Project Gutenberg's Historical Description of Westminster Abbey, by Anonymous This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org Title: Historical Description of Westminster Abbey Its Monuments and Curiosities Author: Anonymous Release Date: October 27, 2012 [EBook #41195] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK HISTORICAL DESCRIPTION WESTMINSTER ABBEY *** Produced by The Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net (This file was produced from images generously made available by The Internet Archive.)
Monuments and Curiosities.
PRINTED FOR THE VERGERS IN THE ABBEY,
BY JAS. TRUSCOTT AND SON, SUFFOLK LANE, CANNON STREET, CITY.
The North and West doors are open to Visitors. Guides are in attendance, from nine until six every day, except Sunday, Christmas Day, and Good Friday. The Abbey is not open to Visitors after the Afternoon Service during the Winter Months.
On Sunday the entrance to the Abbey is by the North and South Transepts. Divine Service at 8 A.M., at 10 A.M., and at 3 P.M.; and from Easter to the end of July, at 7 P.M. At the usual Sunday Services, and on Saint and Holy Days, at 10 A.M., there is a Sermon. The Holy Communion is celebrated on the first Sunday in the month, at the 10 A.M. Service, and on other Sundays (except when otherwise ordered) at 8 A.M.
The names of the several Chapels, beginning from the south cross, and so passing round to the north cross, are in order as follows:—1. St. Benedict; 2. St. Edmund; 3. St. Nicholas; 4. Henry VII.; 5. St. Paul; 6. St. Edward the Confessor; 7. St. John; 8. Islip’s Chapel, dedicated to St. John the Baptist; 9. St. John, St. Michael, and St. Andrew. The three last are now laid together. The Chapel of Edward the Confessor stands, as it were, in the centre, and is enclosed in the body of the Church. Keep on your right, and the Chapel of St. Benedict is adjoining the Tombs-gate, in which Chapel several Deans were buried. Dean Ireland was buried in front of Camden’s monument, in the same grave with Mr. Gifford, his associate through life.
⁂ Several men intercept all persons as they approach the Abbey, to show them the Courts of Law, Westminster Hall, &c., which are open all day; persons attending to them are oft-times prevented from seeing the Church for that day, as the hours of service intervene.
f the Founding of an Abbey on Thorney Island, where that of Westminster now stands, there are so many miraculous stories related by monkish writers, that the recital of them now would hardly be endured. Even the relations of ancient historians have been questioned by Sir Christopher Wren, who was employed to survey the present edifice, and who, upon the nicest examination, found nothing to countenance the general belief, “that it was erected on the ruins of a Pagan Temple.” No fragments of Roman workmanship were discovered in any part of the building, many of which must undoubtedly have been intermixed among the materials, if a Roman temple had existed before on the same spot.
Nor is the dedication of the first Abbey less involved in mystery than the founding of it. The legend says that Sebert, King of the East Saxons, who died in 616, ordered Melitus, then Bishop of London, to perform the ceremony; but that St. Peter himself was beforehand with him, and consecrated it in the night preceding the day appointed by his Majesty for that purpose, accompanied by angels, and surrounded by a glorious appearance of burning lights.
That this legend continued to be believed after the building itself was destroyed, will appear by a charter which we shall have occasion to mention hereafter; and though nothing can with certainty be concluded from these fictions, yet it may be presumed, that both the ancient church dedicated to St. Paul, in London, and this dedicated to St. Peter, in Westminster, were among the earliest works of the first converts to Christianity in Britain. With their new religion, they introduced a new manner of building; and their great aim seems to have been, by affecting loftiness and ornament, to bring the plain simplicity of the Pagan architects into contempt.
Historians, agreeable to the legend, have fixed the era of the first Abbey in the sixth century, and ascribed to Sebert the honour of conducting the work, and completing that part of it, at least, which now forms the east angle, which probably was all that was included in the original plan.
After the death of that pious Prince, his sons, relapsing into Paganism, totally deserted the church which their father had been so zealous to erect and endow; nor was it long before the Danes destroyed what the Saxons had thus contemptuously neglected.
From this period to the reign of Edward the Confessor, the first Abbey remained a monument of the sacrilegious fury of the times; but, by the prevailing influence of Christianity in that reign, the ruins of the ancient building were cleared away, and[Pg 4] a most magnificent structure, for that age, erected in their place. In its form it bore the figure of a cross, which afterwards became a pattern for cathedral-building throughout the kingdom. That politic Prince, to ingratiate himself with his clergy, not only confirmed all former endowments, but granted a new charter, in which he recited the account of St. Peter’s consecration, the ravages of the Danes, and the motives which prompted him to restore the sacred edifice to its former splendour, and endow it with more ample powers and privileges. This charter concluded with solemn imprecations against all who should in time to come, dare to deface or to demolish any part of the building, or to infringe the rights of its priesthood.
Henry III. not only pulled down and enlarged the plan of this ancient Abbey, but added a Chapel, which he dedicated to the Blessed Virgin; but it was not till the reign of Henry VII. that the stately and magnificent Chapel now known by his name was planned and executed. Of this Chapel, the first stone was laid on the 24th January, 1502, and when completed was dedicated, like the former Chapel, to the Blessed Virgin. Henry, designing this as a burying-place for himself and his successors, expressly enjoined by his will, that none but those of the blood-royal should be inhumed therein.
From the death of Henry VII. till the reign of William and Mary, no care was taken to repair or preserve the ancient church. By the robberies made upon it by Henry VIII., and the ravages it sustained during the unhappy civil commotions, its ancient beauty was in a great measure destroyed; nor did their Majesties go about to restore it, till it became an object of parliamentary attention, and till a considerable sum was voted for that purpose only. This vote being passed, Sir Christopher Wren was employed to decorate it and give it a thorough repair, which that able architect so skilfully and faithfully executed, that the building is thought at this day to want none of its original strength, and to have even acquired additional majesty by two new towers.
In 1803 the lantern of the Abbey was destroyed by fire, owing to the negligence of the plumbers, who were employed in repairing the lead flat. This part being the junction of four long timber roofs, it was a merciful providence the whole of this much-esteemed, august, and venerable pile, had not been utterly consumed. The young gentlemen of Westminster School highly distinguished themselves by their exertions for the preservation of the church. The room is handsomely finished, and more suitable with the rest of the building than the old one.
General Admeasurements of the Interior of the Abbey.
|Length from East to West||375||0|
|Breadth from North to South||200||0|
|Do.of Nave and Aisles||75||0|
|Height from Pavement to Inner Roof||101||0|
|Do.to the Roof of the Lantern||140||0|
[Pg 5]The new Choir, designed by Mr. Blore, Architect to the Abbey, is in the style of architecture which prevailed during the reign of Edward the Third; and executed by Mr. Ruddle, of Peterborough, in 1848.
The Dean and Sub-dean’s stalls are on either side of the arch, and are alike in general design, but that of the Dean being more elaborate in ornamental detail. They are octagonal in plan, and have projecting groined canopies, with pediments springing from moulded shafts with carved caps; above the canopies rise an octagonal turret with a spire. The arch is enclosed under a triangular pediment, the space between the pediment and the arch being filled with tracery; the centre of which is a cinque foil enclosing a shield bearing the arms of Edward the Confessor; the ground of this is carved, and the hollows of the pediment and arch mouldings are filled with four-leaved flower peculiar to the style.
The Canons’ stalls have groined canopies with pediments, and the space between the pediment and canopy filled with open tracery; the canopies spring from slender moulded shafts with carved capitals, and are separated by buttresses terminating in pinnacles between the pediments.
The pew fronts are worked in tracery with deep mouldings, and the panels are divided into compartments by buttresses decorated with tracery, crockets, and finials.
The caps and poppy-heads of the desk ends, and the ornamental accessories of the stall work and pews, are carved to represent the foliage of ivy, maple, oak, willow, hop, vine, &c. The carving and tracery exhibit a great variety of design, and are entirely the production of hand labour; the total number of stalls is fifty-two.
The Organ, which formerly stood in the centre, and consequently obstructed the view from west to east, was, in 1848, entirely rebuilt by Mr. Hill, New Road, London. It is placed on the north, south, east, and west sides of the screen, and has three cases. The two principal cases, viz., those under the north and south arches, contain, respectively, the “great” and “swell”: the “solo” and part of the “pedal” organs being placed on the west side, and the small case on the east side of the screen facing the choir contains the “choir” organ. The organist sits behind the latter organ, where the manuals, or key boards, are placed. It may easily be imagined, that to connect these distinct organs with the manuals and pedals, and thus bring them under the command of the performer, was an undertaking of no ordinary difficulty. It has, however, been successfully accomplished by Mr. Hill, who has, by means of a nice mechanical adjustment, succeeded in producing a perfectly easy and light touch. The instrument is now considered one of the finest, as regards tone and construction, in the kingdom. Number of stops, fifty-five, the majority of the pedal stops, being on the great organ sound board.
The marble pavement of the choir was given by Dr. Busby, who was buried beneath it in 1695.
The length of the choir, from iron-gate to altar-rail, is one hundred and sixteen feet six inches; sacrarium, twenty-four feet[Pg 6] six inches; altar, fourteen feet six inches; full length, from iron-gate to altar screen, one hundred and fifty-five feet six inches; breadth, thirty-five feet six inches.
The Reredos, which is recently put up, is chiefly of white and coloured alabaster from Staffordshire, but combined with a reddish spar from Cornwall: the latter material being adopted from its hardness to give greater strength to the more prominent parts, and from its deeper tone to give a variety of colour to some of the features of the work, which, if it had been made wholly of one material, would have appeared monotonous. It consists of a facade occupying the whole space between two main pillars, having two doors, one on each side of the altar, giving access to the shrine behind. The doorways are arched and richly moulded, and the hollows are filled with bold carving deeply undercut. On either side of each door is a large canopied niche with pedestal, in which are figures of Moses, St. Peter, St. Paul, and David; and on the inner side of each large niche are two smaller ones placed vertically. These niches are all most elaborately wrought with tabernacle work, richly groined and surrounded with pierced tracery, carved bratishing, and complexly terminated with pinnacles, flying buttresses, and spires, all profusely crocketed and finialed. The whole is surmounted with a carved and sculptured cornice of bold proportions. The sculpture, which lies in a large and deep hollow moulding, contains, like the side towards the shrine, fourteen subjects, but they are all scriptural. They are as follow:—1. The Annunciation; 2. The Birth; 3. The Adoration; 4. The Baptism; 5. The First Miracle; 6. Preaching to the Multitude; 7. Gathering the Fragments; 8. Raising of Lazarus; 9. Triumphal Entry; 10. Agony in the Garden; 11. The Crucifixion; 12. The Resurrection; 13. The Ascension; 14. The Gift of Tongues. Among these are interspersed on shields in trefoils the following monograms and emblems:—Alpha and Omega, Agnus Dei, The Chalice, I.H.C., Instruments of the Passion, A Glorified Cross, The Descending Dove. Above the sculpture is a hollow moulding filled with richly carved foliage deeply undercut, and above all is a rich course of carved strawberry-leaf bratishing.
In the space between the inner niches and above the table is a recess wherein is placed an elaborate and minutely finished picture of the Last Supper, in Venetian glass mosaic. It is of large size, and is admirably designed and executed.
The table, which is composed of black and green marble, stands on an elaborately wrought frame of cedar wood. Besides five sculptured panels, and figures of the Evangelists between pillars, it is otherwise richly carved and studded with inlays. The subjects are:—1. Adam and Eve in Paradise; 2. Their Expulsion; 3. The Crucifixion; 4. The Resurrection; 5. The Ascension.
To complete the altar table, there has recently been added a super-altar or shelf of cedar wood, embellished with panels of[Pg 7] foliage and monograms, richly carved and gilt. And to complete the Reredos and the mosaic picture, there has been added rich surroundings of cedar wood. Below is a base containing seven zigzag panels of eight points, filled with pictures in mosaic and enamel, and studded with gems. The pictures are, the Annunciation in the centre, and portraits of holy women of Scripture: Ruth, Anna, Elizabeth, Mary Magdalene, Martha, and Dorcas. On this base are pilasters at the ends of similar work, and between are two slender detached pillars, all supporting seven canopies of rich tabernacle work, the central one over the principal figure being the largest. All are profusely gilt.
The floor in front of the reredos is wholly new. That of the upper dais is composed of pleasing patterns of inlaid marble work combined with gold glass. That of the lower dais, and of the dais of the sedilia, is composed of rich and varied patterns of red, green, grey, and buff patterns, in every tone of those colours; the three large circular discs are of purple porphyry, rosso antico, similar to the slabs which decorate the shrine and the tomb of Henry the Third. The steps and bands which surround the patterns are all of Purbeck marble.
The stone seat on the south side, which was lately hidden, has now been restored to its original state and use, and the old wood canopies all forming the sedilia, have been lowered on to the seat of stone and made complete. Viewed as a whole, the rich colours of the alabaster and spar, with its delicate and intricate tabernacle work, the interesting sculpture, the glorious mosaic picture, the richly wrought table below, and the elaborate inlaid marble floor in front, all combine to give an impression of the greatest grandeur, the utmost durability, and the highest art. The whole was executed under the direction and superintendence of G. G. Scott, Esq., R.A. The mosaic picture was designed by Mr. Clayton, and executed at Venice by Dr. Salviati. The table was executed by Messr. Farmer and Brinley, the sculpture of the cornice by Mr. Armstead, and the alabaster and marble work by the Abbey masons, Henry Poole and Sons.
It may not be uninteresting here to add that, in the exploration to which this work gave opportunity, there were discovered on the north side of the sacrarem and lower dais, about three feet below the pavement, the bases of three piers which were left here of the old Abbey of the Confessor. They are of early Norman character, and, from their position, shew that that early structure was nearly equal in size to the present structure of Henry the Third. They possess such great interest that means have been adopted so to cover them with the pavement that they can be uncovered and exposed to view.
On the sides of the altar are the curious and ancient monuments of King Sebert; Ann of Cleves, Henry the Eighth’s wife; Aveling, Countess of Lancaster; Aymer de Valence; and Edmund Crouchback. The mosaic pavement was done by Richard de Ware, Abbot of Westminster in the year 1260, who brought[Pg 8] from Rome the stones, and workmen to set them; it is much admired; and there were letters round it in brass, which composed Latin words. The design of the figures that were in it was to represent the time the world was to last, or the primum mobile, according to the Ptolemaic system then in vogue, and was given in some verses, formerly to be read on the pavement, relating to those figures. The following explanation is given of them:—
If the reader will probably revolve all these things in his mind, he will find them plainly refer to the end of the world.
The threefold hedge is put for three years, the time a dry hedge usually stood; a dog, for three times that space, or nine years, it being taken for the time that creature usually lives; a horse, in like manner, for twenty-seven; a man, eighty-one; a hart, two hundred and forty-three; a raven, seven hundred and twenty-nine; an eagle, two thousand one hundred and eighty-seven; a great whale, six thousand five hundred and sixty-one; the world, nineteen thousand six hundred and eighty-three; each succeeding figure giving a term of years imagined to be the time of their continuance, three times as much as that before it.
In the last four verses, the time when the work was performed, and the parties concerned in it, are expressed; that Henry III. was at the charge; that the stones were purchased at Rome; that one Oderick was the master workman; and that the Abbot of Westminster, who procured the materials, had the care of the work.
The solemn offices of crowning and enthroning the sovereigns of England takes place in the centre of the sacrarium, and beneath the lantern is erected the throne at which the peers do homage. When the crowns are put on, the peers and peeresses put on their coronets, and a signal is given from the top of the Abbey for the Tower guns to fire at the same instant.
To take an advantageous view of the inside, you must go to the west door, between the towers; and the whole body of the church opens itself at once to your eye, which cannot but fill the mind of every beholder with the awful solemnity of the place, caused by the loftiness of the roof, and the happy disposition of the lights and of that noble range of pillars, by which the whole building is supported. The pillars terminate towards the east by a sweep, thereby enclosing the Chapel of Edward the Confessor in a kind of semicircle, and excluding all the rest. On the arches of the pillars are galleries of double columns, fifteen feet wide, covering the side aisles, and lighted by a middle range of windows, over which there is an upper range of larger windows: by these and the under range, with the four capital windows, the whole fabric is so admirably lighted, that the spectator is never incommoded by darkness, nor dazzled with glare.
ithin the last five years twenty-two windows have been enriched with stained glass: eight in the Lantern or Central Tower; six in the South Clerestory of the Nave; one in the Apse; seven in the North Transept. The object has been to lay the foundation of a general design illustrative of a portion of the “Te Deum.”
The eight windows in the Lantern or Central Tower represent angels, and round the sustaining arches is inscribed,—“To Thee all angels cry aloud, the heavens and all the powers therein; To Thee cherubin and seraphin continually do cry: Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of Sabaoth, heaven and earth are full of the majesty of Thy glory.”
The six windows in the South Clerestory, west of the Transepts represent Prophets, in illustration of that verse in the “Te Deum:”—“The goodly fellowship of the prophets praise Thee.”
It is hoped that this commencement may lead not only to the completion of what has been begun, but also to the enrichment of the corresponding windows on the north side of the Nave, in illustration of the “Noble Army of Martyrs.”
The Clerestory windows eastward of the Transepts offer the means of representing the “Glorious Company of the Apostles.”
In the east window in the Apse, below the Clerestory, are the figures of St. Peter and St. Paul.
This window was enriched to the “Glory of God’s House,” and as a token of respect and affection for the Venerable William H. E. Bentinck, M.A., Archdeacon of Westminster, who, in 1859, completed his fiftieth year as a dignitary of this Collegiate Church.
The next thing observable is the stained glass in the three windows at the east end, containing each two figures. In the left window, the first figure represents our Saviour; the second, the Virgin Mary; the third, Edward the Confessor; the fourth, Henry III.; the fifth, St. Augustine; the sixth, Melitus, the Bishop of London, in the right hand window.
The window of stained glass in Henry V.’s Chantry, was at Dean Ireland’s expense, by Willemont; the arms are those of Edward the Confessor, Henry III., Henry V., Dean Ireland’s, and the Abbacy of Westminster.
|1. Archbishop Langham, 1376.
2. Countess of Hertford, 1598.
3. Dr. Goodman, Dean of Westminster, died 1601.
|4. Son of Dr. Sprat, 1683.|
5. Cranfield, Earl and Countess of Middlesex, 1645.
6. Dr. Bill, first Dean under Q. Elizabeth, 1561.
|Under the Monuments of Deans Goodman and Sprat, was interred (Dean Vincent), the late Dean, 1815.|
n the Chapel of St. Benedict is an ancient tomb of stone, having formerly a canopy of wood, on which lies the effigy of Archbishop Langham, who, as the Latin epitaph round his tomb sets forth, “was Monk, Prior, and Abbot of this Abbey; afterwards elected Bishop of London; but Ely being then also vacant, he made choice of that see; that he was Primate and Chancellor of England; Priest-Cardinal, afterwards Bishop-Cardinal, of Preneste, and Nuncio from the Pope; and that he died on the Feast of St. Mary Magdalen, in the year 1376, on whose soul God have mercy, and grant him the joys of heaven for the merits of Christ.”
On the east, where stood the altar of St. Benedict, is a fine monument to the memory of Lady Frances, Countess of Hertford. The Latin inscription sets forth, “that she was wife to the noble Earl of Hertford, son to the renowned Prince Edward, Duke of Somerset, Earl of Hertford, Viscount Beauchamp, and Baron Seymour; that she was daughter to the noble Lord William, Baron Howard of Effingham, Knight of the Garter, High Admiral to Queen Mary, and Lord Chamberlain and Privy Seal to Queen Elizabeth, &c.; that, for her many graces, both of mind and body, she was highly favoured by her gracious Sovereign, and dearly loved by her noble Lord, who, in testimony of his inviolate affection, consecrated to her memory this monument. She died in the forty-fourth year of her age, May 14, 1598.”
On the south side is a monument to the memory of Dr. Gabriel Goodman. The Latin inscription intimates, “that he was the fifth Dean of this Church, over which he presided for forty years with much applause; that he founded an hospital, and instituted a school at Ruthin, in Denbighshire, where he was born; that he was a man of regular and devout life, and that he died in 1601, aged seventy-three.”
[Pg 11]On the same side is a monument to the memory of George Sprat, second son of Dr. Thomas Sprat, Bishop of Rochester, and Dean of Westminster, by his wife Helena, descended from the ancient and honourable family of the Wolseleys, in Staffordshire, who lies interred in the Chapel of St. Nicholas. He died an infant of a year old, in 1683.
In the centre is a monument erected in memory of Lionel Cranfield, Earl of Middlesex, by his relict, Lady Ann. The Latin inscription on this monument is to this effect;—“Sacred to the memory of Lionel Lord Cranfield, Earl of Middlesex, who by that discerning prince, King James I., being called to court, was for his excellent parts bountifully rewarded, both with honours and fortune; being made Master of the Requests, and of the Wardrobe, President of the Court of Wards, and Privy Councillor. The new and illustrious, as well as difficult province of Lord Treasurer of England, he filled, which services how indefatigably he underwent, his title of Knight, Baron Cranfield, and, lastly, Earl of Middlesex, with various other honours, abundantly testify. He died the 6th of August, 1645, aged about seventy. He was twice married. By his first wife he had three daughters; Elizabeth, Countess of Mulgrave; Martha, Countess of Monmouth; and Mary, who died unmarried. By the second, who survived him, he had three sons, and two daughters; James, heir to the honours of Earl of Middlesex, Lyonel, and Edward; Frances, Lady Buckhurst; and Susannah, who died an infant.”
Near Bishop Langham’s tomb, is a table monument, inlaid with a brass plate, designed for Dr. William Bill, Dean of Westminster, Master of Eton College, Head of Trinity in Cambridge, and Chief Almoner to Queen Elizabeth, as appears by his inscription. He died July 5, 1561. On a brass plate are some Latin verses, setting forth “that he was a good and learned man, and a friend to those that were so; that he was just and charitable; and that the poor, as well as the three Colleges over which he presided, sustained an irreparable loss by his death.”
Besides those above recited, there lie interred in this Chapel, Catherine, daughter of Dr. Dolben, Bishop of Rochester, Dean of Westminster, and afterwards Archbishop of York; a Countess of Kildare, in Ireland; and Dr. John Spotswood, Lord Archbishop of St. Andrew’s, Primate and Lord Chancellor of Scotland, who died in 1640.
On the left of the gate of entrance to the Chapels, is the ancient monument to Sebert, King of the East Saxons, who first built a church nearly on this site, and died July, 616; also of Athelgoda, his Queen, who died September 13, 615.
It may here be observed, and to some will no doubt be interesting, that as the date of King Sebert is the earliest known respecting the Abbey, George II. was also the last King buried in Westminster, including in all thirteen English Sovereigns whose remains repose within these venerable walls (and fourteen Queens, that is, once reigning sovereigns, or the consorts of kings) embracing a period of more than twelve hundred years.[Pg 12] The Kings buried in the Abbey—Sebert, Edward the Confessor, Henry III., Edward I., Edward III., Richard II., Henry V., Edward V., Henry VII., Edward VI., James I., Charles II., William III., George II., all of which can of course be ascertained by a careful perusal of this guide book.
Over the tomb of Sebert, enclosed under glass, is an elaborate work (measuring about eleven feet in length, and three feet in height), which appears to have originally formed part of an altar decoration of the fourteenth century; the ground-work is oak; over the joinings, and on the surface of some mouldings, strips of parchment were glued. On this framework, covered with a gesso ground, various ornamental compartments and architectural enrichments are completed in relief. The work is divided into two similar portions; in the centre is a figure which appears to be intended for Christ, holding the globe, and in the act of blessing; an angel with a palm branch is on each side. The single figure on the left is St. Peter; the figure that should correspond on the right, and all the scripture subjects on that side, are gone. In the compartments to the left, portions of three subjects remain; one represents the Adoration of the Kings; another, apparently the Raising of Lazarus; the subject of the third is doubtful, though some figures remain; the fourth is destroyed. The small compartments in the architectural enrichments are filled with variously-coloured pieces of glass inlaid on tinfoil, and have still a brilliant effect. The compartments not occupied by figures were adorned with a deep blue glass resembling lapis lazuli, with gold lines of foliage executed on it. The smaller spaces and mouldings were enriched with cameos and gems; some of which still remain. This interesting work of art lay neglected in a Chapel near the North Transept, till Mr. Blore, with the permission of the Dean and Chapter, had it placed for security in the case in which it is now seen. It is supposed to have originally formed part of the decoration of the high altar. Its date may be fixed at the close of the thirteenth or beginning of the fourteenth century.
Between this Chapel and the next, is a monument of Mosaic work, erected for the children of Henry III. and Edward I. This certainly was once a rich and costly monument; for in the records of the Tower, there is the King’s order for erecting such a one in this place, and for allowing Master Simon de Wells five marks and a half to defray his expenses in bringing from the city a certain brass image to set upon the tomb of his daughter Catherine, and for paying to Simon de Gloucester, the King’s goldsmith, seventy marks, for a silver image for the like purpose.
On the left, before you enter the Chapel of St. Edmund, is a large stone, once plated with brass, under which was interred Sir John Galofre; he was famous in the reign of Richard II., for his wisdom and valour, and was prosecuted by the discontented Lords. He died at Wallingford, in Berkshire, in 1396.
The tombstone, with inscription on a brass plate of Dr. Billson, is seen on the floor, next that of Sir John Galofre. He died in 1616.
|1. John of Eltham, Son of Edward II. 1334.
2. Earl of Stafford, 1762.
3. Monck, Bishop of Hereford, 1661.
4. Children of Edward III., 1350.
5. Duchess of Suffolk, 1563.
6. Holles, Son of Earl Clare, 1662.
7. Lady Jane Seymour, 1560.
8. Lady Katharine Knollys, 1568.
9. Lady Elizabeth Russel, 1601.
10. Lord John Russel, 1584.
11. Sir Bernard Brocas, 1339.
|12. Sir Humphrey Bourgchier, 1471.|
13. Sir Richard Pecksall, 1571.
14. Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, 1617.
15. Earl of Pembroke, 1296.
16. Robert de Waldeby, 1397.
17. Duchess of Gloucester, 1399.
18. Countess of Stafford, 1693.
19. Dr. Ferne, Bishop of Chester, 1661.
20. Above the Duchess of Suffolk’s
Monument is one to Mary Countess of
Stafford and her Son, 1719.
n the left as you enter is a monument sacred to the memory of John of Eltham, second son of Edward II., and so called from Eltham, in Kent, the place of his nativity, where our English Kings had once a palace. His statue is of alabaster, the head encircled in a coronet of large and small leaves, remarkable for its being the first of the kind. His habit is that of an armed Knight. He died in Scotland, in 1334, at the age of nineteen, unmarried, though three different matches had been proposed to him; the last of which, to Mary, daughter of Ferdinand, King of Spain, he accepted, but lived not to consummate it.
At the foot of this is a monument with the following inscription:—“In this Chapel lies interred all that was mortal of the most illustrious and most benevolent John Paul Howard, Earl of Stafford, who in 1738 married Elizabeth, daughter of A. Ewens, of the county of Somerset, Esq. His heart was as truly great and noble as his high descent. Faithful to his God. A lover of his country. A relation to relations. A detester of detraction. A friend to mankind. Naturally generous and compassionate, his liberality and his charity to the poor were without bounds. Being snatched away suddenly by death, which he had long meditated and expected with constancy, he went to a better life the 1st of April, 1762, having lived sixty-one years nine months and six days.” The figures round the inscription are the ancient badges of honour belonging to the Stafford family, who descended by ten different marriages from[Pg 14] the royal blood of England and France.—Invented and stained by Chambers.
Next to this is a small table monument, on which lie the figures of William of Windsor, sixth son of Edward III., who died in his infancy; and of Blanch of the Tower, sister to William, who likewise died young, having obtained their surnames from the places of their nativity. About 1350.
Against the wall is a monument of Nicholas Monck, Provost of Eton, Bishop of Hereford, and brother of George Monck, Duke of Albemarle, &c. He died December 11, 1661, aged fifty.—Woodman, sculptor.
On an altar tomb lies the effigy of Lady Frances, Duchess of Suffolk. She was the daughter of the famous Charles Brandon, by Mary, the French Queen, daughter to Henry VII., and became herself Duchess of Suffolk, by marrying Henry Grey, then Marquis of Dorset, but upon her father’s decease created Duke of Suffolk, and afterwards beheaded for being concerned in dethroning Queen Mary. She died in 1558-9.
Against the wall above is a monument to the memory of Mary, Countess of Stafford, and of Henry, Earl of Stafford, her son, who died abroad in 1719, and was buried in this Chapel.
The next, representing a youth in Grecian armour sitting on a Greek altar, to the memory of Francis Holles, by John, Earl of Clare his afflicted father. This brave youth, after returning home from a campaign in Flanders, died August 12, 1622, aged eighteen. His epitaph is thus written:—
“What so thou hast of nature or of arts,
Youth, beauty, strength, or what excelling parts
Of mind and body, letters, arms, and worth,
His eighteen years beyond his years brought forth;
Then stand and read thyself within this glass,
How soon these perish, and thyself may pass:
Man’s life is measured by the work, not days;
Not aged sloth, but active youth, hath praise.”
—N. Stone, sculptor.
Next are two tablets, one to the memory of the Right Honourable the Lady Katherine Knollys, chief Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth, and wife to Sir Francis Knollys, Knt., Treasurer of her Highness’s household. She died January the 15th, 1568. This Lady Knollys and Lord Hunsdon, her brother, were the only children of William Carey, Esq., by Lady Mary, his wife, one of the daughters and heirs of Thomas Bulleyne, Earl of Wiltshire and Ormond, and sister to Anne Bulleyne, Queen of England, wife to Henry VIII., father and mother to Queen Elizabeth. What is farther remarkable, Lady Knollys’ only daughter was mother of the favourite Earl of Essex.
The other to Lady Jane Seymour, daughter of Edward, Duke of Somerset, who died March 19, 1560, aged nineteen.
On an altar sits, in a sleeping posture, the figure of Lady Elizabeth Russel, daughter of Lord John Russel, in alabaster. She pricked her finger with a needle, which is supposed to have caused a lock-jaw, and occasioned her death. On the plinth of[Pg 15] the pedestal is—“Dormit, non mortua est”—(She is not dead, but sleepeth). Died 1601.
Lord John Russel, second son of Francis, second Earl of Bedford, and his son Francis, by Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Anthony Cook, Knt., and widow of Sir Thomas Hoby, Knt. He died in 1584. He is represented in a cumbent posture, habited in his coronation robes, with his infant son at his feet. His lady was esteemed the Sappho of her age, being well versed in the learned languages, and an excellent poet; five of the epitaphs on this tomb are of her composition, of which three are in Latin, one in Greek, and the other in English, which is here transcribed as a specimen, the rest being to the same purport:—
“Right noble twice, by virtue and by birth,
Of heaven lov’d, and honour’d on the earth,
His country’s hope, his kindred’s chief delight,
My husband dear, more than this world’s light,
Death hath me reft. But I from death will take
His memory, to whom this tomb I make.
John was his name (ah, was! wretch, must I say?)
Lord Russel once, now my tear-thirsty clay.”
Next is a very ancient monument, representing a Gothic chapel, and in it the figure of a Knight in armour, in a cumbent posture, with his feet resting on a lion’s back. This was erected for Sir Bernard Brocas, of Baurepaire, in the county of Hants, Chamberlain to Ann, Queen of Richard II. But this Princess dying, and Richard falling under the displeasure of his people, who deposed him, Sir Bernard still adhered to his Royal master in his misfortunes, which cost him his life. He was publicly beheaded on Tower Hill, January, 1399, and here buried.
In front of this is a low altar tomb, on which has been, in plated brass, the figure of a Knight in armour, his head reclining upon his helmet, and one of his feet placed upon a leopard, the other on an eagle. By the Latin inscription this Knight was Humphrey Bourgchier, son and heir to John Bourgchier, Lord Berners, who espousing the cause of Edward IV. against the Earl of Warwick, was slain in the battle of Barnet Field, on Easter-day, 1471.
Next is the monument of Sir Richard Pecksall, Knt., Master of the Buckhounds to Queen Elizabeth; first married to Alianer, the daughter of William Paulett, Marquis of Winchester, by whom he had four daughters; and afterwards to Alianer, daughter of John Cotgrave. On the bases of the pillars are Latin verses thus translated:—
“Death can’t disjoin whom Christ hath joined in love;
Life leads to death, and death to life above.
In heaven’s a happier place; frail things despise:
Live well to gain in future life a prize.”
He died 1571.
The next is a most magnificent monument to the memory of Edward Talbot, eighth Earl of Shrewsbury, and his lady, Jane, eldest daughter and co-heiress of Cuthbert, Baron Ogle,[Pg 16] whose effigies in their robes lie on a black marble table, supported by a pedestal of alabaster. He died February 8, 1617, in the fifty-seventh year of his age.
In front of this is the gravestone to the memory of Edward, Lord Herbert, Baron of Cherbury, in England, and of Castle-Ireland, in Ireland, who died December 9, 1678, aged forty-six.
On the right is the ancient monument of William de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, lying in a cumbent posture on a chest of wainscot, placed upon a tomb of freestone; the figure is wood, covered originally with copper gilt, as was the chest on which it lies. In the year 1296, he was slain at Bayonne treacherously. His body was afterwards brought to England, and honourably buried in this Chapel, and an indulgence of one hundred days granted to all devout people who should offer up prayers for his soul.
On the floor is a tomb to Mary, Countess of Stafford, wife to the unfortunate Viscount Stafford, beheaded in the reign of Charles II., on Tower Hill, Dec. 29, 1680. She was lineally descended from the Barons and Earls of Stafford, and was daughter and heiress to the noble house of Buckingham. She died Jan. 1693.
The next is a tomb on which is a lady in a widow’s dress, with a barb and veil, cut in brass, round which is an inscription in old French, importing that Alianer de Bohun, daughter and heiress of Sir Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hertford, Essex, and Northampton, and wife to the mighty and noble Prince of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, Earl of Essex and Buckingham, son of Edward III., lies interred here. This lady, who was the greatest heiress in England, was deprived of her husband by the cruelty of his nephew, Richard II., who, jealous of his popularity, most treacherously betrayed him by a show of friendship; for coming to visit him at Plashy, a pleasant seat of his in Essex, and staying supper, in duty he thought to attend his Majesty to town; but at Stratford was suddenly surrounded by an ambush of armed men, who privately hurried him on board a ship, and carried him to Calais, where, by the King’s order, he was stifled between feather beds in 1397. After this melancholy circumstance, his lady spent the rest of her days in the nunnery at Barking, and died October 3, 1399; from whence her remains were brought and here interred.
There is also an Archbishop buried here, as appears by a very antique figure in a mass habit, engraven on a brass plate, and placed on a flat stone in the pavement, over the remains of Robert de Waldeby, who, as appears by the inscription, was first an Augustine monk, and attended Edward the Black Prince into France, where, being young, he prosecuted his studies, and made a surprising progress in natural and moral philosophy, physic, the languages, and in the canon law; and, being likewise an elegant preacher and sound divine, was made Divinity Professor in the University of Toulouse, where he continued till called by Richard II. to the Bishopric of Man; from whence he was removed to the Archbishopric of Dublin; but not liking that country, upon the first vacancy he was recalled, and [Pg 17]advanced to the see of Chichester, and afterwards to the Archbishopric of York. Such is the history of this great man, who died May 29, 1397, as gathered from an inscription formerly very legible, but now almost obliterated.
At the foot of Waldeby is a blue marble slab, which covers the remains of Dr. Henry Ferne, inlaid with five shields in brass, surrounded with an inscription. He was Chaplain Extraordinary to Charles I.; by Charles II. made Bishop of Chester, which he lived to enjoy about five weeks, dying March 16, 1661.
Also a black marble slab which covers the remains of Edward George Earle Lytton Bulwer Lytton. Born 25th May, 1803; died 18th January, 1873. 1831-1841, Member of Parliament for St. Ives and for Lincoln; 1838, Baronet of the United Kingdom; 1852-1856, Knight of the Shire of the County of Hertford; 1858, one of her Majesty’s Principal Secretaries of State, Knight Grand Cross of St. Michael and George; 1866, Baron Lytton of Knebworth. Laborious and distinguished in all fields of intellectual activity, indefatigable and ardent in the cultivation and love of letters. His genius as an author was displayed in the most varied forms, which have connected indissolubly with every department of the literature of his time the name of Edward Bulwer Lytton.
In this Chapel lies interred Abbot Crokesley, who died July 18, 1258.
On the right, on leaving this Chapel, is a fine bust of Richard Tufton, third son of Sir John Tufton, Bart., and brother of Nicholas E. Thanet. He died October 4, 1631.
|1. Lady Cecil, 1591.
2. Lady Clifford, 1679.
3. Countess of Beverley, 1812.
4. Duchess of Somerset, 1587.
5. Westmoreland Family, 1618.
6. Baron Carew, 1470.
7. Nicholas Bagenall, 1688.
8. Lady Burleigh, 1589, and the
Countess Oxford, 1588.
9. Dudley, Bishop of Durham,
1483, and Lady St. John, 1614.
|10. Daughter of Christopher Harley,|
Ambassador of France: her
heart in the Urn, 1665.
11. Lady Ross, 1591.
12. Marchioness of Winchester, 1586.
13. Duchess of Northumberland, 1776.
14. Philippa, Duchess of York, 1433.
15. Sir George Villiers, and his lady,
Countess of Buckingham, 1605
16. Sir Humphrey Stanley, 1505.
n the left, as you enter this Chapel, is a monument erected for Lady Cecil, a Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth, and daughter of Lord Cobham, who having married Sir Robert Cecil, son of William Lord Burleigh, Treasurer of England, died in childbed two years after, viz. in 1591.
Next is a monument on which a long inscription in English is fairly written, setting forth the descent and marriage of Lady Jane Clifford, youngest daughter of the Duke of Somerset, and wife of Charles, Lord Clifford and Dungarvon, who died Nov. 23, 1679, aged forty-two.
On a small tablet is this inscription, with the motto—“Esperance de Dieu. Isabella Susannah, wife of Algernon Percy, Earl of Beverley, died Jan. 24, 1812, aged sixty-one.”
On a gravestone in front of this monument, engraved on brass, is the figure of Sir Humphrey Stanley, knighted by Henry VII., for his gallant behaviour under his cousin, Lord Stanley, at the battle of Bosworth Field. He died March 22, 1505.
Near this is the monument of Ann, Duchess of Somerset, wife of Edward, Duke of Somerset, brother of Henry VIII.’s third wife, Queen Jane Seymour, and uncle to Edward VI., and sometime Regent during his minority, but afterwards disgraced; accused of treasonable and felonious practices against the King and Council, tried by his Peers, acquitted of treason, but condemned of felony in levying armed men contrary to law, for which crime he was sentenced to be hanged; but, in respect to[Pg 19] his quality, was beheaded on Tower Hill, Jan. 22, 1551. She died April 16, 1587, at Hanworth, aged ninety.
On the right, Sir George and Lady Elizabeth Fane, who are represented kneeling on each side a desk. She was the daughter of Robert, Baron Spencer, of Wormleighton, and wife of Sir George Fane, of Buston, in Kent, remarkable, says her inscription, for her ancient descent, but more for her own virtues. She died in 1618, aged twenty-eight.
Beneath this is an ancient monument placed over Nicholas, Baron Carew, and the Lady Margaret, his wife, daughter of Lord John Dinham, and, it is thought, mother of Sir Nicholas Carew, beheaded in Henry VIII.’s time, for holding a correspondence with Cardinal de la Pole. He died December 6, 1470, she December 13, the same year.
In the front of this is a pyramid erected to the memory of Nicholas Bagenall, a child of two months old, overlaid by his nurse, the 7th of March, 1688.
Next to this is one of the most magnificent monuments in the Abbey, erected by the great Lord Burleigh to the memory of Mildred, his wife, and their daughter Lady Ann, Countess of Oxford. On this tomb is a Latin inscription, explaining the figures, and setting forth their respective virtues and accomplishments, particularly those of Lady Burleigh, who, says the inscription, “was well versed in the sacred writers, and those chiefly of the Greeks, as Basil the Great, Chrysostom, Gregory, Nazianzen, &c.” She gave a scholarship to St. John’s College, in Oxford, legacies to the poor of Romford, where she was born, and to those of Cheshunt, where she lived, and left money at both places to be distributed every year to poor tradesmen. She died, after being forty years married, April 4, 1589, aged sixty-three. Her daughter Ann married, at fifteen, Edward Vere, Earl of Oxford, and died June 5, 1588, seventeen years after, leaving three daughters.
Next to this is a monument to the memory of William de Dudley, alias Sutton, son of John, Lord Dudley; he was Archdeacon of Middlesex, Dean of Windsor, and, in 1476, Lord Bishop of Durham. On the tomb was inlaid a brass figure, in episcopal vestments. He died in 1483.
The effigy of Lady St. John lies in this recess. She was daughter of Sir William Dormer, and widow of John, Lord St. John, of Bletsoe. She died on the 23rd of March, 1614.
Near this is a pyramid to the memory of Anna Sophia Harley, a child of a year old, daughter of the Hon. Christopher Harley, Ambassador from the French King, whose heart, as appears by the inscription, he caused to be enclosed in a cup, and placed upon the top of the pyramid. She died in 1601.
The next is a monument to the memory of Lady Winifred, married first to Sir Richard Sackville, Knt., and afterwards to John Paulet, Marquis of Winchester. The Latin epitaph imports, that she was descended of illustrious parents, and married first a gentleman of an ancient house, whose ancestors were renowned before the Conqueror’s time; that her second husband[Pg 20] was of noble blood; and that being severed from both by death, her soul will rejoice in Christ for ever. She died in 1586.
Above is an ancient monument to the memory of Lady Ross, daughter of Edward, Earl of Rutland. She died April 11, 1591.
