage, 716; Northern Pacific from Wallula Junction to Idaho line, and from Kalama to New Tacoma, which is connected by railway with Seattle.

About 25 per cent. of area well fitted for agriculture; cereals all thrive, but generally too cold for corn; wheat crop, 1884, 4,118,000 bushels; oats, 2,623,000. Fruits of temperate zone, excepting peaches, attain perfection. Considerable attention paid to hop culture, latest reports giving 703,277 pounds; also 1,003,530 bushels potatoes.

Salaries Territorial Officers.
Governor $2,600
Secretary 1,800
Treasurer 1,200
Auditor 1,200
Supt. Pub. Ins'n. 1,000
Librarian 400
Chief Justice 3,000
3 Assoc. Justices 3,000
Senators,
Representatives
brace
$4 a day and
20c mileage
Surveyor Gen. 2,500
Chief Clerk 1,800
Chief Drftsm'n 1,700
Col. of Customs $1,000 & fees
Col. Int. Rev. 2,250
3 Dep. Colls. Int. Rev. 1,200 to 1,600
Chart of Butter Production by Territory - headed by Washington
Indian Agents.
Colville $1,500
Neah Bay 1,000
Nisqually 1,200
Quiniaielt 1,000
Skokomish 1,200
Tulalip 1,000
Yakama 2,000
Presidential P. O.
Cheney $1,100
Colfax 1,500
Dayton 1,500
Olympia 1,600
Port Townsend 1,200
Seattle 2,500
Spokane Falls 1,700
Sprague 1,200
Tacoma 1,600
Vancouver 1,200
Walla Walla 2,300

Grazing interest valuable and rapidly increasing; grazing region east of Cascade Range, the bunch grass furnishing an inexhaustible food supply.

Coal mined at Bellingham Bay and Seattle; area coal-bearing strata, 20,000 square miles. Gold-bearing quartz and silver lodes exist in Cascade and Coast ranges; copper, cinnabar, lead and other minerals are found.

Lumber resources almost inexhaustible; amount lumber cut annually, 250,000,000 to 300,000,000 feet, 150,000,000 being exported.

Population, 75,116: male, 45,973; female, 29,143; native, 59,313; foreign, 15,803; white, 67,199; colored, 325; Chinese, 3,186; Indians, 4,405.

Territorial and congressional elections, Tuesday after first Monday day in November; number Senators, 12; Representatives, 24; sessions of legislature biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting first Monday in October; terms of Senators and Representatives, 2 years each; limit of session, 60 days. Voting population, 27,670; native white, 15,858; foreign white, 8,393; colored, 3,419.

Number colleges, 2; school population, 23,890; school age, 4-21.

Legal interest rate, 10; by contract, any rate. {173}

Map of Washington



{174}

CENTRAL AMERICA AND WEST INDIES.

Central America is an irregular mass of land in southern part of North America, and lies about midway between the two great continental masses of the New World. It includes the republics of Guatemala, Honduras, San Salvador, Nicaragua and Costa Rica, together with British Honduras.

The West Indies, an extensive system of islands lying southeast of North America, contain the large islands of Cuba, Hayti, Jamaica and Porto Rico, and are arranged mostly in three groups; viz., Greater Antilles, Lesser Antilles and the Bahamas.

Area,
Sq. Miles
Pop. Capital. Pop.
British Honduras 7,562 27,452 Belize 5,767
Costa Rica 26,040 190,000 San Jose 20,000
Guatemala 41,830 1,278,311 New Guatemala 55,728
Honduras 39,600 458,000 Tegucigalpa 12,000
Nicaragua 49,500 400,000 Managua 12,000
San Salvador 7,225 554,785 San Salvador 18,500
Cuba 43,220 1,521,684 Havana 25,000
Hayti brace Hayti
San Domingo
10,204 572,000 Port-au-Prince 35,000
18,045 400,000 San Domingo 10,000
Jamaica 4,362 585,536 Kingston 38,566
Porto Rico 3,550 754,313 San Juan 27,000
Statement of Exports and Imports at Belize for the year ending Dec. 31, 1882.
EXPORTS. IMPORTS.
Bananas $10,980 Boots and Shoes $13,918
Cocoanuts 25,132 Butter 14,783
Sarsaparilla 14,278 Cotton Goods 190,436
Logwood 306,072 Beef and Pork 59,405
Mahogany 215,807 Hardware and Cutlery 38,234
Rubber 18,064 Flour 71,200
Raw Sugar 218,913 Fancy Goods 24,844
Exports of Cuba, 1882-83.
Baracoa—1883.
Cocoanuts, hundreds 9,083,305
Bananas, bunches, hundred 628,916
Value $671,925
Cocoanut Oil 98,930
Santa Cruz—1882. Sagua and Cardenas—1882.
Mah'any and cedar logs $166,577 Sugar $17,484,884
Palm Leaf 8,453 Molasses 3,941,522
Mahogany Crutches 1,490 Melada 262,233
Exports of Porto Rico, 1882-83
Mayaguez—1883. Aquadilla and Arecibo—1882.
Sugar $1,141,784 Sugar $1,409,972
Coffee 1,566,327 Coffee 567,073
Molasses 326,690 Tobacco 104,173
Exports of Hayti, 1883.
Coffee $57,341,162 Orange Peels $459,917
Logwood 264,135,490 Crude Sugar 561,479
Cocoa 2,735,555 Mahogany 245,999
Cotton 1,619,891 Lignum-vitæ 1,062,000
Exports of Jamaica, 1881-82.
Sugar 38,392 hhds. Oranges $163,928
Rum 22,742 puncheons Coffee 649,848
Bananas $481,838 Dye-woods 501,415

