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Title: Generals of the British Army
       Portraits in Colour with Introductory and Biographical Notes

Author: Francis Dodd

Release Date: November 18, 2012 [EBook #41398]

Language: English

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[1]

Generals
OF THE
British Army

Portraits in Colours by
FRANCIS DODD
With Introduction and Biographical Notes

PUBLISHED FROM THE OFFICES OF "COUNTRY LIFE," LTD.,
20, TAVISTOCK STREET, COVENT GARDEN, LONDON;

MCMXVII


Cover for Part One

[2]
[3]

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION
I.— HAIG, FIELD MARSHAL SIR DOUGLAS, K.T., G.C.B., G.C.V.O., K.C.I.E., A.D.C.
II.— PLUMER, GENERAL SIR H. C. O., G.C.M.G., G.C.V.O., K.C.B., A.D.C.
III.— RAWLINSON, GENERAL SIR H. S., Bart., G.C.V.O., K.C.B., K.C.V.O.
IV.— GOUGH, SIR H. De La POER, K.C.B., K.C.V.O.
V.— ALLENBY, GENERAL SIR E. H., K.C.B.
VI.— HORNE, GENERAL SIR H. S., K.C.B.
VII.— BIRDWOOD, LIEUT.-GEN. SIR W. R., K.C.B., K.C.S.I., K.C.M.G., C.I.E., D.S.O.
VIII.— BYNG, GENERAL THE HON. SIR J. H. G., K.C.B., K.C.M.G., M.V.O.
IX.— CONGREVE, LIEUT.-GEN. SIR W. N., V.C., K.C.B., M.V.O.
X.— HALDANE, LIEUT.-GEN. J. A. L., C.B., D.S.O.
XI.— WATTS, LIEUT.-GEN. H. E., C.B., C.M.G.
XII.— SMUTS, LIEUT.-GEN. THE RT. HON. JAN C., P.C., K.C., M.L.A.

INTRODUCTION.

THIS small portrait gallery of British generals represents, in fair epitome, the drama of British history. Each of the officers who figure here has behind him a varied story of fighting in strange places, under all sorts of conditions, as well as in the tense atmosphere of modern scientific war; each of them has first had to struggle against heavy odds before arriving at the conditions which at present obtain on the Western front. Infantrymen, cavalrymen, artillerists, they have come through a fiery trial to command large bodies of troops in the most terrible struggle of our history.

The part of their story that is concerned in this war is memorable, and may we not say it, memorably fine? For these are not the leaders of that vast host whose shadow has hung over Europe for so many years, whose numbers and efficiency have been the evil dream of the international situation; but of that small contingent that, for an ideal, took the field light-heartedly, against the vast German horde. Even the Belgian army was more numerous than the Expeditionary Force that struck its first blow before Mons; and these leaders have memories of the days when it was the equal in nothing, save undaunted courage and tactical ability, of the army in whose path it stood.

They have seen every type of fighting. The war of movements with its swift changes and long hazards was their first experience, an experience that none of those who took part in it will ever forget. For some terrible days the British army stood between the Allies and disaster; but the experience it bought was handed on to the enemy in a series of engagements, the lesson of which he softens by proclaiming the first seven divisions to have been unique. The admission is sufficiently revealing, for the handful of troops ought to have been crushed at Mons; or, escaping thence, should have been penned into Maubeuge; or,[4] evading that trap, should have met annihilation at Le Cateau. But they fought coolly, were manœuvred skilfully, saving themselves by sheer fighting ability from the tide which threatened to overwhelm them.

Only consummate leaders could have taken an army to the Marne. The army ought to have been wiped out long before. The Germans had fully resolved upon it, they had the men and guns to encompass it, their long-perfected plans depended upon it. The British, wearied by the pressure of a hurried retreat, fought almost without cover against a great concentration of guns. But not only did they fight with superb spirit; they fought also with that instinctive appreciation of tactics which comes from perfectly assimilated experience. When the German blow had over reached itself, the British Generals were able to advance, threaten the left wing of Von Kluck's army when his right was dealing with General Manoury's outflanking movement on the Ourcq, outmanœuvre and outfight the enemy on the Aisne and secure tactical advantages of the first importance. In the victory of the Marne not the least wonderful of many arresting features was this effective recoil of the army which the Germans had announced to be "dispersed" ten days before.

After the battle of the Aisne, the army, moved en bloc from the heart of France, where the war of positions was beginning to develop, appeared on the extreme left flank of the Allied forces, manœuvring towards the East in the effort to outflank the Germans. Here, out of a struggle of cross-purposes, there emerged, little by little, the outlines of a titanic battle for the possession of the Channel coast. The Belgian army had fallen back from Antwerp upon the sea, covered by an army corps pushed from the coast in a precarious venture towards Bruges and Ghent; and the handful of British divisions stood between the picked troops of the Germans and the goal they had failed to value before it was lost. Many of these generals tasted the bitter savour of those days when it seemed impossible that flesh and blood could withstand the unceasing onslaught of ever fresh troops—of the Bavarians, the Guard, and picked Prussian regiments—and of the pounding of an overwhelming weight of metal. German critics have said that this army was one of non-commissioned officers, and certainly not even the racial stubbornness could have saved the situation if it had not been wedded to high ability, if undaunted courage had not been[5] equalled by the resolute skill of the command. The first battle of Ypres was the first in which the Germans and the British fought à outrance, and no one to-day is ignorant of the result. The Germans broke off the engagement and thereby acknowledged their defeat. The British had not turned the line. That was impossible with their resources. But they had held the Germans off from their goal and inflicted upon them one of the bloodiest defeats in history.

Henceforward the war presented a different problem to the command. The last battle of the war of movements on the Western front had been fought for the time being and the war of positions held sway. In the months that followed, Britain had to build up an army commensurate with the task she had assumed. For every soldier of the pre-war army she had to find about ten, and her generals had to teach the new armies their business. The action of Neuve Chapelle showed the British army making its début in one of those carefully-planned limited attacks against entrenched positions which have been developed, with growing experience, out of all recognition. Loos was a more ambitious venture. In it there appeared volunteer troops to astound seasoned veterans by their dash and discipline. But the lessons of Neuve Chapelle had not been perfectly digested and too much was attempted. The result, in its larger aspect, was less achievement than the promise of overwhelming success in the future. In these two battles the British commanders firmly grasped the elements of the problem that confronted them, and proved the worth of the new Armies. They were to apply this knowledge in the most mighty battle the world has seen.