Next to this is a monument to the memory of the late Duchess of Northumberland. The figures on each side are Faith and Hope; and those above are two weeping Genii over her urn, mourning for her loss. The inscription, after reciting her Grace’s illustrious descent and titles, concludes with her character, who, “having lived long an ornament of courts, an honour to her country, a pattern to the great, a protectress to the poor, ever distinguished for the most tender affection for her family and friends, she died December 5, 1776, aged sixty, universally beloved, revered, and lamented. The Duke of Northumberland, inconsolable for the loss of the best of wives, hath erected this monument to her beloved memory.”—Read, sculptor.
Against the screen is a Gothic monument with the effigy of a lady in robes, very antique. The lady, by the inscription, appears to be Philippa, second daughter and co-heiress of John, Lord Mohun, of Dunstar; married first to Sir Walter Fitzwalter, Knt., secondly to Sir John Galofre, Knt., and lastly to Edward Plantagenet, Duke of York, who was slain in the battle of Agincourt, 25th of October, 1415. She died in 1431, without issue.
In the middle of the Chapel is a fine monument to the memory of Sir George Villiers, who died Jan. 4, 1605, and his lady, Mary Beaumont, created Countess of Buckingham in 1618. She died on April 19, 1632, aged sixty-two, whose son, by the favour of James I., was advanced to the dignity of the Duke of Buckingham.—Stone, sculptor.
Katharine Valois, Queen of Henry V., who died at Bermondsey Abbey, Southwark, in January, 1437, was buried in the Chapel of our Lady at the east end of the Abbey, where she remained till her grandson, Henry VII., built his chapel, when her remains were placed near to her husband in a chest, and finally deposited under Sir George Villiers’ tomb in 1776.
In this Chapel lies interred, Thomas Sprat, Bishop of Rochester, and Dean of Westminster, who died May 20, 1713. Also his son, Thomas Sprat, Archdeacon of Rochester, who died May 10, 1720, aged forty-one. Also many other persons of distinction, of the Percy, Seymour, and Burleigh families, which we have not space to insert.
At the door of this Chapel was buried that great and learned antiquary, Sir Henry Spelman, who died in 1641.
On leaving this Chapel, opposite to you, there is affixed to the corner of Henry V.’s Chantry, a bust with Latin inscription, to the memory of Sir Robert Aiton, Knt., who, in the reign of James I., was in great reputation for his writings, especially in poetry. He died in 1638.
On the right, against the screen of the Chapel of St. Nicholas, is a monument erected to the memory of Sir Thomas Ingram, Knt., Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, and Privy Councillor to Charles II. He died February 13, 1671.
|1. Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, 1628.
2. Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham, 1720.
3. The Duke de Montpensier, 1807.
4. An Urn containing the heart of Esme Stuart,
son of the Duke of Richmond, 1661.
5. Lodowick Stuart, Duke of Richmond, 1623.
6. Henry VII. and Queen, 1503 and 1509.
7. The Royal Vault of George II., 1760.
8. Augusta Elizabeth Frederica, 5th daughter of
Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin and Kincardine.
The beloved wife of Arthur Penrhyn Stanley,
Dean of this Collegiate Church. For thirty years
the devoted servant of Queen Victoria and the
Queen’s mother and children; for twelve years
the unwearied friend of the people of Westminster
and the inseparable partner of her husband’s toils
and hopes, uniting many hearts from many lands,
and drawing all to things above. Born April 3,
1822. Died March 1, 1876.
“We know that we have passed from death unto
life because we love the brethren.”
The Gates are Brass.
he ascent to this Chapel is from the east end of the Abbey, by steps of grey marble, under a stately portico, which leads to the gates opening to the body, or nave of the Chapel. Before you enter you may observe a door on each hand, opening into the side aisles, for it is composed of a nave and side aisles, every way answering to the plan of a cathedral. The gates by which you enter the nave are all well worth your observation; they are of brass, most curiously wrought, in the manner of frame work, and the panels being filled with the portcullis and crown; three fleur-de-lis; falcon and fetterlock; the union of the roses of York and Lancaster entwined in a crown; the thistle and crown; the initial R. H. and a crown, and the three lions of England. Being entered, your eye will naturally be directed to the lofty ceiling, which is in stone, wrought with such astonishing variety of figures, as no description can reach. The stalls are of brown wainscot, with Gothic canopies, most beautifully carved, as are the seats, with strange devices, which nothing on wood is now equal to. The pavement is of black and white marble, done at the charge of Dr. Killigrew, once Prebendary of this Abbey, as appears by two inscriptions, one on a plate of brass, infixed in the rise towards the founder’s tomb, the other cut in the pavement. The east view from the entrance presents you with the brass chapel and tomb of the founder; and round it, where the east end forms a semicircle, are the Chapels of the Dukes of Buckingham and Richmond.[Pg 22] The walls of the nave and aisles are wrought in the most curious figures imaginable, and contain one hundred and twenty large statues of Patriarchs, Saints, Martyrs, and Confessors, placed in niches, under which are angels, supporting imperial crowns, all of them esteemed so curious, that the best masters have travelled from abroad to copy them. The windows, which are fourteen in the upper, and nineteen in the lower range, including the side aisles and portico, were formerly of painted or diapered glass, having in every pane a white rose, the badge of Lancaster, or an , the initial letter of the founder’s name, and portcullises, the badge of the Beauforts crowned, of which a few only are now remaining. In the upper window, east end, Henry VII. is represented in stained glass. The ceiling is of stone, and persons can walk between the roof and ceiling, where there is a spacious room, lighted by Gothic openings through the wall.
General Admeasurement of the Interior.
|Length of the Nave||103||9|
|Breadth of ditto||35||9|
|Height of the Nave to vortex of the Vaulting||60||7|
|Length of the Aisles||62||5|
|Breadth of ditto||17||2|
|Entire Breadth of the Chapel||70||1|
|Height of West Window||45||0|
|Breadth of ditto||31||0|
Entrance Porch or Vestibule.
|Extent from North to South||28||4|
|1. Lady Margaret Douglas, 1577.
2. Mary, Queen of Scots, 1587.
3. Margaret, Countess of Richmond, 1509.
4. Lady Walpole, 1737.
5. General Monck, Duke of Albemarle, 1670.
In front of this Monument is the Old Royal
Vault, containing Charles II., 1685, King
William III., 1702, Prince George of
Denmark, 1708, and Queen Anne, 1714.
Here is a handsome monument, on which lies a lady finely robed, to Lady Margaret Douglas, daughter of Margaret, Queen of Scots, by the Earl of Angus. This lady, as the English inscription says, had to her great-grandfather, Edward IV.; to her grandfather, Henry VII.; to her uncle, Henry VIII.; to her[Pg 23] cousin-german, Edward VI.; to her brother, James V. of Scotland; to her son, Henry I. of Scotland; to her grandson, James VI.; having to her great-grandmother and grandmother, two Queens, both named Elizabeth; to her mother, Margaret, Queen of Scots; to her aunt, Mary, the French Queen; to her cousins-german, Mary and Elizabeth, Queens of England; to her niece and daughter-in-law, Mary, Queen of Scots. This lady, who was very beautiful, was privately married in 1537, to Thomas Howard, son of the Duke of Norfolk, upon which account both of them were committed to the Tower by Henry VIII., her uncle, for affiancing without his consent, and he died in prison; but this Margaret being released, was soon after married to Matthew, Earl of Lennox, by whom she had the handsome Lord Darnley, father of James I., whose effigy is foremost on the tomb, in a kneeling posture. There are seven children besides round the tomb of Margaret, of whom only three are mentioned in history, the rest dying young. This great lady died March 10, 1577.
Next is the magnificent monument to Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, erected by her son, James I., soon after his accession to the English throne. This princess was born Dec. 7, 1542. She was daughter and heiress of James V. of Scotland, who, dying when she was only a week old, succeeded to the crown. Married first, April 28, 1558, at fifteen years of age, Francis, Dauphin of France; secondly, Henry, Lord Darnley, July 29, 1565; and thirdly, Bothwell. Her subjects becoming offended, she was compelled to resign her crown to her infant son, James, by Lord Darnley; she eventually sought refuge in England, but Queen Elizabeth committed her as prisoner to the Earl of Shrewsbury at his houses of Hardwicke and Chatsworth, in Derbyshire, where she remained seventeen years a captive. She was thence transferred to the custody of Sir Amias Paulet, and shortly afterwards tried and condemned for engaging in a treasonable correspondence with the Queen’s enemies. She was beheaded in the hall of Fotheringay Castle, in Northamptonshire, February 8, 1587. Her remains were first buried in Peterborough Cathedral; but James had her body privately removed to this Church, in Oct., 1612, under the superintendence of Neile, then Dean of Westminster, and buried in a vault beneath this monument.—Stone, sculptor.
Henry, Prince of Wales, eldest son of James I., born Feb. 19, 1593, and after giving great promise of a blessing to his country, died of a fever at St. James’s palace, Nov. 6, 1612, in the 19th year of his age, and was buried by the side of his grandmother.
In the same tomb are the remains of Arabella Stewart, four children of Charles I.: Elizabeth of Bohemia, daughter of James I.; Prince Rupert her son; Ann Hyde, first wife of James II., and ten of his infant children; William, Duke of Gloucester, son of Ann, and seventeen of her infant children.
The next is the monument of Margaret, Countess of Richmond, mother of Henry VII., by Edmund Tudor, son of Owen ap Tudor, who married the widow of Henry V. of England, and daughter of Charles VI. of France. This lady was afterwards married to Humphrey Stafford, a younger son of Humphrey,[Pg 24] Duke of Buckingham, and lastly, to Thomas Lord Stanley, Earl of Derby; but by the two last had no children. The inscription mentions the charities of this excellent Princess; such as giving a salary to two monks of Westminster; founding a grammar-school at Wimbourne, and two colleges, one to Christ, the other to St. John his disciple, at Cambridge. Of this lady’s bounty, forty poor women partake every Saturday afternoon, in the College Hall; each of them has twopence, one pound and a half of beef, and a fourpenny loaf of bread. She died in July, 1509, in the reign of her grandson, Henry VIII.—Torrigiano, sculptor.
Opposite is a figure to the memory of Lady Walpole, with the following inscription:—“To the memory of Catherine, Lady Walpole, eldest daughter of John Shorter, Esq., of Bybrook, in Kent, and first wife of Sir Robert Walpole, afterwards Earl of Orford, Horace, her youngest son, consecrated this monument. She had beauty and wit, without vice or vanity, and cultivated the arts without affectation: she was devout, though without bigotry to any sect; and was without prejudice to any party, though the wife of a minister, whose power she esteemed but when she could employ it to benefit the miserable, or to reward the meritorious; she loved a private life, though born to shine in public: and was an ornament to Courts, untainted by them. She died August the 20th, 1737.”—Valory, sculptor.
At the end, a monument to the memories of George Monck, and Christopher, his son, both Dukes of Albemarle; also, Elizabeth, Duchess Dowager of Albemarle and Montague, relict of Christopher. George Monck, Duke of Albemarle, was younger son of Sir Thomas Monck, born at Potheridge, Devon, December 6, 1608. He entered the army as a volunteer in 1625, under Sir Richard Grenville. At the death of Cromwell he took an active part in the restoration of Charles II., for which he was loaded with honours, and died in the esteem of his sovereign, in 1670, in the sixty-second year of his age.—Scheemakers, sculptor.
At this end is the Royal Vault, as it is called, in which are deposited the remains of Charles II., who died February 2, 1685; William III., who died March 8, 1702, and Queen Mary, his consort, who died December 28, 1694; Queen Anne, died August 1, 1714; and Prince George, who died Oct. 28, 1708.
From this aisle you enter the nave of the Chapel, the stone ceiling of which is curious, and the gates are brass. Here were installed, with great ceremony, the Knights of the most Honourable Order of the Bath, which order was revived in the reign of George I., in 1725. In their stalls are placed brass plates of their arms, &c., and over them hang their banners, swords, and helmets. Under the stalls are seats for the esquires; each Knight has three, whose arms are engraven on brass plates. The small shelving stool which the seats of the stalls form when turned up is called a miserere. On these the monks and canons of ancient times, with the assistance of their elbows on the upper part of the stalls, half supported themselves during certain parts of their[Pg 25] long offices, not to be obliged always to stand or kneel. It is so contrived, that if the body became supine by sleep, it naturally fell down, and the person who rested upon it was thrown forward on the middle of the choir.
In the centre, between the Knights’ stalls, is the Royal Vault, where their Majesties George II. and Queen Caroline are buried; the Prince and Princess of Wales, two Dukes of Cumberland, the Duke of York, Prince Frederick William, the Princesses Amelia, Caroline, Elizabeth, Louisa, Anne; and the two infant Princes, Alfred and Octavius, children of George III., were removed in January, 1820, to the new royal vault at Windsor.
What is chiefly to be admired here, as well for antiquity as fine workmanship, is the magnificent tomb of Henry VII. and Elizabeth his Queen, the last of the house of York who wore the English crown. This tomb stands in the body of the Chapel, enclosed in a curious chantry of cast brass, most admirably designed and executed, and ornamented with statues, of which those only of St. George, St. James, St. Bartholomew, and St. Edward, are now remaining. Within it are the effigies of the Royal pair, in their robes of state, lying close to each other, on a tomb of black marble, the head whereof is supported by a red dragon, the ensign of Cadwallader, the last King of the Britons, from whom Henry VII. was fond of tracing his descent, and the foot by an angel. There are likewise other devices alluding to his family and alliances; such as portcullises, signifying his relation to the Beauforts by his mother’s side; roses twisted and crowned, in memory of the union of the two Royal Houses of York and Lancaster. There are six compartments, three on the north, and as many on the south side of its base. The first compartment on the south side contains the figures of the Virgin Mary with our Lord in her arms, and that of the Archangel St. Michael. The figures in the scales, though now mutilated, were meant for personal representations of moral good and evil; the Saint is weighing them in his balance; the good preponderates; but the Devil, who is represented by the figure under his feet, is reaching with one of his clawed feet at the scale which contains the figure of Evil, in order, by the addition of his own force, to render that the heaviest. The first figure in the second compartment is doubtless intended for St. John the Baptist, he having a book in his left hand, with an Agnus Dei impressed upon it. The other is a figure of St. John the Evangelist, and the figure of the eagle. The first figure of the third compartment is intended for St. George; the other figure, from the pig’s head visible near him, the frequent symbol by which he is denoted, is intended for St. Anthony of Vienna. The first figure in the fourth compartment, north side, is meant for Mary Magdalen, supposing her to hold the box of ointment. The other figure represents St. Barbara, who was the daughter of a Pagan, and dwelt with her father in a certain tower. To this tower adjoined a garden, in which the father determined to build a bath, with the necessary accommodation of rooms, and therein to make windows to the[Pg 26] number of two only. Being about to undertake a journey, he left his instructions with the artificers, which his daughter presumed to vary, by directing them instead of two to make three. Upon her father’s return, he inquired into the reason of this deviation from his orders; and being told that in allusion to three persons of the Holy Trinity his daughter had directed it, he found that she was become a convert to Christianity; and being exasperated thereat, stimulated the Emperor to a persecution of the Christians, in which she became a martyr to the faith. The first figure in the fifth compartment is intended for St. Christopher, bearing our Saviour upon his shoulder. The other figure is thought to be St. Anne. In the sixth and last compartment, the first figure is intended for King Edward the Confessor; the other figure is a Benedictine Monk. Henry VII. died April 21st, 1509, and his Queen, February 11th, 1502.—The work of Torrigiano.
Edward VI., grandson of Henry VII., who died July 6th, 1553, in the sixteenth year of his age, and seventh of his reign. On the holy table is the following inscription in Latin:—“In place of the ancient altar, destroyed in the civil wars, to the honour of God and in pious memory of Edward VI., who is buried beneath, this holy table, in a gentler age, was placed by Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, D.D., Dean of Westminster. 1870.”
On the south side of the tomb of Henry VII., in a small chapel, is a monument to Lewis Stuart, Duke of Richmond, and Frances, his wife. The brass effigies are represented as lying on a marble table, under a canopy of brass, curiously wrought, and supported by the figures of Faith, Hope, Charity, and Prudence. On the top is a fine figure of Fame, taking her flight, and resting only on her toe. This illustrious nobleman was son to Esme Stuart, Duke of Lennox, and grandson of James, nephew of James I., to whom he was First Gentleman of the Bedchamber and Privy Councillor, a Knight of the Garter, and Ambassador to France on behalf of Scotland. He died Feb. 16, 1623. His lady was daughter of Thomas, Lord Howard of Bindon, son of the Duke of Norfolk, by Elizabeth, daughter of the Duke of Buckingham. She died Oct. 8, 1639.—You will likewise see here a pyramid, supporting a small urn, in which is contained the heart of Esme Stuart, son of the Duke of Richmond and Lennox, by Lady Mary, daughter of the Duke of Buckingham. He died in France, August 15, 1661, aged eleven years, and was succeeded in all his titles by Charles, Earl of Lichfield, his cousin-german, who died December 12, 1672, and is here interred.
This monument was originally of great splendour, hardly surpassed by any in the Abbey, being wholly composed of jet black marble and bronze gilt. The combined effects of neglect, corrosion, and spoliation had at last rendered it an unsightly wreck, when, in 1874, its almost complete restoration was undertaken by the direction and at the sole cost of the Earl of Darnley, who is a lineal descendant in the female line of the ancient Stuart family.
[Pg 27]A monument to the Duke de Montpensier, who is represented with ducal coronet and robes, and his remains are beneath. On the front of this tomb is the following inscription:—“The most illustrious and Serene Prince, Anthony Philip, Duke of Montpensier, descended from the Kings of France, second son of the Duke of Orleans, from his earliest youth bred to arms, and even in chains unsubdued; of an erect mind in adversity, and in prosperity not elated; a constant patron of the liberal arts, polite, pleasant, and courteous to all, nor ever wanting in the duties of brother, neighbour, friend, or in the love of his country. After experiencing the vicissitudes of fortune, he was received with great hospitality by the English nation, and at length rests in this asylum for kings. Born July 3, 1775. Died May 18, 1807, aged thirty-one. Louis Philip, Duke of Orleans, erects this monument in memory of the best of brothers.”—Sir Richard Westmacott, sculptor.
The next is an excellent monument to the memory of John Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham, where, on an altar, lies his Grace’s effigy, in a Roman habit, with his Duchess, Catherine, natural daughter of the Duke of York, afterwards James II., sitting at his feet weeping. In the reign of Charles II. as the inscription sets forth, he was General of the Dutch troop of horse, Governor of Kingston Castle upon Hull, and First Gentleman of the Bedchamber; in that of James II., Lord Chamberlain; and in that of Queen Anne, Lord Privy Seal, and President of the Council. He was in his youth an excellent poet, and, in his more advanced years, a fine writer. His love of poetry is conspicuous, by the esteem and regard he had for the two great masters of it, who flourished in his own time, Dryden and Pope, to the first of whom he extended his friendship, even after death, by erecting a monument to his memory. To the latter he did honour, by writing a poem in his praise. Over his Grace’s effigy are inscribed in Latin, sentences to the following import:—“I lived doubtful, not dissolute—I die unresolved, not unresigned. Ignorance and error are incident to human nature. I trust in an almighty and all good God. O! thou Being of Beings, have compassion on me;” and underneath it.—“for my King often, for my Country ever.” His Grace died in the seventy-fourth year of his age, Feb. 24, 1720, leaving the publication of his works to the care of Mr. Pope.—Scheemakers, sculptor.
The remains of James I. are in the tomb of Henry VII. This Prince reigned over Scotland 59 years, and over England 22 years. He was son to Lord Darnley, by Mary Queen of Scots. He died March 16, 1625, aged 61, after a long and peaceable reign. The remains of his Queen, Ann of Denmark, are in the tomb in front of the monument of Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham. She died March 2, 1619.
On the north side of Henry the Seventh’s Chantry, in a chapel, is a very antique monument, decorated with several emblematical figures in brass, gilt, the principal of which is Neptune, in a pensive posture, with his trident reversed, and Mars with his head crouched. These support the tomb on which lie the effigies[Pg 28] of George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, and his Duchess, the great favourite of James I. and Charles I., who fell a sacrifice to national resentment, and perished by the hands of Felton, August 23, 1628, who had no other motive of action but the clamours of the people. Catherine, his Duchess, was interred in the same vault, April 8, 1643.
Cromwell, four of his family, and six officers were buried in the vault at the end of this chapel. Their remains were removed at the Restoration.
The following are also interred in this portion of the Chapel:—John Campbell, Duke of Argyle and Greenwich, 1743. Edward VI., Elizabeth Claypole, second daughter of Oliver Cromwell, 1658.
|1. Monument to Queen Elizabeth, 1602, and
her Sister Queen Mary, 1558.
2. Mary, Daughter of James the First, 1607.
3. Edward the Fifth and Duke of York, 1483.
4. Sophia, Daughter of James the First, 1606.
5. Marquis of Halifax, 1695.
6. Earl of Halifax, 1715.
From hence you pass to the North Aisle, by a door on the right hand, where is a monument to the memory of Charles Mountague, the first of this family that bore the title of Lord Halifax, son of George Mountague, of Horton. In the reigns of William III. and George I. he was placed at the head of the Treasury, where, undertaking the reformation of the coin, which in those days was most infamously clipped, to the great loss of the public, he restored it to its proper value. For these and other public services, he was first created Baron, and then Earl of Halifax, and died May 19, 1715.
In front of this monument was buried Joseph Addison; to mark the spot a slab of white marble, inlaid with solid brass letters and devices, has recently been placed by the Earl of Ellesmere. The very appropriate epitaph was the effusion of Addison’s friend and contemporary, Thomas Tickle:—
“Ne’er to these chambers, where the mighty rest,
Since their foundation, came a nobler guest;
Nor e’er was to the bowers of bliss conveyed
A fairer spirit, or more welcome shade.
Oh, gone for ever! take this long adieu,
And sleep in peace, next thy lov’d Mountague.”
Egerton, Earl of Ellesmere, Born 1672, Died 1719.
P.C. 1849. Poole, mason.
[Pg 29]Also one to the memory of Sir George Saville, created by Charles I. Baron of Eland, and Viscount Halifax, afterwards Earl, and lastly Marquis of Halifax. He was Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal for some time in the reigns of Charles II., James II., and William III.; and, at the beginning of the reign of James II., he was, for a few months, Lord President of the Council. He died April 5, 1695.
Here is the lofty and magnificent monument of Queen Elizabeth, erected to her memory by James I., her successor. The inscription speaks her character, high descent, and the memorable acts of her glorious reign:—“That she was the mother of her country, and the patroness of religion and learning; that she was herself skilled in many languages; adorned with every excellence of mind and person, and endowed with princely virtues beyond her sex; that in her reign, religion was restored to its primitive purity; peace was established; money restored to its just value; domestic insurrections quelled; France delivered from intestine troubles; the Netherlands supported; the Spanish Armada defeated; Ireland, almost lost by the secret contrivances of Spain, recovered; the revenues of both Universities improved, by a law of provisions, and, in short, all England enriched; that she was a most prudent Governess, forty-five years a virtuous and triumphant Queen, truly religious, and blessed in all her great affairs; and that after a calm and resigned death, in the seventieth year of her age, she left the mortal part to be deposited in this Church, which she established upon a new footing. She died March 24, 1602, aged seventy.” Queen Mary, whose reign preceded that of Queen Elizabeth, was interred here likewise. She died Nov. 17, 1558.—Stone, sculptor.
At the end of this Aisle is a small tomb over which is a figure of a child, erected to the memory of Mary, third daughter of James I., born at Greenwich in 1605; and soon afterwards committed to the care of Lady Knevet, in whose house at Stainwell she died, December 19, 1607, at two years old.
And a child in a cradle, erected to the memory of Sophia, fourth daughter of the same King, born at Greenwich in 1606, and died in three days.
Against the end wall is an altar, raised by Charles II. to the memory of Edward V. and his brother, who, by their treacherous uncle, Richard III., were murdered in the Tower. The inscription, which is in Latin, gives a particular account of their sad catastrophe, and is in English thus:—“Here lie the relics of Edward V., King of England, and Richard, Duke of York, who, being confined in the Tower, and there stifled with pillows, were privately and meanly buried, by order of their perfidious uncle, Richard, the usurper. Their bones, long inquired after and wished for, after laying 191 years in the rubbish of the stairs (i.e., those lately leading to the Chapel of the White Tower), were, on the 17th of July, 1674, by undoubted proofs, discovered, being buried deep in that place. Charles II., pitying their unhappy fate, ordered these unfortunate Princes to be laid among the relics of their predecessors, in the year[Pg 30] 1678, and the thirtieth of his reign.” It is remarkable, that Edward was born November 4, 1471, in the sanctuary belonging to this Church, whither his mother took refuge during the contest between the houses of York and Lancaster; at eleven years of age, upon the death of his father, 1483, he was proclaimed King; and on the 23rd of June, in the same year, was murdered in the manner already related. Richard, his brother, was born May 28, 1474, and married, while a child, to Ann Mowbray, heiress of Norfolk.
In front of Queen Elizabeth’s tomb are the bodies of George Monck, Duke of Albemarle, 1670. Edward, Earl of Sandwich, 1672.
|1. Sir Henry Belasyse, 1717.
2. Colonel Macleod.
3. Sir John Puckering, 1596.
4. Sir James Fullerton.
5. Lord Chancellor Bromley, 1587.
6. Sir Dudley Carleton, 1631.
|7. Countess of Sussex, 1589.|
8. Lord and Lady Cottington, 1631.
9. James Watt, 1819.
10. Sir Giles Daubeny, 1507.
11. Lewis Robsart, Standard Bearer
to Henry V., 1431.
|Lord Delaval and Lord Tyrconnel’s Banners hang over the place of their interment.|
n your left hand is a monument to the memory of Sir Henry Belasyse, Knt., Lieutenant-General, some time Governor of Galway in Ireland, and afterwards of Berwick-on-Tweed, in the reign of William III. He died December 16, 1717, aged sixty-nine. Bridget, wife of his only son, W. Belasyse, Esq., died July 28, 1735, aged twenty.—Scheemakers, sculptor.
Next this, one—“To the memory of Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Macleod, who fell at the siege of Badajos, aged twenty-six years. This monument is erected by his brother officers. In Lieutenant-Colonel Macleod, of the forty-third Regiment, who was killed in the breach, his Majesty has sustained the loss of an officer who was an ornament to his profession, and was capable of rendering the most important services to his country.” Vide Marquis Wellington’s Dispatch, 8th April, 1812.—Nollekens, sculptor.
[Pg 31]Sir John Puckering, Knt., and his Lady, remarkable, as his inscription sets forth, for his knowledge in the laws, as well as piety, wisdom, and many other virtues. He was Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of England four years, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, in which office he died, April 30, 1596. His epitaph, in Latin, over his effigy, is thus translated:—
“The public cares and laws engaged my breast;
To live was toilsome, but to die is rest.
Wealth, maces, guards, crowns, titles, things that fade,
The prey of time and sable death are made.
VIRTUE INSPIRES MEN.
His wife this statue rears to her loved spouse,
The test of constancy and marriage vows.”
“I trust I shall see the Lord in the land of the living.”
Sir James Fullerton and his Lady, with an epitaph:—“Here lie the remains of Sir James Fullerton, Knight, First Gentleman of the Bedchamber to Charles the First (Prince and King), a generous rewarder of all virtue, a severe reprover of all vice, a professed renouncer of all vanity. He was a firm pillar to the Commonwealth, a faithful patron to the Catholic Church, a fair pattern to the British Court. He lived to the welfare of his country, to the honour of his Prince, to the glory of his God. He died fuller of faith than of fear, fuller of consolation than of pains, fuller of honour than of days.”
In the middle of this Chapel is a table monument, on which lie the effigies of Sir Giles Daubeny, created Lord Daubeny in the first year of the reign of Henry VII., and Dame Elizabeth, his wife. He seems to have been a man of great authority in the reign of Henry VII., as he was Lord Lieutenant of Calais, in France, Lord Chamberlain to his Majesty, Knight of the Most noble Order of the Garter, and father of Henry Lord Daubeny, the first and last Earl of Bridgewater of that surname, by Elizabeth, of the ancient family of the Arundels, in Cornwall. He died May 22, 1507, and his lady in 1500.
James Watt: he is represented with compasses forming designs, seated on an oblong pedestal. The inscription as follows:—“Not to perpetuate a name, which must endure while the peaceful arts flourish, but to show that mankind have learned to honour those who best deserve their gratitude, the king, his ministers, and many of the nobles and commoners of the realm, raised this monument to James Watt, who, directing the force of an original genius, early exercised in philosophical research, to the improvement of the steam-engine, enlarged the resources of his country, increased the power of man, and rose to an eminent place among the most illustrious followers of science, and the real benefactors of the world. Born at Greenock, 1736, died at Heathfield, in Staffordshire, 1819.”—Chantrey, sculptor.
Sir Thomas Bromley, Knight, Privy Councillor to Queen Elizabeth, and eight years Chancellor, in which office he died, April 12, 1587, to the grief of all good men. The eight children depicted on this tomb, were all by his Lady, Elizabeth, of the family of Fortescue.
[Pg 32]Sir Dudley Carleton, afterwards made Viscount Dorchester, for his eminent services to Charles I. and his father, both abroad and at home. He was a person versed in the languages, customs, and laws of most of the European nations, and was entrusted both by James I. and his successors, with the most important foreign negotiations. After the death of James I., he was sent to Holland, and was the last deputy who voted in the Assembly of the States, which great privilege the crown of England possessed from the beginning of Queen Elizabeth’s reign to this period. He died Feb. 15, 1631, aged fifty-seven.
Frances, Countess of Essex. This great lady was the wife of Thomas Ratcliffe, Earl of Sussex, Lord Deputy of Ireland, and Knight of the Garter, &c., and daughter of Sir William Sidney, of Pensehurst, Knight. By her last will, having outlived her husband, she instituted a divinity lecture to be read in this Collegiate Church, gave 5,000l. towards the building of a new College in Cambridge, now called Sidney Sussex College; and left a sufficient yearly revenue for the maintenance of one master ten fellows, and twenty scholars, either in the said new college, or else in Clare Hall. She died April 15, 1589, aged fifty-eight.
Next to this is a monument of black marble, very remarkably different from every other in the Abbey. On the top of it is a circular frame of gilt brass, enclosing the bust of Ann, Lady Cottington, wife of Francis, Lord Cottington, Baron of Hanworth, so created by Charles I. She was daughter of Sir William Meredith, of Denbighshire, by Jane, his wife, of the family of the Palmers, in Kent, and died February 22, 1633, in the thirty-third year of her age, having had four daughters and a son, all of whom died before their father, who, on a table monument beneath, lies in effigy, resting on his left arm; and over a satyr’s head is this inscription in English: “Here lies Francis, Lord Cottington, of Hanworth, who, in the reign of Charles I., was Chancellor of his Majesty’s Exchequer, Master of the Court of Wards, Constable of the Tower, Lord High Treasurer of England, and one of the Privy Council. He was twice Ambassador in Spain, once for the said King, and a second time for Charles II., now reigning, to both of whom he most signally showed his allegiance and fidelity, during the unhappy civil broils of those times; and for his faithful adherence to the Crown (the Usurper prevailing) was forced to fly his country; and, during his exile, died at Valladolid, in Spain, June 19, 1652, in the seventy-fourth year of his age, whence his body was brought, and here interred, by Charles Cottington, Esq., his nephew and heir, in 1679.”
The next is a very old Gothic monument, erected to the memory of Lewis Robert, or Robsart, a foreigner, but standard bearer to Henry V., a Knight of the Bath, and afterwards of the Garter, and at length created Lord Bourchier. His wife was Elizabeth, daughter of St. Bartholomew Bourchier, and probably a relation to Geoffrey Chaucer, the old English poet.
On leaving this Chapel, on your right is a monument to the memory of William Pulteney, Earl of Bath, with a medallion [Pg 33]and urn, supported by Wisdom and Poetry. The inscription is as follows:—“Erected to the memory of William Pulteney, Earl of Bath, by his brother, the Hon. Harry Pulteney, General of his Majesty’s Forces, 1764, Ob. July 7, 1767, Æt. eighty-one.”—Wilton, sculptor.
Charles Holmes, Esq., Rear-Admiral of the White; who is represented in a Roman habit, leaning against a cannon mounted on a sea carriage; an anchor, cable, and flag in the back ground.—“He died the 21st of Nov., 1761, Commander-in-Chief of his Majesty’s fleet stationed at Jamaica, aged fifty. Erected by his grateful nieces, Mary Stanwix and Lucretia Stowe.”—Wilton, sculptor.
In front of the monument to Admiral Holmes, is an old gravestone, plated with brass, with Latin inscription, to John of Windsor, nephew of Sir William of Windsor, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in the reign of Edward III. He died April 4, 1414.
Near this spot was buried John Pym, the celebrated Parliamentary orator, who died December 13, 1643; and also James Usher, Archbishop of Armagh, 1656.
|1. Henry the Third, 1272.
2. Queen Eleanor, 1290.
3. Henry the Fifth, 1423.
4. Queen Phillippa, 1369.
5. Edward the Third, 1377.
6. Margaret Woodville, Daughter of Edward the
Fourth, on which is placed a Sword and Shield
of State, carried before Edward the Third, 1316.
7. Richard the Second and Queen, 1399, 1394.
8. Coronation Chair of Edward the First, 1297.
9. Coronation Chair made for Mary, Wife of
William the Third.
10. Tomb of Edward the First, 1307.
11. Shrine of Edward the Confessor, 1065.
12. Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester,
13. John of Waltham, Bishop of Salisbury, 1388.
Pavement laid down in 1260.
he first curiosity that commands your reverence is the ancient venerable shrine of St. Edward, once the glory of England, but now defaced and robbed of its beauty, by the devotees of this extreme pious man, all of whom were proud to possess some stone or dust from his tomb. This[Pg 34] shrine was erected by Henry III. in 1269, to receive the remains of St. Edward, upon his translation from the shrine built by Henry II., upon the canonization of Edward, King of England (third of that name, and the last of the Saxon race), by Pope Alexander III., in 1163, who caused his name to be placed in the catalogue of saints, and issued his bull to the Abbot Laurentius, and the Convent of Westminster, enjoining, “That his body be honoured here on earth, as his soul is glorified in heaven.” He died in 1065. How costly the shrine, &c., was, appears by a record in the Tower.—Parl. Roll. 51st of Henry III. “Henry III., with consent of the Abbot and Convent of Westminster, pledged the jewels belonging to the body and shrine of Edward the Confessor to foreigners, being necessitated on account of heavy emergencies; the value of the said jewels amounted to £2,557. 4s. 8d.”
On the south side of the shrine, Editha, daughter of Goodwyn, Earl of Kent, and Queen of St. Edward, lies interred. The writers of those times commended her for beauty, learning, prudent economy, gentle manners, and inimitable skill in needlework, having wrought with her own hands the curious and magnificent robes the King used to wear on his collar days. She died at Winchester, Jan. 15, 1073. Part of a Latin epitaph on this excellent Princess has been handed down, and is to this effect:—
“Success ne’er sat exulting in her eye,
Nor disappointment heaved the troubled sigh;
Prosperity ne’er sadden’d o’er her brow,
While glad in trouble she enjoyed her woe:
Beauty ne’er made her vain, nor sceptres proud,
Nor titles taught to scorn the meaner crowd.
Supreme humility was awful grace,
And her chief charm a bashfulness of face.”
Near this was buried Matilda, Queen of England, daughter of Malcolm, King of Scots, and wife to Henry I. She died May 1, 1118. This Queen would, every day in Lent, walk from her palace to this church barefoot, and wearing a garment of hair. No verse or stone to mark the place of interment are to be found.
On the north side of this Chapel is an ancient tomb of admirable workmanship and materials, the panels being of polished porphyry, and the Mosaic work round them of gold and scarlet; at the corners of the table are twisted pillars, gilt and enamelled, and the effigy of Henry III. upon it is of gilt brass, finely executed. He died in 1272, after a troublesome reign of fifty-six years, aged sixty-five, and was buried by the Knights Templars, of whose order his father was the founder, with such splendour, that Wykes, the Monk, says, he made a more magnificent figure when dead, than he had done while living.—Cavalini.
Near that of Henry III. is a small monument in memory of Elizabeth Tudor, second daughter of Henry VII., who died at Eltham, in Kent, Sept. 14th, 1495, aged three years, from whence she was removed in great funeral pomp, and here buried.
At the feet of Henry III. is an ancient monument of Eleanor, Queen of Edward I. On the sides of this monument are engraven[Pg 35] the arms of Castile and Leon, quarterly, and those of Fontheiu, hanging on vines and oak leaves; and round the copper verge is embossed this inscription, in Saxon characters: “Ici gist Alianor iadis Reyne de Engletere femme al Rey Edeward Fiz (lerey Henry efylle alrey deespaygne econtasse de) puntif del alme deli Deu pur sa pite eyt merci. Amen.” Translation:—Here lies Eleanor, formerly Queen of England, wife to King Edward son of King Henry, daughter of the King of Spain, and Countess of Ponthieu; upon whose soul may God for His pity have mercy. Amen. The upper line is visible on the south side, the words within brackets are concealed under the tomb of King Henry V., the remainder is on the north side. It is remarkable, the body only of this Queen lies here interred, and her heart in the choir of the Friars Predicants in London. She died Dec. 27, 1290.—Cavalini.
The chantry of Henry V. is next, on each side of which are images as large as life, guarding, as it were, the staircases ascending to it. Beneath is the tomb of that glorious and warlike Prince, Henry of Monmouth (so called from the place of his nativity). On the upper slab lies a headless and otherwise mutilated figure of the King, carved in oak, which was originally covered with silver; the head appears to have been cast in silver; but this, Camden says, “was gone when he wrote his Britannica, in the reign of Elizabeth.” This Prince was guilty of great extravagances in his youth, and is said, with Sir John Falstaff, to have belonged to a gang of sharpers; yet, upon his advancement to the crown made a most excellent King, and, by the memorable battle of Agincourt, acquired to himself and the English nation immortal glory. He died in France, Aug. 31, 1422, in the thirty-fourth year of his age, and the tenth of his reign. In the chantry above, is the saddle, helmet, and shield, supposed to have been used at Agincourt, brought here at his interment.—John Anderne, sculptor.
The next is an ancient tomb to the memory of Phillippa, third daughter of William, Earl of Hainault, and Queen of Edward III., with whom she lived forty-two years, and bore him fourteen children. Harding tells us, that when an embassy was sent to choose one of the Earl’s daughters, a certain English Bishop advised to choose the lady with the largest hips, as promising a numerous progeny. She died August 15, 1369; and the King, her husband, bestowed a profusion of expense in performing her exequies and erecting her tomb, round which were placed as ornaments the brazen statues of no less than thirty kings, princes, and noble personages, her relations.
Adjoining to this is the tomb of Edward III., which is likewise covered with a Gothic canopy. On a table of grey marble lies the effigy of this Prince, though his corpse was deposited in the same grave with the Queen’s, according to her request on her death-bed. This tomb was surrounded, like the former, with statues, particularly those of his children, six of which remain on the south side of the tomb; viz., Edward, Joan-de-la-Tour, Lionel, Edmund, Mary, and William. He died June 21, 1377, aged sixty-four.
[Pg 36]Here is likewise a monument in memory of Margaret, daughter of Edward IV., by Elizabeth Woodville, his Queen, which had once an inscription upon it, showing her name, quality, and age, being only nine months. She died April 19, 1472.
Between the Chairs are placed the shield and sword carried before Edward III., in France. The sword is seven feet long, and weighs eighteen pounds.
Under a large stone, once finely plated with brass, lies the great Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester; he was brother to the Black Prince, and sixth and youngest son of Edward III. He was murdered at Calais, Sept. 8, 1397.
Next adjoining to this is a tomb, erected to the memory of Richard II. and his Queen; over which is a canopy of wood, remarkable for a curious painting of the Virgin Mary and our Saviour still visible upon it. This Richard was son of Edward the Black Prince, and grandson of Edward III., whom he succeeded at eleven years of age. He was murdered on St. Valentine’s day, 1399. In the same tomb lies his Queen, Anne, daughter of Charles IV., and sister of Wenceslaus, Emperor and King of Bohemia, who brought him neither dowry nor issue. She died at Shene, June 7, 1394, after being married twelve years.
The Coronation Chairs.—The most ancient of them was made to enclose the stone (which is reported to be Jacob’s Pillar), brought with regalia from Scotland, by Edward I., and offered to St. Edward’s shrine, in the year 1297 (after he had overcome John Baliol, King of Scots, in several battles). In this chair all the reigning Sovereigns have been crowned since Edward I. The other chair was made for Queen Mary II. At the coronation, one or both of them are covered with gold tissue, and placed before the altar, behind which they now stand, surrounded by several monarchs, who seem to guard them even in death.
Above those chairs, along the frieze of the screen of this Chapel, are fourteen legendary sculptures, respecting the Confessor. The first is the trial of Queen Emma; the next the birth of Edward; another is his coronation; the fourth tells us how our saint was frightened into the abolition of the Dean-gelt, by his seeing the devil dance upon the money casks; the fifth is the story of his winking at the thief, who was robbing his treasure; the sixth is meant to relate the appearance of our Saviour to him; the seventh shows how the invasion of England was frustrated by the drowning of the Danish King; in the eighth is seen the quarrel between the boys Totsi and Harold, predicting their respective fates; in the ninth sculpture is the Confessor’s vision of the seven sleepers; the tenth, how he met St. John the Evangelist in the guise of a pilgrim; the eleventh, how the blind were cured by their eyes being washed in his dirty water; the twelfth, how St. John delivers to the pilgrims a ring; in the thirteenth they deliver the ring to the King, which he had unknowingly given to St. John as an alms, when he met him in the form of a pilgrim; this was attended with a message from the saint, foretelling the death of the King; and the fourteenth shows the consequential haste made by him to complete his pious foundation.