{175}

Map of Central America and West Indies



{176}

COSTA RICA.Kos´ta Ree´ka.

The most southern republic of Central America. Area, 26,040 square miles. Population, 190,000. There are many volcanic peaks: Turrialba, 12,500 feet high; Chiriqui, 11,265 feet high; Los Votos, 9,840 feet high.

The chief executive, the President, elected for a term of 4 years, is assisted by 5 ministers. Legislative power is vested in a Congress of Deputies, chosen for 4 years. Capital, San José; pop., 20,000.

The principal products of the soil are coffee, sugar, maize, cocoa, sarsaparilla and fruits. The principal export is coffee. Value of exports, 1883, $2,431,625; of which coffee amounted to $2,000,590. Imports chiefly manufactures from England, $2,081,805. Revenue for fiscal year of 1885, $2,867,170, mainly derived from customs duties and the monopoly on spirits; expenditure, $2,961,110. In 1884, $841,440 were expended for public works. There are about 104 miles of railway: telegraph, 451 miles.

The state religion is the Roman Catholic; constitution guarantees religious liberty. There are 341 national schools and 584 private schools; total number of pupils, 13,924.

NICARAGUA.Nik-ar-a´gwa.

Largest of the Central American states. Area, 49,500 square miles. Population, 400,000. Fifty-five per cent, of inhabitants are Indians. Climate is healthy; mean annual temperature about 80°; rainfall about 100 inches. Constitution adopted 1858. Presidential term, 4 years. Legislative power rests with a Senate and a House of Representatives. Capital, Managua; population, 12,000.

Through want of peace and industry the great natural resources are undeveloped. Lead, iron, zinc, antimony, tin, quicksilver and gold are found. The vegetable products are cotton, coffee, indigo, rice, tobacco and corn. There are about 400,000 cattle in the country. Leading exports in 1882: coffee, $659,550; India rubber, $638,010; gold, $150,000. Imports for the same year, $1,477,340; exports, $1,895,760.

Army, 703 regulars and 9,600 militiamen. Number of schools, 178; pupils, 8,330. Vessels entered, 1882, 213; tonnage, 256,000. Telegraph, 1882, 800 miles; railway, 83 miles.

SAN SALVADOR.Săl-vă-dōr´.

In area the smallest, in population the second, of the Central American republics. It extends along the Pacific coast 170 miles. Average breadth, 43 miles; area, 7,225 square miles. Population, 554785

Constitution adopted 1864; amended 1883. Government administered by a President, elected for 4 years, and a ministry of 4 members. The legislative power is vested in a Senate and House of Representatives. Capital, San Salvador; population, 18,500.

The temperature varies greatly; but the climate is generally considered healthful. This is the most advanced and best cultivated of the republics. Principal agricultural products, indigo, coffee, sugar and balsam. Minerals are not abundant, though there are some rich veins of silver. Value of silver ores, 1882, $700,000.

Latest reports give value of imports as $2,327,765; exports, $5,638,080. Value of coffee exported, $3,416,100; indigo, $1,812,590; sugar, $93,230. In the same year 265 vessels entered the ports.

The army consists of 1,200 men and 2,500 militia. {177}

GUATEMALA.Gaw-te-mah´la.

The most populous of the five Central American republics. Area, 41,830 square miles. Population, 1884, 1,278,311. Climate healthful; snow never falls; frequent violent earthquakes occur. Watered by numerous rivers.

Constitution adopted 1859; amended 1879. President is chief executive; legislative power in the hands of National Assembly; President and members of Assembly elected for 6 years; suffrage universal. Capital, New Guatemala; pop., 55,728.

The soil is fertile; cotton, sugar cane, coffee and tobacco are grown. Roads are poor. Coffee crop, 1884, over 42,000,000 lbs. Sugar, wool and fruit trade recently developed. In 1882, number of land-owners 5,334.

Imports, 1884, valued at $2,630,100; exports, $3,716,340. Miles of railway, 105. Miles of telegraph, 2,880; 1,100 miles controlled by the state.

Army consists of 2,180 men, rank and file; 33,000 militiamen. There is no navy.

In 1882, sum spent on education, $434,753; state contributed $323,860; in 1883 there were 844 primary government schools; number night schools, 48; pupils attending all schools, 42,021.

