Search billions of records on Ancestry.com
   
Website logo - Click to go to Home page




The Project Gutenberg EBook of Our Flowering Shrubs, by Anonymous

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net


Title: Our Flowering Shrubs
       and how to know them

Author: Anonymous

Commentator: William Smith

Illustrator: Charles Kirk

Release Date: February 16, 2012 [EBook #38904]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1

*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK OUR FLOWERING SHRUBS ***




Produced by Jeroen van Luin, Ben Beasley, jromero and the
Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net






[Illustration]
Gowans’s Nature Books, No. 23
Our Flowering Shrubs
and How to Know Them
Carson & Nicol, Limited Printers, Glasgow
Blocks by Annan Engraving Co., Ltd. Glasgow
Berberis Aquifolium, Pursh.
[Illustration: Berberis Aquifolium, Pursh.]
Holly-leaved Barberry (Mahonia)
(Flower yellow)
Mahonia a Feuilles de Houx
(Fleur jaune)
Hulst-Sauerdorn
(Blüte gelb)
Our
Flowering
Shrubs
and How to Know Them
Sixty photographs by Charles Kirk
Gowans & Gray, Ltd.
5 Robert Street, Adelphi, London, W.C.
58 Cadogan Street, Glasgow
1918
First Edition, August, 1909. Reprinted, May, 1918 (completing 7000).

The success of “Our Trees and How to Know Them” has encouraged the publishers to issue the present volume, which deals with a branch of botany practically untouched by handbooks at a moderate price. They trust that lovers of plants will show their appreciation of their efforts by endeavouring to make this new departure very widely known.