It was the battle of the Somme that first revealed the true formidableness of the new British armies. The opening of this terrific campaign was pitched for the fifth month of the Verdun struggle. The offensive against modern entrenchments seemed to be in eclipse. Four months' pounding by the seried masses of the German guns and carefully arranged assaults by picked troops had failed to reach the enemy objective. The deduction that seemed inevitable was that the offensive was bound to be extremely costly and productive of little. It was in this atmosphere the Somme battle opened against positions that had been elaborated by two years of care and cunning. The course of that bitterly contested campaign re-established the offensive as a paying proposition. All[6] manner of engagements were fought out in that area. Some positions were carried at the point of the bayonet. Others were encircled so that the garrisons had to evacuate them or choose between annihilation and capture. But, by whatever means, one fell after another. The experience gained was assimilated and the armies marched from strength to strength. On at least one occasion the British were only cheated of a decisive and overwhelming victory by an unkindly fate that brought bad weather when the armies were straining to go forward. A flank was opened in the German lines and through it the German army steadily bled away until an unwonted prudence conquered Prussian pride and the great strategic retreat was carried out. By that retreat, carried out under the compulsion of the British army, the Germans admitted to the world the strategic nature of the Somme campaign success.

By the retreat the Germans hoped to gain a respite. The victory of Vimy Ridge was the unwelcome reality to which that dream materialized. This position was one that was formidable from its natural conformation to begin with, and it had been turned into an obstacle which almost justified the German confidence in its impregnability. The assaulting troops had the advantage of only a limited surprise. The Ridge overlooked the British positions, and little could be done between Arras and La Bassée that was not detected by the German observers. Yet in two days the position was carried with 11,000 prisoners and 100 guns. And it was but three weeks since the enemy had carried out the retreat that was to cut the ground from under the British plans. The British losses were comparatively light; everyone could see that if the battle were to become a precedent, the decisive defeat of Germany was assured.

Just two months later, the capture of Messines Ridge proved conclusively that the success could be repeated against another of the strongest sectors of the line. But the victory on this occasion was even more remarkable. The position was so advantageous to the Germans that the enemy troops had been urged to fight to the last. The ridge overlooked the whole of the Ypres salient which had been held so staunchly against every handicap. The assault differed greatly from that on the Vimy Ridge. The tactics were different in detail though the outlines were the same; but the attack was equally kept under the control[7] of the command and swept forward to a similar success. These two battles of the 1917 Campaign made it clear that the British had solved the general problem of the German defensive, and at the same time they revealed the intimate dependence of victory upon the control of the commanders. In a war that seemed to be given over to mechanics, engineering and physics, that was frequently regarded as a mathematical problem, they showed that leadership is still the paramount factor in the art of warfare.

Such then is the versatility of these leaders. The war has cast upon them the burden of meeting every sort of warfare. They have come triumphantly through the ordeal, winning a grudging praise from the enemy, and the more unmistakeable approval of attempts at imitation. They have shown themselves as resourceful in devising new machines and methods of attack as they are experienced in the orthodox fighting of other days. The war may have new experiences for them, but it cannot daunt or check them. They have seen the worst. They have come through dark places to the approaching light of day. Their record is our best assurance for the future.


[8]

I
FIELD-MARSHAL SIR DOUGLAS HAIG, K.T., G.C.B., G.C.V.O., K.C.I.E., A.D.C.

SIR DOUGLAS HAIG was born in Fife on June 19th, 1861, of a family which has played a great part in the annals of the Scottish Borders. He was educated at Clifton and Brasenose College, Oxford, of which he is an Honorary Fellow. He is almost the only great soldier of modern times who has passed through the curriculum of an English University.

He joined the 7th Hussars in 1885, and, after passing through the Staff College, served in the Soudan Campaign of 1898, being present at the Battles of Atbara and Omdurman.

His great military talents were first proved in the South African War. After acting as D.A.A.G. for the Cavalry in Natal, he became the Chief Staff officer of General French during the Colesberg operations. In 1901-2 he commanded a group of columns which did brilliant work, chiefly in northern Cape Colony, in pursuit of Kritzinger and Scheepers. His South African record marked him out as an ideal Staff officer, and thereafter his rise was rapid. From 1903-6 he was Inspector-General of Cavalry in India with the rank of Major-General. He was Director of Military Training at home from 1906-7, and Director of Staff Duties from 1907-9. From 1909-12 he was Chief-of-Staff in India. From 1912-14 he was G.O.C. at Aldershot, and in 1914, on the outbreak of the European War, he was given command of the I Corps.

Haig
FIELD-MARSHAL SIR DOUGLAS HAIG

His record during the European War has been one of incessant and arduous toil and heavy responsibility. He commanded the I Corps in the Retreat from Mons, at the Battles of the Marne and of the Aisne, and on him fell the chief brunt of the German attack in the first Battle of Ypres. With the First Army, when it was formed, he fought at Neuve[9]
[10]
[11]
Chapelle, Festubert, Givenchy and Loos. In December, 1915, he succeeded Field-Marshal Lord French as Commander-in-Chief of the British Forces in the West. Thereafter the record of his doings is the history of his country. The Somme, the German retreat, the Battle of Arras, and the victory of the Messines Ridge are part of his achievements in Supreme Command.

The foremost living British General, and one fit to rank with any soldier in Europe, is, as Generals go to-day, a young man, only fifty-six. He is at once a scientific soldier after the most modern plan, and a true leader of men. Having been a brilliant Staff officer, he has a proper understanding of the functions of a Staff. Chary of speech, bold in design, resolute in execution, he raised first his Corps and then his Army to a foremost place among British forces, and now he has raised the British Army to a foremost place among the armies of the world. He has the complete confidence of his men, and has earned the admiration and affection of all who work with him.

Scotland has given an innumerable host of soldiers to British and foreign armies, but, with the possible exception of Montrose and Sir John Moore (if Moore can be counted a Scotsman), there has been none who stands in the very front rank of the profession of arms. To-day there is such an one. It has been truly said that the biggest soldiers of all have not the specific military mind, but have a brain indistinguishable from the brain which makes a great statesman or any other great man of action. Sir Douglas Haig, while possessing every technical quality of a soldier, has the mind as well of a statesman, and of a great captain of industry. The organisation of modern war, indeed, requires qualities of which the soldier of other years had no conception. The gigantic industrial activities behind the British front, on which our fighting line depend, the gigantic educational schemes necessary to train our new Armies, demand from the Commander-in-Chief an administrative talent not less high than that required from a Prime Minister or a Pro-Consul. In such tasks Sir Douglas Haig has shown himself pre-eminent, and to this capacity he adds the swiftness in design and precision in performance of the foremost captains of history. Britain has entrusted her manhood to one who has nobly justified her confidence.


[12]

II
GENERAL SIR HERBERT CHARLES ONSLOW PLUMER, G.C.M.G., G.C.V.O., K.C.B., A.D.C.