HONDURAS.Hon-doo´ras.

Republic established November 5, 1838. Area, 39,600 square miles. Population, 458,000. Capital, Tegucigalpa; pop., 12,000. Numerous mountains; between them fertile valleys. Coast line on the Pacific, 40 miles: Atlantic, 400 miles. Many excellent harbors; many rivers, some of them navigable.

Government consists of President, 6 ministers, and an Assembly of 37 Representatives. Finances badly disordered; foreign debt, $26,125,106; interest unpaid, $24,308,846. Standing army, 830 men; militia, 31,500. Navy, 2 steam corvettes, with 8 guns.

The products are mahogany, fruit, cotton, cattle, coffee, tobacco, indigo, India rubber and rosewood. Exports from Truxillo, 1883, $804,550; 26,000 head of cattle; mahogany valued at $88,000; hides and deer skins, $40,000. Total exports, 1883, $2,193,149; imports, $1,749,146.

Railway, 29 miles. Telegraph, 1,800 miles; offices, 23; messages, 107,730. Universities, 2; several colleges; 573 schools, with attendance of 20,518.

BRITISH HONDURAS.Hon-doo´ras.

A British Colony in Central America. Area, 7,562 square miles. Population, 27,452. Coast low and swampy; land gradually rises; on the inland boundary are hills of from 800 to 1,000 feet high; mountains 4,000 feet high. Sixteen rivers descend from elevated lands. Climate hot and damp; temperature, 1878-79, 75°; rainfall 105.49 inches, unusually heavy.

Government in the hands of Lieutenant Governor, an executive and a Legislative Council. Capital, Belize; pop., 5,767. Soil fertile. Sugar cane is grown; fruits flourish; the staple products, however, are the natural woods of the colony. Annual export of mahogany, 3,000,000 feet; logwood, 15,000 tons; estimated value of fruit exports, $100,000. Total imports, 1883, $1,344,865; exports, $1,514,345. Large trade with neighboring republics. {178}

JAMAICA.Ja-mā´ka.

An island of the West Indies; formally ceded to Great Britain, in 1670, by the treaty of Madrid; most valuable possession of the British Crown in the West Indies. Area, including the Turks and Caicos Islands, annexed in 1873, 4,362 square miles. Population, 585,536. Surface mountainous. There is a great variety of climate. Temperature in lowlands, 95° at night, 85° in the day; in highlands, 40° to 50°. Produces most of the tropical staples; the rosewood, mahogany and ebony of the island are well known.

Latest reports give 121,457 acres under crops; 120,264 in guinea grass, and 318,549 in pasture. Principal exports: coffee, 9,572,714 lbs.; ginger, 908,603 lbs.; pimento, 6,195,109 lbs.; 29,000 hhds. of sugar; 18,115 puncheons of rum, and 35,157 tons of logwood. Value of fruit exported in same year, $197,255. Total value of imports, 1889, $6,609,810; exports, $7,745,290.

Governor is assisted by a Privy Council and Legislative Council. Kingston, the chief city and port, is the capital; pop., 38,566.

Miles of railway, 25; 60 miles in process of construction. Telegraph stations and post offices in every town and village.

SAN DOMINGO.San Do-meeng´go.

A republic occupying the eastern and larger portion of the island of Hayti. Area, 18,045 square miles. Country first settled by Spaniards under Columbus in 1492. Republic founded 1844. President elected for a term of 4 years; legislative power in the hands of a National Congress. Capital, San Domingo, founded 1494; population, 10000

The country is very fertile. Principal products, sugar, molasses, tobacco, cotton, coffee, cacao, fruits, mahogany and live stock. The production of sugar and molasses is largely on the increase. Latest reports give $5,000,000 capital invested in sugar factories; amount of product, 10,000 tons.

Value of imports, 1883, $3,142,100; exports, $2,129,265. At the two most important ports, San Domingo and Puerto Plata, there entered, in 1883, 297 vessels, of 192,042 tons.

HAYTI.Hā´tee.

A republic, occupying the west part of the Island of Hayti. Area, 10,204 square miles. Population, 572,000. Capital, Port au Prince; pop., 35,000. Nine-tenths of total population are negroes. Essentially mountainous. In plains, temperature rises to 96° and 100°; on high lands, ranges between 60° and 76°. Constitution was adopted 1867. President is elected for 4 years; National Assembly consists of Senate and House of Commons. Mountains cultivable almost to their summits; covered with valuable timber. Agriculture is backward, though the soil is probably the most fertile in the West Indies. Business of the country transacted by foreigners.

Finances badly deranged; foreign debt, $6,409,970; no interest paid on debt for years. Revenue, $4,500,000; expenditures, $7,000,000. Three-fourths of revenue derived from duties on imports and exports. Imports, 1881, $7,283,620; exports, $6,240,460. In same year, 792 vessels entered, and 768 vessels cleared, the ports of Hayti.

By a law of 1878, army consists of 6,828 men; the Guard of the Government, 650 men.