Berberis Darwinii, Hook.
[Illustration: Berberis Darwinii, Hook.]
Darwin’s Barberry
(Flower yellow)
Épine-Vinette de Darwin
(Fleur jaune)
Darwin’s Sauerdorn
(Blüte gelb)
Berberis Stenophylla, Moore
[Illustration: Berberis Stenophylla, Moore]
Narrow-leaved Barberry
(Flower yellow)
Épine-Vinette à Feuilles étroites
(Fleur jaune)
Schmaler Sauerdorn
(Blüte gelb)
Berberis Vulgaris, L.
[Illustration: Berberis Vulgaris, L.]
Common Barberry
(Flower pale yellow)
Épine-Vinette
(Fleur jaune pâle)
Gemeiner Sauerdorn
(Blüte blassgelb)
Cistus Laurifolius, L.
[Illustration: Cistus Laurifolius, L.]
Laurel-leaved Cistus
(Flower white)
Ciste a Feuilles de Laurier
(Fleur blanche)
Lorbeer-Cistrose
(Blüte weiss)
Tamarix Pallasii, Desv.
[Illustration: Tamarix Pallasii, Desv.]
Pallas’s Tamarisk
(Flower pink)
Tamaris de Pallas
(Fleur rose)
Fünfmännige Tamariske
(Blüte rosa)
Ruta Graveolens, L.
[Illustration: Ruta Graveolens, L.]
Common Rue
(Flower yellow)
Rue des Jardins
(Fleur jaune)
Garten-Raute
(Blüte gelb)
Choisya Ternata, H.B.K.
[Illustration: Choisya Ternata, H.B.K.]
Mexican Orange-Flower
(Flower white)
Choisya a Feuilles ternées
(Fleur blanche)
Echte Zimmerraute
(Blüte weiss)
Ptelea Trifoliata, L.
[Illustration: Ptelea Trifoliata, L.]
Hop Tree or Shrubby Trefoil
(Flower green)
Ptéléa trifoliolé
(Fleur verte)
Amerikanischer Hopfenstrauch
(Blüte grün)
Ceanothus Azureus, Desf.
[Illustration: Ceanothus Azureus, Desf.]
Blue Mountain Sweet
(Flower blue)
Céanot azuré
(Fleur bleue)
Azur-Säckelblume
(Blüte blau)
Ceanothus Veitchianus, Hook.
[Illustration: Ceanothus Veitchianus, Hook.]
Veitch’s Mountain Sweet
(Flower blue)
Céanot de Veitch
(Fleur bleue)
Tiefblaue Säckelblume
(Blüte blau)
Genista Tinctoria, L.
[Illustration: Genista Tinctoria, L.]
Dyers’ Greenweed
(Flower yellow)
Genêt des Teinturiers
(Fleur jaune)
Färber-Ginster
(Blüte gelb)
Spartium Junceum, L.
[Illustration: Spartium Junceum, L.]
Yellow Spanish Broom
(Flower yellow)
Genêt d’Espagne
(Fleur jaune)
Binsen-Pfriem
(Blüte gelb)
Cytisus Capitatus, Jacq.
[Illustration: Cytisus Capitatus, Jacq.]
Capitate Broom
(Flower yellow)
Cytise en Tête
(Fleur jaune)
Kopfiger Kleestrauch
(Blüte gelb)
Indigofera Gerardiana, Wall.
[Illustration: Indigofera Gerardiana, Wall.]
Gerard’s Indigo
(Flower pink)
Indigotier a Grappes
(Fleur rose)
Blumen-Indigostrauch
(Blüte rosa)
Colutea Arborescens, L.
[Illustration: Colutea Arborescens, L.]
Bladder Senna
(Flower yellow)
Baguenaudier commun
(Fleur jaune)
Gewöhnlicher Blasenstrauch
(Blüte gelb)
Prunus Lusitanica, L.F.
[Illustration: Prunus Lusitanica, L.F.]
Portugal Laurel
(Flower white)
Laurier de Portugal
(Fleur blanche)
Portugiesische Lorbeer-Kirsche
(Blüte weiss)
Spiræa Douglasi, Hook.
[Illustration: Spiræa Douglasi, Hook.]
Douglas’s Spiræa
(Flower red)
Spirée de Douglas
(Fleur rouge)
Kalifornischer Spierstrauch
(Blüte rot)
Spiræa Japonica, L.F.
[Illustration: Spiræa Japonica, L.F.]
Rosy Bush Meadow Sweet
(Flower pink)
Spirée du Japon
(Fleur rose)
Japanischer Spierstrauch
(Blüte rosa)
Neillia Thyrsiflora, D. Don
[Illustration: Neillia Thyrsiflora, D. Don]
Vine-leaved Neillia
(Flower white)
Neillia a Fleurs en Thyrse
(Fleur blanche)
Echte Traubenspiere
(Blüte weiss)
Kerria Japonica, D.C., Var. Flore Pleno
[Illustration: Kerria Japonica, D.C., Var. Flore Pleno]
Jew’s Mallow
(Flower yellow)
Kerria du Japon
(Fleur jaune)
Japanischer Ranunkelstrauch
(Blüte gelb)
Rubus Deliciosus, James
[Illustration: Rubus Deliciosus, James]
Rocky Mountain Bramble
(Flower white)
Ronce délicieuse
(Fleur blanche)
Köstlicher Zimt-Beerstrauch
(Blüte weiss)
Rubus Laciniatus, Willd.
[Illustration: Rubus Laciniatus, Willd.]
Cut-leaved Bramble
(Flower pinkish-white)
Ronce a Feuilles Laciniées
(Fleur blanc rosé)
Geschlitzter Brombeerstrauch
(Blüte rosaweiss)
Rubus Nutkanus, Moc.
[Illustration: Rubus Nutkanus, Moc.]
Nutka Sound Raspberry or Salmon-Berry
(Flower white)
Ronce de Noutka
(Fleur blanche)
Weisser Zimt-Beerstrauch
(Blüte weiss)
Potentilla Fruticosa, L.
[Illustration: Potentilla Fruticosa, L.]
Shrubby Cinquefoil
(Flower yellow)
Potentille Arbrisseau
(Fleur jaune)
Strauch-Fingerkraut
(Blüte gelb)
Cotoneaster Microphylla, Wall.
[Illustration: Cotoneaster Microphylla, Wall.]
Small-leaved Rockspray
(Flower whitish)
Cotonéaster a petites Feuilles
(Fleur blanchâtre)
Kleine Steinquitte
(Blüte weisslich)
Cotoneaster Simonsii, Baker
[Illustration: Cotoneaster Simonsii, Baker]
Simon’s Cotoneaster
(Flower white)
Cotonéaster de Simons
(Fleur blanche)
Mennigrote Steinquitte
(Blüte weiss)
Deutzia Gracilis, Sieb. & Zucc.
[Illustration: Deutzia Gracilis, Sieb. & Zucc.]
Graceful Deutzia
(Flower white)
Deutzie grêle
(Fleur blanche)
Zierliche Silbergerte
(Blüte weiss)
Philadelphus Coronarius, L.
[Illustration: Philadelphus Coronarius, L.]
Common Mock Orange (sometimes called Syringa)
(Flower white)
Seringa commune
(Fleur blanche)
Jasmin-Gertenstrauch
(Blüte weiss)
Philadelphus Grandiflorus, Willd.
[Illustration: Philadelphus Grandiflorus, Willd.]
Large-flowered Mock Orange
(Flower white)
Seringa à grandes Fleurs
(Fleur blanche)
Geruchloser Gertenstrauch
(Blüte weiss)
Escallonia Philippiana, Masters
[Illustration: Escallonia Philippiana, Masters]
Philippi’s Escallonia
(Flower white)
Escallonia de Philippi
(Fleur blanche)
Philippis Andenstrauch
(Blüte weiss)
Escallonia Punctata, DC.
[Illustration: Escallonia Punctata, DC.]
Dotted Escallonia
(Flower red)
Escallonia pointillée
(Fleur rouge)
Punktierter Andenstrauch
(Blüte rot)
Ribes Aureum, Pursh.
[Illustration: Ribes Aureum, Pursh.]
Buffalo or Missouri Currant
(Flower yellow)
Groseillier doré
(Fleur jaune)
Gold-Ribsel
(Blüte gelb)
Ribes Rubrum, L.
[Illustration: Ribes Rubrum, L.]
Wild or Red Currant or Garnet Berry
(Flower pink)
Groseillier rouge
(Fleur rose)
Rote Johannisbeere
(Blüte rosa)
Fuchsia Riccartoni, Hort.
[Illustration: Fuchsia Riccartoni, Hort.]
Riccarton Fuchsia
(Flower red)
Fuchsia Riccartoni
(Fleur rouge)
Winter-Fuchsie
(Blüte rot)
Cornus Alba, L.
[Illustration: Cornus Alba, L.]
White-fruited Dogwood or Red Osier
(Flower white)
Cornouillier blanc
(Fleur blanche)
Weisser Hartriegel
(Blüte weiss)
Aucuba Japonica, Thunb.
[Illustration: Aucuba Japonica, Thunb.]
Japanese Aucuba
(Flower whitish-green)
Aucuba du Japon
(Fleur vert blanchâtre)
Scheinorange
(Blüte weisslichgrün)
Sambucus Canadensis, L.
[Illustration: Sambucus Canadensis, L.]
Canadian Elder
(Flower white)
Sureau du Canada
(Fleur blanche)
Kanadischer Holunder
(Blüte weiss)
Viburnum Tinus, L.
[Illustration: Viburnum Tinus, L.]
Laurustinus
(Flower white)
Viorne-Laurier-Tin
(Fleur blanche)
Lorbeer-Schlinge
(Blüte weiss)
Viburnum Tomentosum, Thunb.
[Illustration: Viburnum Tomentosum, Thunb.]
Tomentose Guelder Rose
(Flower white)
Viorne tomenteuse
(Fleur blanche)
Filz-Schlinge
(Blüte weiss)
Viburnum Tomentosum, Thunb., Var. Plicatum, Maxim.
[Illustration: Viburnum Tomentosum, Thunb., Var. Plicatum, Maxim.]
Japanese Guelder Rose
(Flower white)
Viorne du Japon
(Fleur blanche)
Japanischer Schneeball
(Blüte weiss)
Symphoricarpus Racemosus, Michx.
[Illustration: Symphoricarpus Racemosus, Michx.]
Snowberry
(Flower pink)
Symphorine a Fruits blancs
(Fleur rose)
Echte Schneebeere
(Blüte rosa)
Diervilla Florida, Sieb. & Zucc.
[Illustration: Diervilla Florida, Sieb. & Zucc.]
Bush Honeysuckle
(Flower pink)
Diervilla fleurie
(Fleur rose)
Blumiges Kapselgeissblatt
(Blüte rosa)
Olearia Haastii, Hook. F.
[Illustration: Olearia Haastii, Hook. F.]
Daisy Tree
(Flower white, disc yellow)
Oléaria de Haast
(Fleur blanche, disque jaune)
Haasts Duftstrauch
(Blüte weiss, Scheibe gelb)
Olearia Macrodonta, Baker
[Illustration: Olearia Macrodonta, Baker]
New Zealand Daisy Tree
(Flower white)
Oléaria énorme
(Fleur blanche)
Grosszähniger Duftstrauch
(Blüte weiss)
Pernettya Mucronata, Gaudich
[Illustration: Pernettya Mucronata, Gaudich]
Prickly Heath
(Flower white)
Pernettya microné
(Fleur blanche)
Stachelige Torfmyrte
(Blüte weiss)
Cassandra Calyculata, D. Don.
Andromeda Calyculata, L.
[Illustration: Cassandra Calyculata, D. Don. / Andromeda Calyculata, L.]
Leather-Leaf
(Flower white)
Cassandrie Calycule
(Fleur blanche)
Kelch-Gränke
(Blüte weiss)
Pieris Floribunda, Benth. & Hook. F.
[Illustration: Pieris Floribunda, Benth. & Hook. F.]
Bundle-flowered Andromeda
(Flower white)
Pieris multiflore
(Fleur blanche)
Blumen-Gränke
(Blüte weiss)
Ledum Latifolium, Ait.
[Illustration: Ledum Latifolium, Ait.]
Broad-leaved Labrador Tea
(Flower white)
Ledon à larges Feuilles
(Fleur blanche)
Breiter Porst
(Blüte weiss)
Rhododendron Flavum, G. Don.
Azalea Pontica, L.
[Illustration: Rhododendron Flavum, G. Don. / Azalea Pontica, L.]
Common or Yellow Azalea
(Flower yellow)
Rhododendron jaune
(Fleur jaune)
Gelbe Alpenrose
(Blüte gelb)
Rhododendron Ferrugineum, L.
Azalea Pontica, L.
[Illustration: Rhododendron Ferrugineum, L.]
Rusty-leaved Alpenrose
(Flower pale red)
Laurier-Rose des Alpes
(Fleur rouge pâle)
Rost-Alpenrose
(Blüte blassrot)
Rhododendron Ponticum, L.
Azalea Pontica, L.
[Illustration: Rhododendron Ponticum, L.]
Common or Pontic Rhododendron
(Flower purple)
Rhododendron de la Mer Noire
(Fleur pourpre)
Pontische Alpenrose
(Blüte purpurn)
Jasminum Officinale, L.
[Illustration: Jasminum Officinale, L.]
White Jessamine
(Flower white)
Jasmin blanc (officinal)
(Fleur blanche)
Echter Jasmin
(Blüte weiss)
Syringa Vulgaris, L.
[Illustration: Syringa Vulgaris, L.]
Common Lilac
(Flower lilac, pink or white)
Lilas commun
(Fleur lilas, rose ou blanche)
Türkischer Flieder
(Blüte lila, rosa oder weiss)
Veronica Traversii, Hook. F.
[Illustration: Veronica Traversii, Hook. F.]
Travers’s Speedwell
(Flower pale purple)
Véronique naine
(Fleur pourpre pâle)
Travers’ Ehrenpreis
(Blüte blasspurpurn)
Lavandula Vera, DC.
[Illustration: Lavandula Vera, DC.]
Common Lavender
(Flower blue)
Lavande
(Fleur bleue)
Echter Lavendel
(Blüte blau)
Laurus Nobilis, L.
[Illustration: Laurus Nobilis, L.]
Poet’s Laurel or Sweet Bay
(Flower yellowish)
Laurier Sauce
(Fleur jaunâtre)
Edler Lorbeerbaum
(Blüte gelblich)
Daphne Laureola, L.
[Illustration: Daphne Laureola, L.]
Spurge Laurel
(Flower yellowish-green)
Lauréole, Laurier des Bois
(Fleur vert jaunâtre)
Lorbeer-Seidelbast
(Blüte gelblichgrün)
Daphne Mezereum, L.
[Illustration: Daphne Mezereum, L.]
Mezereon
(Flower pink)
Bois-gentil
(Fleur rose)
Echter Seidelbast
(Blüte rosa)
Ruscus Aculeatus, L.
[Illustration: Ruscus Aculeatus, L.]
Butcher’s Broom
(Flower white)
Bois pointu ou Petit Houx ou Fragon épineux
(Fleur blanche)
Echter Mäusedorn
(Blüte weiss)
Some Short Notes
Designed to Assist the Reader in Identifying the Shrubs Illustrated in This Volume.
by
William Smith