SIR HERBERT PLUMER was born in Devon on March 13th, 1857. In 1876 he entered the York and Lancaster Regiment and served with it in the Soudan War of 1884. In South Africa, in 1896, he raised and commanded a corps of mounted rifles for service in the Matabele rebellion, being mentioned in despatches and receiving the brevet of Lieut.-Colonel. In the South African War of 1899-1902 he won his first great reputation in the field. He commanded the Rhodesian Field Force and was the first British soldier to cross the enemy frontier.

For months he attempted to reach Mafeking from the north, and, after the happy relief of that historic town, he was one of the most active and resolute of column commanders in the Transvaal. This "small, quiet, resolute man," as a historian describes him, had the power of enforcing discipline and inspiring confidence in the diverse elements under him.

In 1902 he became Major-General, and 1908 Lieut.-General. In 1904-5 he was Q.M.G. to the Forces and Third Military Member of the Army Council. In 1911-14 he was G.O.C. Northern Command.

Plumer
GENERAL SIR HERBERT PLUMER

Sir Herbert Plumer did not appear in the field in the European War till January, 1915, when he was given command of the new V Corps, holding the southern side of the Ypres Salient. When General Smith-Dorrien retired in April of that year from the command of the Second Army, Sir Herbert succeeded him. It was that Army which fought the[13]
[14]
[15]
Second Battle of Ypres, and has since remained on the left flank of the British front in the West. It has seen severe fighting, such as the Hooge battle of August, 1915, the advance at Hooge during the Battle of Loos in September, 1915, the struggle at the Bluff in the spring of 1916, and the action of the Canadians at Ypres in June of the same year. The Ypres Salient has become historic as the most critical part of the British line.

The Second Army was not engaged during the Battle of the Somme or the first stages of the Battle of Arras, but on Thursday, June 7th, 1917, attacking on the whole front from the Ypres salient to Ploegsteert Wood, it carried all its objectives, with the vital Wytschaete-Messines Ridge, put an end to the embarrassment of the Ypres salient, took over 7,000 prisoners, and accounted for at least 30,000 of the enemy,—the whole at a small expense of British lives. The action was probably the most perfectly planned and executed in the history of the campaign.

Sir Herbert Plumer is the best type of British regular officer, an enthusiast for the historic traditions of the army, a soldier with wide experience in many lands and many different forms of campaign. His patience and stamina and perfect judgment have made him for many months a brilliant Warden of the Flanders Marches.


[16]

III
GENERAL SIR HENRY SEYMOUR RAWLINSON, BART., G.C.V.O., K.C.B.

SIR HENRY RAWLINSON was born on February 20th, 1864; the eldest son of Major-General Sir H. C. Rawlinson, Bart. He was educated at Eton and Sandhurst, and in February, 1884, entered the 60th Rifles. After acting as A.D.C. for four years to Lord Roberts, then Commander-in-Chief in India, he served with the Mounted Infantry in the Burma campaign, 1888. He exchanged into the Coldstream Guards in 1891, was a Brigade Major at Aldershot from 1894 to 1896, and served in the Soudan Campaign of 1897-8 as D.A.A.G. to Lord Kitchener, being present at the Battles of Atbara and Omdurman. In the South African War he was through the siege of Ladysmith as A.A.G. to Sir George White, acted as A.A.G. to Lord Roberts' Army at Headquarters, and commanded with great distinction a Mobile Column during the last eighteen months of the war. As Column Commander he was more than once in action against the brilliant soldier who is now Lieut.-General Smuts. He was Commandant of the Staff College from 1903-6, commanded the 2nd Brigade at Aldershot 1907-10, and the 3rd Division at Salisbury Plain 1910-14.

On the outbreak of the European War he was given command of the 4th Division on the Aisne, and was then put in command of the new IV Corps which included the 7th Division and which landed in Flanders in the beginning of October, 1914. The exploits of the 7th Division form one of the most glorious pages in modern British military history. As all the world knows, it was compelled to fall back with the 3rd Cavalry Division towards Ypres, and on October 16th held the line east of Ypres running through Gheluvelt. On the 20th of the month Sir Douglas Haig's I Corps came into line on its left, and the First Battle of Ypres began. The story of its desperate fighting for Gheluvelt and then for the Klein Zillebeke ridge is familiar to all. The best account of the exploits of the 7th Division is to be found in an order issued by Major-General Capper who then commanded the Division and was later killed in action.

Rawlinson
GENERAL SIR HENRY RAWLINSON

"After the deprivations and tensions of being pursued day and night by an infinitely stronger force, the Division had to pass through the worst ordeal of all. It was left to a little force of 30,000 to keep the German army at bay, while the other British Corps were being brought up from the Aisne. Here they clung like grim death with almost every man in the[17]
[18]
[19]
trench, holding a line which of necessity was a great deal too long—a thin exhausted line—against which the pride of the German first line troops were hurling themselves with fury. The odds against them were about eight to one, and, when once the enemy found the range of a trench, the shells dropped into it from one end to the other with terrible effect. Yet the men stood firm, and defended Ypres in such a manner that a German officer afterwards described their action as a brilliant feat of arms, and said that they were under the impression that there had been four British Army Corps against them at this point. When the Division was afterwards withdrawn from the fighting line to refit, it was found that out of 400 officers who set out from England only 44 were left, and out of 12,000 men only 2,336."

At the Battle of Neuve Chapelle the IV Corps, including the 7th and 8th Divisions, attacked on the afternoon of the first day on the left of the British front and incurred severe losses in that memorable action. The IV Corps was reconstituted after Neuve Chapelle under Sir Henry Rawlinson, and its three Divisions, the 1st, 15th, and 47th, played a conspicuous part in the Battle of Loos in September, 1915. It was the 15th Division which, it will be remembered, took the village of Loos and Hill 70, and advanced to the suburbs of Lens—one of the most heroic episodes in the whole campaign.

In the spring of 1916 Sir Henry Rawlinson was appointed to the command of the new Fourth Army, which took its place in the line on the right of the old Third Army in the Somme area. He was in command of the whole front when the Battle of the Somme opened on July 1st, 1916. On the first two days of the battle he commanded the whole of the five Corps on that front, but handed over the two northern Corps to Sir Hubert Gough's reserve Fifth Army early in July. The Fourth Army line then ran southward from Thiepval to the junction with the French at Maricourt. Under his direction were fought the actions of July 14th and September 15th and 25th. Few British forces have had a harder task than to break the mighty defences of Contalmaison, High Wood, Delville Wood, and Guillemont.

When the German retreat began in the spring of 1917, Sir Henry Rawlinson led the southern part of the British advance. It was his men who entered Peronne and fought their way to the gates of St. Quentin.