Language of the country, French; religion, Roman Catholic. {179}

CUBA.Kū´ba.

A Spanish colony in the West Indies. Area, 43,220 square miles. Population, 1,521,684; 50 per cent. of the inhabitants are blacks and enfranchised slaves. The greatest length of the island is 760 miles; width varies from 20 to 135 miles; coast line about 2,000 miles. Surface is broken by a mountain chain running through its centre from east to west; average altitude of summit is between 5,000 and 6,000 feet. Pico de Turquino, 7,670 feet, is the highest peak. There are over 260 rivers, all valueless for navigation purposes, except the Canto. Mineral springs abound.

But little attention has been paid to the development of the mineral wealth. Gold was obtained by the early colonists, but for two centuries comparatively none has been found. There are extensive copper mines, and coal is abundant. Copperas and alum have also been obtained.

Rainfall at Havana: in the wet season, 27.8 inches; dry season, 12.7 inches. Average temperature: at Havana, 77°; at Santiago de Cuba, 80°. Yellow fever and earthquakes are frequent.

Thirteen million acres of Cuban territory are uncleared forests; 7,000,000 wild and uncultivated. Principal woods grown and exported are mahogany, rosewood, Cuban ebony, and cedar.

Tobacco and sugar raising principal occupation of the people. Many sugar plantations comprise 10,000 acres each.

Two crops of Indian corn grown per year; rice, cotton, cacao and indigo also produced; most tropical fruits are abundant. Sugar product averages 520,000 tons per year; molasses, 79,365 hogsheads. Total value of agricultural products over $90,000,000. United States receives 80 per cent. of Cuban sugar. No manufactures deserving mention.

Latest reports give exports of cigars 225,000,000 per annum; leaf tobacco, 13,500,000 pounds. There are about 900 miles of railway. Marine cable connects Cuba with Florida.

Roman Catholicism is the only religion tolerated. Education compulsory; school attendance, 34,813.

Havana is the capital; Pop., 25,000. Government administered by a Captain General, appointed by the Spanish Crown. The island is now represented in the Spanish Cortes, Madrid.

PORTO RICO.Pōr´to Ree´ko.

The smallest of the Greater Antilles. Area, including dependencies, 3,550 square miles. Population, 754,313. Rectangular in shape; length, 100 miles; breadth, 40 miles. A range of mountains extends across the island from east to west; highest peak, 3,678 feet.

The island is very fertile; its principal products are sugar cane, coffee, tobacco, cotton, rice and Indian corn. In proportion to its area, it produces more sugar than any other West India island.

Government is administered under a constitution granted by the Spanish Cortes, 1869. Slavery was abolished in 1873. Capital, San Juan; pop. about 27,000. Climate warm; more healthful than that of the other Antilles. Destructive hurricanes are frequent. The natural productions are very numerous; medicinal plants and many valuable woods, as mahogany, ebony, logwood, and cedar, abound in the forests. Business in the hands of foreigners. Imports, 1871, $17,500,000; exports $15,500,000. Export of sugar, 111,084 tons; molasses, 7,590,915 gallons.

Telegraphic cable connects Porto Rico with other West Indies; telegraph lines connect the principal towns; there are no railroads. {180}

Map of Cuba



{181}

SOUTH AMERICA.

A vast, compact, triangular peninsula, forming southern portion of Western Continent. Area, 6,827,230 square miles; extreme length, 4,550 miles; extreme breadth, about 3,300 miles. Number political divisions, 11.

Divisions. Area,
Sq. Miles.
Population. Capitals. Pop.
Argentine Republic 1,125,086 3,026,000 Buenos Ayres 295,000
Bolivia 842,729 2,300,000 La Paz 76,372
Brazil 3,288,963 9,883,622 Rio de Janeiro 274,972
Chili 256,399 2,271,949 Santiago 200,000
Colombia 504,773 4,000,000 Bogota 100,000
Ecuador 248,370 946,033 Quito 80,000
Guiana, British 76,000 248,110 Georgetown 36,562
Guiana, French 48,000 36,760 Cayenne 10,000
Guiana, Dutch 46,060 68,255 Paramaribo 27,416
Paraguay 91,970 346,048 Asuncion 16,000
Peru 503,718 2,699,945 Lima 101,488
Uruguay 73,538 438,245 Montevideo 115,500
Venezuela 632,695 2,121,988 Caracas 55,638

PRINCIPAL LAKES.

Maracaybo, area 4,900 sq. miles. Titicaca, area 4,000 sq. miles.

LENGTHS OF RIVERS.

Miles. Miles.
Amazon 3,750 Parana 2,000
Caroni 400 Pilcomayo 1,000
Canca 600 Purus 2,000
Guaviare 450 San Francisco 1,550
Madeira 2,000 Tocantins 1,000
Magdalena 900 Uruguay 800
Meta 500 Xingu 1,300

LATEST REPORTED VALUE EXPORTS.

