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Title: China and Pottery Marks

Author: Unknown

Release Date: July 24, 2012 [EBook #40311]

Language: English

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CHINA
AND
POTTERY
MARKS

 

GILMAN COLLAMORE & CO. INC.

15 EAST 56th STREET
NEW YORK

 

 

[Pg 1]

Traditions and Old China

Copyright, 1920, Gilman Collamore & Company, Inc.

 

Traditions and Old China

From early days when the ancients showed their appreciation of fine pottery and old glassware by burying “these most esteemed possessions” with the dead, fine china has been synonymous with culture and breeding. With our ancestors for generations we share the tradition that, just as first editions give prestige to one’s book shelves, old china or the finest work of the modern kilns express readily that good taste and discrimination that is characteristic of our old families.

A wealth of association and historic data is to be acquired from the study of the “fabrique marks” and periods of the master craftsmen. If in America there was a general tendency toward acquiring, even a smattering, of this knowledge, there would be less of these drawing-room atrocities which Arthur Hayden in his “Chats on English Earthenware” points out, “To have a modern set of vases adorning a Georgian cabinet is like putting new wine in old bottles.”

[Pg 2]For the convenience of the seasoned collector, as well as the beginner, in this book is a representative list of better known marks by which china can be identified. While it is not possible to include a complete list, particularly those of extremely rare specimens, those compiled have particular reference to the marks of English china which is greatly in demand by collectors. These will suffice to enable the reader to identify pieces whenever encountered.

The signatures or mark which the master craftsmen in earth or clay signed their products, just as a painter signs his work, were often specially designed devices of various kinds, often a combination of initials and dates. Each “fabrique mark” stands for a certain potter’s art just as the modern trade-mark.

Beginning more than a half century ago in the old La Farge House in lower Broadway (where John La Farge was born) the house of Gilman Collamore and Company has done much to develop an appreciation of fine china in America. It was one of the first houses to bring over from England and France china, both modern and old, for its American clients. At this time many fine specimens of old china are on view as well as complete stocks from the modern English and Continental manufacture.

GILMAN COLLAMORE & COMPANY, Inc.
15 East 56th Street
New York

 

 


[Pg 3]

Germany and Austria

DRESDEN
MEISSEN. Established in 1709. Mark used to 1712, in blue. Hard paste.
DRESDEN
Mark used from 1712 to 1720, in blue. Hard paste.
DRESDEN
About 1720, mark in blue. Hard paste.
DRESDEN
1730, mark in blue. Hard paste.
DRESDEN
1796. MARCOLINI (Director) PERIOD. Mark in blue. Hard paste.
DRESDEN
Royal pieces only. Mark in blue. Hard paste.
[Pg 4] DRESDEN
Present mark. This mark with two scratches across it shows imperfect pieces which may or may not have been decorated in the factory. Hard paste.
VIENNA
Established in 1718. This mark first used in 1744. Hard paste.

Royal factory discontinued in 1864.
BERLIN
Established in 1751. Wegeleys’ mark. Hard paste.
BERLIN
In 1763 became a royal establishment. Mark in blue. Sometimes an eagle added.
BERLIN
Different kind of sceptre. In blue. Hard paste.
BERLIN
An extra mark used in 1830 with the sceptre, which is the present mark. This mark complete is never used except with perfect pieces decorated in the factory. Decorated pieces bearing the blue sceptre mark only are decorated outside of the factory.
[Pg 5] HOCHST, near MAYENCE
Founded in 1720. This mark, used about 1740, in gold, red, or blue. Hard paste.
HOCHST, near MAYENCE
Hard paste.
FRANKENTHAL
1755 to 1761. First period. Hard paste.
FRANKENTHAL
1799, second period. Carl Theodore. Hard paste.
FRANKENTHAL
Phillipp Hanong (Director). Hard paste.
[Pg 6] FRANKENTHAL
Joseph Adam Hanong (Director). Hard paste.
FRANKENTHAL
John Hanong (Director). Hard paste.
FRANKENTHAL
1800. Franz Bartolo (Director). Hard paste.
NYMPHENBURG
Established in 1747. Hard paste.
NYMPHENBURG
Hard paste.
[Pg 7] NYMPHENBURG
An early mark in blue. Hard paste.
FURSTENBURG
Established in 1750. Hard paste.
FURSTENBURG
1758. Hard paste.
LUDWIGSBURG or KRONENBURG
Established in 1758 to 1806. Hard paste.
LUDWIGSBURG
First period. Hard paste.
[Pg 8] LUDWIGSBURG
Second period. Hard paste.
LUDWIGSBURG
Hard paste. Mark in blue.
FULDA
Established in 1763 to 1780. Hard paste.
FULDA
Hard paste. The arms of Fulda.
RUDOLSTADT
Established in 1758. Mark in blue. Hard paste.
RAUENSTEIN
Established in 1760. Hard paste.
LIMBACH
Established about 1761. Hard paste.
[Pg 9] LIMBACH
Another mark. Hard paste.
LIMBACH
Another mark. Hard paste.
GROSBREITENBACH
Established about 1770. Hard paste.
GROSBREITENBACH
Hard paste.
VOLKSTEDT
Established 1762. C. V. sometimes added with the arms. Hard paste.
VOLKSTEDT
Another mark. Hard paste.
VOLKSTEDT
Another mark. Hard paste.
[Pg 10] ANSPACH
Established about 1718. Hard paste.
ANSPACH
Generally accompanied by letter A. Hard paste.
ANSPACH
Hard paste.
ANSPACH
Hard paste.
GOTHA
Founded in 1780. Hard paste. Various marks.
[Pg 11] GERA
Established about 1780. Marks in blue. Hard paste.
ALT HALDENSTEBEN
The factory of M. Nathusins. Hard paste.
CHARLOTTENBURG
Established in 1790. Hard paste.
BADEN-BADEN
Established in 1753 to 1788. The edge of the ax in gold. Hard paste.
COLOGNE
Factory of M. L. Cremer. Enameled Fayence.
POPPLESDORF, near BONN
Fayence and porcelain.
STRASBOURG
Established about 1752. Hard paste.
[Pg 12] NIDERVILLER
Established in 1768. Hard paste.
ELBOGEN in BOHEMIA
Established in 1815. Hard paste.
SCHLAKENWALD
Established about 1800. Hard paste.
LEHAMMER or PIRKENHAMMER, near CARLSBAD
Founded in 1802. Hard paste.
HEREND
Established 1839.
HEREND
Another mark.