The Commander of the Fourth Army is one of the most accomplished and highly trained of modern British Generals. He has mastered the learning of his profession, and has a perfect understanding of Staff work. But his knowledge is only a small part of the endowment which he brings to work in the field. He has that flair for the decisive moment which no training can give, and his high spirits, stout heart, and steady confidence in himself and his men have made him an ideal Commander, both for the tedious war of positions, and any future war of movement.


[20]

IV
GENERAL SIR HUBERT DE LA POER GOUGH, K.C.B., K.C.V.O.

SIR HUBERT GOUGH was born on August 12th, 1870; the eldest son of the late Sir Charles John Stanley Gough. He was educated at Eton and Sandhurst, and, in 1889, obtained a commission in the 16th Lancers. He served in the Tirah Expedition and in the South African War. On the outbreak of the European War he commanded the 3rd Cavalry Brigade during the Retreat from Mons and the Battle of the Marne. His Brigade was one of the first to arrive at the Aisne on September 12th, 1914, and, a few weeks later, when the Cavalry Corps was formed under Sir Edmund Allenby, he was given command of the 2nd Cavalry Division. His Division was the first part of the British force to leave on October 3rd for Flanders.

In the First Battle of Ypres, when the small British Army bolted the door of the North against the German sweep, his Division played a foremost part. In General Smith-Dorrien's advance towards La Bassée it moved on the left flank, clearing out the Germans from the forest of Nieppe, the Hill of Cassel, and Hazebrouck. Along with the 1st Cavalry Division it reconnoitred the line of the Lys, and later held the front between Zandvoorde and Messines on the left of Allenby's Corps. In the great struggle of October 30th and 31st it had desperate fighting to hold the line, and, on November 1st, before the French XVI Corps arrived in support, it was forced back from Hollebeke and Messines.

Gough
GENERAL SIR HUBERT GOUGH

Sir Hubert Gough's 2nd Cavalry Division was at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, but failed to get the expected chance of going into action. Shortly after this he took command of the 7th Infantry Division and was engaged in the operations at Festubert. About the middle of July, 1915,[21]
[22]
[23]
he was appointed to command the I Corps in succession to Sir C. Monro, who went to the Mediterranean.

At Loos Sir Hubert Gough commanded this Corps, which contained at the time the 2nd, 7th and 9th Divisions. It was his men who stormed Fosse 8 and the Hohenzollern Redoubt.

During the spring of 1916 he was put in command of a Reserve Army, which at the time consisted chiefly of Cavalry and a Staff. After the first day of the Battle of the Somme, when it was apparent that Sir Henry Rawlinson's Fourth Army was engaged on too long a line, the part of the front from la Boiselle northwards was handed over to the Reserve Army, which now became known as the Fifth. There, for five months, Sir Hubert Gough was hotly engaged. It was under his command that Pozières and Mouquet Farm were taken by the Australians and Courcelette by the Canadians, and the Thiepval Ridge cleared at the end of October. His greatest success came in the Battle of the Ancre on November 13th, when, in two days, he took more than 5,000 German prisoners.

When the German retreat began in the spring of 1917, Sir Hubert Gough's Army operated in the Bapaume area and towards the country between Cambrai and St. Quentin. It was engaged on the right of the Third Army during the Battle of Arras.

Sir Hubert Gough belongs to one of the most famous of British fighting families. His brother, Brigadier-General John Gough, V.C., was Sir Douglas Haig's Chief-of-Staff during the first nine months of the war, and died by a chance rifle bullet at Estaires on February 20th, 1917. Sir Hubert, who is only 46, is by far the youngest of British soldiers in high command—the youngest Army Commander, indeed, among all the Allies. He first made his name as a dashing Cavalry leader, a man of infinite courage and resource in an open campaign. In the long months of trench fighting he has won a reputation second to no British General for skill in our modern scientific and mechanical form of warfare. His energy, his daring, and his boyish good-humour made him an ideal Cavalry leader, and they have endeared him to every man who has had the honour to serve under his command. He is not the least notable of the many great soldiers whom Ireland has given to the British Army.


[24]

V
GENERAL SIR EDMUND HENRY ALLENBY, K.C.B.

SIR EDMUND ALLENBY was born on April 23rd, 1861, and was educated at Haileybury. He entered the Inniskilling Dragoons, with whom he served in the Bechuanaland Expedition of 1884-5. He fought in Zululand in 1888, and in the South African War was a dashing and successful Column Commander. He was one of those who harried General Delarey in the difficult Magaliesberg region.

In 1910 he was promoted to the command of the 4th Cavalry Brigade, was subsequently Inspector of Cavalry, and, when the European War broke out, he was given the Cavalry Division. He fought through the Retreat from Mons and the Battle of the Marne, and after the Battle of the Aisne was promoted to the command of the Cavalry Corps. During the First Battle of Ypres he held the Messines ridge, filling the gap in the line between Sir Henry Rawlinson's 7th Division and General Smith-Dorrien's II Corps.

In May, 1915, he succeeded Sir Herbert Plumer in command of the V Infantry Corps. When General Monro went to India he followed him in command of the new Third Army on the Somme.

In the spring of 1916, when Sir Henry Rawlinson's Fourth Army was formed, the Third Army was moved further north to take over the ground around Arras vacated by the French Tenth Army under D'Urbal. Only a small part of the right wing of Sir Edmund Allenby's Army was engaged during the Battle of the Somme, and that only on the first day.

Allenby
GENERAL SIR EDMUND ALLENBY

During the winter of 1916-17, apart from many brilliant trench raids, there was no action upon the Third Army front. Its chance came[25]
[26]
[27]
on Easter Monday, 1917, when Sir Edmund Allenby commanded the right wing of the British forces in the great Battle of Arras—one of the most successful actions as yet fought by British troops. It was his men who carried the intricate network of trenches east of Arras, fighting their way along the valley of the Scarpe towards Douai.

In June Sir Edmund Allenby was transferred to the command of the British forces in Egypt.

In the European War some of the most brilliant infantry leaders have come from the Cavalry—Haig, Gough, Kavanagh, Allenby. Sir Edmund is a personification of the traditional qualities of an English soldier—patient, tenacious, resolute; and his record in many fields has shown that he possesses admirable military judgment and wide military knowledge.


[28]

VI
GENERAL SIR HENRY SINCLAIR HORNE, K.C.B.

SIR HENRY HORNE was born on February 19th, 1861; a son of the late Major James Horne, of Stirkoke, Caithness. He was educated at Harrow and Woolwich, and entered the Royal Artillery in 1880. He served in the South African War with distinction, and during the early stages of the European War was soon recognised as one of the most able of our gunner Generals.