[Pg 37]Before leaving this Chapel you will observe a large plain tomb, composed of five slabs of grey marble; two make the sides, two the ends, and one the cover. This rough unpolished tomb enclosed the body of the glorious King Edward I., of whom we have just been speaking. He was son of Henry III., and born at Westminster, June 17, 1239, named Edward, in honour of St. Edward, his father’s patron and predecessor, and afterwards Longshanks, from his tall and slender body. He is called Edward I., because he was the first of that name after the Conquest. He died July 7, 1307, after a reign of thirty-four years, and a life of sixty-eight. This tomb was opened in 1774, by permission of Dr. Thomas, then Dean of Westminster, granted to the Society of Antiquaries, a deputation of whom, with the Dean, attended the process. The body was perfect, having on two robes, one of gold and silver tissue, and the other of crimson velvet; a sceptre in each hand, measuring near five feet; a crown on his head, and many jewels; he measured six feet two inches.
Near this tomb is a large stone, plated with brass, to the memory of John of Waltham, the twenty-sixth Bishop of Salisbury, anno 1388. He was master of the Rolls in 1382, then Keeper of the Privy Seal, in the year 1391, and died Lord High Treasurer of England to Richard II., in 1395.
In this Chapel was interred the heart of Henry d’Almade, son of Richard, King of the Romans, brother of Henry III. He was sacrilegiously assassinated in the Church of St. Silvester, at Viterbo, as he was performing his devotions before the high altar. Simon and Guido Montford, sons of Simon de Montford, Earl of Leicester, were the assassins, in revenge for their father’s death, who, with their brother Henry, was slain in the battle of Evesham, in fighting against their lawful sovereign. The picture of this murder the inhabitants had painted, and hung up in the church, where we are told it still remains. This murder happened in 1270, and in the year after the body of Henry was brought to England, and buried in the monastery of St. Helen’s; but his heart was put in a cup, and placed near St. Edward’s shrine, of the removal of which we have no account.
Upon a careful perusal of the guide-book to this portion of the Abbey, it will not be uninteresting to observe that the bodies of six kings, five queens, two princesses, a duke, and a bishop are deposited in this remarkable receptacle of the dead.
Before entering the Chapel of St. John, on the right or east side of the door, is a monument erected to the memory of Jane, daughter and co-heiress of Sir John Pulteney, and wife of Sir Clippesby Crewe, Knt. She died Dec. 2, 1639, aged twenty-nine.
On the left, or west side of the door, is a monument to the memory of Juliana, only daughter of Sir Randolph Crewe, Knt., Lord Chief Justice of England. She died unmarried April 22, 1621.
Over the door is the monument of the Right Rev. Dr. Barnard, Lord Bishop of Londonderry, who died in London, January 10, 1768, aged seventy-two, and was here buried.
|1. Sir Thomas Vaughan.
2. Colonel Popham, 1651.
3. Carey, Son of the Earl of Monmouth, 1648.
4. Hugh de Bohun, and Mary his Sister,
grandchildren of Edward the First.
5. Carey, Baron of Hunsdon, 1596.
6. Countess of Mexborough, 1821.
|7. William of Colchester, Abbot of Westminster,|
8. O. Ruthall, Bishop of Durham, 1524.
9. Thomas Millyng, Bishop of Hereford, 1492.
10. Abbot Fascet, 1500.
11. Mrs. Mary Kendall.
12. Cecil, Earl of Exeter, 1622, and Lady, 1608.
n the left, in this Chapel, is an ancient monument to the memory of Sir Thomas Vaughan, Knight, Chamberlain to Edward, Prince of Wales, and Treasurer of Edward IV. On the top are the mutilated remains of a brass plate of the Knight.
In the recess of this tomb is a bust to the memory of Frederick Denison Maurice. Born August 29th, 1805; died April 1st, 1872; buried at Highgate. “God is Light.” “He was sent to bear witness of that Light.”—T. Woolner, R.A.
Next to this, proceeding on your left hand, is a monument to the memory of Colonel Edward Popham, an officer in Oliver Cromwell’s army, and his Lady. The inscription on this monument was erased at the Restoration, otherwise it would have been removed. He died at Dover, August 19, 1651.
A tablet to the memory of Thomas Carey, second son of the Earl of Monmouth. He was gentleman of the Bedchamber to Charles I.; and is said to have died of grief, in 1648, at the age of thirty-three, for the unhappy fate of his Royal Master.
Under this is a tombstone of grey marble, to the memory of Hugh de Bohun, and Mary, his sister, grandchildren to Edward I.
The next monument is to the memory of Henry Carey, first cousin to Queen Elizabeth, created Baron of Hunsdon, in Hertfordshire, in 1558; was some time Governor of Berwick, Lord Chamberlain to Queen Elizabeth, Privy Councillor and Knight of the Garter; but not being preferred as he expected, he laid the disappointment so much to heart, that he languished for a long time on a sick bed, at which the Queen being moved too[Pg 39] late, created him an Earl, and ordered the patent and robes to be laid before him, but without effect. He died July 23, 1596, aged seventy-two.
In the middle of the Chapel is the tomb of Thomas Cecil, Earl of Exeter, Baron Burleigh, Knight of the Garter, and Privy Councillor to James I.; whereon is his effigy, with a lady on his right side, and a vacant space on his left for another. He died February 7, 1622. The lady on his right side is Dorothy Nevil, his first wife, daughter and co-heiress of the Noble Lord Latimer, who died May 22, 1608; and the vacant space was left for his second wife, Frances Bridget, of the noble family of Chandos; but as the right side was taken up, she gave express orders, by her will, not to place her effigy on his left; notwithstanding which, they are all buried together in one vault, as the inscription expresses. She died in 1663.
In the corner to the left is a tablet:—“Sacred to the memory of the Right Hon. Elizabeth, Countess of Mexborough, who departed this life June 7, in the year of our Lord 1821, aged fifty-nine. Her afflicted husband, John, Earl of Mexborough, hath erected this monument to her memory, in token of his deep sorrow for her loss, and of his sincere love and affection.”
William of Colchester, Abbot of Westminster, who died in the year 1420, has also an ancient stone monument in this chapel, whereon lies his effigy, properly habited, the head supported by an angel, the feet by a lamb.
Thomas Ruthall, made Bishop of Durham by Henry VIII. He had been a Secretary of State to Henry VII., and was by Henry VIII. made a Privy Councillor, and sent on several embassies abroad. He died, immensely rich, in 1524.
A third is that of George Fascet, Abbot of Westminster, in the time of Henry VII., of whom we can find nothing material. He died in the year 1500.
On this monument stands the stone coffin of Thomas Millyng, Bishop of Hereford, some time Abbot of Westminster, and Privy Councillor to Edward IV., who died in 1492.
Facing you is a monument to the memory of Mrs. Mary Kendall, daughter of Thomas Kendall, Esq., and of Mrs. Mary Hallett, his wife, of Killigarth, in Cornwall, who died in her thirty-third year. Her many virtues, as her epitaph sets forth, “rendered her every way worthy of that close union and friendship in which she lived with Lady Catherine Jones; and in testimony of which, she desired that even their ashes, after death, might not be divided, and therefore ordered herself here to be interred, where she knew that excellent lady designed one day to rest near the grave of her beloved and religious mother Elizabeth, Countess of Ranelagh. She was born at Westminster November 8, 1677, and died at Epsom, March 4, 1710.”
Above is a monument to Esther de la Tour de Gouvernet, the Lord Eland’s lady. The inscription is in Latin and English, and contains an encomium on her many excellent virtues. She died in 1694, aged twenty-eight.—Nadaud, sculptor.
n the middle of this Chapel formerly stood the monument of Abbot Islip; it consisted of a ground plinth, or basement, on which was an alabaster statue of the Abbot, who was represented as a skeleton in a shroud or winding sheet. Over this was a canopy, on which was anciently a fine painting of our Saviour on the Cross, destroyed by the Puritans in Cromwell’s time, who were enemies to everything that favoured Popish idolatry, though ever so masterly. Islip was a great favourite with Henry VII., and was employed by him in decorating his new chapel, and in repairing and beautifying the whole Abbey. He dedicated his own chapel to St. John the Baptist, and died May 12, 1532, and was buried in his own chapel.
On the right is the tomb of Sir Christopher Hatton, and his Lady, in reclining attitudes on cushions. Sir Christopher died September 10, 1619; and his widow erected this memorial of his virtues and of their own affectionate union.
On the left, opposite the Chapel of Islip, are two very ancient monuments of Knights Templars. The first, that of Edmund Crouchback, son of Henry III., so called, as some affirm, from the deformity of his person; but according to others from his attending his brother in the holy wars, where they wore a crouch or cross on their shoulders as a badge of Christianity. From this Prince the House of Lancaster claimed their right to the crown. On the base, towards the area, are the remains of ten knights, armed, with banners, surcoats of armour and cross-belted, representing, undoubtedly, his expedition to the Holy Land, the number exactly corresponding with what Matthew Paris reports, namely, Edward and his brother, four Earls, and four Knights, of whom some are still discoverable, particularly the Lord Roger Clifford, as were formerly, in Waverley’s time, William de Valence, and Thomas de Clare.
The next ancient monument is to the memory of Aymer de Valence, second and last Earl of Pembroke of this family; he was third son of William de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, “whom he succeeded in his estates and honours. He was employed in the Scottish wars in the reigns of Edward I. and II. Edward II., in 1314, appointed him general of all his forces from the Trent to Roxborough. He was appointed to attend Isabel, the Queen Mother, to France, and there murdered, on June 23rd, 1323.”
The Countess of Lancaster’s tomb is seen from the choir, but from this part is hid by the monument of Lord Ligonier; it is canopied with an ancient Gothic arch, the sides of which were decorated with vine branches in relief, the roof within springing into many angles, under which lay the image of a lady, in an antique dress, her feet resting upon lions, and her head on pillars, supported by angels on each side. This monument covered the remains of Aveline, Countess of Lancaster, daughter of William de Fortibus, Earl of Albemarle and Holdernesse, by Isabella[Pg 41] daughter and heiress of Baldwin, Earl of Devon. This lady married Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, son of Henry III., but died the very year of her marriage, Nov. 4, 1293.
On the right is a monument to the memory of General Wolfe, who was killed at the siege of Quebec, 1759. He is represented falling into the arms of a grenadier, with his right hand over the mortal wound: the grenadier is pointing to Glory in the form of an angel in the clouds, holding forth a wreath ready to crown him, whilst a Highland sergeant looks sorrowfully on: two lions watch at his feet. The inscription as follows:—“To the memory of James Wolfe, Major General and Commander-in-Chief of the British Land Forces on an expedition against Quebec, who, after surmounting, by ability and valour, all obstacles of art and nature, was slain in the moment of victory, on the 13th of September, 1759, the King and the Parliament of Great Britain dedicate this monument.”—Wilton, sculptor.
On the right hand wall, side of Wolfe, is a monument to the memory of Bishop Duppa, tutor to Charles II., a man of such exemplary piety, lively conversation, and excess of good nature, that when Charles I. was a prisoner in Carisbrooke Castle, he thought himself happy in the company of so good a man. He was born at Greenwich, and educated first at Westminster School, and then at Christ Church College, Oxford, of which he was afterwards Dean; and being selected for the Preceptor to the then Prince of Wales, was first made Bishop of Chichester, from thence translated to Salisbury, and after the Restoration to the See of Winchester. He died March 26, 1622, in the seventy-fourth year of his age.—Burman, sculptor.
Beneath is a tablet, “Sacred to the memory of John Theophilus Beresford, eldest son of Marcus Beresford, and the Lady Frances, his wife, Lieutenant in the eighty-eighth regiment of foot, who died in the twenty-first year of his age, at Villa Formosa, in Spain, of wounds received from the exploding of a powder magazine, at Ciudad Rodrigo, after he had passed unhurt through eight days of voluntary service, of the greatest danger during the siege, for which he received the thanks of the Commander-in-Chief. Brave and zealous in his military duties, animated by a strong feeling of piety to God, and distinguished by his ardent filial affection and duty towards a widowed mother, he has left to her the recollection of his rising virtues as her only consolation under the irreparable loss she has sustained by his death. Born, Jan. 16, 1792, and died Jan. 29, 1812; interred with military honours, in the fort of Almeida.—‘Yea, speedily was he taken away, lest that wickedness should alter his understanding, or deceit beguile his soul.’—Wisdom of Solomon, chap. iv., verse 11.”—Westmacott, sculptor.
Next to this is a tablet to the memory of Sir James Adolphus Oughton, Commander-in-Chief of his Majesty’s forces in North Britain. The inscription is a recital of his military employments, and a record of his death, which took place April 14, 1780, in the sixty-first year of his age.—Hayward, sculptor.
On the floor is the image of an Abbot in his mass habit[Pg 42] curiously engraved on brass, representing John de Eastney, who died March 4, 1498. By the records of the Church he appears to have been a great benefactor to it; he ornamented the grand west window with some noble paintings on glass of which some little still remains. He gave the screen to the Chapel, and presented two images gilt for the altar of St. Peter and St. Paul, and one for the chapter house. He paid the King 1,000l. on account of the merchants, and 3,700l. to the Court of Rome, due for the confirmation of abbots.
A little to the left, on another gravestone, plated with brass, is the figure of an armed Knight, resting his feet on a lion, and his head on a greyhound, which, as the register informs us, represents Sir John Harpedon, Knight, who died in 1457.
Adjoining this is a gravestone, on which have been the figures, in brass, of Thomas Browne and Humphrey Roberts, two monks of this Church, who died in 1508.
On the right as you enter the Chapel is another gravestone, on which has been the effigy of Sir Thomas Parry, Knight, Treasurer of the Household, Master of the Court of Wards and Liveries to Queen Elizabeth. He died December 15, 1560.
|1. General Villettes, 1808.|
2. General Sir Charles Stuart, 1801.
3. Two Sons of General Forbes, 1791 and 1799.
4. Admiral Kempenfelt, 1782.
5. Earl and Countess of Mountrath, 1751 and 1766.
6. Admiral Totty, 1802.
7. Earl and Countess of Kerry, 1518.
8. Mr. Telford, 1834.
9. Dr. Baillie, 1823.
10. Miss Davidson, 1767.
11. Dr. Young, 1829.
12. Lord and Lady Norris and Family, 1601.
13. Mrs. Ann Kirton, 1603.
14. Sarah, Duchess of Somerset, 1692.
15. Nightingale Family, 1734 and 1752.
16. Admiral Sir George Pocock, 1792.
17. Sir George Holles, son of Sir Francis Vere, 1626.
18. Captain Edward Cook, 1799.
19. Sir Humphry Davy, 1829.
20. Sir Francis Vere, 1608.
urning round on your right is an unique monument to the memory of Sir Francis Vere, a gentleman of the first reputation, both for learning and arms, “one of the most accomplished soldiers of Queen Elizabeth’s reign, having the command of the auxiliary troops in the Dutch service, nearly twenty years.” He died August 28, 1608, in the fifty-fourth year of his age. Loose armour is represented being supported by four armed knights.
On the back of General Wolfe’s monument is a tablet to the memory of Sir Humphrey Davy, Bart., distinguished throughout the world “by his discoveries in chemical science; President of the Royal Society; Member of the National Institute of France. Born 17th December, 1778, at Penzance. Died 29th May, 1829, at Geneva, where his remains are interred.”
A monument is here erected, by the East India Company, as a grateful testimony to the value and eminent services of Captain Edward Cooke, Commander of his Majesty’s ship Sybille, who on the 1st of March, 1799, after a long and well-contested engagement, captured La Forte, a French frigate of very superior force, in the Bay of Bengal; an event not more splendid in its achievement, than important in its result to the British trade in India. He died in consequence of the severe wounds he received in this memorable action, on the 23rd of May, 1799, aged twenty-seven.—Bacon, sculptor.
The next is a monument to the memory of Sir George Holles, nephew of Sir Francis Vere, and a Major-General under him. He died May, 1626, aged fifty. This monument was erected by John, Earl of Clare.—Nicholas Stone, sculptor.
Adjoining is a monument to the memory of Sir George Pocock, K.B., Admiral of the Blue, who distinguished himself at the taking of Geriah, and in leading the attack at the reduction of Chandernagore; afterwards, with an inferior force, he defeated the French Fleet under M. D’Ache in three several engagements; returning from his successful career in the East, he was appointed to command the fleet upon the expedition against the Havannah, by his united efforts in the conquest of which, he added fresh laurels to his own brow, and a valuable possession to this kingdom. A life so honourable to himself, and so endeared to his friends and his family, was happily extended to the age of eighty-six, and resigned, in the year 1793, with the same tranquil and serene mind which peculiarly marked and adorned the whole course of it.—Bacon, sculptor.
A monument to the memory of Joseph Gascoigne Nightingale, and his Lady. The lady is represented expiring in the arms of her husband; beneath, slyly creeping from a tomb, the King of Terrors presents his grim visage, pointing his unerring dart to the dying figure, at which sight the husband, suddenly struck with astonishment, horror, and despair, seems to clasp her to his bosom to defend her from the fatal stroke. Inscription:—“Here rest the ashes of Joseph Gascoigne Nightingale, of Mamhead, in the county of Devon, Esq., who died July 20, 1752, aged fifty-six; and of Lady Elizabeth, his wife, daughter and[Pg 44] co-heiress of Washington, Earl of Ferrars, who died August 17, 1734, aged twenty-seven. Their only son, Washington Gascoigne Nightingale, Esq., in memory of their virtues, did by his last will, order this monument to be erected.”—Roubiliac.
Next to this is a monument of note, sacred to the memory of Sarah, Duchess of Somerset, relict of John Seymour, Duke of Somerset, daughter of Sir Edward Alston, Knt. On the base of this monument are two charity boys, one on each side, bewailing the death of their benefactress, who is represented in a modern dress, resting upon her arm, under a canopy of state, and looking earnestly up at a group of cherubims issuing from the clouds above her. Underneath is a Latin inscription to this effect:—“Here lies the late illustrious Duchess of Somerset, celebrated for charity and benevolence, who erected a grammar school for boys at Tottenham, in Middlesex, enlarged the income of the Green-coat Hospital at Westminster, largely endowed Brazenose College, in Oxford, and St. John’s, in Cambridge, for the education and instruction of youth in good piety and literature. She was likewise an encourager of trade and handicrafts, and had a tender regard to old age, by erecting an almshouse at Froxfield, in Wiltshire, for thirty widows. She was very charitable to the poor of St. Margaret’s, Westminster, where she instituted a lecture, and gave many stately ornaments to the Church.” She died October 25, 1692.
Against the east wall is a tablet erected to the memory of Ann, wife of James Kirton, of Castle Carey, Somersetshire, Gent. She died September 7, 1603.
Sir Henry Norris, his Lady, and six sons. He was ancestor of the present Earl of Abingdon, and for his valour in the Low Countries, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, was created Lord Norris of Ricot. He died in 1601. His six sons are represented kneeling round the tomb; viz., William, John, and Thomas, on the south side; Henry, Edward, and Maximilian, on the north side. On the south side of the canopy in alto-relievo is represented the march of an army of horse, with an encampment in the back ground, together with the standard of the Belgic States, and a soldier bearing a shield, with the Norris’s arms. On the summit is a small statue of Fame.
Up against the wall is a tablet to the learned Dr. Young, M.D. The inscription sets forth that he was eminent in every department of human learning; and that, by abstruse investigation of letters and science, he at length unveiled the obscurity which had rested upon the hieroglyphics of Egypt. Died May 10, 1829, in the fifty-sixth year of his age.—Chantrey, sculptor.
Next is a full length statue of Mrs. Siddons, a celebrated actress, as Lady Macbeth, in the Night Scene. Erected by subscription.—Thomas Campbell, sculptor. Contiguous is the statue of her brother John Kemble, in the character of Cato, by Flaxman. Born at Prescott, Feb. 1, 1757; died at Lausanne, Feb. 26, 1823.
Here is also a very neat monument to the memory of Susanna Jane Davidson, only daughter of William Davidson, of Rotterdam,[Pg 45] merchant, whom it pleased the Almighty to visit in the bloom of life with a lingering disease, of which she died at Paris, January 1, 1767, aged twenty.—Hayward, sculptor.
“Matthew Baillie, Fellow of the Royal College of London and Edinburgh (born at Lanark, in Scotland), of the Literary Institutions of Oxford and Glasgow, Professor of Anatomy; of great medical skill, of strict integrity, of sincere mind, and liberal simplicity. This bust was put up by his medical associates. Died 9th of Oct., 1823, aged 62.”—Chantrey, sculptor.
A colossal figure of “Thomas Telford, President of the Institution of Civil Engineers, born at Glendinning, in Eskdale, Dumfriesshire, in 1757; died in London, 1834. The orphan son of a shepherd, self educated, he raised himself by his extraordinary talents, and integrity, from the humble condition of an operative mason, and became one of the most eminent Civil Engineers of the age. This marble has been erected near the spot where his remains are deposited, by the friends who revered his virtues; but his noblest monuments are to be found amongst the great public works of this country.”—Baily, sculptor.
Near this is a marble tomb, which encloses the body, and has a tablet over it decorated with a coronet, and curtains festooned, on which is the following inscription:—“To the affectionately-beloved and honoured memory of Anastatia, Countess of Kerry, daughter of the late Peter Daly, Esq., of Quansbery, in the county of Galway, in Ireland, who departed this life on the 9th, and was deposited here on the 18th day of April, 1799. Francis Thomas, Earl of Kerry, died July 4, 1818, aged seventy-eight. His remains, according to his wish, are here deposited in the same tomb with his affectionately-beloved Anastatia, whose loss he long and deservedly deplored.”—Buckham, sculptor.
The next is a neat monument, representing a ship at sea, firing minute guns at the death of Thomas Totty, of Cornist, in the county of Flint, Esq., Rear-Admiral in his Majesty’s Navy, who having, on the 17th November, 1801, been appointed Commander-in-Chief on the Leeward Island station, was, soon after his arrival at Martinique, severely attacked by the malignant fever peculiar to that climate, and expired at sea, on the 2nd of June, 1802, in the fifty-seventh year of his age.—Bacon, jun., sculptor.
On the floor is the stone of Abbot Kirton, which had several labels in black letter all round the portrait, which stood upon eagles crowned, alluding, perhaps, to his high descent from the ancient and illustrious family of Codilbic. He appears to have been a person of great eminence. He died October 3, 1466.
The next monument is to the Earl and Countess of Mountrath. The figures represent an angel lifting the lady up to a vacant seat by the side of her husband, surrounded with cherubs, &c. The inscription is in Latin, thus translated:—“Sacred to the memory of Algernon, Earl of Mountrath, and Diana, his Countess, who, surviving him, caused this monument to be erected in 1771.
“Thus while on earth, who joy in mutual love,
Beyond the grave shall find their joys improve.”
[Pg 46]The next is to the memory of Richard Kempenfelt, Esq., Rear-Admiral of the Blue, who was lost in his Majesty’s ship Royal George, which overset and sunk at Spithead, on the 29th August, 1782, by which fatal event about nine hundred persons were launched into eternity, and his king and country deprived of the services of a great and meritorious officer, in the sixty-fourth year of his age. This monument was erected pursuant to the will of his brother, Gustavus Adolphus Kempenfelt, Esq., who died at his seat, Lady-place, Hurley, Berkshire, on the 14th of March, 1808, aged eighty-seven, of whose philanthropy and humanity, his liberal subscriptions and bequests to most of the charitable institutions in this country, will be lasting records.—Bacon, jun., sculptor.
The next consists of a delicate female figure, mourning over two urns, holding a scroll, on which is expressed—“I shall go to them, but they shall not return to me.—2 Sam. xii. 23.” Benjamin John Forbes, late Lieutenant in his Majesty’s seventy-fourth regiment of foot; and Richard Gordon Forbes, late Lieutenant in the first regiment of Foot Guards, the eldest sons of Lieutenant-General Gordon Forbes, Colonel of the twenty-ninth regiment of foot, and Margaret, his wife, eldest daughter of the late Benjamin Sullivan, Esq., of Dromenagh, in the county of Cork; both of whom fell in the service of their king and country, deeply regretted by their regiments and the detachments of the army in which they served. The former at the assault of Kistnagherry, in the East Indies, 12th November, 1791, aged nineteen years; the latter near Alkmaar, in North Holland, the 19th of September, 1799, aged twenty years. This monument, no less a tribute of justice to exemplary merit, than a record of the tenderest parental sense of filial piety, is erected and dedicated A.D. 1803.—Bacon, jun., sculptor.
A third, to the memory of General Stuart, having a fine medallion of him; the Latin inscription is to the following purport:—“In memory of a man truly noble, the Honourable Sir Charles Stuart, Knight of the Bath, fourth son of John, Earl of Bute, who began his military career in America; and was afterwards sent, during the raging of the war with France, Commander-in-Chief against Corsica and Minorca, both which he happily subdued. He was again called forth, agreeably to the wishes of all good men, and already destined, by the favour of his Sovereign, to greater appointments, but died at Richmond, in the year of our Lord 1801, aged forty-seven, leaving the public, as well as his friends, to deplore, and that deeply, the loss of so great a man, on whose extraordinary talents, military conduct, and approved valour, whether dangers were to be averted, or her wrongs avenged, his country could at all times rely with the greatest security and confidence.”—Nollekens, sculptor.
The last in this Chapel is one to the memory of Lieutenant-General William Anne Villettes, second son of Arthur Villettes, Esq., his late Majesty’s Minister Plenipotentiary at the Court of Turin, and Helvetic Cantons, who died near Port Antonio, on the 13th July, 1808, aged fifty-four years.
“The sculptur’d marble shall dissolve in dust,
And fame, and wealth, and honour pass away
Not such the triumphs of the good and just,
Not such the glories of eternal day.”
W. Cartwright, T. Bowdler, J. Cazenove, have erected this tablet as a tribute of friendship.—Sir Richard Westmacott, sculptor.
At the north end of this Chapel is an elegant painted window, representing St. Cecilia playing upon an organ, accompanied by three angels, in memory of Mr. Vincent Novello, by Lavers and Barraud. Born 1781; died 1861.
Opposite to you, on leaving this Chapel, is the monument to the memory of Field-Marshal Lord Ligonier, which has a striking likeness of his Lordship, in profile, and the medallions of Queen Anne, George I., II., and III., under whom his Lordship served. The inscription is only a recital of his titles and places, his age ninety-two, and his death the 28th of April, 1770. On the scroll held by History, is the following list of battles:—Schellenberg, Blenheim, Ramilies, Oudinarde, Taniere, Malplaquet, Dettingen, Fountenoy, Rocoux, and Laffeldt.—Moore, sculptor.
assing through the gate, immediately on your right is a pedestal of rich grey marble, on which is placed a statue of the late Right Honourable Sir Robert Peel, Bart., represented in the costume of a Roman Orator, in the act of addressing the Commons House of Parliament, where he had so greatly distinguished himself for a period of more than thirty years; and although past the middle age of life, the death of this great statesman may be considered as premature, he having been thrown from his horse while riding up Constitution-hill, which caused his death in a few days afterwards, viz., on the 2nd day of July, 1850.—Sculptured by Gibson, at Rome.
Sir Gilbert Lort.—This monument is chiefly ornamented with cherubs and family arms, and is inscribed to the memory of Sir Gilbert Lort, of Stockpole, in Pembrokeshire, Bart., by his sister, Dame Elizabeth Campbell, relict of Sir Alexander Campbell, of Calder, in Scotland, Bart. Sir Gilbert died Sept. 19, 1698, in his twenty-eighth year. She died Sept. 28, 1714, in her forty-ninth year.
Above is a small monument, consisting of a bust and naval ornaments, to the memory of John Storr, Esq., of Hilston, in the county of York, Rear-Admiral of the Red Squadron of his Majesty’s Fleet. He was born Aug. 18, 1709; died Jan. 10, 1783, and interred near this place.—Tyler, sculptor.
A small tablet, up high, with an inscription in Latin to the following effect:—“William Vincent, D.D., Dean of this Collegiate Church, caused this tablet to be erected a perpetual monument of his affection. Sacred to the memory of Hannah, his most beloved wife; the fondest and most prudent mother, handsome without pride, pleasant without levity, a good Christian without superstition; descended from a respectable family[Pg 48] of the Wyatts, of Whichwood, in Oxfordshire, daughter of George Wyatt and Hannah Wood. Born August 3, 1735; married August 15, 1771; died Feb. 17, 1807.”—Gayfere, sculptor.
Admiral Sir Peter Warren.—The back ground is a large flag spreading in natural folds behind the whole monument; before it is a fine figure of Hercules, placing Sir Peter’s bust on its pedestal; and on the other side is the figure of Navigation, with a laurel wreath in her hand, gazing on the bust with a look of melancholy, mixed with admiration. Behind her a cornucopia pours out fruit, corn, &c., and by it a cannon, an anchor, and other decorations. The inscription is as follows:—“Sacred to the memory of Sir Peter Warren, Knight of the Bath, Vice-Admiral of the Red Squadron of the British Fleet, and Member of Parliament for the city and liberty of Westminster. He derived his descent from an ancient family in Ireland; his fame and honours from his virtues and abilities. How eminently these were displayed, with what vigilance and spirit they were executed, in the various services wherein he had the honour to command, and the happiness to conquer, will be more properly recorded in the annals of Great Britain. On this tablet, Affection with truth must say, that, deservedly esteemed in private life, and universally renowned for his public conduct, the judicious and gallant officer possessed all the amiable qualities of the friend, the gentleman, and Christian; but the Almighty, whom alone he feared, and whose gracious protection he had often experienced, was pleased to remove him from a life of honour to an eternity of happiness, on the 29th of July, 1752, in the forty-ninth year of his age.”—Roubiliac, sculptor.
Grace Scott.—Affixed to the adjoining pillar is a neat tablet, on which is this inscription:—“Grace, eldest daughter of Sir Thomas Mauleverer, of Alterton Mauleverer, in Yorkshire, Bart., born 1622, married to Colonel Scott, a member of the Honourable House of Commons, 1644, and died February 24, 1645:
“He that will give my Grace but what is hers,
Must say her death has not
Made only her dear Scott,
But Virtue, Worth, and Sweetness, widowers.”
Above, is a little tablet to the memory of Clement Saunders, Esq., Carver in ordinary to Charles II., James II., and William III., son of Sir W. Saunders, Knight, of the county of Northampton. Died August 10, 1695, aged eighty-four.
Sir John Malcolm.—His figure is in full uniform, on a pedestal.—“In memory of Major-General Sir John Malcolm, G.C.B., &c., born at Burnfoot of Eske, Dumfriesshire, 1769, died in London, 1833, employed confidentially in those important wars and negociations which established British supremacy in India. By the indefatigable and well directed exertions of those extraordinary mental and physical powers with which Providence had endowed him, he became alike distinguished as a statesman, a warrior, and a man of letters; disinterested, liberal, and hospitable; warm in his affections, and frank in his [Pg 49]manners; the admirer and patron of merit. No less zealous during the whole of his arduous and eventful career, for the welfare of the natives of the East, than for the services of his own country, his memory is cherished by grateful millions; his fame lives in the history of nations. This statue has been erected by the friends whom he had acquired by his splendid talents, eminent public services, and private virtues.”—Chantrey, sculptor.
William Cavendish, Duke of Newcastle.—This monument is a stately piece of architecture. Under a rich canopy of state, lie in a cumbent posture, on a double mat, “the loyal Duke of Newcastle (as the inscription beneath sets forth), and his Duchess, his second wife, by whom he had no issue; her name was Margaret Lucas, youngest sister of Lord Lucas, of Colchester, a noble family; for all the brothers were valiant, and all the sisters virtuous. This Duchess was a wise, witty, and learned lady, which her many books do well testify; she was a most virtuous, loving, and careful wife, and was with her Lord all the time of his banishment and miseries; and when he came home, never parted from him in his solitary retirements.”—So far the English inscription. The Latin shows farther, “that he was Knight of the Bath and Baron Ogle in right of his mother; Viscount Mansfield, and Baron Cavendish of Bolsover, Earl of Ogle, Earl, Marquis, and Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Lord Lieutenant of the counties of Nottingham and Northumberland, First Lord of the Bedchamber to King James I., Guardian to Prince Charles, Privy Councillor, and Knight of the most Noble Order of the Garter; that for his fidelity to the King, he was made Captain-General of the forces raised for his service in the North, fought many battles, and generally came off victorious; that when the rebels prevailed (being one of the first designed a sacrifice) he left his estate, and endured a long exile. By his first wife, Elizabeth, daughter and heiress to W. Basset, of Staffordshire, Esq., he had two sons and three daughters; Charles, who died without issue, and Henry, heir to his honours; Jane, married to C. Cheyne, of Chesham, Bucks; Elizabeth, to John, Earl of Bridgewater; and Frances, to Oliver, Earl of Bolingbroke. He died December 25, 1676, aged eighty-four.”
A statue of Earl Canning, Viceroy of India, son of George Canning Foley.
On the left is one to the memory of George Canning, born April 11, 1770; died August 8, 1827:—“Endowed with a rare combination of talents, an eminent statesman, an accomplished scholar, an orator, surpassed by none, he united the most brilliant and lofty qualities of the mind, with the warmest affections of the heart; raised by his own merit, he successfully filled important offices in the state, and finally became first minister of the Crown. In the full enjoyment of his sovereign’s favour, and of the confidence of the people, he was prematurely cut off, when pursuing a wise and large course of policy, which had for its object the prosperity and greatness of his own country, while it comprehended the welfare and commanded the admiration of foreign nations.” This monument was erected by his friends[Pg 50] and countrymen. The figure is on a pedestal, and represents him speaking in the House of Parliament.—Chantrey, sculptor.
The next is a magnificent monument to John Holles, Duke of Newcastle, whose effigy rests upon a sarcophagus of darkish-coloured marble, having in his right hand a general’s staff, and in his left a ducal coronet. On one side of the base stands the statue of Wisdom; on the other of Sincerity. On the angles of the upper compartment sit angels in no very meaning attitude; and on the ascending sides of the pediment sit cherubs, one with an hour glass, alluding to the admeasurement of man’s life by grains of sand; the other pointing upwards, where his life shall be no longer measured by duration. On the base of this monument is this inscription:—“John Holles, Duke of Newcastle, Marquis and Earl of Clare, Baron Haughton, of Haughton, and Knight Companion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, whose body is here deposited under the same roof with many of his noble ancestors and relations of the families of Vere, Cavendish, and Holles, whose eminent virtues he inherited, and was particularly distinguished for his courage, love to his country, and constancy in friendship, which qualities he exerted with great zeal and readiness, whenever the cause of religion, his country, or friends, required. In the reign of Queen Anne he filled with great capacity and honour, the several employments of Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal and Privy Councillor; Lord Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum of Middlesex and Nottingham, and of the county of the town of Nottingham, and of the East and North Ridings of the county of York; Lord Chief Justice in Eyre, north of Trent, and Governor of the town and fort of Kingston-upon-Hull; to all which titles and honours his personal merit gave a lustre, that needed not the addition of the great wealth which he possessed. He was born January 9, 1661-2, and died, July 15, 1711. He married the Lady Margaret, third daughter and heiress of Henry Cavendish, Duke of Newcastle, by whom he left issue only one child, the Lady Henrietta Cavendish Holles Harley, who caused this memorial of him to be here erected in 1723.”—Bird, sculptor.
Admiral Vernon.—On a pedestal is a bust of that gallant Admiral, with a fine figure of Fame crowning him with laurels. This monument is elegantly ornamented with naval trophies. Beneath is the following inscription:—“Sacred to the memory of Edward Vernon, Admiral of the White Squadron of the British Fleet. He was the second son of James Vernon, who was Secretary of State to King William III., and whose abilities and integrity were equally conspicuous. In his youth, he served under the Admirals Shovell and Rook. By their example he learned to conquer; by his own merit he rose to command. In the war with Spain of 1739, he took the fort of Porto Bello with six ships—a force which was thought unequal to the attempt. For this he received the thanks of both houses of Parliament. He subdued Chagre, and at Carthagena conquered as far as naval force could carry victory. After these services he retired, without place or title, from the exercise of public, to the enjoyment[Pg 51] of private virtue. The testimony of a good conscience was his reward—the love and esteem of all good men his glory. In battle, though calm, he was active, and though intrepid, prudent; successful, yet not ostentatious, ascribing the glory to God; in the senate, he was disinterested, vigilant, and steady. On the 30th day of October, 1757, he died as he had lived, the friend of man, the lover of his country, and the father of the poor, aged seventy-three. As a memorial of his own gratitude, and the virtues of his benefactor, this monument was erected by his nephew, Francis, Lord Orwell, in 1763.”—Rysbrack, sculptor.
Sir Charles Wager.—On this elegant monument, the principal figure is that of Fame, holding a portrait of the deceased in relief, which is supported by an infant Hercules. The enrichments are naval trophies, instruments of war, navigation, &c., and on the base, in relief, is the representation of the destroying and taking the Spanish galleons in 1708:—“To the memory of Sir Charles Wager, Knight, Admiral of the White, First Commissioner of the Admiralty, and Privy Councillor: a man of great natural talents, who bore the highest commands, and passed through the greatest employments, with credit to himself, and honour to his country. He was in his private life humane, temperate, just, and bountiful: in public station, valiant, prudent, wise, and honest; easy of access to all; plain and unaffected in his manner, steady and resolute in his conduct; so remarkably happy in his presence of mind, that no danger ever discomposed him. Esteemed and favoured by his King, beloved and honoured by his country, he died May 24, 1743, aged seventy-seven.”—Scheemakers, sculptor.
Lord Palmerston.—A magnificent statue, representing the distinguished statesman in the robes of a Knight of the Garter.—Erected by authority of Parliament to Viscount Palmerston, in testimony of the public admiration and attachment and heavy loss which the country sustained by his death.—R. Jackson.
The Right Hon. William Pitt, First Earl of Chatham. He is represented as speaking in the Houses of Parliament. At his feet are figures of Prudence and Fortitude; below is a figure of Britannia, with the trident supported by Earth and Ocean. On the base is the following inscription:—“Erected by the King and Parliament as a testimony to the virtues and ability of William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, during whose administration, in the reigns of Geo. II. and III., Divine Providence exalted Great Britain to a height of prosperity and glory unknown to any former age. Born November 15, 1708. Died May 11, 1778.”—Bacon, sculptor.
Lord Robert Manners, aged 24; Captain William Bayne, aged 50; Captain William Blair, aged 41. Upon a rostral column decorated with the hulks of three seventy-four gun ships, Genius has hung three medallions, containing the portraits of the Captains. Neptune is sitting upon a sea-horse, pointing them out as examples for posterity to emulate, and worthy of being recorded in the annals of their country, to Britannia, whose majestic figure, accompanied with a resemblance of a lion, supporting a shield of the arms of Great Britain, is standing on the opposite side[Pg 52] beholding them with a fixed countenance, expressive of sorrow; while Fame is standing upon the top of the column, with a wreath of laurel to crown Lord Robert Manners, Captains Bayne and Blair, who were mortally wounded in the course of the naval engagements under the command of Admiral Sir George Brydges Rodney, on the 9th and 12th of April, 1782. In memory of their services, the King and Parliament of Great Britain caused this monument to be erected. The basement is adorned with different naval implements, the whole highly executed by Mr. Nollekens.
In front of this monument is a highly polished slab under which lie the remains of Lord Palmerston. Died Oct. 18, 1865, aged 81. And Lady Palmerston. Died Sept. 11, 1869.
Near this spot lie the remains of the Marquis of Londonderry, Pitt, Wilberforce, Canning, Fox, and Grattan.
The next monument consists of a fine statue, full life size: in one hand is placed a scroll, on which is inscribed, “Peace of Paris, 1814;” the other supporting the Robes of the Garter. The pedestal bears the following inscription:—“This statue is erected to the memory of Robert, second Marquis of Londonderry and Viscount Castlereagh, K.G. Born A.D. 1769; died Aug. 12th, 1822. History will record the success and splendour of his public career during a period of unexampled difficulty in the annals of Europe, in which he successively filled the highest offices under the Crown; and Ireland will never forget the statesman of the Legislative Union. This tribute to the best of brothers and friends is placed in Westminster Abbey by Charles William Vane, third Marquis of Londonderry.”—J. Evan Thomas, sculptor.
Lord Mansfield’s monument:—
“Here Murray, long enough his country’s pride,
Is now no more than Tully or than Hyde.”
Foretold by Pope, and fulfilled in the year 1793, when William, Earl of Mansfield, died full of years and of honours: of honours he declined many; those which he accepted were the following:—He was appointed Solicitor-General, 1742; Attorney-General, 1754; Lord Chief Justice and Baron Mansfield, 1756; Earl of Mansfield, 1776. From the love which he bore to the place of his early education, he desired to be buried in this Cathedral (privately), and would have forbidden that instance of human vanity, the erecting a monument to his memory; but a sum, which, with the interest, has amounted to £2,500, was left for that purpose by A. Bailey, Esq., of Lyon’s Inn, which, at least well-meant, mark of esteem he had no previous knowledge or suspicion of, and had no power to prevent being executed. He was the fourth son of David, fifth Viscount Stormont, and married the Lady Elizabeth Finch, daughter to Daniel, Earl of Nottingham, by whom he had no issue; born at Scone, 2nd March, 1704; died at Kenwood, 20th March, 1793. The Earl is represented sitting on a seat of judgment; on his right hand Justice holds the statera, or balance, equally poised; on his left hand Wisdom opens the book of Law. Between the statues of Wisdom and Justice is a trophy composed[Pg 53] of the Earl’s family arms, surmounted by the coronet, the mantle of honour, the fasces, or rods of justice, and curtana, or sword of mercy. On the back of the chair is the Earl’s motto—Uni Æquus Virtuti—“Equal to Virtue only,” enclosed in a crown of laurel: under it is a figure of Death, as represented by the ancients—a beautiful youth leaning on an extinguished torch: on each side of the figure of Death is a funeral altar, finished by a fir apple. This monument is the first that was placed between pillars, so as to walk round it.—Flaxman, sculptor.