The study of shrubs has greatly increased during recent years, and this has no doubt been brought about by the increasing knowledge of nature study now commonly included in the curriculum of schools and other establishments, and while shrubs have not as yet received the same attention as trees yet they offer quite as interesting a field, while the beauty of certain of the species arrests the attention of even the most casual observer.

The term “shrub” means a low, woody-stemmed perennial, but many of the species attain the dimensions of a fair-sized tree.

The Holly-leaved Barberry or Mahonia (frontispiece), a North American shrub, is commonly met with either planted as an undergrowth to deciduous trees or as a covert plant in woodlands. It is easily recognised from the leaflets being in two or three pairs, with an odd one at top, in colour of a glossy dark-green, and the leaves of a leathery nature. The flowers are borne in much-crowded, erect racemes which open in early spring, followed later by clusters of purple berries.

Darwin’s Barberry (page 6) is a densely-branched, spreading evergreen bush about 8 feet high, with numerous racemose flowers which open in May, succeeded by purple berries throughout the summer. Leaves are about one inch long, oval-shaped, with five spiny teeth. A near ally to the preceding is the Narrow-leaved Barberry (page 7). It forms a shrub of rare beauty; with slender arching shoots which in early spring are densely covered with golden blossoms. May be known by the narrow sharp-pointed leaves.

A British shrub, the Common Barberry (page 8) usually inhabits dry stony soils, and forms a tall shrub about 10 feet high. In early spring the plant is profusely covered with pendulous racemes of yellow flowers, and later by the scarlet berries which are sometimes used for preserves. Distinguished by the egg-shaped leaves and three-parted spines at the axils of the leaves. A photograph shewing the flowers on a larger scale will be found on page 11 of Wild Flowers at Home, Fourth Series (“Nature Book,” No. 16).

The Laurel-leaved Cistus (page 9) is a native of the South of Europe, and grows over four feet high. The flowers, resembling in appearance those of the dog-rose, are borne on terminal flower-stalks four and five together, but are very ephemeral in character. The ovate spear-shaped leaves are generally covered with a gummy substance. Flowers during July and August.

Pallas’s Tamarisk (page 10) is one of the shrubs which thrive in bleak exposed places and in dry sandy soils. The leaves are of a minute scale-like character, and from May onwards the long, terminal spikes of rosy-pink flowers are an attractive feature.

A hardy evergreen, shrubby plant, the Common Rue (page 11) is well known as a medicinal plant. The leaves are nearly blue and emit a very unpleasant smell and have a bitter taste. Flowers are produced in late summer.

One of the most fragrant shrubs, the Mexican Orange-Flower (page 12), forms a large glossy-leaved bush with axillary stalks of white flowers which, from their appearance and fragrance, resemble orange-blossom. The flowers open in summer, and the leaves are bright-green, long-stalked, with three leaflets to each.

The Hop Tree or Shrubby Trefoil (page 13), flowers from May to July and produces flat-headed inflorescences of a greenish yellow colour, succeeded in autumn by bunches of flat fruits of a greenish colour. As the specific name suggests the leaves are in threes, long-stalked, of an elliptical shape, and terminate in a sharp point. Reaches a height of 8 feet.

Generally grown as a wall-plant, the Blue Mountain Sweet (page 14) flowers freely in that position during July and August. The alternate leaves are oblong, sharply-serrated, and downy. From the axils of the leaves spring the elongated spikes of pale blue flowers. A native of Mexico.

The Veitch’s Mountain Sweet (page 15) is another plant grown as a wall-shrub, where it often attains a height of 12 feet, and is a most conspicuous plant during its flowering period from May to July when it is literally covered by dense clusters of bright blue flowers relieved by neat, elliptical dark-green leaves.

Dyers’ Greenweed (page 16), so-called from the plant yielding a yellow dye, is found wild as a native plant in certain parts of Britain, and flowers most of the summer. The yellow flowers are produced on spicate racemes, while the leaves are alternate, smooth and spear-shaped. An erect-growing plant about two feet in height.

The Yellow Spanish Broom (page 17) is a plant which delights in a dry sandy loam, and is capable of resisting long periods of drought. This species is a hardy deciduous shrub with rush-like and nearly leafless branches, and attains a height of six feet. From July to September its spikes of fragrant golden-yellow blossoms are particularly attractive.

One of the European species, the Capitate Broom (page 18) forms a shrub over two feet high and opens its flowers from June onwards. The leaflets are egg-shaped, and the whole plant is covered with loose, soft hair.

Gerard’s Indigo (page 19), a native of India, is one of the most beautiful of the Leguminosæ shrubs and is a low branching species. Leaves pinnate and of a pale grey-green colour. Flowers open from July onwards and are borne in many-flowered spikes.

A native of Europe, the Bladder Senna (page 20) is one of the few plants that thrive in dry sandy soils. It forms a hardy, deciduous, free-growing shrub 10 feet high, bearing stalks of yellow pea-shaped flowers from July to September. The pinnate leaves are prettily divided into ovate and flat-shaped leaflets. A distinctive feature of this plant in the autumn is the large inflated seed-pods.