He went to France with Sir Douglas Haig as Brigadier-General of Artillery of the I Corps, and took part in the Retreat from Mons, the Battle of the Aisne and the First Battle of Ypres. He commanded the 2nd Division during the attack at Givenchy in connection with the Battle of Neuve Chapelle in March, 1915. This Division was also in action at the Battle of Loos in September, 1915, when it had much desperate fighting on both sides of the La Bassée Canal.

In November, 1915, General Horne accompanied Lord Kitchener to Gallipoli and was afterwards sent on to Egypt to report on the defences of the Suez Canal. In January, 1916, he was appointed to the command of the XV Corps in Egypt, which, in April, was transferred to the Somme area.

In the first part of the battle his Corps was in action as the second from the British right. It was his men who took Fricourt and Mametz, assisted in the capture of Contalmaison and Bazentin le Petit, and on September 15th triumphantly entered Flers.

Horne
GENERAL SIR HENRY HORNE

In the autumn of 1916 Sir Henry Horne took over the command of the First Army and during the winter held the section of the British line between General Plumer and General Allenby.

[29]
[30]
[31]

In the Battle of Arras he commanded the British left. His troops carried the Vimy ridge and fought their way to the southern and western suburbs of Lens. Sir Henry Horne's Army had now a similar general objective to that which his Division had had at the earlier Battle of Loos.

Sir Henry Horne is one of the most trusted of British soldiers. Like the Commander-in-Chief, he is a man of few words but of many deeds. Scotland has played a great part in the war and has contributed more than her share of brilliant Generals. The one Scottish Army Commander in the West has nobly sustained the traditions of his country.


[32]

VII
LIEUT-GEN. SIR WILLIAM RIDDELL BIRDWOOD, K.C.B., K.C.S.I, K.C.M.G., C.I.E., D.S.O.

SIR WILLIAM BIRDWOOD was born on September 13th, 1865, the son of a distinguished Indian civilian. He was educated at Clifton and at Sandhurst, and in 1883 entered the Royal Scots Fusiliers. Two years later he went to the Cavalry—the 12th Lancers—and a year later to the 11th Bengal Lancers. In the South African War he rose to be Military Secretary to Lord Kitchener, then Commander-in-Chief. In 1902 he was Assistant Military Secretary to the Commander-in-Chief in India, and three years later was again Lord Kitchener's Military Secretary. In 1909 he commanded a Brigade on the Indian Frontier. In 1912 he was Quartermaster-General in India, and later Secretary to the Government of India, Army Department, and Member of the Viceroy's Legislative Council.

He has seen many campaigns besides the present. Apart from South Africa he served in the Hazara Expedition of 1891, the Isazai Expedition of 1892, and the Tirah Campaign of 1897-98. In South Africa he was severely wounded, and five times mentioned in despatches. In 1908 he was the Chief Staff officer of the Mohmand Expedition.

In the present war he has won an almost legendary fame as Commander of the Anzac Corps. From that April day when they landed on the beaches above Gaba Tepe he was the inspiration of one of the hardest fought campaigns in all history. Wholly free from formality and red tape, and willing to find in every soldier a man and a brother, he could yet maintain a perfect battle discipline and keep the hearts of his men steady under the most desperate conditions. To his cool brain, also, were due[33]
[34]
[35]
many of the details of the brilliant withdrawal from the Peninsula, which he carried out as Commander of the Dardanelles Army.

Birdwood
LIEUT.-GEN. SIR WILLIAM BIRDWOOD

The Anzac record on the Somme was equal to their record at Gallipoli. The capture of Pozières and Mouquet Farm was an Australian achievement, and Flers fell to the New Zealanders. Since then, both in the German Retreat and in the later stages of the Battle of Arras (especially in the Hindenburg line at Bullecourt), they have shown the same fury and steadiness in attack. An observer with them on the Somme has thus described their behaviour:

"Hour after hour, day and night, with increasing intensity as the time went on, the enemy rained heavy shell into the area. Now he would send them crashing in on a line south of the road—eight heavy shells at a time, minute after minute, followed by a burst of shrapnel. Now he would place a curtain straight across this valley or that till the sky and landscape were blotted out, except for fleeting glimpses seen as through a lift of fog.... Day and night the men worked through it, fighting the horrid machinery far over the horizon as if they were fighting Germans hand to hand; building up whatever it battered down; buried some of them, not once, but again and again and again. What is a barrage against such troops? They went through it as you would go through a summer shower, too proud to bend their heads, many of them, because their mates were looking. I am telling you of things I have seen. As one of the best of their officers said to me: 'I have to walk about as if I liked it; what else can you do when your own men teach you to?'"


[36]

VIII
GENERAL THE HON. SIR JULIAN HEDWORTH GEORGE BYNG, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., M.V.O.

SIR JULIAN BYNG was born on September 11th, 1862, the seventh son of the second Earl of Strafford. He joined the 10th Hussars in 1883, and served in the Soudan Expedition of 1884, being present at the actions of El Teb and Tamai. In South Africa he commanded a column with great distinction in the pursuit of De Wet, and finished the campaign with the rank of Colonel. One of his most successful actions was on the Vlei River, west of Reitz, where he surprised a Boer Commando and took a 15-pounder, two pom-poms, and many prisoners.

He landed in Belgium in October, 1914, in command of the 3rd Cavalry Division. He accompanied Rawlinson's 7th Division in its retreat from Antwerp to Ypres. The doings of the famous 3rd Cavalry Division are writ large in history, and in all the great drama of Ypres there was no finer incident than the charge of the Household Brigade at Klein Zillebeke on November 6th, 1914.

In May, 1915, General Byng succeeded General Allenby in command of the Cavalry Corps, and was responsible for the cavalry fighting in the later part of the Second Battle of Ypres. In August of that year he went to the Dardanelles to take over the command of the IX Corps, and was present during the later stages of that campaign and the famous withdrawal from the peninsula. In February, 1916, he returned to France to command the XVII Corps, and was transferred to the Canadian Corps on May 24th.

Byng
LIEUT.-GEN. THE HON. SIR JULIAN BYNG

Since then he has been one of the most brilliant among Corps Commanders. During the Battle of the Somme the Canadians fought[37]
[38]
[39]
on the right of Sir Hubert Gough's 5th Army and did notable work, taking Courcelette, and fighting many desperate actions on the Thiepval Ridge. During the long stormy winter their raids on the enemy line were among the most remarkable on the British front. More especially, they made the section north of Arras an unquiet place for the enemy. Their culminating achievement came at the Battle of Arras on April 9th, 1917, when they stormed in one stride four positions on the Vimy Ridge, and wrested from the enemy the key of the plain of Douai.

In June Sir Julian Byng succeeded General Allenby in command of the Third Army.