The beautiful north window was put up in the year 1722, and represents our Saviour, the twelve Apostles, and four Evangelists; the latter with their emblems, lie down, two on each side.
It is much to be desired that they who wish to record in Westminster Abbey their estimation of the character or public services of their relatives or friends, would adopt this manner of perpetuating their memory, as combining with their special object the further enrichment of the noblest Cathedral or Collegiate Church in England, and so contributing to the completion of the general design, by representing that “the Holy Church throughout all the world doth acknowledge God.” A commencement in this direction has been made in the seven memorial windows in the North Transept, of which a special description is subjoined.
The object of the painted glass in the seven Lancet Windows in the North Transept and West Aisle of the same is briefly stated in the inscriptions on the floor immediately beneath the windows.
“To the glory of God, and in memory of Major-General Sir Henry W. Barnard, K.C.B.; Lieutenant-Colonel Charles John Woodford, Rifle Brigade; Captain William Frederick Thynne, Rifle Brigade; Captain William Robert Moorsom, thirteenth Light Infantry, D.A.Q.M. General; Lovick Emilius Cooper, Ensign, Rifle Brigade; William George Hawtrey Bankes, Cornet, seventh Hussars; who died in the service of the Queen and their country in India, in 1857 and 1858, the six lancet windows of this Transept were enriched with stained glass by their relatives or comrades of Sir James Outram’s division, 1860.”
And in the West Aisle of the North Transept, a similar inscription states the window to be enriched in memory of Brigadier the Hon. Adrian Hope, C.B., by his relatives.
The general design throughout the windows is, by the representation of certain chosen men by whom Almighty God is recorded in the Holy Scriptures to have effected the deliverance of the Israelites out of the hands of their enemies, to illustrate the power of God, and attribute to His mercy the wonderful success of the British forces in the suppression of the Indian rebellion, in which service the officers above named, with many others, fell.
The first figure on the right hand is designed to represent Moses as the leader and commander of the army of the Israelites. In the medallion beneath, he is shown with his hands stayed up by Aaron and Hur, as described in Ex. xvii. 12. This window is erected by Lady Barnard, widow of Sir Hy. Wm. Barnard, K.C.B.
The second figure is that of Joshua, and the medallion is[Pg 54] intended to describe the appearance of the “Captain of the Lord’s Host” to him.—Joshua v. 13, 14. This window is erected by General Sir Alexander Woodford, G.C.B., father of Lieutenant-Colonel C. J. Woodford, Rifle Brigade.
The third figure is Caleb, and the medallion represents his victory over the sons of Anak.—Joshua xv. 14. This window is erected by the Reverend Lord John Thynne, Canon of Westminster, father of Captain William F. Thynne, Rifle Brigade.
The fourth figure is Gideon, and in the medallion he is occupied in threshing the corn, as when he received his call and commission to deliver Israel from the Midianites.—Judges vi. 11. This window is erected by the comrades of Captain William Robert Moorsom, forming the first division of the army in Oude, under the Command of Sir James Outram, of which he was Deputy-Assistant Quartermaster-General.
The fifth figure is David, and the medallion exhibits his triumph over Goliath.—1 Sam. xvii. 15. This window is erected by the Rev. T. Lovick Cooper, Vicar of Empingham, Rutlandshire, father of Lovick Emilius Cooper, Rifle Brigade.
The sixth window is Jonathan, and the medallion refers to the account of his surprising and discomfiting the garrison of the Philistines, with no other assistance than of his armour-bearer.—1 Sam. xiv. 4-6. This window is erected by Mrs. Bankes, mother of William George Hawtrey Bankes, Cornet, seventh Hussars.
The seventh window in the West Aisle of the North Transept is erected in memory of Brigadier the Honourable Adrian Hope, by his relations, and is illustrative of those passages in the career of Asa, as recorded in 2 Chronicles xiv. 5. 11, 12. His destruction of idols in the city of Judah, verse 5; his prayer, verse 11; his victory over the Ethiopians, verse 12.
Sir William Webb Follett, Knt., who was at the time of his decease representative in Parliament for the City of Exeter, and Attorney-General to Queen Victoria. Of unblemished conduct in every relation of life, of manners gentle and prepossessing, combining with great legal knowledge extraordinary powers of persuasive eloquence, he attained, with the esteem, admiration, and good-will of all who witnessed his brilliant career, the highest eminence as an advocate and a Parliamentary speaker. The general hope and expectation that he was destined for the highest honours of the law were blighted by his untimely death. Died June 28, 1845, aged forty-eight.
A bust to the memory of George Gordon, Earl of Aberdeen, K.T., K.G. Born January 28th, 1784; died December 14th, 1860. Ambassador, Secretary of State, Prime Minister.—M. Noble, S.C.
Next to this on your left is a monument sacred to the memory of Elizabeth Warren, daughter of Henry Southwell, Esq., of Wisbeach, in the county of Cambridge, and widow of the Right Rev. John Warren, D.D., late Lord Bishop of Bangor:—“She was distinguished for the purity of her taste, and the soundness of her judgment; her prudence and discrimination were in no instances more conspicuous, than in selecting the objects of her[Pg 55] extensive charity. The widow and the fatherless were protected and relieved, and the virtuous who had fallen from prosperity, had peculiar claims to her benevolence. Though mild and gentle in her manners, yet she was remarkable for the firmness and vigour of her mind. Stedfast in the faith of Christ, she lived to illustrate his precepts, and died reposing on his merits and intercession. She departed this life, March 29, 1816, aged eighty-three. Her surviving sister, Mary, widow of the Right Honourable Sir James Eyre, Knt., Lord Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas, in testimony of her sincere affection, has erected this monument to her memory.”—It represents a houseless wanderer with an infant in her arms, on a square pedestal; the figure with its draperies is very generally admired.—Sir Richard Westmacott, sculptor.
Sir Henry Blackwood, with this inscription:—“Sacred to the memory of Vice-Admiral the Honourable Sir Henry Blackwood, Bart., K.C.B., G.C.H., who died December, 13, 1832, aged 63 years, 51 of which he had spent in the active service of his profession, distinguished by his energy, promptitude, and bravery, qualities which derived additional lustre from the virtues which adorned his personal character; with valour combining a strong sense of religion, and the elevation of an upright noble mind, with all the endearing feelings of a manly, generous, and benevolent heart. This tribute of sorrow and affection to the memory of one so justly honoured and beloved, is offered by his deeply afflicted widow and his surviving children.”—Behnes, sculptor.
In memory of the Right Honourable Sir George Cornewall Lewis, Baronet, of Harpton Court, in the County of Radnor; successively Chancellor of the Exchequer and Secretary of State for the Home and War Departments. The bust is erected by many friends, to mark their affectionate esteem and admiration, and to record his honoured name among the illustrious dead who lie buried within these walls. Born April 21, 1806; died April 13, 1863.—Weekes, R.A., sculptor.
A monument erected by the East India Company, as a memorial of the military talents of Lieutenant-General Sir Eyre Coote, K.B., Commander-in-chief of the British forces in India, who, by the success of his arms, in the year 1760 and 1761, expelled the French from the coast of Coromandel. In 1781 and 1782 he again took the field in the Carnatic, in opposition to the united strength of the French and Hyder Ally, and in several engagements defeated the numerous forces of the latter; but death interrupted his career of glory, on the 27th April, 1783, in the fifty-eighth year of his age. It consists of two figures as large as life; one a Mahratta captive, weeping beside a trophy of Persian armour, represents a province subdued; he is holding a cornucopia inverted, the contents of which are falling into a Britannia’s shield. The other, a Victory, having erected a trophy, is decorating it with the portrait of Sir Eyre Coote, by hanging it on a palm-tree, which rises from behind the armour. The elephant on the sarcophagus marks the scene of action. The Mahratta figure is particularly admired.—Banks, sculptor.
[Pg 56]A bust with the following inscription:—“Amidst the memorials of maturer greatness, this tribute of private affection and public honour records the talents, virtues, and early death of the Right Honourable Charles Buller, who, as an independent Member of Parliament, and in the discharge of important offices of state, united the deepest human sympathies with wide and philosophic views of government and mankind; and pursued the noblest political and social objects, above party spirit, and without an enemy. His character was distinguished by sincerity and resolution, his mind by vivacity and clearness of comprehension; while the vigour of expression and singular wit that made him eminent in debate, and delightful in society, were tempered by a most gentle and generous disposition; earnest in friendship and benevolent to all. The British Colonies will not forget the statesman who so well appreciated their desires and their destinies; and his country, recalling what he was, deplores the vanished hope of all he might have become. He was born August, 1806; he died Nov. 29, 1848.”
A bust sacred to the memory of the Right Honourable Warren Hastings, Governor-General of Bengal; Member of his Majesty’s most Honourable Privy Council, LL.D., F.R.S., descended from the elder branch of the ancient and noble family of Huntingdon. Selected for his eminent talents and integrity, he was appointed by Parliament, in 1773, the first Governor-General of India, to which high office he was thrice re-appointed by the same authority. Presiding over the India Governments during thirteen years of a most eventful period, he restored the affairs of the East India Company from the deepest distress to the highest prosperity, and rescued their possessions from a combination of the most powerful enemies ever leagued against them. In the wisdom of his counsels, and the energy of his measures, he found unexhausted resources, and successfully sustained a long, varied, and multiplied war with France, Mysore, and the Mahratta states, whose power he humbled, and concluded an honourable peace, for which, and for his distinguished services, he received the thanks of the East India Company, sanctioned by the Board of Control. The kingdom of Bengal, the seat of his Government, he ruled with a mild and equitable sway, preserved it from invasion, and, while he secured to its inhabitants the enjoyment of their customs, laws, and religion, and the blessings of peace, was rewarded by their affection and gratitude; nor was he more distinguished by the highest qualities of a statesman and a patriot, than by the exercise of every Christian virtue. He lived for many years in dignified retirement, beloved and revered by all who knew him, at his seat of Daylesford, in the county of Worcester, where he died in peace, in the eighty-sixth year of his age, August 22, 1818. This memorial was erected by his beloved wife and disconsolate widow, M. A. Hastings. Over the inscription is a bust, greatly like him, executed by Mr. Bacon.
A statue to the memory of Francis Horner, who, by the union of great and various acquirements, with inflexible integrity, and unwearied devotion to the interests of the country, raised[Pg 57] himself to an eminent station in society, and was justly considered to be one of the most distinguished members of the House of Commons. He was born at Edinburgh in 1778, was called to the bar both of England and Scotland; and closed his short but useful life at Pisa, in 1817. His death was deeply felt, and publicly deplored in Parliament. His affectionate friends and sincere admirers, anxious that some memorial should exist of merit universally acknowledged, of expectations which a premature death could alone have frustrated, erected this monument, A.D. 1823.—Chantrey, sculptor.
Brigadier-General Hope, Lieutenant-Governor of the province of Quebec, where he died in 1789, aged forty-three years. The design of it is simply an Indian, whose affection has drawn her to the monument; she kneels on the pedestal, and bending over the sarcophagus, expresses that sorrow which the loss of such a benefactor has occasioned. A rudder is introduced, emblematical of his situation as Governor: the serpent and mirror, engraved thereon, point out the prudence of his administration; and a cornucopia conveys the idea of the felicity of it.—Bacon, sculptor.
To the memory of Jonas Hanway, Esq., celebrated for his universal feeling for the distressed, having been an active friend to the following charities, viz.,—the Foundling, Magdalen, and Marine Society. The expense was defrayed by voluntary subscriptions. On a sarcophagus, the Society is here represented in bas-relief; viz.,—Britannia, with her emblems of Government, Peace, War, Trade, and Navigation, who, with benign countenance, distributes clothes to poor boys to be trained to sea; over this a medallion of the deceased is fixed on a pyramid, upon the top of which is a lamp, emblematic of perpetual light,—“Sacred to the memory of Jonas Hanway, who departed this life September 5, 1786, aged seventy-four; but whose name liveth, and will ever live, whilst active piety shall distinguish the Christian, integrity and truth shall recommend the British merchant, and universal kindness shall characterize the citizen of the world. The helpless Infant, nurtured through his care; the friendless Prostitute sheltered and reformed; the hopeless Youth rescued from misery and ruin, and trained to serve and to defend his country, uniting in one common strain of gratitude, bear testimony to their benefactor’s virtues: this was the friend and father of the poor.”—F. Moore, sculptor.
Sir Clifton Wintringham, Bart., is represented visiting a sick and distressed family; underneath is the figure of his lady, kneeling and bewailing her loss.—“Sacred to the memory of Sir Clifton Wintringham, Bart., M.D., who, no less eminent as a physician, both at home and in the army, than beloved on account of his virtuous life and engaging manners, died lamented by all, January 10, 1794, aged eighty-three. His widow, Ann Wintringham, caused this monument to be erected, as a last testimony of her love for him when living, and of the sincere regret she feels for her loss.”—Banks, sculptor.
A truly admirable bust of the late Richard Cobden. Born[Pg 58] June 3, 1804; died April 2, 1865, and was buried at West Lavington, in Sussex.—Thos. Woolner, sculptor.
A bust to the memory of Major-General Sir Herbert Benjamin Edwards, K.C.B., K.C.S.I., D.C.L., LL.D., who in early life, as a Subaltern of the East Indian Company’s Army, by his fertility of resource, and in promptitude in action, struck the first victorious blow at the Insurrection in the Punjab in 1848. Who in later years, by his courage, sagacity, and mastery over men, ever animated by Christian principle, won an enduring place in the affections of the people to whose welfare he had long devoted himself, and in 1847, at a time of unexampled danger, greatly contributed to the security of the Frontier, and to the salvation of the British Empire in India. Born November 12th, 1819; died December 23rd, 1868.
To the memory of Major-General Coote Manningham.—“Sacred to the memory of Major-General Coote Manningham, Colonel of the ninety-fifth, or Rifle Regiment of Infantry, and Equerry to the King; in testimony of a friendship which commenced in early youth, was matured and confirmed by time, remains unchilled by death, and humbly looks for a reunion in eternity. The distinguished soldier to whom friendship erects this inadequate memorial, began his career of military action at the siege of Gibraltar, and concluded it at the victory of Corunna, to which his skill and gallantry conspicuously contributed. He fell an early victim to the vicissitudes of climate, and the severities of war, and died 26th Aug., 1809, aged forty-four. Yet, reader, regard not his fate as premature, since his cup of glory was full, and he was not summoned till his virtue and patriotism had achieved even here a brilliant recompense: for his name is engraved on the annals of his country. In him the man and the Christian tempered the warrior, and England might proudly present him to the world as the model of a British soldier.” Erected by Lieutenant-General Thomas Hislop, Commander-in-Chief, &c., at Bombay, in the East Indies, anno 1813.—Bacon, jun., sculptor.
George Montague Dunk, Earl of Halifax.—His Lordship’s bust conveys a very striking likeness of the original. It is supported by two emblematical figures, one holding a mirror, supposed to be Truth, with his foot on a mask, trampling on Falsehood; the other, Honour, presenting the ensigns of the Garter. It is also decorated with various other emblems, alluding to the different public posts of honour which his Lordship held at different times. The inscription is as follows:—“Sacred be the monument which is here raised by gratitude and respect, to perpetuate the memory of George Montague Dunk, Earl of Halifax, Knight of the most noble Order of the Garter, whose allegiance, integrity, and abilities, alike distinguished and exalted him in the reigns of George II. and George III. In the year 1745 (an early period of his life), he raised and commanded a regiment, to defend his King and country against the alarming insurrection in Scotland. He was soon after appointed first Lord of Trade and Plantations in which department he contributed so largely to[Pg 59] the commerce and splendour of America, as to be styled, ‘Father of the Colonies.’ At one and the same time he filled the united great offices of the First Lord of the Admiralty, Principal Secretary of State, and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. He was afterwards appointed Lord Privy Seal; on the resignation thereof he was recalled to the important duties of Principal Secretary of State, and died (in possession of the Seals) June 8, 1771. His worth in private life was eminent and extensive, and was best testified in the honour and esteem which were borne him living, and the lamentations bestowed upon his ashes. Among many instances of his liberal spirit, one deserves to be distinctly recorded: during his residence in Ireland, he obtained the grant of an additional 4000l. per annum for all subsequent Viceroys, at the same time nobly declining that emolument himself.”—Bacon, sculptor.
Over the north door is a magnificent monument to the memory of Admiral Watson, where you see, in the centre of a range of palm-trees, an elegant figure of the Admiral in a Roman toga, with a branch of palm in his right hand, receiving the address of a prostrate figure, representing the genius of Calcutta, a place in the East Indies memorable for the imprisonment of the English garrison in a black hole, where most of them perished, and where those that survived were released by the Admiral, and the town retaken from the Nabob, in January, 1757. On the other side is the figure, in chains, of a native of Chandernagore, another place taken by the Admiral the March following. On the front is this inscription:—“To the memory of Charles Watson, Vice-Admiral of the White, Commander-in-Chief of his Majesty’s navy forces in the East Indies, who died at Calcutta, August 16, 1757, aged forty-four. The East India Company, as a grateful testimony of the signal advantages which they obtained by his valour and prudent conduct, caused this monument to be erected.”—Scheemakers, sculptor.
Against the wall, on a small tablet, is the bust of Sir William Sanderson, Knt., with an inscription in Latin, showing that he was Gentleman of the Bedchamber to Charles I.; and wrote the lives of Mary Queen of Scots, James, and Charles I.: that he sustained great hardships from the tyranny of the rebels; but that, having bravely surmounted all difficulties, he lived to the age of ninety, and died July 15, 1676.
General Guest.—On a base and pyramid of most beautiful marble, are the first enrichments and busts that are to be seen in the whole church. The inscription is short, but manly—“Sacred to those virtues that adorn a Christian and a soldier, this marble perpetuates the memory of Lieutenant-General Joshua Guest, who closed a service of sixty years, by faithfully defending Edinburgh Castle against the rebels in 1745.”
Admiral Sir John Balchen, Knt.—On this fine monument, in relief, is the representation of a ship perishing in a storm. The inscription, which is historical, is here inserted:—“To the memory of Sir John Balchen, Knt., Admiral of the White Squadron of his Majesty’s fleet in 1744. Being sent out Commander-in-Chief[Pg 60] of the combined fleets of England and Holland, to cruise on the enemy, was, on his return home in his Majesty’s ship the Victory, lost in the Channel by a violent storm; from which sad circumstance of his death we may learn that neither the greatest skill, judgment, or experience, joined to the most firm, unshaken resolution, can resist the fury of the winds and waves; and we are taught by the passages of his life, which were filled with great and gallant actions, but ever accompanied with adverse gales of fortune, that the brave, the worthy, and the good man, meets not always his reward in this world. Fifty-eight years of faithful and painful services he had passed, when, being just retired to the government of Greenwich Hospital to wear out the remainder of his days, he was once more, and for the last time, called out by his King and country, whose interest he ever preferred to his own, and his unwearied zeal for their service ending only in his death; which weighty misfortune to his afflicted family became heightened by many aggravating circumstances attending it; yet amidst their grief, had they the mournful consolation to find his gracious and Royal Master mixing his concern with the general lamentations of the public, for the calamitous fate of so zealous, so valiant, and so able a commander; and, as a lasting memorial of the sincere love and esteem borne by his widow to a most affectionate and worthy husband, this honorary monument was erected by her. He was born Feb. 2, 1669, married Susanna, daughter of Colonel Aprice, of Washingly, in the county of Huntingdon. Died Oct. 7, 1744, leaving one son and one daughter, the former of whom, George Balchen, survived him but a short time; for being sent to the West Indies in 1745, Commander of his Majesty’s ship the Pembroke, he died at Barbadoes, in December the same year, aged twenty-eight, having walked in the steps, and imitated the virtues and bravery of his good but unfortunate father.” When the Victory was lost she had on board near one thousand souls, one hundred of whom were gentlemen volunteers.—Scheemakers, sculptor.
Bishop of Bangor.—The figure of Religion is represented in a mournful attitude, leaning on a rock, whereon is writ the inscription, holding in her hand a cross; on the other side is represented an angel pointing to the cross, as a source of consolation whereby we are saved—why weep? the rock implies firmness of faith. A mitre, crozier, &c., are at the bottom.—“Near this place are interred the remains of the Right Rev. John Warren, D.D., Bishop of St. David’s in 1779, and translated to the see of Bangor in 1783. These episcopal stations he filled for more than twenty years, with great ability and virtue. His charity, liberality, candour, and benevolence, will long be remembered; his eminent learning and unwearied application rendered him highly serviceable to the laws, as well as the religion of his country, towards which he was most sincerely attached. He was son of Richard Warren, D.D., Rector of Cavendish, and Archdeacon of Suffolk, and brother of Richard Warren, M.D., celebrated for his knowledge and successful practice, and many years Physician in Ordinary to his Majesty. He married[Pg 61] Elizabeth Southwell, daughter of Henry Southwell, Esq., of Wisbeach, Cambridgeshire, who, fully sensible of his many distinguished virtues, has offered this grateful tribute to his memory, with the most unfeigned sincerity and respect. He died Jan. 27, 1800, in the seventy-second year of his age.”—Westmacott, jun., sculptor.
Lord Aubrey Beauclerk.—This monument is ornamented with arms, trophies, and naval ensigns; and in an oval niche, on a pyramid of dove-coloured marble, is a beautiful bust of this young nobleman. On the pedestal is this historical inscription:—“The Lord Aubrey Beauclerk was the youngest son of Charles, Duke of St. Albans, by Diana, daughter of Aubrey de Vere, Earl of Oxford. He went early to sea, and was made a commander in 1731. In 1740 he was sent upon that memorable expedition to Carthagena, under the command of Admiral Vernon, in his Majesty’s ship the Prince Frederick, which, with three others, was ordered to cannonade the Castle Bocachica. One of these being obliged to quit her station, the Prince Frederick was exposed not only to the fire from the Castle, but to that of Fort St. Joseph, and to two ships that guarded the mouth of the harbour, which he sustained for many hours that day, and part of the next, with uncommon intrepidity. As he was giving his command upon deck both his legs were shot off; but such was his magnanimity, that he would not suffer his wounds to be dressed till he had communicated his orders to his First Lieutenant, which were—To fight his ship to the last extremity. Soon after this he gave some directions about his private affairs, and then resigned his soul, with the dignity of a hero and a Christian. Thus was he taken off in the thirty-first year of his age; an illustrious commander of superior fortitude and clemency, amiable in his person, steady in his affection, and equalled by few in the social and domestic virtues of politeness, modesty, candour, and benevolence. He married the widow of Colonel F. Alexander, a daughter of Sir H. Newton, Knt., Envoy-Extraordinary to the Court of Florence and the Republic of Genoa, and Judge to the High Court of Admiralty.” His epitaph over the inscription:—
“While Britain boasts her empire o’er the deep,
This marble shall compel the brave to weep:
As men, as Britons, and as soldiers mourn—
’Tis dauntless, loyal, virtuous Beauclerk’s urn.
Sweet were his manners as his soul was great,
And ripe his worth, though immature his fate;
Each tender grace that joy and love inspire,
Living, he mingled with his martial fire;
Dying, he bid Britannia’s thunder roar,
And Spain still felt him when he breathed no more.”
The stained window above commemorates the foundering of H.M.S. Captain, on September 7th, 1870, when Capt. Hugh Burgoyne, V.C., Capt. Cowper Coles, C.B., with 49 officers, and 402 men and boys, perished off Cape Finisterre, in the service of their country. The names are inscribed on brasses in St. Paul’s Cathedral. The subjects of the window are—The Sea giving up[Pg 62] her Dead; The Passage through the Red Sea; The Fleet of Solomon; Building the Ships of Tyre; Jonah delivered from the Whale; Christ Stilling the Tempest; Christ Walking on the Sea; Christ Teaching from the Ship; The Miraculous Draught; and the Shipwreck of St. Paul.
Percy Kirk, Esq.—On each side of a fine bust of this gentleman is a winged seraph; one having a dagger in his right hand inverted, and in his left a helmet; the other resting on a ball, and holding in his left hand a torch reversed. The inscription says, he was Lieutenant-General of his Majesty’s armies; that he died January 1, 1741, aged fifty-seven; and that he was son of Percy Kirk, Esq., a Lieutenant-General in the reign of James II., by the Lady Mary, daughter of George Howard, Earl of Suffolk. Diana Dormer, his niece and sole heiress, died February 22, 1743, aged thirty-two.—Scheemakers, sculptor.
Richard Kane.—On this tomb is a curious bust of this gentleman, of white marble, upon a handsome pedestal, whereon are inscribed the most striking passages of his life. He was born at Down, in Ireland, Dec. 20, 1666. In 1689, he first appeared in a military capacity at the memorable siege of Derry; and after the reduction of Ireland followed William III. into Flanders, where he distinguished himself, particularly by his intrepid behaviour at the siege of Namurre, where he was severely wounded. In 1702, he bore a commission in the service of Queen Anne, and assisted in the expedition to Canada; from whence he again returned to Flanders, and fought under the Duke of Argyle, and afterwards under Lord Carpenter. In 1712 he was made Sub-Governor of Minorca, through which island he caused a road to be made, before thought impracticable. In 1720 he was ordered by George I. to the defence of Gibraltar, where he sustained an eight months’ siege against the Spaniards, when all hope of relief was extinguished; for which gallant service he was, by George II. rewarded with the government of Minorca, where he died, Dec. 19, 1736, and was buried in the Castle of St. Philip.—Rysbrack, sculp.
Bishop Bradford.—The inscription is in Latin, surrounded with the arms and proper ensigns of his several dignities. He was some time Rector of St. Mary-le-Bow, from thence advanced to the See of Carlisle and afterwards translated to that of Rochester, with the Deanery of this Church, and that of the Hon. Order of the Bath annexed. He died May 17, 1731, in the seventy-ninth year of his age.—Cheere, sculptor.
Dr. Boulter, Archbishop of Armagh.—The bust of the Archbishop is very natural; his long flowing hair and solemn gracefulness excite a kind of reverential respect in an attentive beholder. The ensigns of his dignity, with which his monument is ornamented, are most exquisitely finished. The inscription is enclosed in a beautiful border, and is as follows:—“Dr. Hugh Boulter, late Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of all Ireland, a Prelate so eminent for the accomplishment of his mind, the purity of his heart, and the excellency of his life, that it may be thought superfluous to specify his titles, recount his virtues, or even to erect a monument to his fame. His titles he not only[Pg 63] deserved, but adorned; his virtues are manifest in his good works, which had never dazzled the public eye, if they had not been too bright to be concealed; and as to his fame, whosoever has any sense of merit, any reverence for piety, and passion for his country, or any charity for mankind, will assist in preserving it fair and spotless, and when brass and marble shall mix with the dust they cover, every succeeding age may have the benefit of his illustrious example. He was born January 4, 1671; was consecrated Bishop of Bristol, 1718; translated to the Archbishopric of Armagh, 1723; and from thence to heaven, Sept. 27, 1742.”—S. H. Cheere, sculptor.
ooking back on your left is a new monument to the memory of Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, Bart., born April 1, 1786; died Feb. 19, 1845. Endowed with a vigorous mind, of dauntless courage and untiring energy, he was early led by the love of God to devote his powers to the good of man. In Parliament he laboured for the improvement of prison discipline; for the amendment of the criminal code, for the suppression of Suttees in India, for the liberation of the Hottentots in Southern Africa; and, above all, for the emancipation of eight hundred thousand slaves in the British dominions. In this last righteous enterprise, after ten years of arduous conflict, a final victory was given to him and his coadjutors “by the grace of our God,” on the memorable 1st of August, 1834. The energies of his mind were afterwards concentrated on a great attempt to extinguish the slave trade in Africa, by the substitution of agriculture and commerce, and by the civilizing influence of the Gospel. Exhausted in mind and body, “he fell asleep,” reposing in faith on his Redeemer, in the fifty-ninth year of his age. This monument is erected by his friends and fellow-labourers at home and abroad, assisted by the grateful contributions of many thousands of the African race.—Thrupp, sculptor.
Next against the screen of the choir is a fine old monument, whereon lies the effigy of a gentleman at full length in a tufted gown; and underneath, upon the base, was a lady kneeling. By the inscription, these appear to represent Sir Thomas Hesketh, Attorney of the Court of Wards of Liveries in Queen Elizabeth’s time; and Julian, his wife, who caused this monument to be erected. He died October 15, 1605.
Dame Mary James.—A very neat monument, being an urn, wreathed, and crowned with a Viscount’s coronet, on a handsome pedestal. By the inscription, it appears that this lady was the wife of Sir John James, of the ancient family of the Lords of Hosterick, in Holland, and daughter of Sir Robert Killigrew, Vice-Chamberlain to Henrietta Maria, Queen of Charles I. She died Nov. 6, 1677.
Hugh Chamberlain, M.D., and F.R.S.—The principal figure[Pg 64] on this monument lies, as it were, at ease, upon a sarcophagus, leaning on his right arm, with his hand upon his cap and his head uncovered. In his left hand he holds a book, indicating thereby his intense application to study. On each side are the emblems of physic and longevity; and over his head is Fame descending with a trumpet in one hand, and in the other a wreath. On the top are weeping cherubs, and on the pedestal a long inscription in Latin, setting forth his vast knowledge and industry in his profession, his humanity in relieving the sick, and his connections and affinities in social and private life. This gentleman was famous for the improvements he made in midwifery, the practice of which, since his time, has been studied by the faculty to great advantage. He died June 17, 1728, aged sixty-four.—Scheemakers and Delvaux, sculptors.
Doctor Samuel Arnold, late Organist of this Church, died October 22, 1802, aged sixty-two years. This monument was erected by his afflicted widow:—
“Oh, let thy still-loved Son inscribe thy stone,
And with a Mother’s sorrows mix his own.”
A sickle cutting the lyre is represented below. Turning round on your right is—
Captain Philip de Sausmarez.—The inscription on this monument is a recital of the deceased’s naval exploits, one of those few whose lives ought rather to be measured by their actions than their days. From sixteen to thirty-seven years of age he served in the navy, and was often surrounded with dangers and difficulties unparalleled, always proving himself an able, active, and gallant officer. He went out a lieutenant on board his Majesty’s ship the Centurion, under the auspicious conduct of Commodore Anson, in his expedition to the South Seas. He was commanding officer of the same ship when she was driven from her moorings at the Isle of Titian. In the year 1746, being Captain of the Nottingham, a sixty gun ship, he (then alone) attacked and took the Mars, a French ship of sixty-four guns. In the first engagement of the following year when Admiral Anson defeated and took a squadron of French men-of-war and Indiamen, he had an honourable share; and in the second, under Admiral Hawke, when the enemy, after a long and obstinate resistance, was again routed, in pursuing two ships that were making their escape, he gloriously, but unfortunately fell. He was the son of Matthew de Sausmarez, of the Island of Guernsey, Esq., by Ann Durell, of the Island of Jersey, his wife. He was born November 17, 1710, killed October 14, 1747, and buried in the Old Church at Plymouth, with all the honours due to his distinguished merits. This monument was erected by his brothers and sisters.—S. H. Cheere, sculptor.
Doctor Charles Burney.—A tablet with the following inscription, written by his daughter:—“Sacred to the memory of Charles Burney, Mus. D., F.R.S., who, full of years and full of virtues, the pride of his family, the delight of society, the unrivalled chief and scientific historian of his tuneful art—beloved, revered, regretted, breathed in Chelsea College his[Pg 65] last sigh; leaving to posterity a fame unblemished, raised on a noble basis of intellectual attainments. High principles and pure benevolence, goodness with gaiety, talents with taste, were of his gifted mind the blended attributes; while the genial hilarity of his airy spirits animated or softened his every earthly toil: and a conscience without reproach, prepared in the whole tenor of his mortal life, through the mediation of our Lord Jesus Christ, his soul for heaven. Amen. Born April 7, O.S., 1726; died April 12, 1814.”
John Blow, Doctor in Music.—Under the tablet is a canon in four parts, set to music, with enrichments, cherubs, and flowers. In the centre is an English inscription, by which it appears he was Organist, Composer, and Master of the Children of the Chapel Royal thirty-five years, and Organist to this Abbey, fifteen years; that he was scholar to Dr. Christopher Gibbons, and Master to the famous Mr. Purcell, and to most of the eminent masters of his time. He died Oct. 1, 1708, in his sixtieth year.
William Croft.—On the pedestal of this monument, in bas-relief, is an organ, and on the top a bust of the deceased, who was Doctor in Music, Master of the Children, Organist and Composer of the Chapel Royal, and Organist of Westminster Abbey. He died August 14, 1727, aged fifty.
Dr. Monk, Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol.—This ecclesiastic is represented in a fine brass in the centre of the aisle, holding a crosier surmounted with the paschal lamb, the four corners representing the evangelical emblems, while the inscription informs us that he was Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol, Canon of Westminster, Dean of Peterborough, and Regius Professor at Cambridge, and died June 6, 1859, aged seventy-four.—Hardiman.
On your left, on the choir side, against the column, is a small tablet to the memory of Henry Purcell, Esq., with the following inscription:—“Here lies Henry Purcell, who left this life, and is gone to that blessed place, where only his harmony can be exceeded.” A short, but comprehensive epitaph, expressive of his great merit. He died Nov. 21, 1695, in his thirty-seventh year.
Sacred to the memory of Captain George Bryan, late of His Majesty’s Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards, son of the Rev. John Bryan and Eliza Louisa, his wife, of Hertford, in the island of Jamaica. He fell in the month of July, 1809, in the twenty-seventh year of his age, at the battle of Talavera, in Spain, so glorious in the annals of British valour, but so deeply afflicting to a widowed mother. His remains were interred, with every military honour, in the garden of the convent of St. Jeronimo, when even the officers of the enemy joined in evincing respect to his memory and sympathy for his untimely fate. The monument represents a mourner reclining on the basement of a column that holds an urn, over which is the name of Talavera. Military trophies and implements of war are introduced.—Bacon, jun., sculptor.
Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles: his figure is seated on a handsome moulded pedestal in serious contemplation; the following inscription underneath:—“To the memory of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, LL.D., F.R.S., Lieutenant-Governor of Java,[Pg 66] and first President of the Zoological Society of London; born in 1781, died in 1826. Selected at an early age to conduct the Government of the British conquests in the Indian Ocean, by wisdom, vigour, and philanthropy, he raised Java to happiness and prosperity unknown under former rulers. After the surrender of that Island to the Dutch, and during his government in Sumatra, he founded an emporium at Singapore, where he established freedom of person as the right of the soil, and freedom of trade as the right of the port, he secured to the British flag the maritime superiority of the Indian Seas. Ardently attached to science, he laboured successfully to add to the knowledge and enrich the museums of his native land: in promoting the welfare of the people committed to his charge, he sought the good of his country and the glory of God.”—Chantrey, sculptor.
Almericus de Courcy, Baron of Kinsale.—His Lordship is here represented in full proportion, reposing himself, after the fatigues of an active life, under a rich canopy, finely ornamented and gilt. He was descended, as his inscription shows, from the famous John de Courcy, Earl of Ulster, who, in the reign of John, in consideration of his great valour, obtained that extraordinary privilege to him and his heirs, of standing covered before the King. This nobleman was greatly in favour with Charles II. and James II., and commanded a troop of horse under the latter. He died Feb. 9, 1719, aged fifty-seven.
“To the memory of William Wilberforce, born in Hull, August 24, 1759, died in London, July 29, 1833. For nearly half a century a member of the House of Commons, and for six parliaments during that period one of the two representatives for Yorkshire. In an age and country fertile in great and good men, he was among the foremost of those who fixed the character of their time; because to high and various talents, to warm benevolence, and to universal candour, he added the abiding eloquence of a Christian life. Eminent as he was in every department of public labour, and a leader in every work of charity, whether to relieve the temporal or the spiritual wants of his fellow men, his name will ever be specially identified with those exertions which, by the blessing of God, removed from England the guilt of the African Slave Trade, and prepared the way for the abolition of slavery in every colony in the empire. In the prosecution of these objects, he relied not in vain on God: but in the progress, he was called to endure great obloquy and great opposition. He outlived, however, all enmity, and in the evening of his days withdrew from public life and public observation to the bosom of his family. Yet he died not unnoticed or forgotten by his country: the Peers and Commons of England, with the Lord Chancellor and the Speaker at their head, in solemn procession from their respective houses, carried him to his fitting place among the mighty dead around, here to repose, till, through the merits of Jesus Christ his only Redeemer and Saviour, whom in his life and in his writings he had desired to glorify, he shall rise in the resurrection of the[Pg 67] just.” His figure is seated on a pedestal, very ingeniously done, and truly expressive of his age, and of the pleasure he seemed to derive from his own thoughts.—Joseph, sculptor.
Above is Dr. Plenderleath.—A medallion of the deceased is fixed up with ribbon, under which is Hygeia, the cup of health, a serpent twining round, and a bough of cypress lying on it. Below is written in a book—“He healed—‘many that were sick of divers diseases.’” (St. Mark, i. 34.) Under the book is an Æsculapius as an emblem of physic. “In memory of Dr. John Plenderleath, third son of John Plenderleath, Esq., of Glen, in Tweedale, Scotland, Physician to the forces serving under the Marquis of Wellington in Portugal, who died at Coimbra, of a typhus fever, on the 18th of June, 1811, aged twenty-eight years. He was eminently distinguished by the strength of his mental faculties, his great classical and professional knowledge; and no less by the humanity of his heart, which manifested itself on all occasions, and especially towards the numerous sick and wounded, both of his countrymen and of the enemy, which were committed to his care. In commemoration of his public virtues, and of his many amiable qualities in private life, this monument is erected as a small tribute of parental affection.”—Bacon, jun., sculptor.
A monument to Sir Thomas Duppa, prettily ornamented with flowers and foliage, and on the top with an urn wreathed. The inscription shows that Sir Thomas in his youth waited on Charles II. when he was Prince of Wales. He was afterwards made Gentleman Usher and Daily Waiter, and then Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod, in which office he died, April 25, 1694, aged 75.
Behind you, looking upwards, in the window is a monument to the Rev. Evelyn Levett Sutton, M.A., Prebendary of Westminster, Rector of High Holden, in the Isle of Thanet. Born 1777. On Sunday, 25th January, 1834, when reading the Ninth Commandment, suddenly fell down, was removed from the choir to his house, where he died the same evening. The inscription is as follows:—“The learning of the scholar, the benevolence of the Christian, obtained the esteem of the wise and the good, while his graceful wit, classic elegance of mind, and gentle and generous heart, made him the delight of all that knew him; his widow, now happiest when recalling her husband’s worth and love, seeks, on this monument, to record her loss and her affection.” A female is represented in front of the pedestal, resting her head on books of divinity.—Chantrey, sculptor.
“To the memory of Sir George Leonard Staunton, Bart., of Cargin, county of Galway, Ireland. His life was devoted to his country’s service, in various parts of the globe; his conduct on all occasions was distinguished by firmness, prudence, and integrity, and in a peculiar manner displayed in the treaty of peace concluded with Tippoo Sultan, in 1784, by which the British interests in India were promoted and secured. Born 19th April, 1737; died 14th January, 1801.” Sir George seems expounding the law to a native. A tiger is represented at the east end of the monument.—Chantrey, sculptor.
[Pg 68]Beneath is a fine bust of Admiral West.—The inscription is remarkable for historical relation, viz.:—“Sacred to the memory of Temple West, Esq., who, dedicating himself from his earliest youth to the naval service of his country, rose with merit and reputation to the rank of Vice-Admiral of the White. Sagacious, active, industrious, a skilful seaman, cool, intrepid, and resolute, he proved himself a gallant officer. In the signal victory obtained over the French, May 3, 1747, he was Captain of the ship which carried Sir Peter Warren, and acquired peculiar honour, even on that day of general glory. In the less successful engagement near Minorca, May 20, 1756, wherein, as Rear-Admiral, he commanded the second division, his distinguished courage and animated example were admired by the whole British squadron; confessed by that of France; and, amidst the national discontent which followed, rewarded, as they deserved, by the warmest applauses of his country, and the just approbation of his Sovereign. On the 17th November following, he was appointed one of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. He adorned his station by a modesty which concealed from him his own merit, and a candour which disposed him to reward that of others. With these talents he possessed the milder graces of domestic life: to the frank and generous spirit of an officer, he added the ease and politeness of a gentleman; and with the moral and social virtues of a good man, he exercised the duties of a Christian. A life so honourable to himself, so dear to his friends, so useful to his country, was ended at the age of forty-three, A.D. 1757. To preserve to posterity his fame, and his example, this monument was erected by the daughter of the brave unfortunate Balchen, the wife of Temple West, A.D. 1761.”
On the next monument are placed the arms of Richard le Neve, Esq., with the instruments of war. The English inscription informs us, that being made commander of his Majesty’s ship the Edgar, he was unfortunately killed in the twenty-seventh year of his age, in that sharp engagement with the Hollanders, on the 11th August, 1673.
Sir Edmund Prideaux, Bart.—Near this monument, in one grave, in the middle aisle, are deposited the remains of Sir Edmund Prideaux, of Netherton, in Devonshire, Bart., and Dame Ann, his second wife. He departed this life, February 26, 1728, in his fifty-fifth year; and she the 10th May, 1741, aged fifty-five years. Their daughter Ann erected this monument to their memories.—Cheere, sculptor.
Dame Elizabeth Carteret.—She was daughter of Sir Edward Carteret, Knight, Gentleman Usher to Charles I., and second wife and relict of Sir Philip de Carteret, and by him mother of Sir Charles Carteret, her only son, by whose death was extinguished the eldest branch of the ancient family of the Carterets, Signeurs of St. Owen, in the Isle of Jersey. She died March 26, 1717, aged fifty-two.
Opposite is the tablet of Dr. Peter Heylin, on the top of which are the arms of Heylin. On the face of the tablet is a[Pg 69] long Latin inscription greatly to his praise. Died May 8, 1662, aged 63.