A popular and well-known evergreen shrub, the Portugal Laurel (page 21) forms a large spreading bush from 10 to over 20 feet in height. The ovate and lanceolate-shaped leaves are of a dense dark-green, and in June the large erect spikes of white flowers are very striking. In autumn the egg-shaped and dull-red coloured fruits are a noticeable feature.

Douglas’s Spiræa (page 22) forms a crowded cluster of erect shoots about 6 feet high, and in August the dense terminal spikes of rosy-red flowers open. Leaves acute, rounded, and downy beneath.

Spiræa Japonica (page 23) forms a bush 3 to 6 feet high with much branched shoots terminating in brightly coloured flat flower-heads which open from July onwards, and are relieved by the small spear-shaped, abrupt-pointed, and finely-serrated leaves.

A native of Nepaul, the Vine-leaved Neillia (page 24) is frequently seen in shrubberies, forming a hardy branching bush about five feet high, the shoots bearing spikes of white flowers in June. A distinctive feature of this plant is the heart-shaped, three-lobed, and serrated leaves.

The Jew’s Mallow (page 25) is one of the favourite plants commonly grown on cottage walls, and the illustration shows the double-flowering form with the solitary, terminal stalks of flowers, which open in early summer. The foliage is glabrous, spear-shaped and finely-toothed on the margins.

Few shrubs when in flower are capable of arresting attention so much as the Rocky Mountain Bramble (page 26). In May the large, single, white, rose-like flowers are a beautiful feature of this bramble, which attains a height of five feet. The kidney-shaped leaves are three to five-lobed and finely-toothed. A native of North America, where this plant is said to produce large fruits of delicious flavour.

The Cut-leaved Bramble (page 27) is frequently seen in a wild state, and is known by its finely-cut leaves. Of a pinkish-white colour, the flowers are borne in loose spikes from June to September, whilst fruit can be picked during the latter month. It is a robust climbing plant, and the wood is very prickly.

The Nutka Sound Raspberry (page 28) is one of the species that send up annual shoots attaining to a height of two feet, on which are borne the large ornamental five-lobed leaves. The large, handsome white flowers open in June, and the large, conical-shaped, red fruits ripen early in autumn.

Of a much-branched shrubby habit, the Shrubby Cinquefoil (page 29) forms a small bush from two to four feet in height, with pinnate leaves and entire hairy oblong leaflets. A native of the Northern Hemisphere, this cinquefoil produces flat-headed inflorescences of yellow flowers throughout the summer months.

The Small-leaved Rockspray (page 30) forms a prostrate bush about three feet high, and is distinguished by the branches being densely covered by small, acute, and dark-green glossy leaves. The small, white, solitary flowers are borne in the axils of the leaves during April and May. This plant is often grown as a wall plant, in which position it is conspicuous in winter with its bright-scarlet fruits.

Simons’s Cotoneaster (page 31) forms a much-branching, usually evergreen shrub about six feet high. In April, solitary, white, and sessile flowers are borne on lateral branches. Foliage angular-shaped and silky beneath. Its bright scarlet fruits are conspicuous in late autumn.

Deutzia gracilis (page 32) is a well-known Japanese shrub seen in florists’ shops in early spring. It forms a compact-growing bush two feet high, producing in April terminal spikes of pretty white blossoms set amidst the small egg-shaped and narrow-pointed leaves.

The Common Mock Orange (page 33) is an erect-growing shrub, from six to ten feet high, profusely covered in May with white and strongly orange-scented flowers. The ovate-shaped leaves are said to have the odour and taste of cucumbers when crushed. A native of the South of Europe.

On page 34 is illustrated the Large-flowered Mock Orange, a shrub from the Southern United States. It differs from the Common Mock Orange in its taller growth (fully 12 feet), and in the large white blossoms, which open in midsummer, being practically scentless. The leaves also are more narrow at the point and more rounded at the base.

Philippi’s Escallonia (page 35) forms a straggling bush, and in July the shoots are densely covered with panicles of small white flowers set amidst small dark-green leaves.

The Dotted Escallonia (page 36) is a much-branched evergreen bush, five to six feet high, with the shoots terminated by deep-red-coloured flowers which open in July. The common name of this plant is derived from the leaves having little dot-like swellings (glands) on the lower side of the leaves, which are sharp-pointed, ovate in form, and very glossy on the upper surface.

Early in May the Buffalo or Missouri Currant (page 37) one of the North American Currants, opens its golden-yellow flowers, which are borne in drooping clusters on short shoots arising from the main stems. It is a loosely-growing plant, about four feet high, with long-stalked, three-lobed leaves.

One of the European (British) shrubs, the Wild or Red Currant (page 38) is found in the woodlands, where its red-coloured and acid-tasted fruits are found in late summer. It throws drooping clusters of green-coloured flowers in early spring, and the three to five-angled leaves are a distinctive feature of this plant. It is from this plant that the garden forms of the Red Currant have arisen.

To those familiar with the West Coast of Scotland, the Riccarton Fuchsia (page 39) will have been noticeable to them there as forming hedges often over six feet in height. It is a handsome plant, with its shoots laden in summer and autumn with drooping red-coloured flowers.

The White-fruited Dogwood (page 40) is usually found in moist situations, and opens its flat-shaped flower-heads in May. They are succeeded in autumn by clusters of small, white-coloured, fruits. A plant that is easily recognisable by its bright-red-coloured shoots and large ovate-shaped and sharp-pointed leaves.

One of the most ornamental evergreen shrubs, the Japanese Aucuba (page 41), is grown in mostly all gardens. The leaves are pale green in colour and beautifully spotted with yellow; in form, spear-shaped, leathery to the feel, and very glossy. The flowers open in early spring, but are inconspicuous, and hidden by the foliage.

The Canadian Elder (page 42) is a plant frequently seen in shrubberies, opening its large, white-coloured flower-heads in late July, followed in autumn by clusters of purple-coloured berries. The illustration is very typical, the large flower-heads being shown among the pinnate leaves and oblong-shaped leaflets.

A native of South Europe, the Laurustinus (page 43) flowers throughout the winter, according to situation, and may be known by the flat corymbs of white flowers. It is an evergreen shrub, with shining, dark-green, and oval-shaped leaves.

In the Tomentose Guelder Rose (page 44) the flowers are barren around the margin of the truss, and open in early summer, while the leaves are flat, rounded, dark-green in colour, and very wrinkled.

The Japanese Guelder Rose (page 45) has large, rounded, barren trusses of white flowers, which open in May. It forms a spreading bush from three to four feet high.

The Snowberry (page 46) is familiar through its large, white fruits hanging on the branches most of the winter. In late summer it opens its flowers, which are borne in loose spikes at the end of the branches, and forms a loose-growing bush about four feet high.

[A]One of the most ornamental free-flowering shrubs, the Bush Honeysuckle (page 47), produces in early summer large clusters of bell-shaped and rose-coloured flowers, set amidst light-green, ovate-shaped leaves, and attains a height of over six feet.

A native of New Zealand, the Daisy Tree is one of the most popular free-flowering shrubs. The illustration (page 48) shews the foliage completely hidden by the numerous small white and yellow-disked flowers. It is a box-like plant, and grows over six feet high. The leaves are crowded, about one inch long, dull-green colour above and whitish beneath, and acute at each end.