 [Pg 13]

 

Russia and Poland

KORZEC
Established about 1803. Hard paste.
Moscow
Established in 1787. Hard paste.
ST. PETERSBURG
Mark in blue. Hard paste.
ST. PETERSBURG
Mark of Empress Catherine II. 1762 to 1796. Mark in blue. Hard paste.
ST. PETERSBURG
Monogram of Nicholas I. 1825 to 1855.
ST. PETERSBURG
Established 1744. Mark in blue.

 

 

Denmark

COPENHAGEN
Established in 1772. Mark in blue. Hard paste.

 [Pg 14]

 

Holland and Belgium

AMSTERDAM
Established in 1782. Mark in blue. Hard paste.
AMSTERDAM
Mark in blue. Hard paste.
AMSTERDAM
Mark in blue. Hard paste.
TOURNEY
Mark in gold represents a potter’s kiln. Established in 1750. Soft paste.
TOURNEY
Mark in gold used after 1755. Soft paste.
TOURNEY
Used about 1755. Soft paste.
HAGUE
Factory established about 1775; ceased in 1785. Mark in gray. Hard paste.
[Pg 15] DELFT
Joost Thooft and Labouchere. Present mark Fayence.

 

 

Switzerland

NYON
Established in 1790. Hard paste.
ZURICH
Established about 1759. Mark in blue. Hard paste.

 

 

Italy and Spain

NOVE
1752. Mark in blue or red. Soft paste.
VENICE
Mark in red. Majolica.
VENICE
Soft paste.
VENICE
1720 to 1740. Soft paste. Mark in red.
[Pg 16] VENICE
Soft paste. Mark in red.
TURIN
Vineuf. Established about 1770. Dr. Gioanetti (Director). Soft paste.
TURIN
Vineuf. Another mark. Soft paste.
DOCCIA
Founded in 1735. Hard and soft paste.
DOCCIA
Hard and soft paste. Another mark.
GINORI. DOCCIA
Hard and soft paste. Another mark.
CAPO DI MONTE
Founded in 1736. This mark used from 1759. Factory abandoned in 1821. Soft paste.
CAPO DI MONTE
Mark used from 1759. Soft paste.
[Pg 17] CAPO DI MONTE
Soft paste. Other marks.
MILAN
Mark in blue. Fayence.
MADRID
BUEN RETIRO. Monogram of Charles III. Established in 1759 to 1812. Soft paste.
MADRID
Soft paste. Another mark.
MADRID
Mark in blue. First quality. Soft paste.
MADRID
Mark in blue. Soft paste.
[Pg 18] MADRID
Mark in blue. Mark under crown is another form of the monogram of Charles III., the founder.
OPORTO
Established about 1790. Hard paste. Mark in gold or colors.