A tablet to Charles Williams, Esq.—The scrollwork and scalloping are somewhat remarkable. The inscription tells us that the deceased was of Caerleon, in Monmouthshire, a strenuous defender of the Church and public liberty, and a good and generous man. He died August 29, 1720, aged eighty-seven.
Charles Agar, D.D.—This monument consists of a fine representation of the Archbishop relieving the poor, who are also finely executed, and the clergy of the diocese on the right hand, with the following inscription:—“Sacred to the memory of Charles Agar, D.D., Earl of Normanton, and Archbishop of Dublin. He was educated at Westminster School, and was a student of Christ Church, Oxford; in 1768, he was consecrated Bishop of Cloyne, in Ireland, and translated from thence to the Archbishoprick of Cashel, in 1779; in 1795, he was created Baron Somerton, of Somerton, in the county of Kilkenny, and Viscount Somerton, in 1800; in the following year he became Archbishop of Dublin, and in the year 1806, was created Earl of Normanton. He departed this life, July 14, 1809, aged seventy-two years, and rests near this spot, in the same grave with his uncle, the Right Hon. Wellbore Ellis, Baron Mendip. In the course of his episcopal labours, not less than seventeen churches, and twenty-two glebe-houses, for the residence of his clergy, were built under his direction and assistance; and he erected, principally at his own expense, the Cathedral Church of Cashel. As a statesman and a prelate, he was an able and zealous supporter of the religion which he professed and taught, and of the country at whose councils he assisted. His care for the welfare of the Church, is testified by the numerous acts of Parliament he framed for its permanent regulation and support. The perfect state in which his dioceses were left, and the veneration impressed by his talents and virtues on the hearts of those over whom he presided, are far nobler monuments than any which can be erected to his memory.”—Bacon, jun., sculptor.
In the window is the following inscription:—“To the memory of the most affectionate of brothers, George Lindsay Johnstone, Esq., this monument is erected by his afflicted sister.” His remains are interred in the South Cloister. Grief is represented in a mournful posture over a coffin, on the side of which is a medallion of the deceased.—Flaxman, sculptor.
Robert, Lord Constable.—On the face of the monument is this inscription:—“Near this lies the Right Hon. Robert, Lord Constable, Viscount Dunbar, who departed this life November 23, 1714, in his sixty-fourth year. Also his second wife, the Right Hon. Dorothy Brudenell, Countess of Westmoreland, who departed this life January 26, 1739, aged ninety-one.”
Here you pass through the gate.
Thomas Livingstone, Viscount Teviot.—The top of this monument is decorated with the arms, supporters, and crest of this nobleman, and with military trophies, alluding to his profession of a soldier. On the face of the monument is a long Latin[Pg 70] inscription, showing that he was born in Holland, but descended from the Livingstones in Scotland; that from his childhood he was trained to arms; that he attended the Prince of Orange into Britain as a Colonel of Foot; that he rose to the rank of Lieutenant-General, and General of the Scotch forces; was made Master of the Ordnance, and a Privy Councillor; that he secured Scotland to the King, by one decisive action on the Spey, for which he was advanced to the dignity of Viscount. He died January 14, 1710, aged sixty.
Edward de Carteret.—This neat monument is ornamented with cherubs, and with festoons of leaves and fruit, finely embossed, and was erected to the child whose name is inscribed upon it, who died in the eighth year of his age, Oct. 30, 1677. He was son of Sir Edward de Carteret, Gentleman Usher to Charles II.
Philip Carteret.—Figure of Time, standing on an altar, and holding a scroll in his hand, whereon are written, in sapphic verse, lines to the following import, which he is supposed to be repeating:—
“Why flow the mournful Muse’s tear,
For thee, cut down in life’s full prime?
Why sighs for thee the parent dear,
Cropt by the scythe of hoary time?
Lo! this, my boy’s, the common lot;
To me thy memory entrust;
When all that’s dear shall be forgot,
I’ll guard thy venerable dust.
From age to age, as I proclaim
Thy learning, piety, and truth,
Thy great examples shall enflame,
And emulation raise in youth.”
Over all is the bust of the noble youth here alluded to, who was son of Lord George Carteret, and died a King’s scholar, at Westminster, ripe for the University, March 19, 1710, aged nineteen.—David, sculptor.
Above is a memorial window put up by friends of the great engineer, Robert Stephenson—George Stephenson, Telford, Smeaton, Robert Stephenson, Watt, Rennie:—Bonha Bridge, over the Nile; William of Wykeham; Britannia Bridge (tubular), over the Menai Straits; Hiram; Building of the Second Temple; Bezaleel; Building of the Temple by Solomon; Noah; The Erection of the Tabernacle; Tubal Cain; Building of the Ark by Noah; Victoria Bridge, over the St. Lawrence; Sir C. Wren; High Level Bridge at Newcastle-upon-Tyne; Mch. Angelo; The Colosseum at Rome; Archimedes; Building of a Roman Aqueduct; Euclid; Treasure Cities of Egypt; Cheops; Building of Nineveh.
The next is to the memory of Joseph Locke, R.A., and President of the Society of Engineers:—Our Lord in Majesty; The Lord healing the impotent at Bethesda; Our Lord healing the withered hand; Resurrection of Our Lord; Our Lord and disciples walking in the corn-field.
Above is a little monument, consisting of an urn over a tablet that has a Latin inscription, reciting the high character of Sir James Stewart Denham, Bart., who died Nov. 26, 1780, aged sixty-seven.
Suspended by a knot of ribbons, fastened to a pyramid of various-coloured marble, is a fine medallion, with the[Pg 71] words—“Henry Priestman, Esq.” round the head. Underneath are naval trophies and sea instruments, most admirably sculptured, and upon the base an inscription, showing that the person to whose memory the monument is erected, was Commander-in-Chief of a squadron of ships of war in the reign of Charles II., a Commissioner of the Navy, and one of the Commissioners for executing the office of Lord High Admiral of England, in the reign of William III. He died August 20, 1712, aged sixty-five.—Bird, sculptor.
A rostral column of curiously-veined marble, on which are depicted the prows of galleys, a Medusa’s head, naval and military trophies, &c., with this short inscription:—“To the memory of John Baker, Esq., Vice-Admiral of the White Squadron of the British Fleet, who, when he commanded in the Mediterranean, died at Port-Mahon, November 20, 1716, aged fifty-six. He was a brave, judicious, and experienced officer, a sincere friend, and a true lover of his country. Manet post funera virtus!”—Bird, sculptor.
A monument to the memory of Richard Mead, M.D., on which are his bust and various emblematical devices, expressive of his great learning and physical knowledge, for which he was eminent. He was of an ancient family in Buckinghamshire, was Physician in Ordinary to his Majesty, Fellow of the College of Physicians, and of the Royal Society; a great promoter of the Foundling Hospital, and well known to the world by his writings. He died the 14th of March, 1754, aged eighty-one.—Scheemakers, sculptor.
On the column, on your right hand, is a small tablet erected to the memory of Gilbert Thornburgh, Esq., an honest courtier, faithful to his God, his Prince, and his friends, who died October 6, 1677, aged fifty-six.
In the window is a monument—“To the memory of the Right Honourable Spencer Perceval, Chancellor of the Exchequer, and First Lord of the Treasury. This monument was erected by the Prince Regent and the Parliament, to record their deep sense of his public and private virtues, and to mark the nation’s abhorrence of the act by which he fell. Born 1st November, 1762; assassinated within the walls of the House of Commons, 11th May, 1812.” In bas-relief he is represented falling into the arms of the officers of the House of Commons in the lobby of the House, where the members are seen rushing forward to witness the sad catastrophe: the second figure to the left represents the assassin (Bellingham). A figure of Mr. Perceval is lying on a mattress, under which is a sarcophagus, the figure of power (with the fasces) weeping over him. At his feet are two figures, Truth (with the mirror), Temperance (the bridle).—Westmacott, sculptor.
Robert and Richard Cholmondeley.—The Latin inscription informs us that the second and fourth sons of Robert Viscount Cholmondeley, lie here interred. Robert, a King’s scholar, died at fourteen, February 4, 1678; Richard died June 9, 1680. Both youths of promising genius.
[Pg 72]Edward Mansell, eldest son of Sir Edward Mansell, of Margam, in Glamorganshire, Bart., who died June 20, 1681, aged 15.
Against a pillar, on a tablet of white marble, is a long inscription in English, setting forth the descent of Edward Herbert, Esq. He was lineally descended from Sir George Herbert, of Swansea, in Glamorganshire, first sheriff of that county after the union of the principality of Wales in 1542. He died Sept. 18, 1715, aged twenty-three, leaving one son, Thomas, then two years old.
A double monument, being two oval tables between three wreathed pillars, neatly ornamented and inscribed; the first to the memory of William Morgan, second son of William Morgan, of Tredegar, in Monmouthshire, who died February 1, 1683, in the nineteenth year of his age; the other, Thomas Mansel, eldest son of Busy Mansel, of Britain’s Ferry, Glamorganshire, who died December 13, 1684, aged thirty-eight.
Mrs. Jane Hill.—This lady, who is here represented on a pedestal, in the ancient dress of her time, appears by the inscription to have been the daughter of Thomas Stoteville, of Brinkley, in Cambridgeshire, and wife, first to Edward Ellis, of Chesterton, and then to Othowell Hill, LL.D., and Chancellor of the diocese of Lincoln. She died April 27, 1631, aged seventy-eight.
In the window above, is a monument to the memory of Miss Ann Whytell, who died 17th August, 1788. Upon an urn are leaning two figures of Innocence and Peace, having the emblems in their hands, the dove and olive-branch.—Bacon, sculptor.
Above is a monument erected—“To the memory of John Stewart, Esq., Captain in the Royal Navy; son of William Stewart, Esq., of Castle Stewart, in Wigtownshire, and Euphemia, daughter of Lord Fortros. He entered the Navy at an early age, and distinguished himself in every rank and branch of the service, particularly when in command of the Seahorse, of thirty-eight guns, with which single ship he totally defeated a Turkish squadron, and captured the Bedere Zaffer, carrying fifty-one guns. He died in London, on the 25th October, 1811, aged thirty-six years. The knowledge, decision, and coolness which he displayed as an officer, won him the confidence of all who served with him; the gaiety and cheerfulness of his temper, the frankness of his disposition, and the warmth and goodness of his heart, rendered him the delight of all who approached him, and made his death an equal loss to private society and to his country.”
On the left is a handsome monument of Governor Loten, consisting of a single figure, representing Generosity, attended by a lion, who is sustaining a medallion, with his portrait upon a pedestal, on which is inscribed, in Latin, his great character, and the high offices he exercised over the Dutch settlements in India, where he arrived in the year 1732; married Henrietta Beaumont, August 24, 1733, who died August 10, 1755. He returned to Europe in 1758, married in England July 4, 1765, to Lætitia Cotes, of Cotes, in Staffordshire, and died at Utrecht,[Pg 73] May 25, 1789, ætatis eighty. The lower inscription is the fifteenth Psalm, except the last verse, and concludes—“Such was John Gideon Loten.”—Banks, sculptor.
Mrs. Mary Beaufoy.—The principal figure is represented in a devout posture, with cherubs crowning her; on each side are Cupids lamenting the early decay of virgin beauty; and underneath, the arms of her family, quarterly, upheld by cherubs. The inscription on the base:—“Reader! whoe’er thou art, let the sight of this tomb imprint on thy mind, that young and old (without distinction) leave this world; and therefore fail not to secure the next.” This lady was only daughter and heiress of Sir Henry Beaufoy, of Guy’s Cliff, near Warwick, by the Hon. Charlotte Lane, eldest daughter of George, Lord Viscount Lansborough. She died July 12, 1705.—Grinling Gibbons, sculptor.
“Robert Killigrew, of Arwenack, in Cornwall, Esq.; son of Thomas and Charlotte; Page of Honour to Charles II.; Brigadier-General of Her Majesty’s Forces; killed in Spain, in the battle of Almanza, April 14, 1707, ætatis suæ forty-seven. Militavit annis twenty-four.” A fine piece of sculpture, cut out of one stone. The embellishments are distinct and very picturesque, and the inscription modest and soldierlike.—Bird, sculptor. In front of this monument Ben Jonson was buried.
On a small tablet is the following inscription:—“In memory of Thomas Banks, Esq., R.A., Sculptor, whose superior abilities in his profession added a lustre to the arts of his country, and whose character as a man reflected honour on human nature. His earthly remains were deposited by his desire on the north side of the churchyard at Paddington. His spirit is with God. He died Feb. 2, 1805, aged seventy years.”
John Hunter.—The remains of this celebrated anatomist were removed from the Church of St. Martin-in-the-Fields to the Abbey in 1859. “The Royal College of Surgeons of England have placed this Tablet over the grave of Hunter, to record their admiration of his genius as a gifted interpreter of the Divine power and wisdom at work in the laws of organic life, and their grateful veneration for his services to mankind as the founder of scientific surgery.” Born, 1728; died, 1793.
Sir Robert Wilson and Lady.—A very fine brass beside that of Hunter. He was born in 1777, died 1849.
Colonel James Bringfield.—This monument is ornamented with military trophies, cherubs, &c., and surrounded by a mantling, enclosing a table on which are written the deceased’s military preferments, the manner of his death and burial, and the praises of his piety and virtue. He was born at Abingdon, Equerry to Prince George of Denmark, and Aid-de-Camp to the great Duke of Marlborough; was killed by a cannon ball, as he was remounting his General on a fresh horse, at the battle of Ramilies, on Whitsunday, May 12, 1706, and was interred at Barechem, in the province of Brabant, aged fifty.
One of the windows in the north aisle of the nave of Westminster Abbey has recently been filled with stained glass in[Pg 74] memory of the late Mr. Brunel. Along the bottom of the window (which consists of two lights, each 23 feet 6 inches high, and 4 feet wide, surmounted by a quatrefoil opening, 6 feet 6 inches across) is the inscription, “In memory of Isambard Kingdom Brunel, Civil Engineer. Born April 9, 1806. Died September 15, 1859.” Over this are four allegorical figures (two in each light): Fortitude, Justice, Faith, and Charity. The upper part of the window consists of six panels, divided by a pattern-work of lilies and pomegranates. The panels contain subjects from the history of the Temple. The three subjects in the western light represent scenes from the Old Testament: viz., the Dedication of the Temple by Solomon, the Finding of the Book of the Law by Hilkiah, and the Laying the Foundations of the Second Temple. The subjects in the eastern light are from the New Testament: viz., Simeon Blessing the Infant Saviour, Christ Disputing with the Doctors, and the Disciples pointing out to Christ the Buildings of the Temple. In the heads of the lights are angels kneeling, and in the quatrefoil is a representation of Our Lord in Glory, surrounded by angels. The work was placed in the hands of Mr. R. Norman Shaw, of the firm of Nesfield & Shaw, Architects, who prepared the general design, arranged the scale of the various figures, and designed the ornamental pattern work. The figure subjects were drawn by Mr. Henry Holyday, and the whole design was executed in glass by Messrs. Heaton, Butler, & Bayne, of Garrick Street, Covent Garden.
“To the memory of William Levinz, Esq., grandson of Sir Cresswell Levinz, Knt., who was Attorney-General in the reign of Charles II., and afterwards one of the Justices of Common Pleas, from which station he was displaced in the reign of James II. for opposing the dispensing power, and was one of the counsel for the seven Bishops. William Levinz, the son of Sir Cresswell, represented the county of Nottingham in Parliament, as did his son, William Levinz, till the year 1747, when he was appointed a Commissioner of his Majesty’s Customs, and in 1763, Receiver-General of the said revenue, in which office he died, the 17th of August, 1765, aged fifty-two years.”—R. Hayward, sculptor.
Heneage Twysden.—This monument is to the memory of a young hero slain in the battle of Blarignies, in Hainault, while Aid-de-Camp to John, Duke of Argyle, who commanded the right wing of the confederate army. He was the seventh son of Sir William Twysden, Bart., a youth of the greatest expectations, had not the fortune of war put an early stop to his rising merit, in the twenty-ninth year of his age, 1709. Above this are two small monuments to the memory of two of his brothers, Josiah and John. Josiah was a Captain at the siege of Agremont, in Flanders, and slain by a cannon shot, in 1708, aged twenty-three. John was a Lieutenant in the Admiral’s ship under Sir Cloudesly Shovel, and perished with him in 1707, aged twenty-four.
John Woodward, M.D.—This is an elegant monument, and the figures most admirably finished. The head of the deceased (who was Professor of Physic in Gresham College) in profile, is[Pg 75] very masterly, and the lady that holds it inimitable. The inscription is a kind of panegyric upon the great parts and learning of the deceased, which entitled him to the distinction he received. He died in May, 1728, aged sixty-three.—Scheemakers, sculptor.
Martha Price.—This monument is ornamented with festoons of fruit, flowers, and foliage, and the inscription shows that she was the wife of Gervase Price, Esq., who served Charles II. in the double capacity of Sergeant-Trumpeter and Gentleman of the Bows. She died April 7, 1678.
Above is a monument to the memories of Captains Hervey and Hutt, who were engaged in the naval action under Lord Howe. It is principally composed of two colossal figures, Britannia and Fame, placed one on each side a large vase, on which are portraits of the deceased Captains. Britannia is decorating the vase with laurel, while Fame is pointing to the names of the heroes engraven on the base which supports the vase.—Bacon, jun., sculptor.
Beneath is the effigy of Anne, Countess Dowager of Clanrickard, resting upon a tomb, and under it is the following inscription:—“Here lies the Right Honourable Anne, Countess Dowager of Clanrickard, eldest daughter of John Smith, Esq., who is interred near this place. She married first, Hugh Parker, Esq., eldest son of Sir Henry Parker, of Honington, in the county of Warwick, Bart., by whom she had the present Sir Henry John Parker, Bart., three other sons, and three daughters. By her second husband, Michael, Earl of Clanrickard, of the kingdom of Ireland, the head of the ancient and noble family of the Burkes, she had Smith, now Earl of Clanrickard, and two daughters, Lady Anne and Lady Mary. She died January 1, 1732, in her forty-ninth year.”
General Lawrence.—This monument was erected at the expense of the East India Company, in memory of the man who, by the conquest of Pondicherry, and the defence of Tritchinopoly, reduced the power of the French in the East, and paved the way for one of the richest empires that ever a trading people aspired to command, which, however, was in the year 1783, in so lamentable a situation, wasted by war, and oppressed by European plunderers, that, from being one of the richest countries in the world, it became the most deplorable. On the top is an admirable bust of the General, to which the genius of the Company is pointing, while Fame is declaring his noble exploits, at the same time holding in her hand a shield, on which is written:—“For discipline established, fortresses protected, settlements extended, French and Indian armies defeated, and peace concluded in the Carnatic.” Close under the bust is written: “Born March 6, 1697; died January 10, 1775.” On a table of beautiful marble in relief, is represented the siege of a great city, and under it is the word Tritchinopoly.—Tayler, sculptor.
Up high is a tablet to Colonel John Davis, President of the Council of the Island of St. Christopher, who died December 13, 1725, aged sixty-three.
Penelope Egerton.—The lady for whom this monument was[Pg 76] erected, was daughter of Robert, Lord Nedham, Viscount Kilmurray, and wife of Randolph Egerton, of Bentley, in Cheshire, an eminent Loyalist, Major-General of Horse to Charles I., and Lieutenant-Colonel to Charles II.’s own troop of Guards. She died in child-bed, April 13, 1670.
A tablet placed high above to the memory of James Egerton, son of Major-General Egerton, who died April 13, 1687, aged nine years.
The west window is filled with painted glass: the figures of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, Moses and Aaron, and the twelve Patriarchs; the arms of Sebert, Edward the Confessor, Queen Elizabeth, George II., and Dean Wilcocks, Bishop of Rochester: date 1735.
In the window at the end of the North Aisle, is a figure in stained glass (supposed to be Edward the Confessor), but the colours being of water blue, no particular face can be distinguished.
In the window of the South Aisle, the figure is supposed to be that of Edward the Black Prince.
he Right Honourable Charles James Fox is represented on a mattress, falling into the arms of Liberty. Peace (with the olive branch and dove) is reclining on his knee. An African thanking him for the part he took in the cause of Freedom. Born Jan. 24, 1749; died Sept. 13, 1806, aged fifty-seven.—Sir Richard Westmacott, sculptor.
In the North-west Tower is a monument to Captain Montague. He fell with Captains Hervey and Hutt in Earl Howe’s engagement, on the 1st of June, 1794, when a signal and important victory was obtained over the French fleet. The King and Parliament, in consequence, directed this monument to be erected. The Captain is represented with his hand resting on his sword; Victory, alighting, is waving the laurel crown over his head; a trophy of naval flags hangs over a basso-relievo of prisoners behind; on the front of this pedestal is the engagement; on the right side is Neptune’s trident, and a crown of oak; on the left, a wreath of laurel containing the word “Constitution;” the base is guarded by two lions.—Flaxman, sculptor.
On the right, upon a pedestal with appropriate emblems, is an exceedingly animated and life-like bust of the Right Hon. Sir James Macintosh, M.P., one of the most distinguished men of his time, and who attained to great eminence in literature, philosophy, history, and politics. He was born at Aldonric, on the banks of Lochness, Scotland, on the 24th October, 1765; was knighted in 1804; in 1830 he was appointed to a seat at the Board of Control, and died 30th May, 1832, regretted (it is said) with more sincerity, and admired with less envy than any man of his age.—Theed, sculptor.
[Pg 77]At the back is a monument sacred to the memory of the Honourable George Augustus Frederick Lake, late Lieutenant-Colonel in his Majesty’s twenty-ninth Regiment of Foot, who fell at the head of his Grenadiers, in driving the enemy from the heights of Roliea, in Portugal, on the 17th of August, 1808. This stone is erected to his memory by the officers, non-commissioned officers, drummers, and privates of the corps, as a testimony of their high regard and esteem.—Smith, sculptor.
Beneath is a monument to the Right Hon. George Tierney, whose bust is placed on a pedestal, with the following inscription:—“To the memory of the Right Honourable George Tierney, born in 1762; died in 1830. A man equally distinguished for the disinterested integrity of his public conduct, and the unpretended virtues of his private life. In Parliament he was long conspicuous for a style of oratory peculiarly his own; plain, familiar, forcible, and persuasive, abounding in proofs of natural shrewdness, and strokes of original learning, and sustained throughout by an accurate knowledge of details, and an unostentatious command of clear language. Without having obtained the rewards of wealth or station, he secured the respect and esteem of his contemporaries, by the consistency of his political principles, and his unwearied activity in supporting them; by the simplicity of his manners, and the benevolence of his character; and by an unaffected reverence for religion. His surviving friends have raised this monument, to be a testimony of their affection, and a reward of his talents and virtues.”—Westmacott, jun., sculptor.
Next is a new monument to the memory of Henry Richard Vassal Fox, Baron Holland, born November 23, 1773, and died October 22, 1840, aged sixty-seven. On the steps that lead up to the door of a vault are three figures; on the left hand of the spectator is Genius, with his old funeral emblem, the reversed torch; climbing the steps to the right are, in rich combination, Literature and Science. A scroll is in the hands of Literature, and that of Science rests upon her wheel. Over the doorway of the tomb, the key-stone, enriched by a coiling serpent (the old emblem of eternity), assists to support the cornice, from which rise a rusticated pediment and pedestal; on the latter is placed a colossal bust of the deceased Lord, and on either side of the tomb are bassi-relievi, representing severally Charity and Justice. The monument is twenty feet high, eleven feet six inches wide, and has six feet of projection from the wall. The architectural portions are of Sicilian marble. Without inscription.—Baily, sculptor.
On the left is a monument erected by the corps of Royal Engineers, to the memory of Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Richard Fletcher, Knight and Baronet, who, after highly-distinguished services, as Commanding Royal Engineer, with the army under the Duke of Wellington, in the Peninsular War, was killed at the storming of St. Sebastian, 1812, in the forty-fifth year of his age.—Baily, sculptor.
Above is a tablet with naval trophies, sacred to the memory of Rear-Admiral Sir George Hope, K.C.B., erected by several[Pg 78] Captains in the Royal Navy, who served under him as Midshipmen.—Turnerelli, sculptor.
A small tablet to the memory of the Hon. Charles Banks Stanhope, second son of Charles, Earl of Stanhope, and nephew of the Right Hon. William Pitt, Major of the fiftieth Regiment of Foot, who in the act of gallantly encouraging his men, fell by a musket-shot in the battle of Corunna. This tablet is affectionately inscribed by his afflicted sister, who can neither do justice to his virtues, nor sufficiently deplore his loss. Born 3rd June, 1785; died 16th January, 1809.
William Horneck, Esq.—This monument is embellished with books, plans, and instruments of fortification, alluding to the employment of the deceased as Chief Engineer to the Royal Train. The inscription informs us that he learned the art of war under the great Duke of Marlborough. He died May 9, 1746, aged sixty-two.
Beneath, to the right, is a bust erected to Major James Rennell, who died March 29, 1830, in his eighty-eighth year. His useful life, firm character, and high talents, are amply exhibited in his works, and need no other monument. This tablet, therefore, merely records, that this celebrated man was buried near this spot.—Baily, sculptor.
Zachary Macaulay.—A bust on a pedestal; the inscription as follows:—“In grateful remembrance of Zachary Macaulay, who, during a protracted life, with an intense but quiet perseverance, which no success could relax, no reverse could subdue, no toil, privations, or reproach could daunt, devoted his time, talents, fortune, and all the energies of his mind and body to the service of the most injured and helpless of mankind; and partook for more than forty years in the counsels and in the labours which, guided and blessed by God, first rescued the British empire from the guilt of the Slave Trade, and finally conferred freedom on 800,000 slaves; this tablet is erected by those who drew wisdom from his mind, and a lesson from his life, and who humbly rejoice in the assurance that, through the Divine Redeemer, the foundation of all his hopes, he shares in the happiness of those who rest from their labours, and their works do follow them.” He was born at Inverary, North Britain, on the 2nd of May, 1768, and died in London on the 13th May, 1838.—Weekes, sculptor.
The Organ Screen was erected by the Dean and Chapter in 1831, designed by Mr. Blore, Architect to the Abbey, and executed with great precision. Four pilasters with decorated finials divide the Screen into three compartments, the centre for the gate of entrance to the choir from the west, the other two contain the monuments of Sir Isaac Newton and Earl Stanhope; on each of the pilasters are projecting pedestals, on which are the figures of Henry III. and his Queen, Edward the Confessor, and his Queen, and Edward I. and his Queen.
Sir Isaac Newton.—This is a grand and expressive [Pg 79]monument, every way worthy of the great man to whose memory it was erected, who is sculptured recumbent, leaning his right arm on four folios, thus titled—Divinity, Chronology, Optics, and Phil: Prin. Math: and pointing to a scroll supported by winged cherubs. Over him is a large globe, projecting from a pyramid behind, whereon is delineated the course of the comet in 1680, with the signs, constellations, and planets. On the globe sits the figure of Astronomy with her book closed. Underneath the principal figure is a most curious bas-relief, representing the various labours in which Sir Isaac chiefly employed his time: such as discovering the causes of gravitation, settling the principles of light and colours, and reducing the coinage to a determined standard. The device of weighing the sun by the steelyard has been thought at once bold and striking; and, indeed, the whole monument does honour to the sculptor. The inscription on the pedestal is in Latin, short, but fall of meaning; intimating that, by a spirit nearly divine, he solved, on principles of his own, the motions and figures of the planets, the paths of the comets, and the ebbing and flowing of the sea; that he discovered the dissimilarity of the rays of light and the properties of colours from thence arising, which none but himself had ever thought of; that he was a diligent, wise, and faithful interpreter of nature, antiquity, and the Holy Scriptures; that by his philosophy he maintained the dignity of the Supreme Being; and by the purity of his life, the simplicity of the Gospel. The inscription concludes with a beautiful exclamation—“How much reason mortals have to pride themselves in the existence of such and so great an ornament to the human race!” He was born December 25, 1642, and died March 20, 1726.—Rysbrack, sculptor.
James, Earl Stanhope.—This monument, in which, likewise, the principal figure leans upon his arm in a cumbent posture, holding in his right hand a general’s staff, and in his left a parchment scroll. A Cupid stands before him, resting himself upon a shield. Over a martial tent sits a beautiful Pallas, holding in her right hand a javelin, and in the other a scroll. Behind is a slender pyramid. On the middle of the pedestals are two medals, and on each side of the pilasters one. Under the principal figure is a Latin inscription, setting forth the merits of this great man, as a soldier, a statesman, and a senator. In 1707, he concluded an advantageous treaty with Spain, and in the same year was sent Ambassador to Charles III. In 1708, he took Port-Mahon. In 1710, he forced his way to the gates of Madrid, and took possession of that capital. In 1714, he impeached the Duke of Ormond. In September, 1715, he was made Secretary at War. In December, 1716, he was made Secretary of State. In 1717, he was made First Commissioner of the Treasury, and Chancellor of the Exchequer; and in July following created a Peer. In March, 1718, he was a second time made Secretary of State. In 1720, he died, in his forty-seventh year.—Rysbrack, sculptor.
“To the memory of Philip (second) Earl Stanhope, conspicuous for universal benevolence, unshaken public integrity, and private worth. Deep were his researches in philosophy,[Pg 80] and extensive his ideas for his country’s good. He was ever a determined supporter of the Trial by Jury, of the freedom of Elections, of a numerous and well-regulated Militia, and of the liberty of the Press. On the 7th day of March, 1786 (and in the seventy-second year of his age), he terminated an honourable life, spent in the exercise of virtue, in the improvement of science, and in the pursuit of truth. In respectful remembrance of him, the above lines are inscribed by his affectionate son, Charles, Earl Stanhope.”
The Pulpit, in the Nave, is used only for the special evening services, and is composed of variegated marbles interspersed with rich foliage and some very tasteful mosaics, and around it are six excellent figures of St. Paul, St. Peter, and the four Evangelists, and in a medallion in front, a head of the Saviour surrounded with thorns, and pointing upwards with his right hand from his left shoulder. The following is painted on one side:—“This Pulpit is presented to the Dean and Chapter of Westminster by a few friends, in grateful commemoration of the Opening of the Nave for public worship and preaching, in January, 1858. ‘As ye go, preach, saying the kingdom of Heaven is at hand.’” (St. Matt., chap. 10, v. 7.)—Field, sculptor.
Robert Stephenson.—Nearly in front of the new pulpit, upon the floor, is a brass figure of life-size upon a rich foliage diaper over the remains of this eminent engineer, in addition to which has just been erected a superb painted window illustrative of his fertile genius. He died 12th October, 1859, aged fifty-six.
At the foot of R. Stephenson’s grave is a slab of black Irish marble inlaid with brass, sacred to the memory of Sir Charles Barry, Knt., R.A. and F.S.A., and Architect of the New Palace of Westminster and other buildings, who died A.D. 1860, aged 64 years, and lies buried beneath this brass, which represents the Victoria Tower and the Ground Plan of the Houses of Parliament.
Nearly opposite this slab is a granite tombstone, upon which is the following inscription:—“Beneath this stone rest the remains of Colin Campbell, Lord Clyde, who by his own deserts, through fifty years of arduous service, from the earliest battles in the Peninsular War to the Pacification of India, in 1858, rose to the rank of Field-Marshal and the Peerage. He died lamented by the Queen, the army, and the people, August the 14th, 1863, in the seventy-first year of his age.”—Gaffin, fecit.
Field-Marshal Sir George Pollock, Bart., G.C.B., G.C.S.I., Constable of the Tower. Died 6th October, 1872, aged 86 years. “O God the Lord, the strength of my salvation, Thou hast covered my head in the day of battle.”—Psalm cxl. 7.
A little to the west of the latter is the tombstone of Tompion and Graham, the celebrated chronometer inventors. Tompion died 1713, aged seventy-five. Graham died 1751, aged seventy-eight.
Beside Tompion is the grave of Livingstone, over which there is a large black marble slab, with the following inscription: “Brought by faithful hands over land and sea, here rests David Livingstone, Missionary, Traveller, Philanthropist. Born March 19th, 1813; died May 1st, 1873, at Chetamba’s village,[Pg 81] Ulala. For 30 years his life was spent in an unwearied effort to evangelize the Native races, to explore the undiscovered secrets, to abolish the desolating slave trade of Central Africa, where, with his last words, he wrote: ‘All I can add in my solitude is, May Heaven’s rich blessing come down on every one, American, English, or Turk, who will help to heal this open sore of the world.’ ‘Other sheep I have which are not of this fold; them also I must bring, and they shall hear My voice.’” The Latin verses are from Lucan the Roman poet, who, in his “Pharsalia,” describes the aspiration of Julius Cæsar to solve the problem, even then before the world, of the causes and source of the Nile. The verses may be thus translated:—So great is my love of truth that there is nothing I would rather know than the causes of the river that have lain hid through so many ages....
On the right of the West door, in the middle of a pyramid, is a large medallion of brass, resting on a cherub below, and suspended by another at the top. Round the medal is a Latin inscription, thus translated:—“John Conduit, Master of the Mint.” This gentleman succeeded his relation, the great Sir Isaac Newton, in that office, and desired to be buried near him, as appears by a long Latin inscription on the base. Died May 23, 1737, aged forty-nine. Catherine, his wife, died Jan. 20, 1739, aged fifty-nine, and lies interred in the same tomb.—Cheere, sculptor.
A stone arch has been turned over the west door, on which is erected a monument, voted by Parliament to the memory of the Right Hon. William Pitt. This illustrious statesman is represented habited in the robes of Chancellor of the Exchequer. To the right of the base of the statue, is History recording his speeches, whilst Anarchy, on the left, lies subdued, and writhing in chains at his feet. The Statues composing this group are nine feet in height. Inscription:—“This monument is erected by Parliament to William Pitt, son of William Earl of Chatham, in testimony of gratitude for the eminent public services, and of regret for the irreparable loss of that great and disinterested Minister. He died Jan. 23, 1806, in the forty-seventh year of his age.”—Sir Richard Westmacott, R.A., sculptor.
On the left is a lofty pyramid of a bluish coloured marble, to the memory of Sir Thomas Hardy, Knt., whose effigy is reclining upon a tomb of elegant workmanship, with a naked boy on his left side weeping over an urn. The inscription, a little history of the deceased’s life, is here copied:—“Sir Thomas Hardy, to whose memory this monument was erected, was bred in the Royal Navy from his youth, and was made a Captain in 1693. In the expedition to Cadiz, under Sir George Rook, he commanded the Pembroke; and when the fleet left the coast of Spain to return to England, he was ordered to Lagos Bay, where he got intelligence of the Spanish galleons being arrived in the harbour of Vigo, under convoy of seventeen French men-of-war. By his great diligence and judgment he joined the English fleet, and gave the Admiral that intelligence which engaged him to make the best of his way to Vigo, where all the[Pg 82] aforementioned galleons and men-of-war were either taken or destroyed. After the success of that action, the Admiral sent him with an account of it to the Queen, who ordered him a considerable present, and knighted him. Some years afterwards he was made a Rear-Admiral, and received several other marks of favour and esteem from her Majesty, and from her Royal Consort, Prince George of Denmark, Lord High Admiral of England. He died August 16, 1732, aged sixty-seven.”—Cheere, sculptor.
Captain James Cornewall.—This noble monument, which is thirty-six feet high, has a large base and pyramid of rich Sicilian marble. Against the pyramid is a rock (embellished with naval trophies, sea weeds, &c.) in which are two cavities; in the one is a Latin epitaph; in the other, a view of the sea-fight before Toulon, in bas-relief, on the foreground whereof the Marlborough, of ninety guns, is seen fiercely engaged with Admiral Navarre’s ship, the Real, of one hundred and fourteen guns, and her two seconds, all raking the Marlborough fore and aft. On the rock stand two figures; the one represents Britannia, under the character of Minerva, accompanied with a lion: the other figure is expressive of Fame, who, having presented to Minerva a medallion of the hero, supports it whilst exhibited to public view. The medallion is accompanied with a globe and various honorary crowns as due to valour. Behind the figure is a lofty spreading palm-tree (whereon is fixed the hero’s shield or coat of arms), together with a laurel-tree, both which issue from the naturally barren rock, as alluding to some heroic and uncommon event. The inscription:—“Amongst the monuments of ancient merit in this sacred Cathedral, let the name of James Cornewall be preserved, the third son of Henry Cornewall, of Bradwarden Castle, in the County of Hereford, Esq., who, from the very old and illustrious stock of the Plantagenets, deriving a truly ancient spirit, became a naval commander of the first eminence; equally and deservedly honoured by the tears and applause of Britons, as a man who bravely defended the cause of his country in that sea-fight off Toulon, and being by a chain-shot deprived of both his legs at a blow, fell unconquered, on the 3rd of February, 1743, in the forty-fifth year of his age, bequeathing his animated example to his fellow sailors as a legacy of a dying Englishman, whose extraordinary valour could not be recommended to the emulation of posterity in a more ample eulogy, than by so singular an instance of honour; since the Parliament of Great Britain, by an unanimous suffrage, resolved that a monument, at the public expense, should be consecrated to the memory of this most heroical person.”—Tayler, sculptor.
t the back of Cornewall’s, is the monument to the Right Honourable James Craggs, who was made Secretary at War in April, 1717, and one of his Majesty’s Privy Council and Secretary of State, in March, 1718. The statue of this gentleman, large as the life, is finely represented as leaning on an urn, which has upon it in golden characters, an inscription, showing that he was principal Secretary of State, and a man universally beloved, which is there particularly marked, because, as he was of low extraction, being only a shoemaker’s son, it is the more admirable, that in the high station to which his merit had raised him, he should escape envy, and acquire the general esteem. He died February 16, 1720, aged thirty-five. Upon the base of the monument is this epitaph, written by Mr. Pope:—
“Statesman, yet friend to truth, of soul sincere,
In action faithful, and in honour clear!
Who broke no promise, serv’d no private end,
Who gained no title, and who lost no friend.
Ennobled by himself, by all approv’d,
Prais’d, wept, and honour’d, by the muse he lov’d.”
—Signor Guelphi, sculptor.
A statue of William Wordsworth, placed here by the friends and admirers of the late Poet. Mr. Wordsworth was born at Cockermouth, in Cumberland, on April 7, 1770, and died at Rydal Mount, Ambleside, Westmoreland, on April 23, 1850. The statue is much admired; and the meditative attitude in which the Poet is represented, and the quiet and sacred spot in which it is placed, apart from the crowd, and in a peaceful retirement of its own, harmonize with and are expressive of, the tranquil tenour of his life, and the thoughtful, sublime, and philosophic character of his works.
Next to this is a bust of Keble, by T. Woolner. It occupies the middle of the three arcades on the west side of the South Tower, and adjoins the monument of Wordsworth. It has a pedestal of alabaster containing a black marble inscription panel, on either side of which is a green marble pillar, between the carved capitals of which is seated a vesica-shaped panel of alabaster, richly moulded, carved, and studded with gems of blue fluor-spar within ovals of gilt beads. Above this is placed a Calvary cross of alabaster with gemmed and inlaid arms and trefoiled ends. The internal part of the vesica panel is occupied with the white marble bust, life size, placed on an enriched corbel of alabaster, on which corbel are inclined pillars which support a trefoiled and gabled canopy overhanging the bust. The total height of the work is nine feet, and its width three feet.
A small tablet to Henry Wharton, remarkable only by the great name inscribed upon it, who was Rector of Chartham, in Kent; Vicar of the Church of Minster, in the Isle of Thanet; Librarian to Archbishop Sancroft, and one of the most voluminous writers of his years, perhaps, in the world. He died March 3, 1694, aged only thirty-one, and was an universally[Pg 84] respected by the Bishops and clergy, that Archbishop Tillotson, and several other Prelates, with a vast body of clergy, the choir and King’s scholars, all in solemn procession, attended his funeral, and joined in the anthems composed on this occasion by the great Purcell.
Above this tablet of Wharton is a gallery, used by the Royal Family to see the procession of the Knights of the Bath: they enter at Poets’ Corner door, and proceed round the West end, and up the North Aisle, into Henry VII.’s Chapel, where the installation takes place.
In an oval frame is a half-length marble portrait of William Congreve, Esq., placed on a pedestal of the finest Egyptian marble, and enriched with emblematical figures alluding to the drama. Underneath is this inscription in English:—“Mr. William Congreve, died January 19, 1728, aged fifty-six, and was buried near this place, to whose most valuable memory this monument is set up by Henrietta, Duchess of Marlborough, as a mark how dearly she remembers the happiness she enjoyed in the sincere friendship of so worthy and honest a man, whose virtue, candour, and wit, gained him the love and esteem of the present age, and whose writings will be the admiration of the future.”—Bird, sculptor.
A bust of John Friend, M.D., on a pedestal of fine white veined marble; and beneath is a long Latin inscription, setting forth his great and distinguished acquirements. He was a physician of the first rank for knowledge and experience; was no less successful in his practice than ingenious in his writings. He was first educated at Westminster School, and afterwards at Christ Church College, Oxford, where his learning soon made him conspicuous. On his leaving the University, and adopting the profession of physic, he was chosen a member of the College of Physicians in London, and soon after a Fellow of the Royal Society. His writings are lasting monuments of his extensive genius. He died July 26, 1728.—Rysbrack, sculptor.
Sir Lumley Robinson, Baronet.—This monument is neatly designed and ornamented; the columns are supported by Death’s heads, and the arms upon the base by a cherub. On the top was a vase, and, rising to the pediments, enrichments of laurel branches, &c. The inscription has nothing remarkable. He was of Kentwall Hall, in Suffolk, and died August 6, 1684, aged thirty-six.—Settie, sculptor.