The New Zealand Daisy Tree (page 49) has large holly-like leaves, which are silvery on the underside, and large flower-heads, which are white, with a red centre, and open in July. Forms a loose-growing plant.

A densely-growing bush, the Prickly Heath (page 50) flowers from May to July, and the small white flowers are succeeded by berries of various colours borne in the axils of the small, dark-green, rigid, shining leaves. It rarely grows over four feet high.

The Leather-Leaf (page 51) is a sparse-growing, dwarf, evergreen shrub from North America. It flowers from April to May, the small, cylindrical-shaped, snow-white flowers being produced from the under sides of the branches. Leaves scarce, narrowed to each end, and rusty-coloured beneath.

At page 52 is illustrated the Bundle-flowered Andromeda, a shrub growing about six feet high, which flowers in April, completely covering the plant with spikes of lily-of-the-valley-like blossoms. A plant recognised by the long, egg-shaped and sharply-pointed leaves, leathery in touching, and of a very dark green colour.

The Labrador Tea (page 53) derives its common name from the leaves having been used as a substitute for tea. It grows about three feet high, of compact, rounded form, and in early May is profusely covered with trusses of white flowers set amidst narrow rusty-looking foliage.

One of the best known shrubs is Rhododendron flavum (page 54) (commonly known as Azalea pontica), and in early summer it is one of the freest-flowering plants. A plant easily known by its trusses of yellow-coloured and clammy blossoms with long protruding stamens. The large and shiny leaves are sparsely produced.

The Rusty-leaved Alpenrose (page 55) is a European plant rarely growing over three feet high, of compact growth, with shining dotted leaves. From May onwards plants are conspicuous in rock gardens with their small trusses of scarlet and yellow-dotted flowers. For a photograph on a larger scale, see Alpine Plants at Home, First Series (“Nature Book” No. 20), page 39.

Few plants are so well known as the Common or Pontic Rhododendron (page 56), and in many parts of Britain it has naturalised itself in the woodlands. It forms a tall-growing plant, frequently over 12 feet high, producing trusses of purple-coloured flowers in May, relieved by large, light-green, spear-shaped foliage.

From the delicacy and fragrance of its flowers the Common White Jesamine (page 57) ranks as one of the most popular plants of the garden. It forms a slender-growing, climbing plant, with feather-shaped leaves and acutely-pointed leaflets, and flowers from May to October.

The Common Lilac (page 58) is familiar with its purple or white-coloured spikes of flowers, which open in May. It forms a tall-growing plant, with large heart-shaped leaves.

Travers’s Speedwell (page 59) is a charming evergreen shrub about four feet high, with short racemes of pale-mauve-coloured flowers, which open in June and July. The leaves are arranged four-rowed along the shoots, with short footstalks, narrow-oblong in shape, and dark-green in colour.

A plant peculiar to cottage gardens is the Common Lavender (page 60), which produces long-stalked spikes of blue flowers throughout the summer. These flowers are usually cut and dried for their lasting fragrance, whilst the much-appreciated lavender water is distilled from the flowers. It forms a dense-growing bush about two feet high, with long narrow-shaped leaves.

On page 61 is illustrated the Poet’s Laurel or Sweet Bay, a beautiful evergreen shrub from South Europe. In many parts of Britain it grows over 21 feet high, but it is usually grown in tubs for floral decoration. The leaves, which are spear-shaped, have an agreeable, slightly bitter taste, and are used in cooking and for confections. The flowers, which are borne in the axils of the leaves, are yellowish in colour, but inconspicuous, and appear in early spring.

The Spurge Laurel (page 62), one of the European (British) shrubs, forms an evergreen bush about three feet high, with thick, shining, spear-shaped leaves. The sweet-scented flowers, of a greenish-yellow colour, appear in February and March, but are inconspicuous, and are borne in drooping clusters at the base of the leaves. Fruit of this plant is highly poisonous.

The Mezereon (page 63) is a conspicuous plant early in March through the leafless branches being covered with red, fragrant blossoms, succeeded later in summer by scarlet berries set amidst lance-shaped and acute-pointed leaves. The Mezereon forms an erect-shaped bush, about four feet high, of which the bark is used medicinally. A white-flowering form of this plant is in cultivation and bears yellow-coloured berries in summer.

Another of the British shrubs is illustrated at page 64 in the Butcher’s Broom, a plant growing about two feet high, with rigid, spiny, widened branches on which are borne the small, white solitary flowers, which open in March and April. For a photograph on a larger scale, see Wild Flowers at Home, Fourth Series (“Nature Book” No. 16), page 58.


The Latin nomenclature adopted for the shrubs in this volume is that of the “Hand-list of Trees and Shrubs” (1902) issued by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The English and French names are compiled from various sources; where none existed, suitable appellations have been coined. The German names are due to the kindness of Herr Andreas Voss.


Footnote A: Page 69, the Bush Honeysuckle is generally known by gardeners under its old Latin name of Weigela, which they often pronounce “Vigilia.”
Gowans’s Nature Books

The object of these little books is to stimulate a love for nature and a desire to study it.

Each Volume contains Sixty Photographs by the best Nature Photographers, and is printed on the finest paper obtainable.

  1. No. 1.—Wild Birds at Home. Sixty Photographs from Life, by Chas. Kirk, of British Birds and their Nests.
  2. No. 2.—Wild Flowers at Home. First Series. Sixty Photographs from Nature, by Cameron Todd.
  3. No. 3.—Wild Flowers at Home. Second Series. By the Same.
  4. No. 4.—Butterflies and Moths at Home. Sixty Photographs from Life, by A. Forrester.
  5. No. 5.—Wild Birds at Home. Second Series. By Chas. Kirk.
  6. No. 6.—Freshwater Fishes. Sixty Photographs from Life, by Walford B. Johnson and Stanley C. Johnson, M.A.
  7. No. 7.—Toadstools at Home. Sixty Photographs of Fungi, by Somerville Hastings, F.R.C.S.
  8. No. 8.—Our Trees and How to Know Them. Sixty Photographs by Chas. Kirk.
  9. No. 9.—Wild Flowers at Home. Third Series. By Somerville Hastings, F.R.C.S.
  10. No. 10.—Life in the Antarctic. Sixty Photographs from Life, by Members of the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition.
  11. No. 11.—Reptile Life. Sixty Photographs from Life, by Walford B. Johnson and Stanley C. Johnson, M.A.
  12. No. 12.—Sea-Shore Life. Sixty Photographs by the Same.
  13. No. 13.—Birds at the Zoo. Sixty Photographs from Life, by W.S. Berridge, F.Z.S.
  14. No. 14.—Animals at the Zoo. Sixty Photographs by the Same.
  15. No. 15.—Some Moths and Butterflies and Their Eggs. Sixty Photographs by A.E. Tonge, F.E.S.
  16. No. 16.—Wild Flowers at Home. Fourth Series. By Somerville Hastings.
  17. No. 17.—British Mammals. Sixty Photographs from Life, by Oxley Grabham, M.A., T.A. Metcalfe, Sydney H. Smith, and Chas. Kirk.
  18. No. 18.—Pond and Stream Life. Sixty Photographs from Life, by Walford B. Johnson and Stanley C. Johnson, M.A.
  19. No. 19.—Wild Birds at Home. Third Series. By Chas. Kirk.
  20. No. 20.—Alpine Plants At Home. First Series. Sixty Photographs by Somerville Hastings, F.R.C.S.
  21. No. 21.—Fossil Plants. Sixty Photographs by E.A. Newell Arber, M.A., F.L.S., F.G.S.
  22. No. 22.—Alpine Plants At Home. Second Series. By Somerville Hastings.
  23. No. 23.—Our Flowering Shrubs and How to Know Them. Sixty Photographs by Chas. Kirk.
  24. No. 24.—Wild Birds At Home. Fourth Series. Sixty Photographs by Peter Webster.
  25. No. 25.—Toadstools at Home. Second Series. By Somerville Hastings.
  26. No. 26.—Wild Life in the Falkland Islands. Sixty Photographs from Life, by Arthur F. Cobb, B.A.
  27. No. 27.—Birds at the Zoo. Second Series. By W.S. Berridge. [In Preparation.
  28. No. 28.—Animals At The Zoo. Second Series. By W.S. Berridge.
  29. No. 29.—Wild Birds at Home. Fifth Series. Sixty Photographs by Arthur Brook.
Others in Preparation.
Special Note
Wild Birds at Home, Series I.-IV., can now be had bound in one volume, in cloth gilt, price 2/6 net; postage, 3d.
PRICE 6D. Net Each Volume: Postage 1d. Each.
Gowans & Gray, Ltd., London & Glasgow
Chefs-d’Œuvre de Poche
Sous la direction de
Auguste Dorchain