Sir Julian Byng has the appearance and manner of the cavalier of tradition. No more soldierly figure has appeared in the campaign. He has had the good fortune always to have fine troops to lead, and he is a fit leader for the best troops. He has become to the Canadians what General Birdwood is to the Anzacs—at once a trusted Commander and a well-beloved friend.


[40]

IX
LIEUT.-GEN. SIR WALTER NORRIS CONGREVE, V.C., K.C.B., M.V.O.

SIR WALTER CONGREVE, born in 1862, of Chartley and Congreve, County Stafford, was educated at Harrow and entered the Rifle Brigade in 1885. He became a Captain in 1893, and Brevet Lieut.-Colonel in 1901. During the South African War he won the Victoria Cross for an heroic attempt to save the guns at Colenso—the occasion on which Lord Roberts' only son won the same honour and lost his life.

During the war he received a brevet Lieut.-Colonelcy. He was Private Secretary and Assistant Military Secretary to Lord Kitchener when the latter was Commander-in-Chief at Pretoria.

After his return to England he became Commandant of the School of Musketry at Hythe, and, on the outbreak of the European War, went out in command of the 18th Infantry Brigade. From this he proceeded to the command of the 6th Division, with which he was present at the fighting at Hooge and Ypres in August and September, 1915.

At the Battle of the Somme he commanded the XIII Corps on the extreme British right in liaison with the French. He was responsible for the taking of Montauban, Bazentin and Longueval, and the desperate fighting around Guillemont. Ill-health compelled him to relinquish his command at the end of August, 1916, and, on his return, the XIII Corps was moved further to the left to Sir Hubert Gough's Army.

Congreve
LIEUT.-GEN. SIR WALTER CONGREVE

General Congreve has been in command of the XIII Corps since November 15th, 1915. His son, Brevet-Major William Congreve, The Rifle Brigade, who fell at Longueval, July 22nd, 1916, at the age of 25,[41]
[42]
[43]
was universally recognised as the most promising of the younger British soldiers. In two years he had won a Brevet Majority, the D.S.O., the Military Cross, and the Cross of the Legion of Honour, and, after his death, he received the Victoria Cross. No family has a more splendid fighting record.


[44]

X
LIEUT.-GENERAL JAMES AYLMER LOWTHORPE HALDANE, C.B., D.S.O.

GENERAL HALDANE was born on November 17th, 1862, of a well-known Scottish family which has given many distinguished members to the learned professions. He was educated at Edinburgh Academy and Sandhurst, and, in 1882, joined the Gordon Highlanders. He served in the Waziristan Campaign of 1894; the Chitral Campaign of 1895; the Tirah Campaign of 1897; and from 1896-99 he was A.D.C. to Sir William Lockhart. He received the D.S.O. for his work on the Indian frontier.

During the South African War he fought with the 2nd Gordon Highlanders at Elandslaagte, where he was severely wounded. He was in command of the armoured train which was captured at Chieveley on November 15th, 1899. The story of his escape from Pretoria after some months' imprisonment is one of the romances of the South African Campaign. He rejoined his battalion and was present at some of the later actions of the war, receiving a brevet Lieut.-Colonelcy.

During the Russo-Japanese War he was Military Attaché with the Japanese Army, and was present at the Battles of Liao-yang, Sha-Ho, and Mukden.

He went to France in August, 1914, in command of the 10th Infantry Brigade, which was part of the 4th Division in the III Corps. The Brigade arrived in time for the Battle of Le Cateau, and took part in all the subsequent fighting, being heavily engaged in the Armentières area during the First Battle of Ypres. General Haldane was one of the first Brigadiers to receive a Division. He succeeded Major-General Sir Hubert Hamilton in command of the 3rd Division in October, 1914,[45]
[46]
[47]
and remained with this famous Division till the Battle of the Somme. Its heaviest fighting took place in the summer of 1915 within the Ypres salient, and, in the spring of 1916, it was again engaged in the neighbourhood of St. Eloi and the Bluff at Ypres.

Haldane
LIEUT.-GEN. J. A. L. HALDANE

At the Battle of the Somme General Haldane took part in the great advance of July 14th, when the 3rd Division was brilliantly successful, carrying Bazentin le Grand, and sharing afterwards in the desperate fighting around Longueval and Delville Wood. In August he was promoted to the command of the VI Corps, and, during the winter, held a portion of the Arras front. The opportunity of the Corps came in the Battle of Arras on April 9th, 1917, when, advancing due east of the city, its three divisions carried all their objectives, including such formidable fortresses as the Harp and Railway Triangle, and made record captures of prisoners and guns.

Few British soldiers have had a more varied experience of warfare. He is a scholar in his profession, but his book knowledge is borne lightly, and he has shown himself in every crisis a leader of shrewd judgment and ample resource. He is still a young man, and, fine as his record has been, he is universally regarded as only at the outset of his career.


[48]

XI
LIEUT.-GENERAL H. E. WATTS, C.B., C.M.G.

GENERAL WATTS was born on February 14th, 1858, and entered the Army in 1880. He served in South Africa, where he received a brevet Lieut.-Colonelcy. He became Colonel of his regiment in 1908, and retired in 1914. On the outbreak of the European War he returned to service, and went with General Rawlinson to Flanders in October, 1914, in command of the 21st Brigade of the 7th Division.

With this Brigade, which has seen some of the most desperate fighting of the war, he fought at the first battle of Ypres. For three critical days the Brigade formed one of the three which checked the whole German advance; and then for nearly a fortnight it was in the centre of all the bitter fighting that was directed towards Ypres. When it was withdrawn it was but a shadow of the Brigade that had crossed Belgium before falling back on Ypres; but in the three weeks' battle it had won an imperishable name. General Watts fought with the Brigade on the left of the front at Neuve Chapelle and he also took part in the summer battles of 1915 at Festubert and Givenchy. With it he was engaged at Loos, where the Division saw some of the most severe fighting and where the Commander, General Capper, fell. General Watts succeeded to General Capper's command.

From the first day of the battle of the Somme the 7th Division, changed considerably in composition since the Autumn of 1914, played a notable part. It was they who took Mametz, and they fought through the whole of the first phase of the battle, crowning their achievement by the capture of Bazentin le Petit. The Division was present in most of the other great actions of the battle. In the spring of 1917 their General received the command of a corps.

[49]

Wattss
LIEUT.-GEN. H. E. WATTS

[50]
[51]

General Watts has a fighting reputation second to no one in the Army. The Campaign for him has been one long Malplaquet—a hard-fought soldiers' battle, and no man has known better how to elicit the inherent steadfastness of British troops. To have led first a Brigade and then a Division through some of the fiercest fights of all history is no small record for a man on the verge of sixty years.