 

 [Pg 19]

 

England

WEDGWOOD. STAFFORDSHIRE
Established in 1769. This mark both stamped and printed.
STAFFORDSHIRE
WEDGWOOD, present mark on decorated china.
TURNER. STAFFORDSHIRE
Established about 1756.
W. ADAMS. STAFFORDSHIRE
Established about 1780.
ROGERS. STAFFORDSHIRE
Imitations of WEDGWOOD.
WOOD and CALDWELL. STAFFORDSHIRE
Established in 1730.
STAFFORDSHIRE
Established 1790.
LONGPORT. STAFFORDSHIRE
Established in 1793 by Mr. John Davenport.
[Pg 20] STAFFORDSHIRE
STAFFORDSHIRE
STAFFORDSHIRE
STAFFORDSHIRE
Established about 1770, by Josiah Spode.
STAFFORDSHIRE
Copeland successor of Spode in 1833.
LIVERPOOL
Established in 1750.
SADLER
1756.
LIVERPOOL
Established in 1756.
LIVERPOOL
Established in 1790.
[Pg 21]HERCULANEUM
POTTERY.
LIVERPOOL
This mark was used from 1822 to 1833.
PLYMOUTH
Established 1760. William Cookworthy.
YARMOUTH
Absolon, only a decorator.
SWANSEA
Established 1790. This mark used about 1815.
SWANSEA
Mark in red.
NANTGARW. WALES
Established about 1813. Mark in red.
LEEDS
Hartley Greens & Co. Established about 1770.
[Pg 22] BRISTOL
Established about 1770, by Richard Champion.
BRISTOL
BRISTOL
Ceased in 1777.
BOW
Established about 1730. Ceased in 1775.
BOW
BOW
CHELSEA
The oldest mark. About 1747.
CHELSEA
Mark in red.
CHELSEA
First quality mark in gold.
[Pg 23] DERBY
Established 1751. This mark used before 1769.
DERBY-CHELSEA
This mark in gold 1773.
CROWN DERBY
Mark in blue used about 1780.
DERBY
Mark used in 1830. Bloor (Director).
DERBY
Mark used in 1830. Bloor (Director).
DERBY
Mark used in 1860.
[Pg 24] ROYAL CROWN DERBY
Present mark.
WORCESTER
Established 1751. Oldest mark.
WORCESTER
Mark imitation of Dresden.
WORCESTER
Generally on Chinese patterns.
WORCESTER
About 1751.
WORCESTER
Used 1783 to 1788.
[Pg 25] WORCESTER
Used 1807 to 1813.
WORCESTER
Used 1857 to 1862.
WORCESTER
Present mark.
CAUGHLEY. SHROPSHIRE
Established about 1751.
CAUGHLEY. SHROPSHIRE
An early mark in blue.
COALPORT
Established between 1780 and 1790.
COALPORT
COALPORT
Present mark.
STAFFORDSHIRE
Established in 1791 by Mr. Thomas Minton.
[Pg 26] STAFFORDSHIRE
Present mark.
LAMBETH and BURSLEM
Doulton & Co.
STAFFORDSHIRE
Brown-Westhead, Moore & Co.

 

 [Pg 27]

 

France

ST. CLOUD
Established about 1695. Factory destroyed by fire in 1773; not rebuilt. Soft paste.
ST. CLOUD
This mark used from 1730 to 1762. Either in blue or graved in ware. The letter T stands for Tron, the name of the director. Soft paste.
CHANTILLY
Established in 1735. Mark in blue or red. Soft paste.
ARRAS
Established in 1782. Mark in blue. Factory ceased in 1786. Soft paste.
MENECY
Established in 1735. This mark is usually impressed; sometimes traced in blue. Soft paste.
ETIOLLES, near CORBEIL
Established in 1768. Monnier, manufacturer. Soft paste.
[Pg 28] BOURG LA REINE
Established in 1773. Jacques & Jullien. Soft paste.
SCEAUX-PENTHIEVRE, near PARIS
Established in 1750 by Jacques Capelle. These letters are engraved on the soft clay.
SCEAUX-PENTHIEVRE, near PARIS
The latter mark in blue. This mark occurs more frequently on Fayence.
CLINGNANCOURT
Established in 1775 by Pierre Deruelle. Mark in blue. Soft and hard paste.
CLINGNANCOURT
Used on pieces of Chinese style. Mark in red. Hard paste.
CLINGNANCOURT
Mark of Monsieur Comte de Provence.
ORLEANS
Established in 1753 by M. Gerré. Hard and soft paste.
ORLEANS
This mark used from 1808 to 1871, in blue or gold.
[Pg 29] SARREGUEMINES
Soft paste.
SARREGUEMINES
Soft paste and Fayence.
VINCENNES
Soft paste. Established in 1786.
VINCENNES
Soft paste. Another mark.
PARIS. RUE FONTAINE AU ROY
Established in 1773 by Jean Baptiste Locré. Mark in blue. Hard paste.
PARIS. FAUBOURG ST. LAZARE
Founded in 1773. Hard paste.
[Pg 30] PARIS. FAUBOURG ST. ANTOINE
Established in 1773. Morelle, manufacturer. Hard paste.
PARIS. RUE DE LA ROQUETTE
Established in 1773. Souroux, manufacturer. Hard paste.
PARIS. GROS CAILLON
Established in 1773 by Advenir Lamarre. Hard paste.
PARIS. RUE DE CLICHY
Mark in blue. Hard paste.
FRANCE
A mark found on biscuit groups. Factory unknown.
PARIS. RUE THIROUX
Established in 1778. André Marie Lebeuf, manufacturer. Under the protection of Marie Antoinette. Mark in red. Hard paste.
PARIS. RUE DE BONDY
Established in 1780. Dihl and Guerhard, manufacturers. Under the patronage of Duc d’Angoulême. Hard paste.
[Pg 31] PARIS. RUE DE BONDY
Another mark. Hard paste.
PARIS. RUE DU FAUBOURG ST. DENIS
Established in 1769. Under the protection of Charles Philippe Comte d’Artois, afterward Charles X. Factory discontinued in 1810.
BELLEVILLE
Established in 1790 by Jacob Petit. Mark in blue. Hard paste.
PARIS. RUE DE BONDY
Hard paste. Mark in blue.
ROUEN
Under the reign of Louis XV. Fayence.
LILLE
Established in 1784 by Leperre Durot. Mark in red. Hard paste.
[Pg 32] PARIS
M. Nast, manufacturer. Mark in red. Hard paste.
PARIS
Halley, manufacturer. First Empire mark in gold. Hard paste.
NANCY
Emile Gallé, manufacturer. Fayence and glass.