This series has been inaugurated with the object of providing readers of French all the world over with some of the great masterpieces of French literature in an attractive form. The cheap reprints that are published in France are not always neat, according to British tastes, and the publishers believe that their attempt to supply reprints at once cheap and pretty will be appreciated.

Ready
  1. Balzac. Eugénie Grandet.
  2. A. De Musset. La Confession d’un Enfant du Siècle.
  3. Balzac. Ursule Mirouët.
  4. Mme De La Fayette. La Princesse de Clèves.
Price of each volume:
cloth, gilt top, 1s. net; leather limp, gilt top, 2s. net;
postage 2d. extra.
London & Glasgow: Gowans & Gray, Ltd.
Meisterwerke in Taschenausgaben
Mit Einleitungen von
Richard M. Meyer,
Professor an der Universität Berlin.

This series is intended to supply readers of German with some of the greatest works of German literature, and these only, printed in an attractive, handy, and cheap form in accordance with English tastes, but edited by a great German critic.

The volumes are printed in Roman type; as there is no doubt the study of German in this country has been much hindered hitherto by fear of damage to the eyes from reading Gothic type.

Ready
1. Goethe. Die Wahlverwandschaften.
2. Ludwig. Zwischen Himmel und Erde.
In Preparation
3. Schiller. Der Geisterseher und andere Erzählungen.
Others will follow
Price of each volume:
cloth, gilt top, 1s. net; leather limp, gilt top, 2s. net;
postage 2d. extra.
London & Glasgow: Gowans & Gray, Ltd
Les Chefs-d’Œuvre de la Poésie Lyrique Française
Selected, with Biographical Introductions, by
Auguste Dorchain,
the well-known French Poet and Critic.
In Preparation:
1. Les Chefs-d’Œuvre lyriques de Villon, de Marot, et des autres Poètes antérieurs a Ronsard.
9. Les Chefs-d’Œuvre lyriques de Victor Hugo.
Ready:
2. Les Chefs-d’Œuvre lyriques de Ronsard et de son École.
3–4. Les Chefs-d’Œuvre lyriques de Malherbe et de l’École classique [de Ronsard à Chénier]. Deux volumes.
5. Les Chefs-d’Œuvre lyriques d’André Chénier.
6. Les Chefs-d’Œuvre lyriques de Marceline Desbordes-Valmore.
8. Les Chefs-d’Œuvre lyriques d’Alfred de Vigny.
12. Les Chefs-d’Œuvre lyriques d’Alfred de Musset.
Others will follow

These pretty little volumes contain the best poems, and those only, of the authors included.

Price of each volume:
in parchment cover, 6d net; in cloth, 1s net;
in leather, 2s net; postage, 1d extra.
London & Glasgow: Gowans & Gray, Ltd.
Die Meisterstücke der Deutschen Lyrik
Mit Einleitungen und Anmerkungen von
Richard M. Meyer,
Professor an der Universität Berlin.

This new series will contain only the finest lyrics in the German language. Believing that, other things being equal, a native critic is the best judge of his country’s writers, the publishers have entrusted the editing of the series to Dr. Meyer, of Berlin University, one of the most eminent living authorities on German literature. The format is uniform with that of “Les Chefs-d’Œuvre de la Poésie lyrique française,” which have already proved very successful, not least in France itself.

Ready.
1. Die Meisterstücke des deutschen Volks- und Kirchenliedes.
2. Die Meisterstücke der Vorgoethischen Lyrik.
3–4. Die lyrischen Meisterstücke von Goethe. Zwei Bände.
In Preparation.
5–6. Die lyrischen Meisterstücke von Schiller. Zwei Bände.
Price of each volume:
in parchment cover, 6d net; in cloth, 1s net;
in leather, 2s. net; postage, 1d extra.
London & Glasgow: Gowans & Gray, Ltd
The First Three of Gowans’s
Practical Picture Books

Price in Parchment Cover, 6d. net each, post free 7d.


No. 1. Ambulance Illustrated.
By Wm. Cullen, M.D.
Sixty Photographs by W.M. Warneuke, illustrating First Aid, with Concise Notes by the Author.

No. 2. Golfing Illustrated.
By G.W. Beldam.
Sixty Action-Photographs of Famous Golfers, illustrating the Different Strokes in the Game, with Short Notes on the Players’ Styles by John L. Low.
None of these Photographs has appeared in “Great Golfers.”

No. 3. Cricket Illustrated.
By G.W. Beldam.
Sixty Action-Photographs of Famous Cricketers—Forty of Batters, and Twenty of Bowlers—with Short Notes on the Players’ Styles by the Author.
None of these Photographs has appeared in “Great Bowlers” or “Great Batsmen.”

London and Glasgow Gowans & Gray, Ltd.
Gowans’s Architecture Books

Each volume contains Sixty Reproductions of very fine Photographs of famous examples of the art.

Ready
No. 1. Masterpieces of Spanish Architecture. Sixty Photographs by J. Lacoste. With short notes on the buildings by S.H. Capper, M.A., A.R.I.B.A., Professor of Architecture in the University of Manchester.
In Preparation
No. 2. Masterpieces of Moorish Architecture.
Others will follow
Price of each volume:
in paper cover, 6d. net.; in cloth, 1s. net.;
postage, 1d. extra.
London & Glasgow: Gowans & Gray, Ltd.
Nature Pictures

A Magnificent Volume, size of Page, 12½″ × 10″, containing SEVERAL HUNDREDS of ILLUSTRATIONS, every one from life, and quite different from those in our “Nature Books,” by the best nature-photographers, of birds, animals, fishes, flowers, fungi, insects, etc.

Bound in Cloth Gilt, 7/6 net

Can also be had in Twelve 6d. Parts, which can be purchased separately.

Special Features of some of the Parts:

Part 3 contains a beautiful series of plates of the Oyster-catcher, Part 4 of the Kittiwake Gull, Part 7 of the Sandwich Tern, Part 10 of the Gannet and of the Little Tern, and Part 11 of the Common Tern, but every part is full of beautiful photographs.

London & Glasgow: Gowans & Gray, Ltd.
Transcriber’s Note: On page 67, the page reference for the Bladder Senna was corrected from page 19 to page 20.