[52]

XII
LIEUT.-GENERAL THE RT. HON. JAN CHRISTIAAN SMUTS, P.C., K.C., M.L.A.
COMPANION OF HONOUR

GENERAL SMUTS was born on May 24th, 1870, at Bovenplaats in the Malmesbury district of the Cape Colony, the residence of his father, Jacobus Abraham Smuts, who was for some time a member of the Legislative Assembly of the Cape. He was educated at Victoria College, Stellenbosch, and graduating with high honours in arts and science, passed as Ebden Scholar to Christ's College, Cambridge, in 1891.

He secured a double first in the Law Tripos, was called to the Bar and, returning to South Africa in 1895, was duly admitted to the Supreme Court at Cape Town, where he began to practice his profession. He was admitted to the Transvaal Bar in the following year, soon after the Jameson Raid. About this time he married Miss Sibylla Krige, of Stellenbosch, and settled in Johannesburg. He had already been mentioned as Dr. Leyds' successor to the post of State Secretary, when in 1898 he was offered and accepted the post of State Attorney. President Kruger's choice of so young a man was amply and speedily justified, and his reforming zeal exercised a formidable influence in the State.

It was in his capacity as State Attorney that he accompanied President Kruger, when the latter met Lord (then Sir Alfred) Milner at Bloemfontein, and took part in the negotiation with Mr. Conyngham Greene, the British Agent at Pretoria. The young advocate and statesman suddenly found his country confronted with war, and shortly after the Boer Commandos had taken the field he was attached to General Joubert as a legal adviser and administrative officer for the territory in Natal occupied by the Republican forces.

[53]

Smuts
LIEUT.-GEN. THE RT. HON. JAN C. SMUTS

[54]
[55]

Eventually, after the occupation of Pretoria by the British armies, he received a command in the western Transvaal as Vecht-General under General de la Rey. He proved himself a dashing and skilful commander, and by the boldness of his movements in the Cape Colony, in the later stages of the war, created a feeling of nervousness in Lord Kitchener's main communications. He was in supreme command in the Cape and was applying himself to the reduction of Ookiep when the news of the opening of peace negotiations brought him back to the Transvaal. His was one of the strongest voices at Vereeniging in favour of peace when terms would still be obtainable, and when the Treaty was signed he returned to the practice of his old profession.

In the interval between Vereeniging and the grant of responsible government, he took a leading part with General Botha in restoring the moral of the Boer people, which had suffered severely in the disastrous war, and also in preparing them for self-government.

When, in 1907, responsible government was granted to the Transvaal, General Smuts assumed the portfolio of Colonial Secretary in General Botha's Ministry, and continued the work of national reconstruction and reconciliation between the two races and was largely responsible for the holding of the conferences on closer union which eventually culminated in the National Convention at which the South Africa Act, the Constitution of the Union, was framed.

He held successively the portfolios of Defence, the Interior, Mines, and Finance in General Botha's First Union Cabinet, and amongst other legislative activities was responsible for the South African Defence Act, the machinery of which was severely tested in the Syndicalist strikes at Johannesburg of 1913 and 1914, and the unfortunate rebellion in the latter portion of that year and also the campaign in South West Africa.

In March, 1916, Lieut.-General Smuts arrived in British East Africa and assumed command of the East African Expeditionary Force upon the pressing request of the Imperial Government and in succession to General Smith-Dorrien, who had been compelled to relinquish the command owing to a severe illness. Within a year he had driven the German troops from British territory, reduced them by two-thirds, and penned them[56] into the southern and south-western malarial area with its one healthy spot at Mahenge.

General Smuts is still a young man, though he has had exceptional experience. A scholar by taste, a lawyer by profession, and perforce a soldier, he represents a unique figure in the Empire. The boldness and energy of his leading as a General seem to suggest the born commander. As Statesman, his conceptions reveal an intuitive grasp of the fundamental ideals that must guide the present and inspire the future.


[57]

In Monthly Parts, Price 2/- net. Parts I.-V. in Volume form, with extra matter, 15/- net.
The Western Front
Drawings by MUIRHEAD BONE
"They illustrate admirably the daily life of the troops under my command."
—F.M. Sir Douglas Haig, K.T.

SOME RECENT PRESS NOTICES:

"It is a matter for thankfulness that the authorities were able to secure the services of so distinguished an artist as Mr. Muirhead Bone to depict for us the conditions in the war zone of the Western Front. To give not only the thing seen but the spirit lying within it, that is the province of the imaginative and selective artist. And that is what Mr. Bone has done with a measure of success that almost defies exaggerated praise. He brings to his task the technique of a master and the vision of a true artist."—Daily Telegraph.

"Mr. Muirhead Bone has clearly justified the action of H.M. Government in employing him as an official artistic chronicler of the greatest of all wars."—Burlington Magazine.

"Mr. Muirhead Bone's vigorous drawings of the toil and moil of British warfare and all its circumstantial splendour and squalor stand in no further need of commendation.... It is a noble and enduring achievement.... These two drawings alone assure Lieutenant Bone's place among the immortals."—Morning Post.

"Mr. Bone's drawings convey an extraordinary idea of the abomination and desolation caused by shell fire."—Field.

"The drawings are of endless interest in their subjects and excite a natural wonder at the artist's remarkable fertility and versatility. It is impossible to overestimate the value of these drawings as a record of the actualities of the war."—Scotsman.

"The selection of Mr. Bone is triumphantly justified by his terrific Tank drawing, which no one's romantic exaggeration—not Doré's or Hugo's even—could have made more overwhelming in its onset or more deadly."—Daily Chronicle.

"Whether it be a speaking drawing of a road liable to be shelled, or a V.A.D. rest station, or German prisoners coming down from the front, or, again, the finished sketch of Amiens Cathedral with the aeroplanes round the spire, or a hospital ship scene at the quayside, all give a permanent impression of war scenes and war conditions which can hardly be too highly commended."—Bookseller.

"Among the little aristocracy of war pictures, destined to have permanent value both as history and as art, must certainly be placed the drawings of Mr. Muirhead Bone."—Coventry Herald.

"The Work grows on us."—Liverpool Post.

"In selecting Mr. Muirhead Bone for the task of depicting the varied scenes of activity on the British Front in France and Flanders, the Government have shown a very wise choice, which has been justified by the excellent series of drawings now being published."—Broad Arrow.

"It cannot be too strongly said that no mere photographic record can ever approach the great work Mr. Bone is doing in these sketches.—Montrose Standard."

"The Series will certainly be greatly prized."—Army and Navy Gazette.

"An eloquent pencil, a dashing stroke, guided by a discerning brain, and the art of perspective are the requisites for a successful portrayal of the varied scenes of every battlefield, and these qualities Mr. Bone possesses to admiration."—Aberdeen Journal.