Cotton: Diamonds:
Brazil $4,063,650 Brazil $370,316
Colombia 32,560
Venezuela 36,449 Tobacco:
Brazil 5,344,500
Paraguay 658,650
Sugar: Venezuela 58,778
Brazil 16,250,000
Peru 2,354,095 Rubber:
Brazil 5,965,000
Ecuador 428,800
Coffee:
Brazil 52,720,000 Hides:
Columbia 2,396,337 Brazil 4,040,750
Venezuela 9,930,430 Colombia 1,000,608
British Guiana 3,019 Venezuela 395,915
British Guiana 11,703
 
Cocoa: Indigo:
Colombia 15,575 Columbia 8,360
Venezuela 1,602,443 Venezuela 23,290
Ecuador 2,768,670

{182}

Map of South America



{183}

UNITED STATES OF COLOMBIA.

A federal republic in the northwestern part of South America, composed of 9 States. Area, 504,773 square miles. The country is traversed by three ranges of the Andes Mountains. There are numerous large, navigable rivers, tributaries of the Orinoco and Amazon.

The constitution was adopted in 1863. Government in the hands of a President, elected for 2 years, a ministry of 7 members, and a Congress composed of a Senate and House of Representatives. Capital, Bogota; population, 100,000. Strength of the Federal Army determined by Congress. Peace footing for 1882-83, 4,000 men.

The climate varies according to the elevation: the coast lands are usually hot and sickly: but the high table lands, as a rule, possess a genial climate; that of Bogota is unusually fine.

The mineral wealth of Colombia is very great; one-sixth of the exports consist of precious metals. Agriculture and stock raising are the leading pursuits. Value of imports, 1883, $11,504,028; exports, $14,857,170. Two-thirds of the exports consist of cinchona and coffee. The transit trade through the ports of Panama and Aspinwall is of far greater importance than the direct commerce; its value is estimated as not less than $85,000,000 per annum.

There are many native products, among which are fine woods, cacao, India rubber, ipecac, calisaya bark, cochineal, sarsaparilla and logwood. These, and tobacco, cinchona, coffee, sugar, indigo, rice, cotton, hides, ores and Panama hats, form the chief exports.

In 1883, 1,513 vessels, of 709,175 tons, entered the ports of Colombia. Number of miles of railway in the republic, 140. It is expected that the ship canal across the Isthmus of Panama will be opened in 1888. The company have a subscribed capital of $125,000,000.

VENEZUELA.Vĕn´ez-wee´la.

A republic of South America, formed in 1830. The republic was, in 1881, subdivided into 8 States, 1 Federal District, 8 Territories and 2 national settlements. Area, according to an official statement of 1884, 632,695 square miles; population, 2,121,988. The Andes Mountains cross the northern part from west to east; the Orinoco and other important rivers pass through the southern part.

Executive power is in the hands of a President, who exercises his authority through a ministry of 6 and a Federal Council of 16 members; legislative, in a Congress of two Houses, the Senate and House of Representatives. Vice-President chosen by the Council. Capital, Carácas; population, 55,638. Chief towns, Valencia (population, 36,145) and Barquisimeto (population, 28,918). Army: peace footing, 2,545 officers and men; war footing, 350,000.

Mineral resources very great. Venezuela gold fields among the richest in the world; iron and copper abundant. Value of mineral products, 1884, 4,452,050; gold, $3,243,380. Latest reports give value of imports as $17,253,130; exports, $19,720,225.

Agriculture the most important industry. Number engaged in it, 1884, 375,820; number of acres cultivated, 852,500. Coffee the most important product; total value of product, 1884, $11,255,000; value, of sugar product, $7,686,000; corn, $6,000,000; cocoa, $2,998,000. Latest reports give number of cattle as 2,926,733; goats and sheep, 3,490,563; horses, 291,603; mules, 906,467; swine, 976,600.

State religion, Roman Catholic; all others tolerated. In 1883 the government spent $500,000 in public instruction. Number universities, 2; colleges, 33; normal schools, 5; other schools, 1,794. Number of miles of railway, 1884, 102; telegraphs, 1,145 miles. {184}

Map of Colombia Venezuela and Guiana



{185}

BRITISH GUIANA.Ghe-a´na.

A territory in northeast part of South America. First settled by the Dutch, 1580. Acquired by the British in 1803; formally ceded in 1814. Estimated area, 76,000 square miles. Population, 248,110. Crossed by two great mountain systems. Contains many rivers; largest, Essequibo, 600 miles long, noted for magnificent cataracts. Thermometer rises to 90° in warm weather; falls to 75° in winter season; mean annual average at Georgetown, 81°. Rainfall per year, about 72 inches.

Vegetation is luxuriant. Large sections are covered with valuable forests, which furnish exhaustless supplies of timber, largely used for shipbuilding. Number sugar plantations, 120; coffee estates, 12. Sugar forms 92 per cent. of exports; latest reports give 111,156 hhds. Rum exported, 32,531 puncheons; rum issued for home consumption, 330,392 gals. Export of molasses, 17,084 casks; timber export, 464,436 cubic feet. Total imports, 1882, $10,498,160; exports, $16,043,155.