Thomas Sprat, D.D.—This monument seems to have been designed principally for the sake of the inscriptions, which are in Latin. Underneath are the arms of the deceased, and on the top his arms, with those of the see of Rochester, quarterly, between enrichments of books, &c. The first inscription informs you,—“That Dr. Sprat was the son of a clergyman in Dorsetshire; and that he was educated at Wadham College, Oxford; that he first applied himself to poetry, but quitted that study to pursue the beauties of prose, and polish the English language; that he was early made known to George, Duke of Buckingham, and by him recommended to Charles I., who made him a Prebendary[Pg 85] of Westminster, and of Windsor; from which preferments he soon rose to be Dean of Westminster, and Bishop of Rochester; but at length, from his firm integrity to the Church and Monarchy, was brought in danger of his life. He died in 1713, aged seventy-seven.” The second inscription shows—“That the remains of Thomas Sprat, A.M. (son of the Bishop), Archdeacon of Rochester, and Prebendary of the Churches of Rochester, Winchester, and Westminster, lie near those of his father. He died May 10, 1720, aged forty-one.” The third inscription imports—“That John Friend, M.D., to show his respect for those two worthy personages, had caused this monument to be erected jointly to their memories.”—Bird, sculptor.
Dr. Joseph Willcocks.—Two angels holding a scroll, mitre, collegiate cap, &c., bas-relief, exterior view of Westminster Abbey. On each side are two beautiful figures of Faith and Hope. This Rev. Prelate was Chaplain to the British Factory at Lisbon, afterwards Preceptor to the Princess, and Prebendary of this Church; in 1721, consecrated Lord Bishop of Gloucester; in 1721, translated to Rochester, also made Dean of this Church, and of the most Honourable Order of the Bath. He died March 9, 1756, aged eighty-three, and is buried in a vault in the Ecclesiastical Court, with his wife Jane, daughter of John Milner, Esq., Consul at Lisbon. She died March 27, 1725, aged twenty-eight; with Ann, their daughter, who died in her infancy.—Cheere, sculptor.
Above is a curious monument, sacred to the memory of Richard Tyrrell, Esq., who was descended from an ancient family of Ireland, and died Rear-Admiral of the White, 26th June, 1766. Devoted from his youth to the naval service of his country, and being formed under the discipline, and animated by the example of his renowned uncle, Sir Peter Warren, he distinguished himself as an able and experienced officer in many gallant actions, particularly on the 20th of November, 1758, when commanding the Buckingham, of sixty-six guns, and one hundred and seventy-five men, he attacked and defeated three French ships of war; one of them was the Florin, of seventy-four guns, and seven hundred men; but the Buckingham being too much disabled to take possession of her, after she had struck, the enemy, under cover of the night, escaped; during the action he received several wounds, and lost three fingers of his right hand. Dying on his return to England from the Leeward Islands, where he had for three years commanded a squadron of his Majesty’s ships, his body was, by his own desire, committed to the sea, with the proper honours and ceremonies. On a piece of rock—“The sea shall give up her dead, and every one shall be rewarded according to his works.” The figures History, Navigation, and Hibernia, are well cut; they are represented among the rocks, with the sea above their heads, the Admiral himself ascending amidst heavy clouds.—Nathaniel Read, sculptor.
On a pedestal stands the bust of Dr. Zachary Pearce. The features bear a striking resemblance to those of the original. On each side are the ensigns of his prelatical dignities; and underneath is a Latin inscription, of which the following is a [Pg 86]translation:—“Sacred to the memory of the most Reverend Zachary Pearce, S.T.P., Bishop of Rochester, Dean of this Church, and of the most Honourable Order of the Bath. The seeds of learning, which were early sown at Westminster School, he cultivated to maturity at Cambridge: how rich the produce, both as a critic and divine, his works, already printed and published, will abundantly show. At length, growing fond of retirement, and earnestly desirous of leisure for elucidating the Scriptures, he resigned the Deanery of Westminster, as he wished to have done that of his Bishoprick, could it have been permitted. Having lived to finish what was the wish of his heart,—his Commentary on the Holy Evangelists and the Acts of the Apostles,—he rested from his labours, June 29, 1774, aged eighty-four.”—Tyler, sculptor.
“In memory of the Very Rev. William Buckland, D.D., F.R.S., Dean of Westminster, and of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, formerly Canon of Christ Church, Oxford, Trustee of the British Museum, First Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in the University of Oxford; founder of the Museum of Geology, which he bequeathed to that University. Endued with superior intellect, he applied the powers of his mind to the honour and glory of God, the advancement of science, and the welfare of mankind. Born March 12, 1784; died August 14, 1856, aged seventy-two. ‘For the Lord giveth wisdom, out of his mouth cometh knowledge and understanding.’—Prov. xi. ver. 6. Erected by his children.”—H. Weekes, A.R.A., sculptor, 1859.
The next is a bust, highly finished, and emblems of sacred offices. The Latin inscription is to the following purport:—“Sacred to the memory of the Reverend John Thomas, LL.D., Bishop of Rochester, Dean of this Collegiate Church, and of the most Honourable Order of the Bath. Having passed through the school at Carlisle with reputation, he proceeded to Oxford, to gather a more abundant harvest of knowledge, where he became both the ornament and patron of genius, good morals, and of polite, as well as of profound learning. With increasing fame everywhere spreading itself, he did honour to dignities by his merit, improved riches by bestowing them, presided over the Church with wisdom, defended it by his authority, regulated it by his example; ever active in duties, and unwearied in attentions, added to the strictest economy; till, after a well-spent life, himself exhausted, but not his patience, by a long and painful illness, he resigned his soul to God, August 20, 1793, aged eighty-one years. His nephew, G.A.T., A.M., to whose lot it fell to perform it, offers this unavailing tribute, as a testimony, though small, of Duty and Affection.”—Bust by Nollekens.
Katharine Bovey.—The principal figures here are Faith, with her book closed, and Wisdom, lamenting the death of her patroness; between which is a lady’s head in an amulet of black marble, curiously veined. Over it is an English inscription, giving a character of the deceased, who died January 21, 1727,[Pg 87] in the fifty-seventh year of her age. Mrs. Mary Pope, who lived with her near forty years in perfect friendship, erected this monument to her memory.—Gibbs, sculptor.
Lord Viscount Howe.—The emblematic representation on this monument is a figure of the Genius of the Province of Massachuset’s Bay, in a mournful posture, lamenting the fall of this hero, and the family arms, ornamented with military trophies. Beneath is the following inscription, in large characters:—“The Province of Massachuset’s Bay, in New England, by an order of the Great and General Court, bearing date February 1, 1759, caused this monument to be erected to the memory of George, Lord Viscount Howe, Brigadier-General of his Majesty’s Forces in North America, who was slain, July 6, 1758, on the march of Ticonderoga, in the thirty-fourth year of his age; in testimony of the sense they had of his services and military virtues, and of the affection their officers and soldiers bore to his command.” He lived respected and beloved: the public regretted his loss: to his family it is irreparable.
Beneath is a bust to the memory of John Ireland, D.D.—The Latin inscription sets forth, that he was a native of Ashburton, Devon. Having pursued his studies at Oriel College, in the University of Oxford, he was, in 1802, enrolled amongst the Prebendaries of this Church; and afterwards, in 1816, raised to the Deanery of the same. Deeply sensible of the benefits that were divinely showered upon him in early life, he sought in after years to prove that he was not unmindful of them. Whilst still among the living, he annually gave liberal prizes for the encouragement of youthful studies, both at Oxford and in the Royal School at Westminster. He also, by his last will, bequeathed a munificent pecuniary legacy, partly to endow a Professorship of Theology at Oxford, partly towards the support of needy students of Oriel College, and partly that some assistance might be furnished for rightly educating his townsmen of Ashburton. He died September 2, 1842, aged eighty.—Turnouth, sculptor.
A neat tablet erected to the memory of Dr. Robert Cannon, Dean of Lincoln, and Prebendary of this Church, who died March 28, 1722, aged fifty-nine.
Over the West Cloisters door is a most stately monument to the memory of General George Wade. In the centre is a beautiful marble pillar, enriched with military trophies highly finished. The principal figures represent Fame preventing Time from defacing his military honours. The whole is finely executed, and cannot be too much admired. The General’s head is in a medallion; and the inscription runs thus:—“To the memory of George Wade, Field Marshal of his Majesty’s Forces, Lieutenant-General of the Ordnance, Colonel of his Majesty’s Third Regiment of Dragoon Guards, Governor of Fort William, Fort Augustus, and Fort George, and one of his Majesty’s most Honourable Privy Council. He died March 14, 1748, aged seventy-five.”—Roubiliac, sculptor.
A monument of General Sir James Outram, with the following inscription:—“To the memory of Lieutenant-General Sir James[Pg 88] Outram, G.C.B., K.S.I., &c., a soldier of the East India Company, who, during a service of 40 years in war and in council, by deeds of bravery and devotion, by an unselfish life, by benevolence, never weary of well-doing, sustained the honour of the British nation, won the love of his comrades, and promoted the happiness of the people of India. This monument is erected by the Secretary of State for India in Council. Born January 29, 1803; died March 11, 1863. Interred in this Abbey at the public cost, March 25, 1863.” Under the bust is represented in high relief an exquisite sculpture of Lord Clyde and Outram shaking hands, with General Havelock between them and other figures in the background; and on each side two figures of the Scinde and Bihil tribes, lamenting the death of their “great friend.”—Noble, sculp.
Charles Herries, Esq., Colonel of the Light Horse Volunteers of London and Westminster, died April 3, 1819, in the seventy-fourth year of his age. So much was he respected, that the regiment followed him to the grave with filial reverence; and as a lasting tribute of honour to his memory, raised this record at his virtues and their affection. The monument consists of a bust, a strong resemblance; on the base is represented a female, seated on bales, as the city of London, over whom a warrior is holding a shield; by him stands his horse, which he seems ready to mount for defence.—Chantrey, sculptor.
Carola Harsnet.—This tomb has two learned inscriptions upon it, one in Hebrew, the other in Greek; and was erected to the memory of the wife of Sir Samuel Morland, Baronet, who died in child-bed of her second son, Oct. 10, 1674, in the twenty-third year of her age. The inscriptions are thus translated:—“Blessed be the Lord, my wife was precious! Blessed be thy remembrance, oh, virtuous woman!” Thus far the Hebrew. The Greek thus:—“When I think on thy mildness, patience, charity, modesty, and piety, I lament thee, oh, most excellent creature! and I grieve exceedingly; but not like such as have no faith, for I believe and expect the resurrection of those who sleep in Christ.”—Stanton, sculptor.
A beautiful monument to John Smith, Esq. The design is a pyramid and altar, on which sits a lady veiled, mournful, and disconsolate, resting her right arm on a fine bust in relief. On the base is a Latin inscription, setting forth his descent from the Smith’s in Lincolnshire: and issue, viz., two daughters, Ann, the eldest, first married to Henry Parker, Esq., son of Sir Harry Parker, of Warwickshire, and afterwards to Michael, Lord Dunkellin, eldest son of the Earl of Clanrickard; and Mary, the youngest, married to Edward Desboverie, of Langford, in Wilts, Bart. John Smith died July 6, 1718.—Gibbs, sculptor.
Above is a monument erected to the memory of James Fleming, Major-General of his Majesty’s Forces, and Colonel of a Regiment of Foot, who, having served forty-four years a commissioned officer, died March 17, 1750, aged sixty-eight. At the top of a beautiful pyramid of marble, is a medallion of this General, at the base of which are the figures of Minerva and Hercules, employed in binding the emblems of Wisdom, [Pg 89]Prudence, and Valour together, as characteristics of the hero. The decorations are military trophies.—Roubiliac, sculptor.
Ann Filding.—This tomb, on which are two very learned inscriptions, one in Hebrew, the other in Ethiopic, is erected to the memory of the second wife of Sir Samuel Morland, Baronet. The Hebrew inscription is to this effect:—“Oh, thou fairest among women! oh! virtuous woman! the hand of the Lord hath done this! the Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away, and blessed be the name of the Lord.” The Ethiopic inscription is thus translated:—“Come, lament o’er this monument with a beloved husband, for thee; but in certain hope that thou art united with Christ. This lady was truly religious, virtuous, faithful, mild as a dove, and chaste; while she continued in life, she was honoured, and is happy, through mercy, in death.” This is one of Mr. Addison’s modest inscriptions, that has not, perhaps, been three times read in more than threescore years. Under the Ethiopic is this inscription:—“Ann, daughter of George Filding, Esq., and Mary, his wife, the truly loving (and as truly beloved) wife of Samuel Morland, Knight and Baronet, died February 20, 1679/80, ætatis nineteen.”—Stanton, sculptor.
Diana Temple.—This old-fashioned monument seems to have been designed not for one person, but for all Sir William Temple’s family, as appears by the inscription, written by Sir William himself, in which is mentioned Diana Temple, who died at fourteen; Dorothy Osborn, probably Sir William’s lady, aged sixty-six; William Temple, aged seventy; and Martha Giffard, called Lady Giffard, Sir William’s sister, aged eighty-four.
Sir Charles Harbord, Knight, and Clement Cottrell, Esq.—On the base of this double monument is represented in relief, a dreadful sea-fight; and on the top, in a wreath of laurel, this inscription:—“To preserve and unite the harmony of two faithful friends who lost their lives at sea together, May 28, 1672.” These two young gentlemen, of the most promising expectations, both perished in the Royal James, with the Earl of Sandwich, who commanded in her as Vice-Admiral against the Dutch, in that memorable fight off the coast of Sussex, in Charles the Second’s time. The Royal James being set on fire, Sir Charles Harbord, First Lieutenant, though he might have saved himself by swimming, yet out of pure affection to his worthy Commander, chose to die with him. Young Cottrell was a volunteer; and having returned to his ship unwounded, from being the first man that had boarded a Dutchman of seventy guns, and pulled down the ensigns of her with his own hands, perished also with his friends. This gentleman understood seven languages, though but twenty-two years of age. This moving story is recited at large on the monument, but too long to copy.
Above is the monument of William Hargrave, Esq., Lieutenant-General of his Majesty’s forces, Colonel of the Royal English Fusileers, and Governor of Gibraltar, who having been fifty-seven years a commissioned officer, died 21st January, 1750, aged seventy-nine. The figure of Time is represented to have overcome Death; he is breaking the dart of Death across his[Pg 90] knee; the pyramid is destroyed at the sound of the trumpet, the dead rising, and the crown of Death is fallen to the ground.—Designed and executed by Roubiliac.
A fine bust to Sidney, Earl Godolphin, with a rich cravat. In 1661, he was Groom of the Bedchamber to Charles II.; 1679, Commissioner of the Treasury; in 1684, Secretary of State, and the same year created Baron of Rialton, in Cornwall, by James II. After the Revolution he was made First Commissioner of the Treasury, and soon after Lord High Treasurer, which office, as his inscription shows, together with that of Chief Minister, he held during the first nine glorious years of Queen Anne’s reign. He died Sept. 15, 1712, aged sixty-seven.—Bird, sculptor.
Colonel Roger Townshend.—Here is a sarcophagus, supported by two Indians, on the front of which is represented in bas-relief, the fall of this great commander, with his officers attending him in his dying moments. This monument is decorated with military trophies, and beneath is the following inscription.—“This monument was erected by a disconsolate parent, the Lady Vicountess Townshend, to the memory of her fifth son, the Honourable Lieutenant-Colonel Roger Townshend, who was killed by a cannon-ball, July 25, 1759, in the twenty-eighth year of his age, as he was reconnoitring the French lines at Ticonderagoe, in North America. From the parent, the brother, and the friend, his social and amiable manners, his enterprising bravery, and the integrity of his heart, may claim the tribute of affection. Yet, stranger, weep not! for though premature his death, his life was glorious, enrolling him with the names of those immortal Statesmen and Commanders, whose wisdom and intrepidity, in the course of this comprehensive and successful war, have extended the commerce, enlarged the dominion, and upheld the majesty of these kingdoms, beyond the idea of any former age.”—Eckstein, sculptor.
Above is a tablet to Mrs. Bridget Radley, wife of Charles Radley, Esq., Gentleman Usher and Daily Waiter of James II., who erected this monument to her memory. She died November 20, 1769.
A monument to Sir John Chardin, Bart., and is very emblematical, alluding to the travels of this gentleman, by which, as his motto expresses, “he acquired his fame.” The globe, round which a number of geographical instruments are represented, exhibits a view of the different countries through which he travelled; and the motto beneath refers to the dangers he providentially escaped, for which he ascribes to God the glory. A journal of his travels into the Eastern countries he has published—a book in high esteem.—Henry Cheere, sculptor.
Beneath is a monument with this inscription:—“Sacred to the immortal memory of Sir Palmes Fairborne, Knight, Governor of Tangier, in the execution of which command he was mortally wounded by a shot from the Moors then besieging the town, in the forty-sixth year of his age, October 24, 1680.” The following is the epitaph, written by Mr. Dryden:—
“Ye sacred reliques which our marble keep
[Pg 91]Here, undisturb’d by wars, in quiet sleep,
Discharge the trust which (when it was below)
Fairborne’s undaunted soul did undergo,
And be the town’s Palladium from the foe!
Alive and dead, these walls he did defend:
Great actions great examples must attend.
The Candian siege his early value knew,
Where Turkish blood did his young hands imbrue;
From thence returning, with deserv’d applause,
Against the Moors his well-flesh’d sword he draws,
The same the courage, and the same the cause.
His youth and age, his life and death combine,
As in some great and regular design,
All of a piece throughout, and all divine.
Still nearer heaven, his virtues shone more bright:
Like rising flames expanding in their height,
The martyr’s glory crowns the soldier’s flight.
More bravely British Gen’ral never fell,
Nor Gen’ral’s death was e’er reveng’d so well,
Which his pleas’d eyes beheld before their close,
Follow’d by thousand victims of his foes.
To his lamented loss, for times to come,
His pious widow consecrates this tomb.”
On a lofty dome is the deceased’s arms, with this motto, “Tutis si Fortis.” Over it a Turk’s head on a dagger, by way of crest, which he won by his valour in fighting against that people in the German war.—Bushnall, sculptor.
Major Andre.—On a moulded panelled base and plinth stands a sarcophagus, on the panel of which is inscribed:—“Sacred to the memory of Major John André, who, raised by his merit, at an early period of life, to the rank of Adjutant-General of the British Forces in America, and employed in an important, but hazardous enterprise, fell a sacrifice to his zeal for his King and country, on the 2nd October, 1780, aged twenty-nine, universally beloved and esteemed by the army in which he served, and lamented even by his foes. His gracious Sovereign, King George III., has caused this monument to be erected;” and on the plinth—“The remains of the said Major André were deposited on the 28th November, 1821, in a grave near this monument.” This is the third head now placed on General Washington’s figure; several others are new, the originals, being so well executed, were too great a temptation for the curious pilferer to withstand. The projecting figures: one of them (with a flag of truce) is presenting to General Washington a letter, which André had addressed to his Excellency the night previous to his execution, worded thus:—“Sir, buoyed above the terror of death, by the consciousness of a life devoted to honourable purposes, and stained with no action which can give me remorse, I trust that the request which I make to your Excellency at this serious period, and which is to soften my last moments, will not be rejected; sympathy towards a soldier will surely induce your Excellency, and a military tribunal, to adapt the mode of my death to the feelings of a man of honour; let me hope, Sir, that if aught in my character impresses you with esteem towards me,—if aught in my misfortunes mark me as the victim of policy and not of resentment,—I shall experience the operations of those feelings in your breast, by being informed I am not to die on a gibbet. I have the honour to be, your [Pg 92]Excellency, John André, Adjutant of the British Forces in America.”—Van Gelder, sculptor.
Against the organ gallery is the monument to Thomas Thynne, Esq.—The principal figure is represented in a dying posture, and at his feet a cherub weeping. It has this inscription:—“Thomas Thynne, of Longleate, in Co. Wilts, Esq., who was barbarously murdered on Sunday, the 12th February, 1682;” which murder was conspired by Count Koningsmarck, and executed by three assassins, hired for that purpose, who shot him in Pall-Mall, in his own coach. The motive was to obtain the rich heiress of Northumberland in marriage, who, in her infancy, had been betrothed to the Earl of Ogle, but left a widow, and afterwards married to Mr. Thynne.—Quellin, sculptor.
Opposite, is a tablet of fine marble to General Strode, decorated with military trophies, and bearing this inscription:—“Near this place lie the remains of William Strode, Esq., Lieutenant-General of his Majesty’s Forces, and Colonel of the sixty-second Regiment of Foot. He departed this life, January 14, 1776, in the seventy-eighth year of his age, who constantly attended his duty both at home and abroad, during a course of sixty years’ service. He was a strenuous asserter of both civil and religious liberty, as established at the glorious Revolution of William III. Military reader! go thou and do likewise.”—Hayward, sculptor.
Above is a tablet to Captain William Julius, who commanded the Colchester man-of-war, and died Oct. 3, 1698, aged thirty-three.
George Churchill, second son of Sir Winston Churchill, of Dorsetshire, Knight, and brother of John, Duke of Marlborough. He was early trained to military affairs, and served with great honour by sea and land under Charles II., James II., William and Anne. He was Captain in the English fleet, at burning the French at La Hogue in William the Third’s reign; and for his bravery there made one of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. In the succeeding reign he was made Admiral-in-Chief. He died May 8, 1710, aged fifty-eight.
An oval tablet to the memory of Major Richard Creed, enriched with military trophies; and on it there is this inscription:—“To the memory of the honoured Major Richard Creed, who attended William III. in all his wars, everywhere signalizing himself, and never more himself than when he looked an enemy in the face. At the glorious battle of Blenheim, 1704, he commanded one of those squadrons that began the attack; in two several charges he remained unhurt, but in the third, after many wounds received, still valiantly fighting, he was shot through the head. His dead body was brought off by his brother at the hazard of his own life, and buried there. To his memory, his sorrowful mother erects this monument, placing it near another, which her son, when living, used to look upon with pleasure, for the worthy mention it makes of that great man, Edward, Earl of Sandwich, to whom he had the honour to be related, and whose heroic virtue he was ambitious to imitate. He was the eldest son of John Creed, of Oundell,[Pg 93] Esq., and Elizabeth, his wife, only daughter of Sir Gilbert Pickering, Bart., of Titmarsh, in Northamptonshire.”
Also a tablet in memory of Lieutenant Richard Creed, of the Bombay Artillery, who was killed in Upper Scinde, on the 20th of February, 1841, whilst fighting at the head of a party of volunteers from his troop, whom he had gallantly led to the assault of the fort Hujjack; thus prematurely closing, in the twelfth year of his services in India, and the twenty-eighth of his age, a career of high credit and brightest promise, throughout which, his ability, prudence, and devotion to duty, secured not less the esteem of his superiors, than his uniform kindness and conciliatory demeanour won the confidence and marked attachment of his humbler companions in arms. This tablet was erected by the officers of his regiment, to whom his generous nature, amiable deportment, and Christian virtues have, in no common degree, endeared his memory.—Thomas, sculptor.
Above, on a plain marble stone, is an English inscription, reciting the military glories of Sir Richard Bingham, who was of the ancient family of the Binghams, of Bingham Melcomb, in Dorsetshire; and served in the reign of Queen Mary, at St. Quintin’s; in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, at Leith, in Scotland; in the Isle of Candy, under the Venetians; at Cabo Chrio, and in the famous battle of Lepanto, against the Turks; in the civil wars of France in the Netherlands, at Smerwick. After this he was made Governor of Connaught, in Ireland, where he overthrew the Irish Scots, expelled the traitor O’Rourke, suppressed the rebellion, and was finally made Marshal of Ireland, and Governor of Leinster. He died at Dublin, January 19, 1598, aged seventy; from whence he was brought, and here interred, by John Bingley, some time his servant.
Above is a monument erected to the memory of Martin Folkes, of Hillington, in the county of Norfolk, Esq., who, under the auspices of Newton, happily employed his talents, industry, and time, in the study of sublime philosophy. He was chosen President of the Royal Society in 1741, and calmly submitted to the common lot of man on the 28th June, 1754, at the age of sixty-three. He is represented sitting, with his hands resting on a book, shut, as if contemplating; above is an urn, covered with drapery, that a boy holds up; there are two more boys, one of whom seems much surprised, from looking through a microscope, while the other, with a pair of compasses, is measuring the globe.—Ashton, sculptor.
Opposite, on your left, is a monument—“Sacred to the memory of General Sir Thomas Trigge, Knight of the most Honourable Order of the Bath, Lieutenant-General of the Ordnance, and Colonel of the forty-fourth Regiment of Foot; who spent a long life in active service, and enjoyed the uniform approbation of his sovereign and of his country to his latest hour. He begun his career as Ensign in the twelfth Regiment; served during the seven years’ war in Germany; was present at the battles of Minden, Fellinghausen, Williamsdahl, and others: he commanded the same regiment during the whole of[Pg 94] the memorable defence of Gibraltar, and was afterwards many years Lieutenant-Governor of that fortress. While Commander-in-chief in the West Indies, he captured Surinam, and various islands; and for his services was made K.B. He lived respected and beloved, and departed this life in his seventy-second year, on the 11th January, 1814.”—Bacon, sculptor.
Thomas Owen, Esq.—On this monument is a fine figure of a Judge in his robes, leaning on his right arm, and over him an inscription, showing that he was the son of Richard Owen, by Mary, daughter and heiress of Thomas Otley, of Shropshire, Esq.; that from his youth he had applied himself to the study of the laws, and was first made Serjeant temp. to Queen Elizabeth, and afterwards a Justice of the Common Pleas. He died Dec. 21, 1598.
Pasquale de Paoli.—A bust strongly resembling the deceased, with the following inscription under it:—“To the memory of Pasquale de Paoli, one of the most eminent and most illustrious characters of the age in which he lived. He was born at Rostino, in Corsica, April 5, 1725; was unanimously chosen, at the age of thirty, Supreme Head of that island, and died in this metropolis, February 5, 1807, aged eighty-two years. The early and better part of his life he devoted to the cause of liberty, nobly maintaining it against the usurpation of Genoese and French tyranny. By his many splendid achievements, his useful and benevolent institutions, his patriotic and public zeal, manifested upon every occasion, he amongst the few who have merited so glorious a title, most justly deserves to be hailed the father of his country. Being obliged by the superior force of his enemies, to retire from Corsica, he sought refuge in this land of liberty, and was here most graciously received, amidst the general applause of a magnanimous nation, into the protection of his Majesty, King George III., by whose fostering hand and munificence he not only obtained a safe and honourable asylum, but was enabled, during the remainder of his days to enjoy the society of his friends and faithful followers in affluent and dignified retirement. He expressed to the last moment of his life the most grateful sense of his Majesty’s paternal goodness towards him, praying for the preservation of his sacred person, and the prosperity of his dominions.”—Flaxman, sculptor.
Against the pillar is an oval tablet to James Kendall, Esq., supported by a Death’s head. He was chosen a member of the last Parliament of James II., and served in several Parliaments afterwards in the reign of William III., by whom he was made Governor of Barbadoes, and one of the Commissioners of the Admiralty. He died July 10, 1708, aged sixty. Then turning yourself, you see opposite—
A little monument of white marble, erected to the memory of Dr. Isaac Watts. It is divided by a fascia, over which a bust of that eminent divine is exhibited, supported by Genii, who seem pleased with the office to which they are allotted. Underneath, in a circle, is a fine figure of the Doctor sitting on a stool, in the[Pg 95] attitude of deep contemplation, which is finely expressed by an Angel opening to him the wonders of creation, while in one hand he holds a pen, and with the other points to a celestial globe. His name, the dates of his birth and death, are inscribed on the plinth:—“Isaac Watts, D.D., born July 17, 1674. Died November 25, 1748.”—Banks, sculptor.
George Stepney, Esq., descended from the Stepneys of Pendergraft, in Pembrokeshire, but born at Westminster, 1663, elected into the College of St. Peter’s, at Westminster, 1676, and entered of Trinity College, Cambridge, 1682. In 1692 he was sent Envoy to the Elector of Brandenburgh; in 1696 and 1697, to the Electors of Mentz, Triers, Cologne, Palatine, Landgrave of Hesse, and to the Congress of Frankfort, on his return from which he was made Commissioner of Trade; in 1698, was sent a second time Envoy to the Elector of Brandenburgh; in 1699, in the same quality to Poland; in 1701, a second time to the Emperor; and lastly, in 1706, to the States General. All these several embassies he conducted with such integrity, application, and ease, that he generally exceeded the expectations of his sovereigns, William and Anne, by whom he was employed. He died at Chelsea, 1707.
Above is a monument erected to the memory of John Methuen, Esq., who died in the service of his country, in Portugal, July 13, 1706, and was here interred, September 17, 1708.—Rysbrack, sculptor.
Also to that of his son, the Right Hon. Sir Paul Methuen, of Bishop’s Canning, Wilts, one of his Majesty’s most Honourable Privy Council, and Knight of the most Honourable Order of the Bath, who died April 11, 1757, aged eighty-five.
Beneath is a bust—“To the memory of Charles Burney, LL.D., L.D., F.S.A., et R.S., in the Royal Academy, London, Professor of Greek and Latin, Chaplain in Ordinary to his Majesty George III., Prebendary of the Church of Lincoln, Rector of Cliff, and of St. Paul, Deptford, in the county of Kent, eighteen years master of Greenwich School. He died on the 28th Jan. 1818, in his sixty-first year, and was buried at Deptford.” The Latin inscription sets forth, that “he was a man of various and deep learning, of a judgment of critical nicety and elegance of style, polished by unremitting exercise, and in solving difficulties in metrical composition, of exquisite skill. His pupils, from a collection raised amongst themselves, caused this monument to be erected.”—Gahagan, sculptor.
John Wesley, M.A. Born June 17, 1703; died March 2, 1791.
Charles Wesley, M.A. Born December 13, 1708; died March 29, 1788.
“The best of all is, God is with us.”
“I look upon all the world as my parish.”
“God buries His workmen, but carries on His work.”
Thomas Knipe, S.T.P.—This monument was erected by Alice, second wife of this learned man, who, for fifty years, was employed in Westminster School, sixteen whereof as Head Master. He was also a Prebendary of this Cathedral. The long Latin inscription contains nothing more than a laboured recital[Pg 96] of a good man’s virtues, and that he died August 8, 1711, aged seventy-three. At his feet is the grave of his affectionate scholar, William King, LL.D., without any inscription. Here hath been lately added an inscription in memory of two brothers, who both died in the service of their country: Captain John Knipe, 90th regiment, at Gibraltar, October 25, 1798, in the twenty-second year of his age; Captain Robert Knipe, 14th Light Dragoons, at Villa Formosa, May 17, 1811, aged thirty-two.
Opposite, on your left, is the monument to Dame Grace Gethin.—This lady, married to Sir Richard Gethin Grot, in Ireland, was famed for exemplary piety, and wrote a book of devotion, which Mr. Congreve complimented with a poem. She died October 11, 1697, aged twenty-one.
Elizabeth and Judith Freke.—A long inscription, setting forth the descent and marriage of these two ladies, whose busts in relief ornament the sides. They were, as the inscription says, the daughters of Ralph Freke, of Hannington, in Wilts, Esq. Elizabeth was married to Percy Freke, of West Belney, in Norfolk, and died April 7, 1714, aged sixty-nine. Judith married Robert Austin, of Tenterden, in Kent, and died May 19, 1716, aged sixty-four. They were both great examples to their sex; the best of daughters, the best of wives, and the best of mothers.
Opposite is a monument to William Wragg, Esq.: in the centre of which is represented the fatal accident that happened to the ship in which he was embarked, when he, with many more, was drowned, September 3, 1777. His son, who accompanied him, was miraculously saved on a package, supported by a black slave, till he was cast on shore, on the coast of Holland.
“Sir Cloudesly Shovell, Knight, Rear-Admiral of Great Britain, and Admiral and Commander-in-Chief of the Fleet, the just rewards of his long and faithful services. He was deservedly beloved of his country, and esteemed, though dreaded, by the enemy, who had often experienced his conduct and courage. Being shipwrecked on the rocks of Scilly, in his voyage from Toulon, October 22, 1707, at night, in the fifty-seventh year of his age, his fate was lamented by all, but especially by the seafaring part of the nation, to whom he was a generous patron, and a worthy example. His body was flung on the shore, and buried with others, on the sand; but being soon after taken up, was placed under this monument, which his Royal Mistress had caused to be erected, to commemorate his steady loyalty and extraordinary virtues.” A recumbent figure of the Admiral lies under a tent; beneath, in bas-relief, is the wreck of the Association.—Bird, sculptor.
Above is a monument to Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bart., under a canopy of state, the curtains whereof are finely gilt, and tied up with gold strings; and on each side of the bust is a weeping cherub, one resting on a medallion of his lady, the other pointing to Sir Godfrey. On the pedestal is a Latin inscription, signifying that Sir Godfrey Kneller, Knt., who lies interred here, was painter to Charles II., James II., William III., Anne, and George II. Born in 1646, died in 1723, aged seventy-seven.[Pg 97] He was knighted March 3, 1691, and created a baronet May 24, 1715. Among his most excellent works are the “Beauties of the Court of Charles I.” This monument was designed by Sir Godfrey himself. Bust by Rysbrack. Underneath is his epitaph, written by Mr. Pope:—
“Kneller, by Heaven, and not a master, taught,
Whose art was nature, and whose pictures thought—
When now two ages he had snatched from fate
Whate’er was beauteous, or whate’er was great—
Rests, crowned with princes’ honours, poets’ lays,
Due to his merit and brave thirst of praise:
Living, great Nature fear’d he might outvie
Her works; and dying, fears herself may die.”
Sir John Burland, Knt., LL.D.—One of the Barons of his Majesty’s Court of Exchequer; as a man, valued and beloved; as a judge, honoured and revered. He died suddenly, on the 29th of February, 1776, aged fifty-one years. On a pyramid of black marble is represented his profile in a medallion of statuary marble, decorated with emblems alluding to the qualities for which he was eminent, particularly the caduceus, denoting his eloquence, and the scales, expressive of justice.
On the left is a neat tablet, which contains the following inscription:—“To the memory of William Dalrymple, Midshipman, eldest son of Sir John Dalrymple, Bart., one of the Barons of Exchequer in Scotland, and of Elizabeth Hamilton Macgill, representatives of the Viscounts of Oxford; who, though heir of ample estates, preferred to a life of indolence and pleasure the toilsome and perilous profession of a seaman when his country was in danger. At the age of eighteen, he was killed, off the coast of Virginia, in a desperate engagement, in which Captain Salter, in the Santa Margaretta, took the Amazone, a French ship of superior force, almost in sight of the enemy’s fleet; receiving in the public despatches of his skilful and generous Commander, the honourable testimony that he was a worthy and deserving youth, who, had he lived, would have been an ornament to his profession; and leaving to his once happy parents, in whose fond eyes he appeared to promise whatever could be expected from genius, spirit, and the best gift of God, a kind and melting heart, the endearing remembrance of his virtues. Father of all! grant to the prayers of a father and mother, that their surviving children may inherit the qualities of such a brother, and that there may never be wanting to the British youth, the spirit to pursue that line of public honour which he marked out for himself and for them. Obit 29th July, 1782.”
An oval tablet, thus inscribed:—“Near these steps lies the body of Mrs. Ann Wemyss, daughter of Dr. Lodowick Wemyss, some time Prebendary of this Cathedral, and of Mrs. Jane Bargrave, his wife, who departed this life, December 19, 1698, in her sixty-seventh year.”
Sophia Fairholm.—This lady, her monumental inscription informs us, was born in Scotland, and was mother to the Marquis of Annandale, who, as a mark of his duty and gratitude, caused[Pg 98] this monument to be erected to her memory. It is the representation of an ancient sepulchre, over which a stately edifice is raised, ornamented at top with the family arms. She died December 13, 1716, aged forty-nine.
Above are inscriptions to the memory of Rear-Admiral John Harrison, who was Captain of the Namur, under Sir George Pocock, in several successful engagements with the French Fleet, commanded by Monsieur D’Aché, in one of which he was wounded. He conducted, under the same British Admiral, the armament against the Havannah, and brought the fleet and treasure safe to England. In consequence of excessive fatigue, soon after his return, he lost the use of one side by a paralytic stroke, and remained helpless twenty-eight years. He was firm in action, prudent in conduct, polished in society, generous and humane in a profession, and upon an element, where human virtue is of the most rigid kind, and human nature is most severely tried; his modesty was equal to his virtues. He died October 15, 1791, aged sixty-nine years. Above and below are expressed, in Latin, the following words:—“God is my port and refuge: God hath shown His wonders in the deep.”
Opposite, on your left, is the monument to Sir Thomas Richardson.—There is an effigy, in brass, of a Judge in his robes, with a collar of SS., representing Sir Thomas Richardson, Knight, “Speaker of the House of Commons in the twenty-first and twenty-second year of James I., Chief Justice of the Common Pleas; and, lastly, by Charles I., made L.C.J. of England. He died in 1634, in his sixty-sixth year.” So far the inscription. This is that Judge Richardson who first issued out an order against the ancient custom of wakes, and caused every minister to read it in his church, which the Bishop of Bath and Wells opposing, complaint was made against the order in the Council-chamber, where Richardson was so severely reprimanded, that he came out in a rage, saying—he had been almost choked with a pair of lawn sleeves.—Huber le Seur, sculptor.
An ancient monument of marble and alabaster, gilt, on which lies a warrior at full length, representing William Thynne, of Botterville, Esq., a polite gentleman, a great traveller, and a brave soldier. In 1546 he was, by Henry VIII., made receiver of the marches, and fought against the Scots at Musselburgh. But his latter days were spent in retirement and devotion in this Church, to which he constantly repaired, morning and evening. His brother was Sir John Thynne, Secretary to the Duke of Somerset, from whom descended that unhappy gentleman whose story we have already related. He died March 14, 1584.
Rev. Dr. Andrew Bell, LL.D., Prebendary of this Church, the eminent founder of the Madras, now the National System of Education, throughout the British dominions. He is represented examining the boys under his system. Died 27th January, 1832.—Behnes, sculptor.
Here you pass through the gate; the monument of Garrick is on your right.
bust of George Grote, Historian of Greece. Born 17th November, 1794; died 18th June, 1871.
“To the memory of David Garrick, who died in the year 1779, at the age of sixty-three.
“To paint fair Nature, by Divine command—
Her magic pencil in his glowing hand—
A Shakspeare rose; then, to expand his fame,
Wide o’er this ‘breathing world,’ a Garrick came.
Though sunk in death the forms the Poet drew,
The Actor’s genius bade them breathe anew;
Though, like the bard himself, in night they lay,
Immortal Garrick call’d them back to day;
And till eternity, with power sublime,
Shall mark the mortal hour of hoary Time,
Shakspeare and Garrick like twin stars shall shine,
And earth irradiate with a beam divine.”—Pratt.
“This monument, the tribute of a friend, was erected in 1797.”—Webber, fecit. Garrick’s throwing aside the curtain, which discovers the medallion, is meant to represent his superior power to unveil the beauties of Shakspeare. Tragedy and Comedy are assembled with their respective attributes, to witness and approve the scene.
John Ernest Grabe: a curious figure, large as life, representing him sitting upon a marble tomb, contemplating the sorrows of death, and the sorrows of the grave. He was a man deeply skilled in Oriental learning. He died Nov. 3, 1711, aged forty-six, and was buried at Pancras, near London.—Bird, sculptor.
Sir Robert Taylor, Knight, who was a famous architect. He died on the 26th of September, 1788, aged seventy years.
William Camden, the great recorder of our antiquities, who is represented in a half length, in the dress of his time, with his left hand holding a book, and in his right his gloves, resting on an altar, on the body of which is a Latin inscription, setting forth his “indefatigable industry in illustrating the British Antiquities, and his candour, sincerity, and pleasant good-humour in private life.” He was son to Samson Camden, citizen of London, and paper-stainer; was born in the Old Bailey, May 2, 1551, and received the first rudiments of his education at Christ Church Hospital. In 1566, he entered himself of Magdalen College, Oxford, but afterwards removed to Pembroke, where he became acquainted with Dr. Goodman, Dean of Westminster, by whose recommendation, in 1575, he was made second master of Westminster School, and began the glorious work of his Antiquities, encouraged thereto and assisted by his patron, Dr. Goodman. In August, 1622, he fell from his chair, at his house, in Chiselhurst, in Kent, and never recovered, but lingered till Nov. 9, 1623, and then died, aged seventy-four. This monument was repaired and beautified at the charge and expense of the University of Oxford.
In front of Camden’s monument lie the remains of John Ireland, Dean of Westminster, and in the same grave those of his friend, William Gifford, a distinguished critic, satirist, and[Pg 100] dramatic annotator. In private life Mr. Gifford was modest and unassuming, and amongst the numerous parties, poetical, political, or religious, none of them ever ventured to recriminate by attacking the moral character of the Editor of the Quarterly Review. He was born at Ashburton, in 1757, and died 1826.
Isaac Casaubon.—This monument was erected by the learned Dr. Moreton, Bishop of Durham, to the memory of that profound scholar and critic, whose name is inscribed upon it, and who, though a native of France, and in his younger years Royal Library Keeper of Paris, yet was so dissatisfied with the ceremonial part of the Romish worship, that upon the murder of his great patron, Henry IV., he willingly quitted his native country, and at the earnest entreaty of James I., settled in England, where, for uncommon knowledge, he became the admiration of all men of learning. He died, 1614, in the fifty-sixth year of his age.
The monument to Casaubon is not without interest to the mind of the curious, as upon close inspection may be seen the initials and date of “good old Izaak Walton” (I. W., 1658), Author of “The Complete Angler.” This renowed piscator has somewhere said that he went into Westminster Abbey to visit the tomb of his departed friend, Casaubon, and while there, in contemplation before his monument, he ventured to scratch his own initials and date upon it.
Sir Richard Coxe, who was taster to Queen Elizabeth and James I., and to the latter, Steward of the Household; a man commended in his epitaph for his religion, humanity, chastity, temperance, friendship, beneficence, charity, vigilance, and self-denial. He was third son of Thomas Coxe, of Beymonds, in Hertfordshire, and died a bachelor, in the sixty-ninth year of his age, December 13, 1623.