End of the Project Gutenberg EBook of Our Flowering Shrubs, by Anonymous

*** END OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK OUR FLOWERING SHRUBS ***

***** This file should be named 38904-h.htm or 38904-h.zip *****
This and all associated files of various formats will be found in:
        http://www.gutenberg.org/3/8/9/0/38904/

Produced by Jeroen van Luin, Ben Beasley, jromero and the
Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net


Updated editions will replace the previous one--the old editions
will be renamed.

Creating the works from public domain print editions means that no
one owns a United States copyright in these works, so the Foundation
(and you!) can copy and distribute it in the United States without
permission and without paying copyright royalties.  Special rules,
set forth in the General Terms of Use part of this license, apply to
copying and distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works to
protect the PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm concept and trademark.  Project
Gutenberg is a registered trademark, and may not be used if you
charge for the eBooks, unless you receive specific permission.  If you
do not charge anything for copies of this eBook, complying with the
rules is very easy.  You may use this eBook for nearly any purpose
such as creation of derivative works, reports, performances and
research.  They may be modified and printed and given away--you may do
practically ANYTHING with public domain eBooks.  Redistribution is
subject to the trademark license, especially commercial
redistribution.



*** START: FULL LICENSE ***

THE FULL PROJECT GUTENBERG LICENSE
PLEASE READ THIS BEFORE YOU DISTRIBUTE OR USE THIS WORK

To protect the Project Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting the free
distribution of electronic works, by using or distributing this work
(or any other work associated in any way with the phrase "Project
Gutenberg"), you agree to comply with all the terms of the Full Project
Gutenberg-tm License (available with this file or online at
http://gutenberg.net/license).


Section 1.  General Terms of Use and Redistributing Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic works

1.A.  By reading or using any part of this Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work, you indicate that you have read, understand, agree to
and accept all the terms of this license and intellectual property
(trademark/copyright) agreement.  If you do not agree to abide by all
the terms of this agreement, you must cease using and return or destroy
all copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in your possession.
If you paid a fee for obtaining a copy of or access to a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work and you do not agree to be bound by the
terms of this agreement, you may obtain a refund from the person or
entity to whom you paid the fee as set forth in paragraph 1.E.8.

1.B.  "Project Gutenberg" is a registered trademark.  It may only be
used on or associated in any way with an electronic work by people who
agree to be bound by the terms of this agreement.  There are a few
things that you can do with most Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works
even without complying with the full terms of this agreement.  See
paragraph 1.C below.  There are a lot of things you can do with Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works if you follow the terms of this agreement
and help preserve free future access to Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works.  See paragraph 1.E below.

1.C.  The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation ("the Foundation"
or PGLAF), owns a compilation copyright in the collection of Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works.  Nearly all the individual works in the
collection are in the public domain in the United States.  If an
individual work is in the public domain in the United States and you are
located in the United States, we do not claim a right to prevent you from
copying, distributing, performing, displaying or creating derivative
works based on the work as long as all references to Project Gutenberg
are removed.  Of course, we hope that you will support the Project
Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting free access to electronic works by
freely sharing Project Gutenberg-tm works in compliance with the terms of
this agreement for keeping the Project Gutenberg-tm name associated with
the work.  You can easily comply with the terms of this agreement by
keeping this work in the same format with its attached full Project
Gutenberg-tm License when you share it without charge with others.

1.D.  The copyright laws of the place where you are located also govern
what you can do with this work.  Copyright laws in most countries are in
a constant state of change.  If you are outside the United States, check
the laws of your country in addition to the terms of this agreement
before downloading, copying, displaying, performing, distributing or
creating derivative works based on this work or any other Project
Gutenberg-tm work.  The Foundation makes no representations concerning
the copyright status of any work in any country outside the United
States.

1.E.  Unless you have removed all references to Project Gutenberg:

1.E.1.  The following sentence, with active links to, or other immediate
access to, the full Project Gutenberg-tm License must appear prominently
whenever any copy of a Project Gutenberg-tm work (any work on which the
phrase "Project Gutenberg" appears, or with which the phrase "Project
Gutenberg" is associated) is accessed, displayed, performed, viewed,
copied or distributed:

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net

1.E.2.  If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is derived
from the public domain (does not contain a notice indicating that it is
posted with permission of the copyright holder), the work can be copied
and distributed to anyone in the United States without paying any fees
or charges.  If you are redistributing or providing access to a work
with the phrase "Project Gutenberg" associated with or appearing on the
work, you must comply either with the requirements of paragraphs 1.E.1
through 1.E.7 or obtain permission for the use of the work and the
Project Gutenberg-tm trademark as set forth in paragraphs 1.E.8 or
1.E.9.

1.E.3.  If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is posted
with the permission of the copyright holder, your use and distribution
must comply with both paragraphs 1.E.1 through 1.E.7 and any additional
terms imposed by the copyright holder.  Additional terms will be linked
to the Project Gutenberg-tm License for all works posted with the
permission of the copyright holder found at the beginning of this work.

1.E.4.  Do not unlink or detach or remove the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License terms from this work, or any files containing a part of this
work or any other work associated with Project Gutenberg-tm.

1.E.5.  Do not copy, display, perform, distribute or redistribute this
electronic work, or any part of this electronic work, without
prominently displaying the sentence set forth in paragraph 1.E.1 with
active links or immediate access to the full terms of the Project
Gutenberg-tm License.

1.E.6.  You may convert to and distribute this work in any binary,
compressed, marked up, nonproprietary or proprietary form, including any
word processing or hypertext form.  However, if you provide access to or
distribute copies of a Project Gutenberg-tm work in a format other than
"Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other format used in the official version
posted on the official Project Gutenberg-tm web site (www.gutenberg.net),
you must, at no additional cost, fee or expense to the user, provide a
copy, a means of exporting a copy, or a means of obtaining a copy upon
request, of the work in its original "Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other
form.  Any alternate format must include the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License as specified in paragraph 1.E.1.

1.E.7.  Do not charge a fee for access to, viewing, displaying,
performing, copying or distributing any Project Gutenberg-tm works
unless you comply with paragraph 1.E.8 or 1.E.9.

1.E.8.  You may charge a reasonable fee for copies of or providing
access to or distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works provided
that

- You pay a royalty fee of 20% of the gross profits you derive from
     the use of Project Gutenberg-tm works calculated using the method
     you already use to calculate your applicable taxes.  The fee is
     owed to the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark, but he
     has agreed to donate royalties under this paragraph to the
     Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation.  Royalty payments
     must be paid within 60 days following each date on which you
     prepare (or are legally required to prepare) your periodic tax
     returns.  Royalty payments should be clearly marked as such and
     sent to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation at the
     address specified in Section 4, "Information about donations to
     the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation."

- You provide a full refund of any money paid by a user who notifies
     you in writing (or by e-mail) within 30 days of receipt that s/he
     does not agree to the terms of the full Project Gutenberg-tm
     License.  You must require such a user to return or
     destroy all copies of the works possessed in a physical medium
     and discontinue all use of and all access to other copies of
     Project Gutenberg-tm works.

- You provide, in accordance with paragraph 1.F.3, a full refund of any
     money paid for a work or a replacement copy, if a defect in the
     electronic work is discovered and reported to you within 90 days
     of receipt of the work.

- You comply with all other terms of this agreement for free
     distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm works.