Government administered by a Governor appointed by British Crown, and a Court of Policy.

Georgetown the capital; pop., 36,562. Number of schools sanctioned by Board of Education, 177; Church of England, 81.

DUTCH GUIANA.Ghe-a´na.

Lies east of British Guiana, often called Surinam from the river of that name. Coast line, 220 miles. Dutch first visited the country about 1580; but the first settlement in Surinam was made by an Englishman, in 1630. Area, 46,060 square miles. Population, 68,255; 54,602 negroes.

Local government consists of a Governor and Colonial Assembly. Capital, Paramaribo; population, 27,416.

Mean annual temperature, 80.4°; coldest month mercury falls to 78°; warmest, mercury rises to 99°. Rainfall, 99 inches; at Paramaribo the average of eight years was 101 inches.

Large tracts of territory covered with primeval forests. Great staple of Guiana is sugar; average yearly export, about 10,645 tons. First cocoa sent to Amsterdam, 1733; the average yearly production is now more than 13,000 tons. Cotton and coffee rank next. Gold-mining is a growing industry. Latest reported value of exports, $1,151,070; imports, $1,316,355.

FRENCH GUIANA.Ghe-a´na.

East of Dutch Guiana. Area, 48,000 square miles. Population, 36,760. Coast line low and swampy. Large portion of the territory is covered with dense forests. Rainy season from November to June. Rainfall at Cayenne, 10 feet per year; heavier in the interior. Temperature: in summer, 86°; winter, mean, 79°, and seldom sinks so low as 70°. In this century there have been three earthquakes.

Administration in the hands of Governor and Military Commandant.

Capital, Cayenne; pop., 10,000.

Coffee, introduced in 1716, is extensively grown. Guiana cocoa, bread-fruit, arrow-root, bananas, yams, oil, and date palm are among the products; but the principal source of food is manioc. Contains valuable gold deposits. French criminal penitentiaries located in this country. {186}

BRAZIL.Bra-zil´.

This is the largest of the South American countries, and the only empire in the New World. Contains many rivers. Amazon, the longest, drains 800,000 square miles of Brazilian territory. Temperature in the valley of the Amazon ranges from 68° to 85°, while at Rio Janeiro the average is 75°. Area, 3,288,963. Population, 9,883,622. Capital, Rio de Janeiro; pop., 274,972.

Executive power is vested in the Emperor, ministers and Secretaries of State; legislative authority rests with the Senate and and Chamber of Deputies. The empire is divided into 20 Provinces.

Country rich in minerals and precious stones. Total value of diamond washings for the first 100 years was about $20,000,000. Diamond mines are now owned by private individuals. Manufactures in late years improved by the introduction of American machinery.

During the last 16 years the increase in exports has been 20 per cent.; in imports, 22 per cent. The value of coffee exported in 1882-83 was $52,720,000; sugar, $16,250,000; raw cotton, $4,063,650; tobacco, $5,344,500; India rubber, $5,965,000. Total imports, 1882-83, $111,434,300; exports, $134,945,100. In 1883, 2,989 vessels, of 2,367,296 tons, entered, and 2,522, of 2,095,237 tons, cleared, Brazilian ports.

Number miles railway, January, 1884, 3,500; 1,500 in process of construction. Telegraph system under the control of the government; miles of wire in 1883, 4,900. Army, on peace footing, 13,500 strong; in time of war, 32,000. Naval force consists of 35 steam vessels, with 123 guns and 5,704 seamen.

Established religion, Roman Catholic. Clergy are supported by the state. Compulsory education exists in several Provinces; 84 per cent. of population is illiterate. Total number of schools, 5,685.

BOLIVIA.Bo-liv´e-a.

A republic of South America, named in honor of Simon Bolivar; formed, in 1825, from provinces of Upper Peru; ceded all coast territory to Chili in 1880. Area, 842,729 square miles. Population, 2,300,000. Surface broken by two mountain ranges. Highest peak, Sahama, 22,350 feet; many volcanoes. Lake Titicaca is the largest inland body of water in South America; area, 4,000 square miles; Madeira river, with tributaries, navigable for 3,000 miles in Bolivia; La Paz chief city; pop., 76,372. Capital, Sucre or Chuquisaca.

President elected for 4 years. Legislative power rests with a Congress of 2 chambers,—Senate and House of Representatives. Universal suffrage prevails; Vice-President is appointed by President.

The climate embraces all degrees of heat and cold. The products of two zones are found in Bolivia. Ebony, rosewood, mahogany, cinchona, and other valuable trees abound. Manufactures limited to coarse cotton cloth, hats, cordage, leather and alpaca. Tin, copper, gold, and vast quantities of India rubber of the finest quality abound. Silver mines almost inexhaustible; annual yield of the Cerro de Potosi mines, $2,250,000. Two-thirds of exports are silver. Imports average $6,150,000; exports, $9,000,000.