A small tablet to the memory of James Wyat, Esq., who was architect of this church, and Surveyor-General of His Majesty’s Board of Works. Departed this life on the 4th day of Sept., 1813.
Above is a monument to Sir John Pringle, Bart. The inscription sets forth that he was Physician to the Army, the Princess of Wales, and their Majesties; President of the Royal Society. He was born in Scotland, in April, 1707; and died in London, in January, 1782.
Edward Wetenhall, M.D., an eminent Physician, who died August 29, 1733. His father was Dr. Edward Wetenhall, who was first advanced to the See of Cork, in Ireland, but was afterwards translated from thence to Kilmore and Ross. He died November 12, 1713, aged seventy-eight.
Dr. Stephen Hales.—Here are two beautiful figures in relief, Religion and Botany; the latter holds a medallion of this great explorer of nature to public view; Religion is deploring the loss of the divine; and at the feet of Botany, the winds are displayed on a globe, which allude to his invention of the ventilator. The Latin inscription is to the following effect:—“To the memory of Stephen Hales, Doctor of Divinity, Augusta, the mother of that best of Kings, George the Third, has placed this monument, who chose him, when living, to officiate as her chaplain; and[Pg 101] after he died, which was on the 4th of January, 1761, in the eighty-fourth year of his age, honoured him with this marble.
“About the tomb of Hales, whose fair design
And polish great Augusta caus’d to shine,
Religion, hoary Faith, and Virtue wait,
And shed perpetual tears in mournful state.
But of the preacher, render’d to his clay,
The voice of Wisdom still hath this to say—
He was a man to hear affliction’s cry,
And trace his Maker’s works with curious eye.
O Hales! thy praises not the latest age
Shall e’er diminish, or shall blot thy page;
England, so proud of Newton, shall agree
She had a son of equal rank in thee.”—Wilton, sculptor.
Thomas Triplett, D.D., who was born near Oxford, and educated at Christ Church, where he was esteemed a wit, a good Grecian, and a poet. In 1645, he was made Prebendary of Preston, in the Church of Sarum, and had also a living, which being sequestered in the Rebellion, he fled to Ireland, and taught school in Dublin, where he was when Charles I. was beheaded. Not liking Ireland, he returned to England, and taught school at Hayes, in Middlesex, till the Restoration, when he was made Prebendary of Westminster, and of Fenton in the Church of York. He died at a good old age, July 18, 1670, much beloved and lamented.
A bust of Dr. Isaac Barrow, representing this truly great man, who, as the inscription shows, was Chaplain to Charles II., Head of Trinity College, Cambridge; Geometrical Professor of Gresham College, in London, and of Greek and Mathematics at Cambridge. His works have been said to be the foundation of all the divinity that has been written since his time. He died May 4, 1677, aged 47.
Above this monument the arch is plastered and painted with the figure of a stag, which was done by order of Richard II.; the following motto was on the collar:—
“When Julius Cæsar first came in,
About my neck he put this ring;
Whosoever doth me take,
Use me well for Cæsar’s sake.”
It is said he lived three or four hundred years.
William Outram, D.D.—The Latin inscription sets forth that he was born in Derbyshire, fellow of Trinity and Christ Church Colleges in Cambridge, Canon of this Abbey, and Archdeacon of Leicester; an accomplished divine, a nervous and accurate writer, an excellent and diligent preacher, first in Lincolnshire, afterwards in London, and lastly at St. Margaret’s, Westminster, where he finished his life with great applause, August 23, 1679, aged fifty-four. The inscription on the pedestal shows farther, that after a long and religious life, and forty-two years of widowhood, Jane, his wife, died Oct. 4, 1721.
A fine figure of Joseph Addison, Esq., on a circular basement, about which are small figures of the nine muses. The Latin inscription is to the following purport:—“Whoever thou art, venerate the memory of Joseph Addison, in whom Christian faith, virtue, and good morals, found a continual patron; whose genius was shown in verse, and every exquisite[Pg 102] kind of writing; who gave to posterity the best examples of pure language, and the best rules for living well, which remain, and ever will remain sacred; whose weight of argument was tempered with wit, and accurate judgment with politeness, so that he encouraged the good, and reformed the improvident, tamed the wicked, and in some degree made them in love with virtue. He was born in the year 1672, and his fortune being increased gradually, arrived at length to public honours. Died in the forty-eighth year of his age, the honour and delight of the British nation.”—He was buried in front of Lord Halifax’s monument, north aisle of Henry the Seventh’s Chapel.—Sir Richard Westmacott, sculptor.
Lord Macaulay.—The body of this eminent historian is deposited close to the statue of Addison. Born October 25th, 1800; died December 28th, 1859.
Near the statute of Addison are two fine busts, one on each side, of Lord Macaulay, by Burnard; and Thackeray, by Marrochetti.
George Frederick Handel.—This is the last monument which that eminent statuary, Roubiliac, lived to finish. It is affirmed that he first became conspicious, and afterwards finished the exercise of his art, with a figure of this extraordinary man. The first was erected in the gardens at Vauxhall, therefore well known to the public. The last figure is very elegant, and the face is a strong likeness of its original. The left arm is resting on a group of musical instruments, and the attitude is very expressive of great attention to the harmony of an angel playing on a harp in the clouds, over his head. Before it lies the celebrated Messiah, with that part open, where is the much-admired air,—“I know that my Redeemer liveth.” Beneath, only this inscription:—“George Frederick Handel, Esq., born Feb. 23, 1684. Died April 14, 1759.”
Sacred to the memory of Major-General Sir Archibald Campbell, Knight of the Bath, M.P., Colonel of the seventy-fourth Regiment of Foot, Hereditary Usher of the White Rod for Scotland, late Governor of Jamaica, Governor of Fort St. George, and Commander-in-Chief of the Forces on the coast of Coromandel, in the East Indies. He died equally regretted and admired for his eminent civil and military services to his country; possessed of distinguished endowments of mind, dignified manners, inflexible integrity, unfeigned benevolence, with every social and amiable virtue. He departed this life March 31, A.D. 1791, aged fifty-two. “Alas, piety! alas, fidelity! like that of old, and warlike courage! when shall you have his equal?”—Wilton, sculptor.
Here also lies the body of his nephew, Lieutenant-General Sir James Campbell, Bart., G.C.H., and C.SS., F.M., who served during the whole of the last war in many distinguished situations; was Commander of the Forces in the Ionian Islands at the general peace of 1814, and died at London upon the 6th of June, 1819, aged fifty-four.
On a tablet is the following inscription:—“To the memory of[Pg 103] Mary Hope, who died at Brockhall, in the county of Northampton, on the 25th of June, 1767, aged twenty-five, and whose remains lie in the neighbouring church at Norton, this stone, an unavailing tribute of affliction, is by her husband erected and inscribed. She was the only daughter of Eliab Breton, of Forty Hill, Middlesex, Esq., and was married to John Hope, of London, Merchant, to whom she left three infant sons, Charles, John, and William.
“Tho’ low in earth, her beauteous form decay’d,
My faithful wife, my lov’d Maria’s laid.
In sad remembrance, the afflicted raise
No pompous tomb inscrib’d with venal praise.
To statesmen, warriors, and to kings, belong
The trophied sculpture, and the poet’s song;
And these the proud expiring often claim,
Their wealth bequeathing to record their name.
But humble virtue, stealing to the dust,
Heeds not our lays, or monumental bust.
To name her virtues ill befits my grief—
What was my bliss can now give no relief;
A husband mourns—the rest let friendship tell;
Fame, spread her worth! a husband knew it well!”
Sir Thomas and Lady Robinson.—This monument to the memory of the Dowager Baroness Lechmere, eldest daughter of Charles Howard, third Earl of Carlisle, and widow of Nicholas Lord Lechmere, afterwards married Sir Thomas Robinson, of Rookby Park, in the county of York, Baronet, on October 28, 1728, and died April 10, 1739, aged forty-four. Sir Thomas, after enjoying many honourable and lucrative employments in the State, spent the latter part of his life in retirement, dying March 3, 1777, aged seventy-six.—Walsh, sculptor.
Edward Atkyns and his ancestors. The first was Sir Edward Atkyns, one of the Barons of the Exchequer in the reigns of Charles I. and II., and of such loyalty as to resist the most splendid offers of the Oliverian party. He died in 1669, aged eighty-two. The second, Sir Robert Atkyns, was created Knight of the Bath at the coronation of Charles II.; was afterwards L.C.B. of the Exchequer under William III., and Speaker of the House of Lords in several Parliaments; a person of eminent learning, as his writings abundantly prove. He died in 1709, aged eighty-eight.—The third, Sir Edward Atkyns, was L.C.B. of the Exchequer at the time of the Revolution; but not approving that measure, he retired from public business to his seat in Norfolk, where his chief employment was healing breaches among his neighbours, which he decided with such exemplary justice, that none refused his reference, nor did the most litigious men appeal from his award. He died in 1698, aged sixty-eight.—The fourth, Sir Robert Atkyns, was versed in the Antiquities of his country, of which his History of Gloucester was a proof. He died in 1711, aged sixty-five years.—The inscription sets forth, that in memory of his ancestors, who have so honourably presided in Westminster Hall, Edward Atkyns, Esq., late of Kettringham, in Norfolk, second son of the last-named Sir Edward, caused this monument to be erected. He died Jan. 20, 1750, aged seventy-nine years.—Cheere, sculptor.
[Pg 104]A medallion and inscription—“To the memory of the Right Honourable James Stuart Mackenzie, Lord Privy Seal of Scotland, a man whose virtues did honour to humanity. He cultivated and encouraged science; and during a long life, was generous without ostentation, secretly charitable, friendly, hospitable, and ever ready to oblige. He was beloved and revered by all: he had many friends, and not one enemy. He died the 6th of April, 1800, in the eighty-second year of his age. He was married to Elizabeth, daughter of John, Duke of Argyle and Greenwich, his uncle.”—Nollekens, sculptor.
John, Duke of Argyle and Greenwich.—On one side of the base is the figure of Minerva, and on the other of Eloquence; done by Roubiliac, particularly expressive. Above is the figure of History, with one hand holding a book, with the other writing on a pyramid the titles of the hero, whose actions are supposed to be contained in the book, on the cover of which, in letters of gold, are inscribed the date of his Grace’s birth, Oct. 10, 1680, and time of his death, Oct. 4, 1743. The principal figure is spirited, even to the verge of life. On the pyramid is this epitaph, said to be written by Paul Whitehead, Esq.:—
“Briton! behold, if patriot worth be dear,
A shrine that claims a tributary tear;
Silent that tongue admiring senates heard,
Nerveless that arm opposing legions fear’d.
Nor less, O Campbell! thine the power to please,
And give to grandeur all the grace of ease.
Long from thy life let kindred heroes trace
Arts which ennoble still the noblest race;
Others may owe their future fame to me,
I borrow immortality from thee.”
Underneath this, in great letters, is written—“John, duke of argyle and gr—” at which point the pen of History rests. On the base of the monument is this inscription:—“In memory of an honest man, a constant friend, John, the great Duke of Argyle and Greenwich, a General and Orator, exceeded by none in the age he lived, Sir Henry Fermer, Bart., by his last will, left the sum of 500l. towards erecting this monument, and recommended the above inscription.”
Over the door of the Chapel of St. Faith, is the monument of Oliver Goldsmith, M.D., representing the portrait of the Doctor in profile. A festoon curtain, olive branches, and books, are the chief ornaments. Underneath is a Latin inscription, of which the following is the import:—“That he was eminent as a Poet, Philosopher, and Historian; that he scarcely left any species of writing unattempted, and none that he attempted, unimproved; that he was master of the softer passions, and could at pleasure command tears, or provoke laughter; but in everything he said or did, good nature was predominant; that he was witty, sublime, spirited, and facetious; in speech pompous; in conversation elegant and graceful; that the love of his associates, fidelity of his friends, and the veneration of his readers, had raised this monument to his memory. He was born in Ireland, November 29, 1731, educated at Dublin, and died at[Pg 105] London, April 4, 1774, and was buried in the Temple burial ground.”—Nollekens, sculptor.
Near to the door of the Chapel of St. Faith is a black marble slab, which covers the remains of Charles Dickens, born Feb. 7th, 1812, died June 9th, 1870. And near to him are the remains of Handel, Cumberland, Macaulay, Sheridan, Garrick, Samuel Johnson, and Thomas Parr, of the county of Salop, born 1483, who lived in the reign of ten Princes: viz., Edward IV., Edward V., Richard III., Henry VII., Henry VIII., Edward VI., Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth, James I., and Charles I. He died Nov. 15th, 1635, at the age of 152.
A monument erected to the memory of John Gay, by the bounty and favour of the Duke and Duchess of Queensberry, who were the great encouragers of his genius. The masks, tragedy, dagger, and instruments of music, which are blended together in a group are emblematical devices, alluding to the various ways of writing in which he excelled: namely, farce, satire, fable, and pastoral. The short epitaph on the front was written by himself. It is censured by some for its levity,—
“Life is a jest, and all things show it:
I thought so once, but now I know it.”
Underneath are these verses, by Mr. Pope, who lived always in great friendship with Mr. Gay:
“Of manners gentle, of affections mild;
In wit a man, simplicity a child;
With native humour temp’ring virtuous rage,
Form’d to delight at once and lash the age;
Above temptation in a low estate,
And uncorrupted e’en among the great;
A safe companion and an easy friend,
Unblamed through life, lamented in thy end;
These are thy honours; not that here thy bust
Is mix’d with heroes, or with Kings thy dust;
But that the worthy and the good shall say,
Striking their pensive bosoms—Here lies Gay!”
He died December 4, 1732, aged forty-five.—Rysbrack, sculptor.
Nicholas Rowe, Esq., and his only daughter. On the front of the pedestal is this inscription:—“To the memory of Nicholas Rowe, Esq., who died in 1718, aged forty-five; and of Charlotte, his only daughter, wife of Henry Fane, Esq., who, inheriting her father’s spirit, and amiable in her own innocence and beauty, died in the twenty-second year of her age, 1739.” Underneath, upon the front of the altar, is this epitaph:—
“Thy reliques, Rowe! to this sad shrine we trust,
And near thy Shakspeare place thy honour’d bust.
Oh! next him skill’d to draw the tender tear,
For never heart felt passion more sincere;
To nobler sentiment to fire the brave,
For never Briton more disdained a slave;
Peace to thy gentle shade, and endless rest,
Blest in thy genius, in thy love, too, blest!
And blest, that timely from our scene remov’d,
Thy soul enjoys that liberty it lov’d!
To these so mourn’d in death, so loved in life,
The childless parent and the widow’d wife,
With tears inscribed this monumental stone,
That hold their ashes, and expects her own.”
[Pg 106]Mr. Rowe was Poet Laureate, and author of several fine tragedies; and, just before his death, had finished a translation of Lucan’s Pharsalia.—Rysbrack, sculptor.
James Thomson, author of the Seasons, and other Poetical Works. The figure of Mr. Thomson leans its left arm upon a pedestal, holding a book in one hand, and the Cap of Liberty in the other. Upon the pedestal, in bas-relief, are the Seasons; to which a boy points, offering him a laurel crown, as the reward of his genius. At the feet of the figure is the tragic mask and the ancient harp. The whole is supported by a projecting pedestal, and in a panel is the following inscription:—“James Thomson, Ætatis 48, Obit 27 August, 1748. Tutored by thee, sweet Poetry exalts her voice to ages, and informs the page with music, image, sentiment, and thought, never to die!” Erected 1762.—Spang, sculptor.
William Shakspeare.—Both the design and workmanship of this monument are extremely elegant. The figure of Shakspeare, and his attitude, his dress, his shape, his genteel air, and fine composure, all so delicately expressed by the sculptor, cannot be sufficiently admired; and those beautiful lines of his that appear on the scroll are very happily chosen:—
“The cloud-capp’d towers, the gorgeous palaces,
The solemn temples, the great globe itself,
Yea, all which it inherit, shall dissolve.
And, like the baseless fabric of a vision,
Leave not a wreck behind.”—The Tempest.
The heads on the pedestal, representing Henry V., Richard III., and Queen Elizabeth (three principal characters in his plays), are likewise proper ornaments to grace his tomb. In short, the taste that is here shown does honour to those great names under whose direction, by the public favour, it was so elegantly constructed: namely, the Earl of Burlington, Dr. Mead, Mr. Pope, and Mr. Martin. It was designed by Kent, executed by Scheemakers, and the expanse defrayed by the grateful contributions of the public, 125 years after his death. He died April 24, 1617, in his 53rd year, and was buried in the great church at Stratford.
In front of this monument are buried Dr. Johnson, Garrick, Henderson, Sheridan, Campbell, and Cary.
“To the memory of Mrs. Pritchard, this tablet is here placed by a voluntary subscription of those who admired and esteemed her. She retired from the stage, of which she had long been the ornament, in the month of April, 1768, and died at Bath in the month of August following, in the fifty-seventh year of her age.
“Her comic vein had every charm to please,
’Twas nature’s dictates breathed with nature’s ease:
E’en when her powers sustain’d the tragic load,
Full, clear, and just, the harmonious accents flow’d;
And the big passions of her feeling heart
Burst freely forth and shamed the mimic art.
Oft on the scene, with colours not her own,
She painted Vice, and taught us what to shun;
One virtuous track her real life pursu’d,
[Pg 107]That nobler part was uniformly good;
Each duty there to such perfection wrought.
That, if the precepts fail’d, the example taught.”
W. Whitehead, P.L.
Above is a bust to Robert Southey (Poet Laureate); born August 12, 1774; died March 21, 1843.—Weekes, sculptor.
Thomas Campbell, LL.D., Author of “The Pleasures of Hope,” thrice Lord-Rector of the University of Glasgow, founder of the Polish Association, &c. He was born July 27, 1777; died at Boulogne, June 15, 1844; and was buried with great public solemnity, near this spot, on the 3rd of July following. As a classic poet, a warm philanthropist, a staunch friend of literary men, he possessed the highest qualities of mind and heart. His Patriotic Lyrics breathe the very spirit of British freedom and independence; while his other poems—all models of composition—are richly imbued with the spirit of moral and religious sentiment. This statue, from the classic chisel of W. C. Marshall, R.A., was erected on the 1st of May, 1855. The pedestal as it now stands, was the gift of a lady (sister-in-law of Dr. Beattie, the Poet’s physician and biographer). The highly appropriate Lines inscribed upon it are taken from “The Last Man:”—
“This spirit shall return to Him
Who gave its heavenly spark;
Yet think not, sun, it shall be dim
When thou thyself art dark!
No—it shall live again, and shine
In bliss unknown to beams of thine,
By Him recall’d to breath
Who captive led captivity.
Who robbed the Grave of Victory,
And took the sting from Death!”
The statue represents the Poet in his academic robes of Lord-Rector and the relieved figure, with the torch, the triumph of immortal Hope, as described in the following lines:—
“Eternal Hope! when yonder spheres sublime
Peal’d their first notes to sound the march of Time,
Thy joyous youth began, but shall not fade.—
When all the sister planets have decayed,
When wrapped in fire, the realms of ether glow,
And Heaven’s last thunder shakes the world below,
Thou, undismayed, shall o’er the ruins smile,
And light thy torch at Nature’s funeral pile!”
“Pleasures of Hope.”
[For these and the preceding lines, see Campbell’s Poems.]
Affixed to the pillar is a tablet—“Sacred to the memory of Christopher Anstey, Esq., formerly a scholar at Eton, and fellow of Trinity College, in Cambridge: a very elegant poet, who held a distinguished pre-eminence, even among those who excelled in the same kinds of his art. About the year 1770, he exchanged his residence in Cambridgeshire for Bath, a place above all that he had long delighted in. The celebrated poem that he wrote, under the title of the Bath Guide, is a sufficient testimony; and after having lived there thirty-six years, died in the year 1805, aged eighty-one, and was buried in Walcot Church, Bath.”—Horwell, sculptor.
A tablet with a fine medallion,—“Sacred to the memory of[Pg 108] Granville Sharp, ninth son of Dr. Thomas Sharp, Prebendary of the Cathedrals and Collegiate Churches of York, Durham, and Southwell, and grandson of Dr. John Sharp, Archbishop of York. Born and educated in the bosom of the Church of England, he ever cherished for her institutions the most unshaken regard, whilst his whole soul was in harmony with the sacred strain—‘Glory to God in the highest, on earth peace, good will towards men;’ on which his life presented one beautiful comment of glowing piety and unwearied beneficence. Freed by competence from the necessity, and by content from the desire, of lucrative occupation, he was incessant in his labours to improve the condition of mankind. Founding public happiness on public virtue, he aimed to rescue his native country from the guilt and inconsistency of employing the arm of Freedom to rivet the fetters of Bondage, and established for the Negro Race, in the person of Somerset (his servant), the long disputed rights of human nature. Having, in this glorious cause, triumphed over the combined resistance of Interest, Prejudice, and Pride, he took his post amongst the foremost of the honourable band associated to deliver Africa from the rapacity of Europe, by the abolition of the Slave Trade; nor was death permitted to interrupt his career of usefulness, till he had witnessed that Act of the British Parliament by which ‘The Abolition’ was decreed. In his private relations he was equally exemplary; and having exhibited through life a model of disinterested virtue, he resigned his pious spirit into the hands of his Creator, in the exercise of Charity, and Faith, and Hope, on the 6th day of July, A.D. 1813, in the seventy-eighth year of his age. Reader, if on perusing this tribute to a private individual, thou shouldest be disposed to suspect it as partial, or censure it as diffuse, know that it is not panegyric, but history.—Erected by the African Institution of London, A.D. 1816.”—Chantrey, sculptor.
Above is a bust of Charles de St. Denis, Lord of St. Evremond.—This gentleman was of a noble family in Normandy, and was employed in the army of France, in which he rose to the rank of Marshal; but retiring to Holland, he was from thence invited by Charles II. into England, where he lived in the greatest intimacy with the King and principal nobility, more particularly with the Duchess of Mazarine. He had a very sprightly turn both in conversation and writing. He lived to the age of ninety, and was carried off at last by a violent fit of the stranguary, September 9, 1703. Though he left France, as it may be imagined, on account of religion, yet in his will he left twenty pounds to poor Roman Catholics, and twenty pounds to poor French refugees; besides other legacies to be disposed of to those in distress, of what religion soever they might be.
Matthew Prior.—The bust was done by order of the King of France. On one side of the pedestal stands the figure of Thalia, one of the nine Muses, with a flute in her hand; and on the other, History, with her book shut; between both is the bust of the deceased, upon a raised altar of fine marble; on the[Pg 109] outermost side of which is a Latin inscription, importing that while he was busied in writing the history of his own times, Death interposed, and broke both the thread of his discourse and of his life, Sept. 18, 1721, in the fifty-seventh year of his age. Over the bust is a pediment, on the ascending sides of which are two boys, one with an hour glass in his hand, run out, the other holding a torch reversed; on the apex of the pediment is an urn, and on the base of the monument a long inscription, reciting the principal employments in which he had been engaged; particularly that, by order of King William and Queen Mary; he assisted at the Congress of the Confederate Powers of the Hague, in 1690; in 1697 was one of the Plenipotentiaries of the Peace of Ryswick: and in the following year was of the embassy to France and also Secretary of State in Ireland. In 1700, he was made one of the Board of Trade; in 1711, First Commissioner of the Customs; and lastly, in the same year, was sent by Queen Anne to Louis XIV. of France, with proposals of peace. All these trusts he executed with uncommon address and abilities, and had retired from public business, when a violent cholic, occasioned by a cold, carried him off; by which the world was deprived of an invaluable treasure, which he was preparing to lay before the public.—Rysbrack, sculptor. Bust by Coizevox.
“Sacred to the best of men, William Mason, A.M., a Poet, if any, elegant, correct, and pious. Died 7th of April, 1797, aged seventy-two.”—It is a neat piece of sculpture. A medallion of the deceased is held up by a figure of Poetry, bemoaning the loss.—Bacon, sculptor.
Thomas Shadwell.—This monument was erected by Dr. John Shadwell, to the memory of his deceased father. The inscription sets forth that he was descended from an ancient family in Staffordshire, was Poet Laureate and Historiographer in the reign of William III., and died November 20, 1692, in the fifty-fifth year of his age. He was author of several plays, and was satirized by Dryden, under the character of Ogg, in the second part of Absalom and Architophel. He died at Chelsea, by taking opium, and was there buried.—Bird, sculptor.
John Milton.—He was a great polemical and political writer, and Latin Secretary to Oliver Cromwell; but what has immortalized his name, are those two inimitable pieces, Paradise Lost and Regained. He was born in London in 1604, and died at Bunhill (perhaps the same as Bunhill Fields) in 1674, leaving three daughters behind him unprovided for, and was buried at St. Giles’s, Cripplegate. In 1737, Mr. Auditor Benson erected this monument to his memory.—Rysbrack, sculptor.
Under Milton is an elegant monument erected to the memory of Mr. Gray. This monument seems expressive of the compliment contained in the epitaph, where the Lyric Muse, in alt-relief, is holding a medallion of the Poet, and at the same time pointing the finger up to the bust of Milton, which is directly over it.
“No more the Grecian muse unrival’d reigns;
To Britain let the nations homage pay:
She felt a Homer’s fire in Milton’s strains,
A Pindar’s rapture in the lyre of Gray.”
[Pg 110]Died July 30, 1771, aged fifty-four, and was buried at Stoke.—John Bacon, sculptor.
Samuel Butler.—This tomb, as by the inscription appears, was erected by John Barber, Esq., Lord Mayor of London, that he who was destitute of all things when alive, might not want a monument when dead. He was author of Hudibras, and was a man of consummate learning, wit, and pleasantry, peculiarly happy in his writings, though he reaped small advantages from them, and suffered great distress by reason of his narrow circumstances. He lived, however, to a good old age, and was buried at the expense of Mr. Longueville, in the churchyard of St. Paul, Covent Garden. He was born at Strencham, in Worcestershire, in 1612, and died in London, 1680.
Edmund Spencer.—Beneath Mr. Butler’s, there was a rough decayed tomb of Purbeck stone, to the memory of Mr. Edmund Spencer, one of the best English poets, which being much decayed, a subscription was set on foot, by the liberality of Mr. Mason, in 1778, to restore it. The subscription succeeded, and the monument was restored as nearly as possible to the old form, but in statuary marble. His works abound with innumerable beauties and such a variety of imagery, as is scarce to be found in any other writer, ancient or modern. On this monument is this inscription:—“Here lies (expecting the second coming of our Saviour Christ Jesus) the body of Edmund Spencer, the Prince of Poets in his time, whose divine spirit needs no other witness than the works which he left behind him. He was born in London in 1553, and died in 1598.”
Ben Jonson.—This monument is of fine marble, and is very neatly ornamented with emblematical figures, alluding, perhaps, to the malice and envy of his contemporaries. His epitaph—“O Rare Ben Jonson!”—is cut in the pavement where he is buried in the North Aisle. He was Poet Laureate to James I., and contemporary with Shakspeare, to whose writings, when living, he was no friend, though, when dead, he wrote a Poem prefixed to his Plays, which does him the amplest justice. His father was a clergyman, and he was educated at Westminster School while Mr. Carden was Master; but after his father’s death, his mother marrying a bricklayer, he was forced from school, and made to lay bricks. There is a story told of him, that at the building of Lincoln’s Inn, he worked with his trowel in one hand, and Horace in the other; but Mr. Carden, regarding his parts, recommended him to Sir Walter Raleigh, whose son he attended in his travels, and upon his return entered himself at Cambridge. He died the 16th of August, 1637, aged sixty-three.—Rysbrack, sculptor.
On the left is a monument to Michael Draiton. The inscription and epitaph were formerly in letters of gold, but now almost obliterated, and therefore are here preserved:—“Michael Draiton, Esq., a memorable Poet of his age, exchanged his laurel for a Crown of Glory, anno 1631.
“Do, pious marble, let thy readers know
What they, and what their children, owe
[Pg 111]To Draiton’s name, whose sacred dust
We recommend unto thy trust:
Protect his mem’ry, and preserve his story;
Remain a lasting monument of his glory;
And when thy ruins shall disclaim
To be the treasure of his name,
His name, that cannot fade, shall be
An everlasting monument to thee.”
This gentleman was both an excellent poet and a learned antiquarian.
Over the monument to Ben Jonson is a window given by Dr. Rogers; it represents David and St. John, the poets of the Old and New Testaments.—Clayton and Bell.
Barton Booth, Esq., elegantly designed and well executed. His bust is placed between two cherubs, one holding a wreath over his head in the act of crowning him: the other in a very pensive attitude, holding a scroll, on which is inscribed his descent from an ancient family in Lancashire, his admission into Westminster School, under Dr. Busby, his qualifications as an actor, which procured him both the royal patronage and the public applause. He died in 1733, in the fifty-fourth year of his age; and this monument was erected by his surviving widow in 1772.—W. Tyler, sculptor.
Mr. John Phillips.—The bust of this gentleman, in relief, is here represented as in an arbour interwoven with laurel branches and apple trees; and over it is this motto—“Honos erat huic quoque Pomo;” alluding to the high qualities ascribed to the apple, in that excellent poem of his called Cider. He was son of Stephen Phillips, D.D., Archdeacon of Salop; was born at Bampton, in Oxfordshire, December 30, 1676, and died at Hereford, Feb. 15, 1708, of a consumption, in the prime of life.
Geoffrey Chaucer.—This has been a very beautiful monument in the Gothic style, but is now much defaced, and is generally passed over with a superficial glance, except by those who never suffer anything curious to escape their notice. Geoffrey Chaucer, to whose name it is sacred, is called the Father of English Poets, and flourished in the fourteenth century. He was son of Sir John Chaucer, a citizen of London, and employed by Edward III. in negociations abroad relating to trade. He was a great favourite at court, and married the great John of Gaunt’s wife’s sister. He was born in 1328, and died Oct. 25, 1400. This monument was erected by Nicholas Bingham, of Oxford, in 1556.
The memorial window to Chaucer, immediately over his tomb, is intended to embody his intellectual labour, and his position amongst his contemporaries. At the base are the Canterbury Pilgrims, showing the setting out from London, and the arrival at Canterbury. The medallions above represent Chaucer receiving a commission, with others, in 1372, from King Edward III. to the Doge of Genoa, and his reception by the latter. At the apex, the subjects are taken from the moral poem entitled “The Floure and the Leafe.” “As they which honour the Flower, a thing fading with every blast, are such as look after beauty and worldly pleasure; but they that honour the Leaf, which abideth with[Pg 112] the root, notwithstanding the frost and winter storms, are they which follow virtue and during qualities, without regard to worldly respects.” On the dexter side, dressed in white, is the Lady of the Leafe, and attendants; on the sinister side is the Lady of the Floure, dressed in green. In the spandrils adjoining are the Arms of Chaucer. On the dexter side, and on the sinister, Chaucer impaling these of (Roet) his wife. In the tracery above, the portrait of Chaucer occupies the centre, between that of Edward III. and Philippa his wife; below them Gower and John of Gaunt, and above are Wickliffe and Strode, his contemporaries. In the borders are disposed the following arms, alternately: England, France, Hainhault, Lancaster, Castile, and Leon. At the base of the window is the name Geoffrey Chaucer, died A.D. 1400, and four lines selected from the poem entitled, “Balade of Gode Counsaile.”
“Flee fro the prees, and dwell with soth fastnesse,
Suffise unto thy good though it be small;”
“That thee is sent receyve in buxomnesse;
The wrastling for this world asketh a fall.”
This window was designed by Mr. J. G. Waller, and executed by Messrs. Thomas Baillie, and George Mayer, 118, Wardour Street, London, 1868.
Explanation of the Subjects.—The Pilgrims are arranged in the following manner:—The Departure from the Tabard, thus:
|1. 2.||3. 4.||5. 6. 7.||8. 9.|
|1. The Reve.||4. The Knight.||7. The Serjeant of Law.|
|2. The Manciple.||5. The Yeoman.||8. The Shipmanne.|
|3. Chaucer.||6. The Squire.||9. The Doctor of Physick.|
The Arrival at Canterbury, thus:
|10. 11. 12.||13. 14. 15.||16.||17. 18.|
|10. The Somptnour.||13. The Monk.||16. The Frankelein.|
|11. The Pardoner.||14. The Prioress.||17. The Plowman.|
|12. The Parson.||15. The Nun.||18. The Clerk of Oxenforde.|
Arrangement of Portraits in Tracery.
|Gower.||John of Gaunt.|
Above is a neat monument to the memory of John Roberts, Esq., the very faithful Secretary of the Right Honourable Henry Pelham, Minister of State to George II. This marble was erected by his three surviving sisters, in 1776.—Hayward, sculptor.
Abraham Cowley.—This monument, though apparently plain, is very expressive; the chaplet of laurel that begirts his urn, and the fire issuing from the mouth of the urn, are fine emblems of the glory he acquired by the spirit of his writings. The Latin inscription and epitaph on the pedestal is thus translated into English:—“Near this place lies Abraham Cowley, the Pindar, Horace, and Virgil of England; and the delight, ornament and admiration of his age:—
“While, Sacred Bard, far worlds thy works proclaim.
And you survive in an immortal fame,
Here may you, bless’d in pleasant quiet, lie!
To guard thy urn may hoary Faith stand by!
And all thy fav’rite tuneful Nine repair
To watch thy dust with a perpetual care!
[Pg 113]Sacred for ever may this place be made,
And may no desp’rate hand presume t’ invade
With touch unhallow’d this religious room,
Or dare affront thy venerable tomb!
Unmov’d and undisturb’d, till time shall end,
May Cowley’s dust this marble shrine defend!”
“So wishes, and desires that wish may be sacred to posterity, George, Duke of Buckingham, who erected this monument to that incomparable man. He died in the forty-ninth year of his age, and was carried from Buckingham House, with honourable pomp, his exequies being attended by persons of illustrious characters of all degrees, and buried August 3, 1667.” His grave is just before the monument, as appears by a blue stone, on which is engraven his name.—John Bushnell, sculptor.
Affixed to the pillar, on the left, is a tablet to the memory of Mrs. Martha Birch, who was daughter of Samuel Viner, Esq., and first married to Francis Millington, Esq., afterwards to Peter Birch, Prebendary of this Abbey. She died May 25, 1703, in the fiftieth year of her age.
The next monument was erected to the memory of Mr. John Dryden, by the late Duke of Buckingham, who valued his writings so much that he thought no inscription necessary to spread his fame.—“J. Dryden, born 1632, died May 1, 1700. John Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham, erected this monument, 1720.”—Scheemakers, sculptor.
Against the screen of the Choir, is the monument of Robert South, D.D., who is represented in a cumbent posture, in his canonical habit, with his arm resting on a cushion, and his right hand on a Death’s head. In his left he holds a book, with his finger between the leaves, as if just closed from reading; and over his head is a group of cherubs issued from a mantling, beneath which is a long Latin inscription, showing that he was scholar to Busby, and student at Christ Church, Oxford, and Public Orator of that University; that, by the patronage of Lord Clarendon, he was made Prebendary both of Westminster and Christ’s, and afterwards Rector of Islip, where he rebuilt the parsonage-house, and founded and endowed a school. His sermons have a peculiar turn, and are still much admired. He died July 8, 1716, aged eighty-two.—Bird, sculptor.
Between this and Dr. Busby, a small portion of Ann of Cleves’ monument is to be perceived. She was sister of the Duke of Cleves, was contracted in marriage to Henry VIII., and received with great pomp on Blackheath, January 3, 1539, married to the king on the 9th, and in July following divorced, with liberty to marry again; but being sensibly touched with the indignity put upon her, she lived retired in England, with the title of Lady Ann, of Cleves, and saw the rival who supplanted her suffer a worse fate. She survived the King four years, and died in 1557.
A still more unfortunate Queen lies near this last, without a monument; viz., Anne, Queen of Richard III., and daughter of Nevil, the great Earl of Warwick. This lady was poisoned by that monster of cruelty, her husband, to make way for his [Pg 114]marriage with Elizabeth, daughter of his brother, Edward IV., and sister of the unhappy youths he had caused to be murdered in the Tower, which marriage he never lived to consummate, being slain at the battle of Bosworth Field.
Above is a tablet to Dr. Vincent, with the inscription thus translated:—“Here rests whatever is mortal of William Vincent, who having received his education in this College, returned to it when he had completed his academical studies, and from the situation of Junior Usher, arose to that of Head Master; he was at length exalted to the office of Dean of the Church, for which he entertained the greatest affection: on the subject of his life, his literary attainments, and his moral character, let this monumental stone be silent. He owes his origin to the respectable family of the Vincents, of Shepy, in the county of Leicester; he was born in London, 2nd November, 1739, and died on the 21st December, 1815.”
Doctor Richard Busby.—On this fine monument is the effigy of this learned grammarian in his gown, looking earnestly at the inscription. In his right hand he holds a pen, and in his left a book open. Underneath, upon the pedestal, are a variety of books, and at the top are his family arms. The inscription is very elegantly written, and highly to his praise; intimating that whatever fame the school of Westminster boasts, and whatever advantage mankind shall reap from thence in times to come, are all principally owing to the wise institutions of this great man. He was born at Lutton, in Lincolnshire, September 22, 1606; made Master of Westminster College, December 23, 1640; elected Prebendary of Westminster, July 5th, 1660, and Treasurer of Wells, August 11th, the same year; and died April 5th, 1695.—Bird, sculptor.
Affixed to the pillars in this cross are two tablets; one to the memory of Dr. Anthony Horneck, who was born at Wettenburgh, in Zealand, but educated at Queen’s College, Oxford; was King’s Divinity Professor and Chaplain, a Prebendary of this Church, and Preacher at the Savoy. He died of the stone, January 31, 1696, aged fifty-six. The other to the memory of Dr. Samuel Barton, a Prebendary of this Church, and a person of admirable genius and learning. He died September 1715, aged sixty-eight.
In front of Dr. Barrow’s monument, lies the remains of that once celebrated poet, Sir William Davenant, who, upon the death of Ben Jonson, succeeded him as Poet Laureate to Charles I., but having lost his nose by an accident, was cruelly bantered by the wits of the succeeding reign. He was a vintner’s son at Oxford, whose wife, being a woman of admirable wit and sprightly conversation, drew the politest men of that age to their house, among whom Shakspeare was said to be a frequent visitor. His education was at Lincoln College, where he became acquainted with Endimion Porter, Henry Jermain, and Sir John Suckling. He died in 1668, aged sixty-three.
Not far from Davenant lies Sir Robert Murray, a great Mathematician, and one of the founders of the Royal Society, of[Pg 115] which he was the first President, and while he lived the very soul of that body. He died suddenly, July 4, 1673, in the garden at Whitehall, and was buried at the King’s expense.
In front of Dryden’s monument, is an ancient stone, on which, by the marks indented, has been the image of a man in armour. This covers the body of Robert Haule, who, at the battle of Najara, in Spain, in Richard II.’s time, together with John Shakel, his comrade, took the Earl of Denia prisoner, who, under pretence of raising money for his ransom, obtained his liberty, leaving his son as a hostage in their hands. Upon their coming to England, the Duke of Lancaster demanded him for the King; but they refused to deliver him up without the ransom, and were therefore both committed to the Tower, from whence escaping, they took sanctuary in this Abbey. Sir Ralp Ferreris and Alan Buxal, the one Governor, the other Captain of the Tower, with fifty men, pursued them, and having, by fair promises, gained over Shakel, they attempted to seize Haule by force, who made a desperate defence, but being overpowered by numbers, was slain, August 11, 1378, in the choir before the prior’s stall, commending himself to God, the avenger of wrongs. A servant of the Abbey fell with him. Shakel they threw into prison, but afterwards set him at liberty, and the King and Council agreed to pay the ransom of his prisoner, 500 marks, and 100 marks a-year. Some years afterwards Shakel died, and was buried here in 1396.
Under the pavement, near Dryden’s tomb, lie the remains of Francis Beaumont, the dramatic writer, who died in London in 1628, and was buried here, March 9, without tomb or inscription.
The new stained glass windows at the south end of the Transept of the Abbey were executed by Messrs. Thomas Ward and J. H. Nixon, 1847: description as follows:—
In the centre of the Rose Window, the name “Jehovah;” in the circle surrounding the figures of angels.
In the large circle of surrounding lights are thirty-two separate subjects taken from the principal incidents, miracles, and events in the life and sufferings of our blessed Redeemer.
The height of the figures are nearly three feet. The subjects selected for this circle are as follows:
1. The nativity of Jesus Christ.—Luke ii. 7, &c.
2. Simeon’s prophecy.—Luke ii. 25.
3. Jesus reasoning with the doctors.—Luke ii. 46.
4. The baptism of St. John the Baptist.—Matt. iii. 13.
5. The preaching on the Mount.—Matt. v. 1, &c.
6. Water made wine.—John ii. 4.
7. The money changers expelled from the Temple.—Matt. xxi. 12.
8. The woman of Samaria.—John iv. 7.
9. Walking on the sea.—Matt. xiv. 29.
10. Raising of Jairus’ daughter.—Mark v. 41.
11. The pool of Bethesda.—John v. 4, &c.
12. The Centurion’s faith.—Matt. viii. 8, &c.
13. John’s disciples sent to Christ.—Matt. xi. 2, &c.
14. The Magdalen anointing the feet of Christ.—John xii. 3.
15. The Syrophenician woman.—Matt. xv. 15.
16. The feeding of the multitude.—Matt. xiv. 15.
17. The lunatic boy cured.—Matt. xvii. 14, &c.
18. Peter, the fish, and Temple tribute.—Matt. xvii. 27.
19. The blind man healed.—Mark viii. 25.
[Pg 116]20. Lazarus raised.—John xi. 43.