 

 [Pg 33]

 

Sevres

Established at Vincennes in 1740.
Removed from there to Sevres in 1756.
King Louis XV. became sole proprietor in 1760.
Soft paste was made until 1805. Since then only hard paste.

 

The Sevres Marks

FIRST ROYAL EPOCH
1745 to 1792






Vincennes.
The letter A denotes the year 1753,
continued to 1777. (Louis XV.)


Sevres.
Ornamented LL’s. Date 1764.


Sevres. Date 1778. (Louis XVI).
Double letters continued to 1793.


FIRST REPUBLICAN EPOCH
1792 to 1804



[Pg 34]






1792 to 1799.


1801 to 1804.


FIRST IMPERIAL EPOCH.
1804 TO 1814.


Napoleon. 1804 to 1809.


Napoleon. 1809 to 1814.


SECOND ROYAL EPOCH.
1814 TO 1848.


Louis XVIII 1814 to 1823.


Charles X. 1824 to 1829.


Charles X. 1829 and 1830.

[Pg 35]
Charles X. 1830.




Louis Philippe. 1831 to 1834.


Louis Philippe. 1834-1835.


On services for the Palaces.


Louis Philippe. 1845-1848.


After 1848, this mark in green was
used for white porcelain.


SECOND REPUBLICAN EPOCH
1848 TO 1851.


The S stands for Sèvres,
and 51 for 1851.


SECOND IMPERIAL EPOCH.
1852 TO 1872.



[Pg 36]
Napoleon III. From 1852.


This mark used for white pieces; when
scratched it denotes issue undecorated.
 
The marks used at
the present time.

 

Unknown Marks

 [Pg 37]

Chronological Table
Used in the Manufactory of Sevres

A (Vincennes) 1753
B (ditto) 1754
C (ditto) 1755
D   1756
E   1757
F   1758
G   1759
H   1760
I   1761
J   1762
K   1763
L   1764
M   1765
N   1766
O   1767
P   1768
Q   [1]1769
R   1770
S   1771
T   1772
U   1773
V   1774
X   1775
Y   1776
Z   1777
AA   1778
BB   1779
CC   1780
DD   1781
EE   1782
FF   1783
GG   1784
HH   1785
II   1786
JJ   1787
KK   1788
LL   1789
MM   1790
NN   1791
OO   1792
PP   1793
QQ   1794
RR   1795

 

Year IX   1801   T9
" X   1802   X
" XI   1803   11
" XII   1804  
" XIII   1805  
" XIV   1806  

 

1807   7
1808   8
1809   9
1810   10
1811   (onze)   o.z.
1812   (douze)   d.z.
1813   (treize)   t.z.
1814   (quatorze)   q.z.
1815   (quinze)   q.n.
1816   (seize)   s.z.
1817   (dix sept)   d.s.

From this date the year is expressed by the last two figures only.—thus, 18 for 1818, etc.,—up to the present time.

 

 


Footnote:

[1] This comet was sometimes substituted for the ordinary mark of the letter Q.






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