Standing army, 2,421 men; generals and other officers, 1,021; two-thirds of revenue goes to support the army.

Roman Catholic the prevailing religion; other creeds tolerated; 4 universities. In 1884 but 12,000 pupils and students at schools and colleges. Three railroads open for traffic. {187}

Map of Brazil Bolivia Peru and Ecuador



{188}

ECUADOR.Ek-wa-dōr´.

A republic of South America, constituted 1830; situated on the equator, from which it takes its name. Extremely mountainous; traversed from north to south by three ranges of the Andes. Most lofty peaks: Cotopaxi, 18,880 feet; Chimborazo, 21,424; Cayambe, 19,831. Climate, on the coast, hot; on the high table lands, cold and bleak; valleys are free from extremes of temperature. Area, 248,370 square miles. Population, 946,033. Quito, the capital, has 80,000 inhabitants; Guayaquil, the principal seaport, 26,000. Quito is the highest inhabited city, being 9,500 feet above sea-level.

Ecuador was formed from the American Free State, founded by Simon Bolivar. Executive power rests with a President, elected for 4 years; legislative, with a Congress of two houses. President and Vice-President are nominated by 900 chosen electors. Vice-president is President of the Council of State. Hereditary rights or privileges prohibited by law. Belief in the Roman Catholic church, qualification for suffrage.

The soil of Ecuador will grow the products of every zone. There is a copious growth of the cinchona tree, sarsaparilla, vanilla, copaiba, balsam of Tolu, etc. Many fibrous plants, suitable for the manufacture of paper and cordage, are found in profusion. The immense mineral wealth is untouched; agriculture is neglected; manufactures are insignificant. The roads afford no facilities for commerce, being mostly mule tracks. Miles of railway number but 75.

Export of cocoa, 1883 valued at $3,372,200; India rubber, $428,800. Total value of exports, $4,923,300; imports, about $6,000,000. In 1883, 151 vessels, of 155,283 tons, entered, and 160 vessels, of 158,970 tons, cleared the port of Guayaquil.

Only 7.5 per cent. of population can read or write. In 1884, standing army fixed at 1,600 men.

PERU.Pe-roo´.

A republic of South America. Area, previous to the war with Chili, 503,718 square miles. Population, 2,699,945. Since the war about 70,000 square miles of Peruvian territory are occupied by Chili. Traversed by two systems of the Andes Mountains; highest point is the volcano of Misti, 20,300 feet above sea-level. Temperature at Callao about 60°; Lima about 70°.

Independence declared in 1821. The government is administered by the President, Senate and House of Representatives. The Peruvian constitution is planned after that of the United States. Lima, the capital, has a population of about 100,000.

The chief occupations are sheep raising, agriculture and mining; manufactures unimportant. Mountain valleys are very fertile; mountains are rich in minerals. Between 1853 and 1872, 8,000,000 tons of guano were taken from the Chincha Islands. Latest reliable reports give: imports, $24,000,000; exports (exclusive of guano and nitre), $31,000,000. Principal exports are guano, nitrate of soda, wool, sugar, silver and cinchona.

State finances deranged by the late war with Chili; foreign debt $164,765,000; arrears in interest, $65,954,970. Railway system projected in 1852; miles of line, 1878, 2,030. Telegraph lines, 1878, 1,382 miles. The merchant marine, 1877, consisted of 147 vessels, with a combined capacity of 49,860 tons. Army and navy almost annihilated in the war with Chili; army now consists of 13,200 men; navy, of 18 steam vessels, with 66 guns. {189}

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.Ar´jen-tine.

A republic of South America. Total area, 1,125,086 square miles. Total population, 1882, 3,026,000. Foreigners: Italians, 123,641; French, 55,432; Spaniards, 59,022; Germans, 8,616; English, 17,950. Population of Buenos Ayres, the capital, was, in 1882, 295,000; Rosario has a population of 32,204; Cordova, 39,651; ten towns have over 10,000 inhabitants. Population rapidly increasing from immigration. In 1877 immigrants numbered 28,708; 1880. 41,615: 1882, 59,843; during first nine months of 1883, 73,210. The country is divided into 14 Provinces. Executive power is vested in a President, elected for a term of 6 years; legislative power is vested in a Congress, composed of a Senate and House of Deputies. President and Vice-President must be Roman Catholics. Constitution almost identical with that of the United States.

Public revenue derived from heavy customs duties. Income for 1884, $32,400,000; Import does, $21,115,000; export dues, $3,010,000; total expenditure, $32,460,000. Annual exports: wool, $28,250,000; hides, $14,000,000; sheep skins, $4,250,000; tallow, $6,000,000; live animals, $1,750,000; maize, $2,100,000.

The area devoted to agriculture is yearly increasing. In 1882 the confederation possessed 14,206,499 horned cattle, 72,683,045 sheep, 4,856,808 horses. Total value of live stock, $210,000,000. In 1882 the wheat product of the province of Santa Fé was 2,250,000 bushels.