21. The entry into Jerusalem.—Matt. xxi. 1.
22. The tribute to Cæsar.—Matt. xxii. 15 and 21.
23. Little children brought to Christ.—Mark x. 13.
24. The young rich man’s question.—Mark x. 17.
25. The widow’s son restored.—Luke vii. 11.
26. The agony in the garden.—Matt. xxvi. 39.
27. Jesus Christ captive before Pilate.—Matt. xxvii. 1, 2, &c.
28. Jesus Christ shown to the people.—John xix. 5.
29. The Crucifixion.—John xix. 25, &c.
30. The Resurrection.—Matt. xxviii. 1, &c.
31. Appearance to Mary Magdalen.—John xx. 11.
32. The Ascension.—Acts i. 9, &c.
The decorations which surround this circle are scrolages and ornaments of mosaic work on coloured grounds suited to the rest, among which are also interwoven the following symbols:—
1. I.H.S. at the Nativity.
2. The angel, the symbol of St. Matt.
3. The Paschal Lamb.
4. Cherub’s head.
5. The pelican, as symbol of the Church.
6. Cherub’s head.
7. The lion, the symbol of St. Mark.
8. The triangle, the symbol of the Trinity.
9. The hart, athirst for the water brooks.
10. The ox, the symbol of St. Luke.
11. Cherub’s head.
12. The sacramental cup.
13. Cherub’s head.
14. The dove descending.
15. The eagle, the symbol of St. John.
In the left quatrefoil, at the corner, are the arms of the Abbacy; in the right the arms of the reigning sovereign; in the head of the arches beneath are figures of angels holding scrolls.
The subjects for the twelve lower windows are selected from the Old Testament, and are as follows:—
1. Noah’s sacrifice.—Gen. viii. 20.
2. Abraham and the angels.—Gen. xviii. 1.
3. Jacob’s dream.—Gen. xxviii. 12.
4. Joseph interpreting Pharoah’s dream.—Gen. xli. 25.
5. The finding of Moses.—Ex. ii. 5.
6. Moses before the burning bush.—Ex. iii. 2.
7. Moses striking the rock.—Ex. xvii. 5.
8. Moses with the tables of the law.—Ex. xx. 20.
9. David chosen from among his brothers, and anointed by Samuel.—1 Sam. xvi. 13.
10. Dedication of the Temple by Solomon.—1 Kings viii. 22.
11. Elijah’s sacrifice.—1 Kings xviii. 37, &c.
12. Josiah renewing the Covenant.—2 Kings xxii. 3, &c.
Having thus noticed what is usually considered most interesting in the interior, we will take a glance at the exterior. We have already observed that the form of the Abbey is that of a cross, in which you are to consider Henry the Seventh’s Chapel has no part. The south side answered exactly to the north in the original plan, by attending to which, you will be able to form a true judgment of the whole. The cloisters on the south side were added for the conveniency of the monks, and the contiguous buildings are of a still later date.
What will principally engage your attention, in viewing the outside of this building (the new towers excepted), is the magnificent portico leading to the north cross, which, by some, has been styled the Beautiful, or Solomon’s Gate. This portico is Gothic, and extremely beautiful; and over it is a most magnificent window of modern design, admirably executed. The entire[Pg 117] height of the north front to the top of the centre pinnacle is one hundred and seventy feet.
The north side of the Church, between the west front and the Transept, is supported by nine graduated buttresses; each has a turreted niche, wherein are placed full length statues of the founders and principal benefactors of this Church.
The towers at the west end were raised under the directions of Sir Christopher Wren, and terminate with pinnacles at the height of two hundred and twenty-five feet. The Exterior length of the Abbey is four hundred and sixteen feet; including Henry Seventh’s Chapel, five hundred and thirty feet.
Having now pointed out what is accounted most worthy of observation in the construction of this ancient Abbey, both without and within it, we shall next say a word or two of—
his wonder of the world, as it well may be styled, is adorned without with sixteen Gothic towers, beautifully ornamented with admirable ingenuity, and jutting from the building in different angles. It is situated on the east of the Abbey to which it is so neatly joined, that at a superficial view it appears to be one and the same building. It is enlightened by a double range of windows, that throw the light into such a happy disposition, as at once to please the eye and inspire reverence.
An author some years ago, has very highly, and yet not undeservedly expressed the beauty of this Chapel in the following words:—“It is the admiration of the universe; such inimitable perfection appears in every part of the whole composure, which looks so far exceeding human excellence, that it appears knit together by the fingers of angels, pursuant to the direction of Omnipotence.”
And here we cannot help taking notice of a most beautiful window that was designed for this Chapel. It was made by order of the magistrates of Dort, in Holland, and designed by them as a present to Henry VII., but that monarch dying before it was finished, it was set up in Waltham Abbey, where it remained till the dissolution of that monastery, when it was removed to New-Hall, in Essex, then in possession of General Monk, and by him preserved during the civil wars. Some years ago, John Olmius, Esq., the then possessor of New-Hall, sold it to Mr. Conyers, of Copt-Hall, who resold it to the inhabitants of St. Margaret’s parish, in 1758, for four hundred guineas; and it now adorns St Margaret’s Church. Thus it has arrived near to the place for which it was originally intended, but is never likely to reach it. The grand subject is that of our Saviour’s crucifixion; but there are many subordinate figures: those at the bottom of the two side panels represent Henry VII., and his Queen, and were taken from the original pictures sent to Dort for that [Pg 118]purpose. Over the King is the figure of St. George, and above that a white rose and a red one. Over the figure of the Queen stands that of St. Katharine of Alexandria; and in the panel over her head appears a pomegranate vert, in a field of or, the arms of the kingdom of Grenada.
General Admeasurements of the Exterior of Henry VII.’s Chapel.
|Breadth to the Extremities of the Buttress Towers||79||6|
|Height of the Buttress Towers||70||8|
|Do.to the Apex of the Roof||85||6|
|Do.to the Top of the Western Turrets||101||6|
here are many persons of distinction buried in the Cloisters, as will appear from the number of inscriptions, many of which are almost obliterated from wear or time; we shall therefore only notice a few of the most particular. The most ancient are in the South Walk of the Cloisters, towards the east end, where you will see the remains of four Abbots, marked in the pavement by four stones. The first is inscribed to the Abbot Vitalis, who died in 1082; and was formerly covered with plates of brass. The second is a stone of grey marble, to the memory of Geslebertus Crispinus, who died in 1114. The third is a raised stone, of Sussex marble, under which lies interred the Abbot Laurentius, who died in 1176, and is said to have been the first who obtained from Pope Alexander III. the privilege of using the Mitre, Ring, and Glove. The fourth is of black marble, called Long Meg, from its extraordinary length of eleven feet ten inches, by five feet ten inches, and covers the ashes of Gervasius de Blois, natural son of King Stephen, who died 1106. All these seem to have had their names and dates cut afresh, and are indeed fragments worthy to be preserved.
In 1349 twenty-six of the monks of this Abbey fell victims to a dreadful plague which at that period had extended its ravages over great part of the globe, and are reported by Fuller to have been buried all in one grave in the South Cloisters, under the remarkable large stone called Long Meg.
Against the wall is a monument to Peter Francis Courayer, a Roman Catholic clergyman, born at Vernon, in Normandy, 1681. He was Canon and Librarian of the Abbey of Geneviève, at Paris. He translated and published several valuable works. In 1727 he took refuge in England, and was well received, and presented by the University of Oxford with the degree of D.D. On his dedicating a book to Queen Caroline, his pension was augmented to £200 per annum from £100 which he had obtained before from the court. He died, in 1776, after two days’ illness, at the age of ninety-five.
At the end of this walk is the monument of Daniel Pulteney,[Pg 119] who served the court several years; abroad in the reign of Queen Anne, and at home in the reign of George I. The following is the inscription:—“Reader, if thou art a Briton, behold this tomb with reverence and regret! Here lie the remains of Daniel Pulteney, the kindest relation, the truest friend, the warmest patriot, the worthiest man! He exercised virtues in his age, sufficient to have distinguished him even in the best. Sagacious by nature, industrious by habit, inquisitive with art, he gained a complete knowledge of the state of Britain, foreign and domestic; in most, the backward fruit of tedious experience; in him, the early acquisition of undissipated youth. He served the court several years; abroad, in the auspicious reign of Queen Anne; at home, in the reign of that excellent Prince, George I. He served his country always; at court independent, in the senate unbiassed. At every age, and at every station, this was the bent of his generous soul, this the business of his laborious life; public men and public things he judged by one common standard—the true interest of Britain; he made no other distinction of party; he abhorred all other. Gentle, humane, disinterested, benevolent, he created no enemies on his own account; firm, determined, inflexible, he feared none he could create in the cause of Britain. Reader, in this misfortune of thy country, lament thy own; for know, the loss of so much private virtue is a public calamity.”
Near the iron gate is a tablet sacred to the memory of the Rev. Thomas Vialls, of Twickenham, Middlesex, A.M., many years vicar of Boldre, in the New Forest, who departed this life May 7, 1831, aged sixty-two.
To the left is a very beautiful arch, beneath which is a doorway leading to the Chapter House and Library; in front of which was buried Abbot Byrcheston, who died of the plague, May 15, 1349; but no stone left to mark the place of his interment.
Against the wall, in the centre of the East Walk, is a monument to the memory of George Walsh, Esq., with the following inscription:—“Near this place are deposited the remains of George Walsh, Esq., late Lieutenant-General of his Majesty’s Forces, and Colonel of the forty-ninth Regiment of Foot, who died October 23, 1761, aged seventy-three.
“The toils of life and pangs of death are o’er,
And care, and pain, and sickness, are no more.”
To the memory of James William Dodd, who for thirty-four years was one of the Ushers of Westminster School, the duties of which he discharged with consummate ability. The Westminsters, his pupils, resident at the boarding-house under his immediate care, have, bewailing his loss, caused this tablet to be erected. He died on the 29th day of August, 1818, in the fifty-seventh year of his age.
Beneath is a monument to preserve and unite the memory of two affectionate brothers, valiant soldiers and sincere Christians:[Pg 120] Scipio Duroure, Esq., Adjutant-General of the British Forces, Colonel of the twelfth Regiment of Foot, and Captain or Keeper of his Majesty’s Castle of St. Mawes, in Cornwall, who, after forty-one years’ faithful services, was mortally wounded at the battle of Fontenoy, and died May 10, 1745, aged fifty-six years, and lies interred on the ramparts of Aeth, in the low Countries; and Alexander Duroure, Esq., Lieutenant-General of the British Forces, Colonel of the Fourth, or King’s own Regiment of Foot, and Captain or Keeper of his Majesty’s Castle of St. Mawes, in Cornwall, who, after fifty-seven years of faithful services, died at Toulouse, in France, on the 2nd January, 1795, aged seventy-four years, and lies interred in this Cloister.
In the next arch has been lately erected a tablet, sacred to the memory of Walter Hawkes, who, serving in the East Indies, and having deserved well during the space of more than twenty-seven years, almost worn out with sickness and wounds, as he was now returning to his native country, being overtaken by a storm in the Indian Ocean, was, together with his dearest wife, the partner of his life and danger, alas! swallowed up, and perished by shipwreck, never to be too much lamented, the year of our Lord 1808. Struck with so sad a fate of his companion, William Franklin put up this stone; for both were King’s scholars in this school, brought up in the same studies, together endured arduous warfare.
On the left, near the door, is a marble slab to the memory of John Catling, who died March 3, 1826, in the seventy-ninth year of his age. He was Verger and Sacrist, successively, of this Collegiate Church under five Deans, the duties of which he performed with the most zealous and undivided attention, for the long period of fifty-two years, respected by his superiors for the fidelity, respectability, and humility, with which he filled the offices, and beloved by all who knew him in private life, for the many virtues which adorn the man. Lady Londonderry was buried underneath it.
A tablet to the memory of Harriet, wife of the Rev. John Bentall, one of the Ushers of Westminster School. She died August 7, 1838.
The next is an epitaph remarkable for its quaintness, and inscribed to the memory of William Laurence, in these lines:—
“With diligence and truth most exemplary,
Did William Laurence serve a Prebendary;
And for his pains, now past, before not lost,
Gain’d this remembrance at his master’s cost.
Oh! read these lines again!—you seldom find
A servant faithful, and a master kind.
Short-hand he wrote; his flower in prime did fade,
And hasty death short-hand of him hath made.
Well couth he numbers, and well-measured land;
Thus doth he now that ground whereon you stand,
Wherein he lies so geometrical:
Art maketh some, but thus doth nature all.”
Ob. Dec. 28, 1628, Ætat. 29.
[Pg 121]A tablet to the Rev. George Preston, A.M., who was several years Under-Master of Westminster School. He died September 8, 1841, aged fifty-two.
Near to this is a tablet lately erected to the memory of William Markham, D.D., Archbishop of York, who died November, 1807, aged eighty-eight, and was buried near this spot.
On your left is a tablet to the memory of Edward Augustus Webber, a King’s scholar, son of James Webber, D.D., Dean of Ripon, and Canon of this Church; who was drowned in the River Thames, June 11, 1833, aged seventeen, and buried near this spot. The inscription is as follows:—“H.S.M. Edoardus Augustus Webber, Jacobi Webber, S.T.P., ecclesæ Riponensis Decani, et hujusce Præbendarii filius natu secundus in amne Thamesi, eversa turbine navicula e quatuor mersis adolicentibus unus periit die 11 Junii, 1833, anum agent 17mo. Alumno suavissimo desideratissimo, id quod parentes miseri perferre nequibant, præceptores condiscipulique tranquam fratrem lugertes ademptum pro more ac pietate Westmonasteriensi exequias reddiderunt.”
The last worthy of note in this Walk is that to the memory of William Egerton Gell, Esq., who, after a long and severe affliction, departed this life on the 17th of May, 1838, aged fifty-six years; in him many will have to deplore the loss of a generous and kind-hearted friend. “Comfort the soul of thy servant, for unto thee, O Lord, do I lift up my soul.”—Cundy, sculptor.
On the left door of the Abbey is a monument, erected by John English Dolben, Esq., “To the memory of Edward Wortley Montague, who was cast away, on his return to England, in 1777, from the East Indies, in the twenty-seventh year of his age. In memory of their friendship, which commenced at Westminster School, continued for some time at Oxford, not diminished by the greatest distance, scarcely dissolved by death, and if it please God, to be renewed in heaven.—J. E. D., to whom the deceased bequeathed his books (and appointed joint residuary legatee), erected this monument.”
Francis Smedley.—Adjoining the Godolphin monument is a neat tablet to the memory of the above, who was High Bailiff of Westminster for twenty-two years. Born September 15, 1791; died February 25, 1859.
The next is a monument that deserves particular attention, as it commemorates a charity, which otherwise might, in time, like many others, be perverted or forgotten. The inscription is as follows:—“Here rest, in hope of a blessed resurrection, Charles Godolphin, Esq., brother of the Right Honourable Sydney, Earl of Godolphin, Lord High Treasurer of Great Britain, who died July 16, 1720, aged sixty-nine; and Mrs. Godolphin, his wife, who died July 29, 1726, aged sixty-three; whose excellent qualities and endowments can never be forgotten, particularly the public-spirited zeal with which he served his[Pg 122] country in Parliament, and the indefatigable application, great skill, and nice integrity, with which he discharged the trust of a Commissioner of Customs for many years. Nor was she less eminent for her ingenuity, with sincere love of her friends, and constancy in religious worship. But as charity and benevolence were the distinguishing parts of their characters, so were they most conspicuously displayed by the last act of their lives: a pious and charitable institution, by him designed and ordered, and by her completed to the glory of God, and for a bright example to mankind; the endowment whereof is a rent-charge of one hundred and eighty pounds a-year, issuing out of lands in Somersetshire, and of which, one hundred and sixty pounds a year are to be ever applied, from 24th June, 1726, to the educating eight young gentlewomen, who are so born, and whose parents are of the Church of England, whose parents or friends will undertake to provide them with decent apparel; and after the death of the said Mrs. Godolphin, and William Godolphin, Esq., her nephew, such as have neither father or mother; which said young gentlewomen are not to be admitted before they are eight years old, nor to be continued after the age of nineteen, and are to be brought up in the city of New Sarum, or some other town in the county of Wilts, under the care of some prudent governess or schoolmistress, a communicant of the Church of England; and the overplus, after an allowance of £5. a-year for collecting the said rent-charge, is to be applied to binding out one or more poor children apprentices, whose parents are of the Church of England. In perpetual memory whereof Mrs. Frances Hall, executrix to her aunt, Mrs. Godolphin, has, according to her will, and by her order, caused this inscription to be engraven on their monument, 1772.”
The next is a neat tablet, in memory of the Rev. Edward Smedley, A.M., Rector of Powderham, and of North Bovey, in the county of Devon, and from 1774 to 1820, one of the Ushers of Westminster School; born Nov. 5, 1750, died August 6, 1825. Also of Hannah, his wife, daughter of George Bellas, Esq.; born August 21, 1754, died October 17, 1824. This tablet is erected by their surviving children.
“To you, dear names, these filial thanks we give,
For more than life, for knowledge how to live—
For many a rule with holy wisdom fraught,
And works embodying the creed you taught;
For faith triumphant, tho’ the lips which told
Its glowing lessons, now, alas! are cold;
Faith, which proclaiming that the dead but sleep,
Invites us home to those whom here we weep.”
—Westmacott, jun., sculptor.
On the left is a tablet with a coat of arms over, and a music-book under it:—“Near this place are deposited the remains of Benjamin Cooke, Doctor in Music of the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, and Organist and Master of the Choristers of this Collegiate Church for above thirty years. He departed this life on the 14th of September, 1793, and in the fifty-ninth year of his age.”
[Pg 123]Enoch Hawkins, Esq., Gentleman of her Majesty’s Chapel Royal, and Vicar Choral of this Collegiate Church, who died on the 9th January, 1847, aged fifty.
Upon a tablet that has emblems of music,—“To the memory of James Bartleman, formerly a Chorister and Lay-Clerk of Westminster Abbey, and Gentleman of his Majesty’s Royal Chapel. He was born the 19th of September, 1769, died the 15th of April, 1821, and was buried in this Cloister, near his beloved master, Dr. Cooke.”
In this walk is erected a monument to W. Buchan, M.D., author of the Domestic Medicine, who died in 1805.
A tablet with inscriptions, to Mr. John Broughton, and his wife Elizabeth; she died in 1714, and himself in 1789. Also R. Monk, Esq., died in 1831; his wife Catherine, 1832.
“William Woollett, born August 22, 1735, died May 22, 1785.” The genius of engraving is represented handing down to posterity the works of painting, sculpture, and architecture. A monument with his bust on the top.
Near to this will be seen a tablet in memory of Elizabeth Woodfall, younger daughter of the late Henry Sampson Woodfall, having lived many years in Dean’s Yard, contiguous to the Abbey, and died 12th February, 1862, at the age of ninety-three.
Having exceeded the bounds at first intended, we shall conclude in the words of an ingenious writer on the subject of this Abbey:—“I have wandered,” says he, “with pleasure into the most gloomy recesses of this last resort of grandeur, to contemplate human life, and trace mankind through all the wilderness of their frailties and misfortunes, from their cradles to their graves. I have reflected on the shortness of our duration here, and that I was but one of the millions who had been employed in the same manner, in ruminating on the trophies of mortality before me; that I must moulder to dust in the same manner, and quit the scene to a new generation, without leaving the shadow of my existence behind me; that this huge fabric, the sacred depository of fame and grandeur, would only be the stage for the same performances; would receive new accessions of noble dust; would be adorned with other sepulchres of cost and magnificence; would be crowded with successive admirers; and, at last, by the unavoidable decays of time, bury the whole collection of antiquities in general obscurity, and be the monument of its own ruin.”
n the left as you enter the Chapter House is a stone coffin which was found on the removal of the accumulated earth and rubbish which for many years had hidden the lower parts of the buttresses of the north side of the building; some ancient walls of considerable extent were discovered, and about five or six feet below the surface an ancient stone coffin was brought to light. It possesses great interest from its being the only Roman remains yet discovered. One side of it is beautifully wrought, with a sunk panel, having at each end the conventional Roman ornament called the Amazon shield, while the panel itself is occupied with the following inscription, in the best style of the old Roman lettering—
from which it appears to show that it is in memory of one Valerius Amandinus, and that his two sons made it to his honour. The lid is wrought with a slight cope, having a Maltese cross, terminating at the foot with a trefoil. There can be no doubt that the coffin once contained the body of this Valerius, which was afterwards displaced for the reception of an ecclesiastic, when the old lid was made in its present shape. The date of the first interment may be ascribed to the 3rd century, while the latter may belong to the 12th century. The skeleton within the coffin is in good preservation, considering the great lapse of time. There was nothing to indicate the rank of the ecclesiastic, for such he probably was; but he must have been a tall man, of great vigour, and barely of middle age.
The Chapter House of Westminster was built in 1250, by Henry III., on the site of the earlier Chapter House belonging to the Abbey, as founded by Edward the Confessor. It was, from its beauty, called “The Incomparable Chapter House.” It has been used for three purposes.
I. It was the chamber in which the Abbot and Monks, in the times of the ancient monastery, held their “Chapter,” or meeting for discussion and business; their meetings were held once a week. The Abbot and the four chief officers of the convent sat in the ornamented stalls opposite the entrance. The Monks sat on the stone seats round. The culprits, if there were any, knelt to receive their judgment before the Abbot’s seat, and were scourged before the central pillar.
II. Almost from the time of its first erection, it was used for the sittings of the House of Commons. The House of Commons came into existence in 1265, and at first sat in Westminster Hall with the House of Lords; but in 1282 they parted, and from that time for nearly 300 years its meetings were held in the[Pg 125] precincts of Westminster Refectory (now destroyed), but usually in the Chapter House, which was lent to the Commons by the Abbot for that purpose. The Speaker probably sat in the Abbot’s stall, and the Members of Parliament in the seats of the Monks, and on the floor of the house. To the central pillar were attached placards and notices relating to the business or the conduct of the Members. Here were the debates on all the Acts of Parliament, passed from the time of Edward I. till the Reformation. There also were, from time to time, convened other assemblies for special purposes. Henry V., in 1421, summoned a meeting of 60 Abbots and Priors, and 300 Monks to discuss the reform of the Benedictine order; and Wolsey, as Cardinal Legate, in 1523, summoned the convocations of Canterbury and York, in order to be on a spot beyond the jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Canterbury. The last Parliament which is known to have sat here was that which was assembled on the last day of the reign of Henry VIII. It will be seen that this building, from having for three centuries been the seat of the House of Commons, has been the scene of the chief acts which laid the foundation of civil and religious liberty of England, and was the cradle of representative and constitutional government, of Parliament, Legislative Chambers, and Congress throughout the world.
III. On the dissolution of the Ancient Monastery in 1540, the Chapter House passed into the possession of the Crown; from that time the Dean and Chapter of Westminster have held their meetings in the Jerusalem Chamber. In 1547, the first year of Edward VI., the House of Commons was transferred to the Chapel of St. Stephen in the Palace of Westminster, in which they remained till it was burned down in 1834. From that time till 1863 the Chapter House was used as the depository of the public records. During this period it was fitted up with book-shelves, which disfigured and concealed its beauties; its roof was taken down; its windows were filled up; and it was divided into two stories. In 1865, after the removal of the records to the Rolls House, in the 800th anniversary of the foundation of the Chapter House, in the 600th anniversary of the House of Commons, which it had so long sheltered, its restoration was undertaken at the request of the Society of Antiquaries, by Mr. Gladstone, as Chancellor of the Exchequer, and by Mr. Cowper Temple, as First Commissioner of Works, and the requisite sum granted by Parliament for the repairs, which, under Mr. Gilbert Scott, have restored it as nearly as possible to its original state. The roof has been entirely rebuilt. The paintings, which were concealed by the book-shelves, are now disclosed; those at the east end, over the stalls of the Abbot and his four chief officers, are of the 14th century, and represent seraphs round the Throne of the Saviour. Those round the walls were painted in the 15th century, by one of the monks of the convent, named John of Northampton, and represent scenes from the Revelation of St. John, with pictures of fishes, birds, and beasts underneath. The figures on each side of the entrance, representing the Angel and[Pg 126] the Virgin Mary, are ancient. The central figure is modern, but represents what was formerly there. The tiles on the floor, covered with curious heraldic emblems, are also now seen for the first time. The tracery of the windows has been restored after the model of the one which had been left uninjured on the northwest side. It still remains for them to be filled with stained glass, according to the original design.
Abbey founded, 3
—— rebuilt and endowed, 4
—— pulled down and enlarged, 4
—— Admission, Hours, &c. of, 2
Aberdeen, Earl of, 54
Addison, Joseph, 28, 101
Agar, Doctor, 69
Aiton, Sir Robert, 20
Albemarle, Dukes of, 24, 30
—— Duchess of, 24
Alfred, Prince, 25
Altar Decoration, 12
Amelia, Princess, 25
André, Major, 91
Anne, Queen, James II.’s Daughter, 24
—— Princess, 25
—— Queen of James I., 27
—— Queen of Richard II., 36
—— Queen of Richard III., 113
Anstey, Christopher, 107
Argyle, Duke of, 28, 104
Arnold, Dr. Samuel, 64
Athelgoda, Queen of King Sebert, 11
Atkyns, Edward, and Sons, 103
Bagenall, Nicholas, 19
Baillie, Dr. Matthew, 45
Baker, John, 71
Balchen, Admiral, 59
Banks, Thomas, 73
Bankes, Cornet W. G. Hawtrey, 53
Barnard, Bishop, 37
—— Major-Gen. Sir H. W., 53
Barrow, Isaac, D.D., 101
Barry, Sir Charles, 80
Bartleman, James, 123
Barton, Samuel, D.D., 114
Bath, Earl of, 32
Beauclerk, Lord, 61
Beaufoy, Mrs., 73
Beaumont, Francis, 115
Belasyse, Sir Henry, 30
Bell, Dr. Andrew, 98
Bentall, Harriet, 120
Bentinck, Archdeacon, 9
Beresford, Lieutenant, 41
Beverley, Countess of, 18
Bill, Dr. William, 11
Billson, Dr., 12
Bingham, Sir Richard, 93
Birch, Martha, 113
Blackwood, Sir Henry, 55
Blair and Bayne, Captains, 51
Blanch of the Tower, 14
Blois, Gervasius de, 118
Blow, John, Doc. Mus., 65
Bohun, Hugh de, and Mary, Grandchildren to Edward I., 38
Booth, Barton, 111
Boulter, Archbishop, 62
Bourchier, Lord, 32
Bourgchier, Sir Humphrey, 15
Bovey, Katherine, 86
Bradford, Bishop, 62
Bringfield, Colonel, 73
Brocas, Sir Bernard, 15
Bromley, Sir Thomas, 31
Broughton, John and Wife, 123
Browne, Thomas, 42
Brunel, I. K., 73
Bryan, Captain, 65
Buchan, Dr., 123
Buckingham, Countess of, 20
—— Dukes of, 27
—— Duchess of, 27
Buckland, Very Rev. W., D.D., 86
Buller, Right Hon. C., 56
Burland, Sir John, 97
Burleigh, Lady, 19
Burney, Dr. Charles, LL.D., 95
—— Chas. Mus. D., 64
Busby, Richard, D.D., 114
Butler, Samuel, 110
Buxton, Sir Thomas Fowell, 63
Byrcheston, Abbot, 119
Campbell, Sir Archibald, 102
—— Sir James, 102
—— Thomas, LL.D., 107
Camden, William, 99
Canning, George, 49
Canning, Lord, 49
Cannon, Robert, D.D., 87
Carew, Baron, and Lady, 19
Carey, Thomas, 38
—— Henry, Baron of Hunsdon, 38
Caroline, Queen, 25
—— Princess, 25
Carteret, Philip, 70
—— Edward de, 70
—— Elizabeth, Lady, 68
Casaubon, Isaac, 100
Catling, John, 120
Cecil, Lady, 18
Chamberlain, Hugh, M.D., 63
Chapel of St. Benedict, 10
—— St. Edmund, 13
—— St. Nicholas, 18
—— Henry VII., 21, 117
—— St. Paul, 30
—— St. Edward (& Shrine), 33
—— St. John, 40
—— Islip, Abbot, 40
—— St. John the Evangelist, 42
—— St. Andrew, 42
—— St. Michael, 42
Chardin, Sir John, 90
Charles II., 24
Chatham, Earl of, 51
Chaucer, Geoffrey, 111
Cherbury, Baron of, 16
Children of Henry III. & Edw. I., 12
Choir, New, 5
Cholmondeley, Viscount & Sons, 71
Churchill, George, 92
Clanrickard, Countess of, 75
Claypole, Elizabeth, 28
Cleves, Ann of, 113
Clifford, Lady, 18
Clyde, Lord, 80
Cobden, Richard, 57
Colchester, William of, 39
Conduit, John, 81
Congreve, William, 84
Cook, Benjamin, Doc. Mus., 122
Cooke, Captain Edward, 43
Cooper, Ensign Lovick Emilius, 53
Coote, Sir Eyre, 55
Cornewall, Captain, 82
Coronation Chairs, 36
Cottington, Lord and Lady, 32
Cottrell, Clement, 89
Courayer, Peter Francis, 118
Courcy, Almericus de, 66
Cowley, Abraham, 112
Coxe, Sir Richard, 100
Craggs, Secretary, 83
Creed, Richard, Major, 92
—— Richard, Lieutenant, 93
Crewe, Lady Juliana, 37
—— Jane, 37
Crispinus, Geslebertus, 118
Croft, William, Doc. Mus., 65
Crokesley, Abbot, 17
Crouchback, Edmund, 40
Cumberland, Dukes of, 25
D’Almade, Henry, 37
Dalrymple, William, 97
Daubeny, Lord, and Lady, 31
Davenant, Sir William, 114
Davidson, Susannah Jane, 44
Davis, Colonel, 75
Davy, Sir Humphrey, 43
Denham, Sir James Stewart, 70
Dickens, Charles, 105
Dimensions, 4, 22, 118
Dodd, James William, 119
Dorchester, Viscount, 32
Douglas, Lady Margaret, 22
Draiton, Michael, 110
Dryden, John, 113
Dudley, William de, 19
Dunbar, Viscount, 69
Duppa, Bishop, 41
—— Sir Thomas, 67
Duroure, Scipio and Alexander, 120
Eastney, Abbot, 41
Editha, Qn. to Edward the Confessor, 34
Edward the Confessor, 38
—— I., 37
—— III., and Children, 35
—— V., 29
—— VI., 26, 28
Edwardes, Sir H., 58
Egerton, James, 76
—— Penelope, 75
Eland, Lady, 39
Eleanor, Queen to Edward I., 34
Elizabeth, Queen, 29
—— Princess, 25
—— of Bohemia, 23
Eltham, John of, 13
Essex, Countess of, 32
Evremond, Lord of St., 108
Exeter, Earl of, 39
Fairborne, Sir Palmes, 90
Fairholm, Sophia, 97
Fane, Sir George, and Lady, 19
Fascet, Abbot, 39
Ferne, Bishop, 17
Filding, Ann, 89
Fleming, James, 88
Fletcher, Lieutenant-Colonel, 77
Folkes, Martin, 93
Follett, Sir William Webb, 54
Forbes, Benjamin and Richard, 46
Fox, Right Hon. Charles James, 76
Frederick William, Prince, 25
Freke, Elizabeth and Judith, 96
Friend, John, M.D., 84
Fullerton, Sir James, and Lady, 31
Galofre, Sir John, 12
Garrick, David, 99
Gay, John, 105
Gell, William Egerton, 121
George II., 25
—— Prince, 24
Gethin, Grace, 96
Gifford, William, 99
Gloucester, Duke of, 23, 36
—— Duchess of, 16
Godolphin, Earl, 90
—— Charles, and Wife, 121
Goldsmith, Oliver, M.D., 104
Goodman, Gabriel, D.D., 10
Grabe, John Ernest, 99
Gray, Thomas, 109
Grote, George, 99
Guest, General, 59
Hales, Stephen, D.D., 100
Halifax, Earls of, 28, 58
—— Marquis of, 29
Handel, George Frederick, 102
Hanway, Jonas, 57
Harbord, Sir Charles, 89
Hardy, Sir Thomas, 81
Hargrave, General, 89
Harley, Anna Sophia, 19
Harpedon, Sir John, 42
Harrison, John, Rear Admiral, 98
Harsnet, Carola, 88
Hastings, Warren, 56
Hatton, Sir Christopher, 40
Haule, Robert, slain in the Choir, 115
Hawkes, Walter, 120
Hawkins, Enoch, 123
Henry III., 34
—— VII. and his Queen, 25
—— of Monmouth, 35
—— Prince of Wales, 23
Herbert, Edward, 72
Herries, Charles, 88
Hertford, Countess of, 10
Hervey and Hutt, Captains, 75
Heskett, Sir Thomas, and Lady, 63
Heylin, Peter, D.D., 68
Hill, Jane, 72
Holland, Baron, 77
Holles, Francis, 14
Holles, Sir George, 43
Holmes, Admiral, 33
Hope, Admiral Sir G., 77
—— Brigadier the Hon. Adrian, 53
—— General, 57
—— Mary, 103
Horneck, Dr., 114
—— William, 78
Horner, Francis, 56
Howe, Lord Viscount, 87
Hunter, John, 73
Hyde, Ann, Wife of James II., 23
Ingram, Sir Thomas, 20
Ireland, Dean, 87, 99
Islip, Abbot, 40
James I., 27
James, Dame Mary, 63
Johnstone, George Lindsay, 69
Jonson, Ben, 110
Julius, Captain William, 92
Kane, Richard, 62
Keble, John, 83
Kemble, John, 44
Kempenfelt, Admiral, 46
Kendall, Mrs., 39
—— James, 94
Kerry, Earl and Countess of, 45
Kildare, Countess of, 11
Killigrew, Robert, 73
King, William, 96
Kirk, Percy, 62
Kirton, Abbot, 45
—— Ann, 43
Kneller, Sir Godfrey, 96
Knights of the Bath, installation of, 24
Knipe, Thomas, 95
—— Captains John and Robert, 96
Knollys, Lady, 14
Lake, Colonel, 77
Lancaster, Countess of, 40
Langham, Archbishop, 10
Laurence, William, 120
Laurentius, Abbot, 118
Lawrence, General, 75
Legendary Sculptures, 36
Le Neve, Richard, 68
Levinz, William, 74
Lewis, Sir George Cornewall, 55
Ligonier, Field-Marshal Lord, 47
Livingstone, Doctor, 80
Locke, Joseph, R.A., 70
Londonderry, Marquis of, 52
Londonderry, Lady, 120
Lort, Sir Gilbert, 47
Loten, John Gideon, 72
Louisa, Princess, 25
Lytton, Edward Bulwer, 17
Macaulay, Lord, 102
—— Zachary, 78
Macintosh, Sir J., 76
Mackenzie, Hon. James Stuart, 104
Macleod, Lieutenant-Colonel, 30
Malcolm, Sir John, 48
Manners, Lord, 51
Manningham, General Coote, 58
Mansell, Thomas, 72
—— Edward, 72
Mansfield, William, Earl, 52
Margaret, Edward IV.’s Daughter, 36
Markham, William, 121
Mary I., Queen, 29
—— II., 24
—— Queen of Scots, 23
Mary, Daughter of James I., 29
Mason, William, 109
Matilda, Queen of England, 34
Maurice, Frederick Denison, 38
Mead, Richard, M.D., 71
Methuen, John, 95
—— Sir Paul, 95
Mexborough, Countess of, 39
Middlesex, Earl of, 11
Millyng, Bishop, 39
Milton, John, 109
Miserere, description of, 24
Monck, Bishop, 14
Monk, Bishop, 65
—— R., and Wife, 123
Montague, Captain, 76
—— Edward Wortley, 121
Montpensier, Duke of, 27
Moorsom, Capt. William Robert, 53
Morgan, William, 72
Mountrath, Earl and Countess of, 45
Murray, Sir Robert, 114
Newcastle, Dukes of, 49, 50
Newton, Sir Isaac, 78
Nightingale, J. Gascoigne, & Lady, 43
Norris, Lord, 44
North Aisle, 63
—— Transept, 47
North-west Tower, 76
Northumberland, Duchess of, 20
Novello, Vincent, 47
Octavius, Prince, 25
Oughton, Sir James, 41
Outram, William, D.D., 101
—— General, 87
Owen, Thomas, 94
Oxford, Countess of, 19
[Pg 130]Painted Glass, 9, 53, 73, 115
Palmerston, Lord, 51, 52
Paoli, Pasquale de, 94
Parry, Sir Thomas, 42
Pearce, Bishop, 85
Pecksall, Sir Richard, 15
Peel, Right Hon. Sir R., 47
Pembroke, Earl of, 16, 40
Perceval, Right Hon. Spencer, 71
Phillippa, Queen, 35
Phillips, John, 111
Pitt, Right Hon. William, 51, 81
Plenderleath, Dr. John, 67
Pocock, Sir George, 43
Pollock, Sir George, 80
Popham, Colonel, 38
Preston, George, 121
Price, Martha, 75
Prideaux, Sir Edmund, and Wife, 68
Priestman, Henry, 71
Pringle, Sir John, 100
Prior, Matthew, 108
Pritchard, Mrs., 106
Puckering, Sir John, 31
Pulteney, Daniel, 118
Purcell, Henry, 65
Pym, John, 33
Radley, Bridget, 90
Raffles, Sir Thomas Stamford, 65
Rennell, Major, 78
Reredos, New, 6
Richard II., 36
Richardson, Sir Thomas, 98
Richmond, Duke of, 26
—— Duchess of, 26
—— Countess of, 23
Roberts, Humphrey, 42
—— John, 112
Robinson, Sir Thomas and Lady, 103
Robinson, Sir Lumley, 84
Ross, Lady, 20
Rowe, Nicholas and Daughter, 105
Rupert, Prince, 23
Russel, Lady, 14
—— Lord, and Son, 15
Ruthall, Bishop, 39
St. John, Lady, 19
Sandwich, Earl of, 30
Sanderson, Sir William, 59
Saunders, Clement, 48
Sausmarez, Captain Philip de, 64
Scott, Grace, 48
Screen at the back of the Organ, 78
Sebert, King, 11
Seymour, Lady Jane, 14
Shadwell, Thomas, 109
Sharp, Granville, 108
Shovel, Sir Cloudesley, 96
Shrewsbury, Earl of, and Lady, 15
Siddons, Mrs., 44
Smedley, Rev. Edward and Wife, 122
—— Francis, 121
Smith, John, 88
Somerset, Duchess of, 18, 44
Sophia, Daughter of James I., 29
South Aisle, 83
—— Transept, 99
South, Robert, D.D., 113
Southey, Robert, 107
Spelman, Sir Henry, 20
Spencer, Edmund, 110
Spotswood, Archbishop, 11
Sprat, Bishop, 20, 84
—— Archdeacon, 20, 85
—— George, 11
Stafford, Earls of, 13, 14
—— Countess of, 14, 16
Stag, Motto on a, 101
Stained Glass Windows, 53
Stanhope, Earls of, 79
—— Charles Banks, 78
Stanley, Lady Augusta, 21
Stanley, Sir Humphrey, 18
Staunton, Sir George, 67
Stephenson, Robert, 70, 80
Stepney, George, 95
Stewart, Arabella; 23
—— Captain John, 72
Storr, Admiral, 47
Strode, General, 92
Stuart, Hon. Sir Charles, 46
—— Esme, heart of, 26
Suffolk, Duchess of, 14
Sussex, Countess of, 32
Sutton, Rev. E. L., 67
Sword and Shield, 36
Taylor, Sir Robert, 99
Telford, Thomas, 45
Temple, Diana, 89
Teviot, Viscount, 69
Thackeray, W., 102
Thomas, Bishop, 86
Thomson, James, 106
Thornburgh, Gilbert, 71
Thynne, Capt. William Frederick, 53
—— Thomas, murdered, 92
Thynne, William, 98
Tierney, George, 77
Tompion and Graham, 80
Totty, Admiral, 45
Townshend, Colonel, 90
Trigge, General Sir Thomas, 93
Triplett, Thomas, D.D., 101
Tudor, Elizabeth, 34
Tufton, Richard, 17
Twysden, Heneage, 74
Tyrrell, Admiral, 85
Usher, Archbishop, 33
Valence, William de, 16
Valois, Katharine, 20
Vaughan, Sir Thomas, 38
Vaults, Royal, 25, 26
Vere, Sir Francis, 43
Vernon, Admiral, 50
Vialls, Thomas, 119
Villettes, Lieutenant-General, 46
Villiers, Sir George, 20
Vincent, Hannah, 47
[Pg 131]—— William, 114
Vitalis, Abbot, 118
Wade, General, 87
Wager, Admiral, 51
Waldeby, Robert de, 16
Wales, Prince and Princess of, 25
Walpole, Lady, 24
Walsh, General, 119
Waltham, Bishop, 37
Warren, Sir Peter, 48
—— Bishop, and Lady, 54, 60
Watson, Admiral, 59
Watt, James, 31
Watts, Isaac, D.D., 94
Webber, Edward Augustus, 121
Wemyss, Ann, 97
Wesley, John and Charles, 95
West, Admiral, 68
West End of the Nave, 78
Westmoreland, Countess of, 69
Wetenhall, Edward, M.D., 100
Wharton, Henry, 83
Whytell, Ann, 72
Wilberforce, William, 66
Willcocks, Bishop, 85
William III., 24
Williams, Charles, 69
Wilson, Sir A. and Lady, 73
Winchester, Marchioness of, 19
Windsor, William of, 14
—— John of, 33
Wintringham, Sir Clifton, 57
Wolfe, General, 41
Woodfall, Elizabeth, 123
Woodford, Lieut.-Col. Charles J., 53
Woodward, John, M.D., 74
Woollett, William, 123
Wordsworth, William, 83
Wragg, William, 96
Wyat, James, 100
York, Duke of, 25
—— Duchess of, 20
Young, Dr., 44
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