1.E.9.  If you wish to charge a fee or distribute a Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work or group of works on different terms than are set
forth in this agreement, you must obtain permission in writing from
both the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation and Michael
Hart, the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark.  Contact the
Foundation as set forth in Section 3 below.

1.F.

1.F.1.  Project Gutenberg volunteers and employees expend considerable
effort to identify, do copyright research on, transcribe and proofread
public domain works in creating the Project Gutenberg-tm
collection.  Despite these efforts, Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works, and the medium on which they may be stored, may contain
"Defects," such as, but not limited to, incomplete, inaccurate or
corrupt data, transcription errors, a copyright or other intellectual
property infringement, a defective or damaged disk or other medium, a
computer virus, or computer codes that damage or cannot be read by
your equipment.

1.F.2.  LIMITED WARRANTY, DISCLAIMER OF DAMAGES - Except for the "Right
of Replacement or Refund" described in paragraph 1.F.3, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, the owner of the Project
Gutenberg-tm trademark, and any other party distributing a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work under this agreement, disclaim all
liability to you for damages, costs and expenses, including legal
fees.  YOU AGREE THAT YOU HAVE NO REMEDIES FOR NEGLIGENCE, STRICT
LIABILITY, BREACH OF WARRANTY OR BREACH OF CONTRACT EXCEPT THOSE
PROVIDED IN PARAGRAPH 1.F.3.  YOU AGREE THAT THE FOUNDATION, THE
TRADEMARK OWNER, AND ANY DISTRIBUTOR UNDER THIS AGREEMENT WILL NOT BE
LIABLE TO YOU FOR ACTUAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, CONSEQUENTIAL, PUNITIVE OR
INCIDENTAL DAMAGES EVEN IF YOU GIVE NOTICE OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
DAMAGE.

1.F.3.  LIMITED RIGHT OF REPLACEMENT OR REFUND - If you discover a
defect in this electronic work within 90 days of receiving it, you can
receive a refund of the money (if any) you paid for it by sending a
written explanation to the person you received the work from.  If you
received the work on a physical medium, you must return the medium with
your written explanation.  The person or entity that provided you with
the defective work may elect to provide a replacement copy in lieu of a
refund.  If you received the work electronically, the person or entity
providing it to you may choose to give you a second opportunity to
receive the work electronically in lieu of a refund.  If the second copy
is also defective, you may demand a refund in writing without further
opportunities to fix the problem.

1.F.4.  Except for the limited right of replacement or refund set forth
in paragraph 1.F.3, this work is provided to you 'AS-IS' WITH NO OTHER
WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTIBILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PURPOSE.

1.F.5.  Some states do not allow disclaimers of certain implied
warranties or the exclusion or limitation of certain types of damages.
If any disclaimer or limitation set forth in this agreement violates the
law of the state applicable to this agreement, the agreement shall be
interpreted to make the maximum disclaimer or limitation permitted by
the applicable state law.  The invalidity or unenforceability of any
provision of this agreement shall not void the remaining provisions.

1.F.6.  INDEMNITY - You agree to indemnify and hold the Foundation, the
trademark owner, any agent or employee of the Foundation, anyone
providing copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in accordance
with this agreement, and any volunteers associated with the production,
promotion and distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works,
harmless from all liability, costs and expenses, including legal fees,
that arise directly or indirectly from any of the following which you do
or cause to occur: (a) distribution of this or any Project Gutenberg-tm
work, (b) alteration, modification, or additions or deletions to any
Project Gutenberg-tm work, and (c) any Defect you cause.


Section  2.  Information about the Mission of Project Gutenberg-tm

Project Gutenberg-tm is synonymous with the free distribution of
electronic works in formats readable by the widest variety of computers
including obsolete, old, middle-aged and new computers.  It exists
because of the efforts of hundreds of volunteers and donations from
people in all walks of life.

Volunteers and financial support to provide volunteers with the
assistance they need are critical to reaching Project Gutenberg-tm's
goals and ensuring that the Project Gutenberg-tm collection will
remain freely available for generations to come.  In 2001, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation was created to provide a secure
and permanent future for Project Gutenberg-tm and future generations.
To learn more about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation
and how your efforts and donations can help, see Sections 3 and 4
and the Foundation web page at http://www.pglaf.org.


Section 3.  Information about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive
Foundation

The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation is a non profit
501(c)(3) educational corporation organized under the laws of the
state of Mississippi and granted tax exempt status by the Internal
Revenue Service.  The Foundation's EIN or federal tax identification
number is 64-6221541.  Its 501(c)(3) letter is posted at
http://pglaf.org/fundraising.  Contributions to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation are tax deductible to the full extent
permitted by U.S. federal laws and your state's laws.

The Foundation's principal office is located at 4557 Melan Dr. S.
Fairbanks, AK, 99712., but its volunteers and employees are scattered
throughout numerous locations.  Its business office is located at
809 North 1500 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84116, (801) 596-1887, email
business@pglaf.org.  Email contact links and up to date contact
information can be found at the Foundation's web site and official
page at http://pglaf.org

For additional contact information:
     Dr. Gregory B. Newby
     Chief Executive and Director
     gbnewby@pglaf.org


Section 4.  Information about Donations to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation

Project Gutenberg-tm depends upon and cannot survive without wide
spread public support and donations to carry out its mission of
increasing the number of public domain and licensed works that can be
freely distributed in machine readable form accessible by the widest
array of equipment including outdated equipment.  Many small donations
($1 to $5,000) are particularly important to maintaining tax exempt
status with the IRS.

The Foundation is committed to complying with the laws regulating
charities and charitable donations in all 50 states of the United
States.  Compliance requirements are not uniform and it takes a
considerable effort, much paperwork and many fees to meet and keep up
with these requirements.  We do not solicit donations in locations
where we have not received written confirmation of compliance.  To
SEND DONATIONS or determine the status of compliance for any
particular state visit http://pglaf.org

While we cannot and do not solicit contributions from states where we
have not met the solicitation requirements, we know of no prohibition
against accepting unsolicited donations from donors in such states who
approach us with offers to donate.

International donations are gratefully accepted, but we cannot make
any statements concerning tax treatment of donations received from
outside the United States.  U.S. laws alone swamp our small staff.

Please check the Project Gutenberg Web pages for current donation
methods and addresses.  Donations are accepted in a number of other
ways including including checks, online payments and credit card
donations.  To donate, please visit: http://pglaf.org/donate


Section 5.  General Information About Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works.

Professor Michael S. Hart is the originator of the Project Gutenberg-tm
concept of a library of electronic works that could be freely shared
with anyone.  For thirty years, he produced and distributed Project
Gutenberg-tm eBooks with only a loose network of volunteer support.


Project Gutenberg-tm eBooks are often created from several printed
editions, all of which are confirmed as Public Domain in the U.S.
unless a copyright notice is included.  Thus, we do not necessarily
keep eBooks in compliance with any particular paper edition.


Most people start at our Web site which has the main PG search facility:

     http://www.gutenberg.net

This Web site includes information about Project Gutenberg-tm,
including how to make donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary
Archive Foundation, how to help produce our new eBooks, and how to
subscribe to our email newsletter to hear about new eBooks.



JGC Logo Valid HTML5 Logo HTML5 Logo Valid CSS3 Logo JGC Logo
Copyright logo
This page (38904-h.htm) was last modified on Sunday 27/01/2013