Miles of railway, 2,500, and 651 miles are being constructed. In 1884 there were 9,800 miles of telegraph line, 8,060 miles owned by the state.

Many navigable rivers afford excellent facilities for transportation. The Uruguay river is navigable for 200 miles; the Rio Negro, for 500; and the Colorado, for 150.

There are universities at Buenos Ayres and Cordova; professors, 66; students, 923: there are also 28 middle class and normal schools, and 1,985 primary.

The army in 1884 consisted of 7,812 officers and men; militia and National Guard, 350,000. Service in National Guard compulsory; regular army supplied by recruitment.

URUGUAY.Oo-roo-gwī´.

This South American republic formed a Brazilian Province until 1825. Independence recognized by treaty of Montevideo, 1828; constitution proclaimed 1831. Area estimated at 73,538 square miles. Population, 438,245. Government in the hands of a President, elected for four years, assisted by 5 ministers, and a Parliament composed of two houses. Capital, Montevideo; population, 115,500.

The country forms a vast rolling plain, abounding in natural pastures. The chief industry is the rearing of cattle and sheep. It is estimated that 35,000,000 acres are used for pastoral purposes, on which are 6,711,778 cattle and 20,000,000 sheep. Chief agricultural products, wheat and Indian corn. Climate is generally humid, but temperate and healthful.

Revenue derived from customs duties. Commerce active. Value of imports, 1833, $21,634,475; exports, $26,831,555. Principal articles of export, cattle, hides, tallow, and dried and preserved meats.

Permanent army numbers 3,494 men, besides an armed police force of 3,200, and a national guard of 20,000 men. State religion, Roman Catholic. Number of children in all schools, 40,000. Miles of railway, 1884, 271; of telegraph, 1,405. {190}

CHILI.Chil´lee.

A republic of South America. Area, 256,399 square miles. Population, 2,271,949. This country is long and narrow, embracing extremes of temperature. Mean annual temperature at Santiago, 55°; at Valparaiso, 58°. Spring begins in September; winter, in June. Lakes and rivers are few; both are fed by the snow melting in the Andes; they are worthless for navigation, but valuable for irrigation purposes. Surface is mountainous; mean elevation of Andes, 11,830 feet; Aconcagua, the highest peak, 22,420 feet.

Chili is divided into 18 Provinces and 4 Territories. The constitution of 1833 vests the legislative power in a Senate and a Chamber of Deputies. Executive power rests with a President, a Council of State, and a Cabinet of 5 ministers. Capital, Santiago; pop., 200,000. The potato is indigenous. Olive trees, mulberries and vines flourish. Cedar is the most important tree in Chili. Fruit is plentiful. This republic is rich in gold and silver, and especially in copper. Wheat the most important cereal product; value of wheat exported in 1882, $6,649,345. Value of chief exports in 1883: iodine, $2,987,490; bar copper, $14,339,460; silver, $4,624,110. Revenue for 1884, $49,900,000, one-half of which was derived from customs duties and monopolies; expenditure, $46,536,550. Total exports in 1883 were valued at $79,732,550; imports, $54,447,060.

The Chilian commercial marine consisted, 1883, of 131 vessels, of 53,071 tons. In 1882, 1,482, of 1,367,849 tons, entered, and 1,428, of 1,431,028 tons, cleared, the various ports of Chili.

One of the first states in South America to construct railways; length of line in 1883, 1,378 miles, of which 600 miles belonged to the state; cost of state lines, $42,141,686. In 1883 there were 6,840 miles of telegraph line, property of the state. By a law of 1884 the strength of the army can not exceed 12,410; at the same date the National Guard numbered 51,826, of whom 17,408 were on duty. Navy consists of over 20 war vessels.

State religion is the Roman Catholic; all creeds are protected; clergy is subsidized by the state; civil marriage is acknowledged by law. Besides the National Institute at Santiago, there are many colleges of different kinds; many agricultural and other special schools. There were, in 1883, 5,042 students attending universities and colleges. The attendance at the 724 public primary schools was 60541

PARAGUAY.Pa-ra-gwā´.

A republic of South America, entirely inland. Area 91,970 square miles. Population, 346,048. Became independent in 1811; was ruled by Dr. Francis for 25 years. The government is entrusted to a President and Congress. Capital, Asuncion; pop., 16,000.

Soil and forests are very great sources of wealth. Manufactures are few and crude. The country is well watered by numerous streams and lakes. Three crops of tobacco per year are grown; home consumption, 15,000,000 lbs.; export, about 7,500,000 lbs. Sugar cane yields well; in 1882 there were 37,500,000 pounds of sugar produced. Maize returns one hundred and forty fold; rice, two hundred and fifty fold. Maté, or Paraguayan tea, the most important product. Imports, 1881, $1,278,000; exports, $1,928,500. The state owes Brazil and allies $236,000,000; Foreign debt, $17,315,000.

Army numbers 607 men, lately reduced in order to diminish expenses. Railway, 45 miles; telegraph, 45 miles. {191}

Map of Chili Argentine Republic etc.





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