"Of all the records of the war up to date this publication alone conveys something of the impressiveness that fighting on the present scale might be expected to give."—Manchester Weekly Times.

"Mr. Bone's work was needed. Now that I have seen his picture books I know more about the war. A poet with a line of verse, a cunning draughtsman with a few strokes of the pencil on paper, can tell you what you will never learn from Blue Books and histories. I begin to understand this tremendous war."—The Londoner in the Evening News.

"Among the drawings are some of extraordinary power and interest made by the artist in British munition factories."—Westminster Gazette.

"Dozens of Artists have drawn ships. Mr. Bone has interpreted them. He has done the Fleet a great service in bringing it thus intimately to the Landsmen. The drawings will rank for all time among the world's greatest treasures in nautical art."—Country Life.

"Will take a foremost place among the permanent records of the war."—Manchester Guardian.

"Mr. Bone has the eye to see, the imagination to realise, and the hand to present."—The Times.


Mr. Muirhead Bone's drawings are reproduced in the following form, apart from "The Western Front" publication:—

WAR DRAWINGS
Size 20 by 15 inches.   Ten Plates in each part, 10/6 net.
MUNITION DRAWINGS
Size 31 by 22 inches.   Six Plates in portfolio, 20/- net.
WITH THE GRAND FLEET
Size 31 by 22 inches.   Six Plates in portfolio, 20/- net.
"TANKS"
Size 28 by 20 inches.   Single Plate, 5/- net.

Further particulars of these publications will be sent on application to "Country Life," Ltd., 20, Tavistock Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. 2.

[58]


Uniform with this publication.
Admirals of the British Navy
Portraits by FRANCIS DODD
INTRODUCTION
I.— JELLICOE, ADMIRAL SIR JOHN R., G.C.B., O.M., G.C.V.O.
II.— ADMIRAL SIR CECIL BURNEY, G.C.M.G., K.C.B.
III.— MADDEN, VICE-ADMIRAL SIR C. E., K.C.B., K.C.M.G., C.V.O.
IV.— STURDEE, VICE-ADMIRAL SIR F. C. D., K.C.B., K.C.M.G., C.V.O.
V.— BACON, VICE-ADMIRAL SIR R. H. S., K.C.B., K.C.V.O., D.S.O.
VI.— DE ROBECK, REAR-ADMIRAL SIR J. M., K.C.B.
VII.— NAPIER, VICE-ADMIRAL T. D. W., C.B., M.V.O.
VIII.— BROCK, REAR-ADMIRAL SIR OSMOND de B., K.C.V.O., C.B., C.M.G.
IX.— HALSEY, REAR-ADMIRAL LIONEL, C.B., C.M.G.
X.— PAKENHAM, REAR-ADMIRAL SIR W. C., K.C.B., K.C.V.O.
XI.— PAINE, COMMODORE GODFREY M., C.B., M.V.O.
XII.— TYRWHITT, COMMODORE SIR R. Y., K.C.B., D.S.O.

Hudson & Kearns, Ltd., Printers, Hatfield Street, London, S.E. 1.


[59]
[60]

Cover for Part Two

Contents of this Issue.

INTRODUCTION.
I.— FRENCH, FIELD-MARSHAL VISCOUNT, K.P., G.C.B., O.M.
II.— PULTENEY, LIEUT.-GEN. SIR WILLIAM, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., D.S.O.
III.— HAKING, LIEUT.-GEN. SIR R. C. B., K.C.B.
IV.— FERGUSSON, LIEUT.-GEN. SIR CHARLES, Bart., K.C.B., M.V.O., D.S.O.
V.— FOWKE, LIEUT.-GEN. SIR GEORGE H., K.C.B., K.C.M.G.
VI.— HUNTER-WESTON, LIEUT.-GEN. SIR A., K.C.B., D.S.O.
VII.— JACOB, LIEUT.-GEN. SIR C. W., K.C.B.
VIII.— HOLLAND, MAJOR-GEN. SIR A. E. A., K.C.B., M.V.O., D.S.O.
IX.— MAXSE, LIEUT.-GEN. SIR IVOR, K.C.B., C.V.O., D.S.O.
X.— MORLAND, LIEUT.-GEN. SIR T. L. N., K.C.B., K.C.M.G., D.S.O.
XI.— TRENCHARD, MAJOR-GEN. SIR H. M., K.C.B., D.S.O.
XII.— FANSHAWE, LIEUT.-GEN. SIR E. A., K.C.B.

INTRODUCTION.

PART II.

THE central figure of this second portrait gallery of British Generals is that of Lord French, who gives a unity and atmosphere to the collection. The phase of the War he represents is quite distinct, indeed unique. The Army with which his name will ever be associated was an admittedly incomparable force, and many of the Generals whose portraits are to be found here went through the greatest ordeal of our history with him.

There have been many crises in the war. There will yet be others. But none can compare with that first four months in which the first issue was victory or defeat, and the second the coast or annihilation. Earlier wars have given a phraseology that endures till now of the processes by which campaigns are won. Armies are "decimated," and the term is taken to be synonymous with defeat. But this term is wholly inadequate to describe the price at which Sir John French and his troops redeemed the Channel coast. Little of the first Army was left when the first four months had passed, but the Kaiser's legions had not secured a decision; they had been cheated of the coast; and they had learned a lesson which will endure.

But at the end of this episode the great crisis had passed. The cloud which had overhung our Army had lifted. The light began to shine and anxious eyes could dimly see the promise of a fairer day. It is the first days of the war when the British troops went blithely to their awful tryst that must ever be the fire and inspiration of the generations to come. They are still more obscure than any other period of the war and they were more highly charged with emotion than perhaps any days can be expected to equal, unless it be those last days when the Allied troops shall drive the enemy from the field.

[61]

The Germans had secretly concentrated behind their screen of cavalry in Belgium. Sordets' cavalry had made a gallant raid through the country without gaining any sure information of where the main enemy forces lay. The French had made tentative moves eastward without finding any great force in their path. So the third week of the war dawned with no trustworthy evidence of the existence of that huge force that was to make its gallop to Paris. In such circumstances Sir John French landed with his staff. The Allies were groping in the dark and the British Army was cast for a rôle that it never had a chance of performing. Suddenly the German force emerged from behind its concealing curtain of horse. Without any trace of hesitation it moved westward over Belgium. Everything was in its place. Uniforms were new and fresh. Every scientific aid was in use, and the whole superstructure of the Allied strategy began to disappear. But only the superstructure.

It seems strange now to state that the rôle of the British Army was to outflank the German right wing. With our present knowledge of the sequence of events it is difficult to think that it was ever possible. The German Army had been trained for speed, and the German policy was based on getting in the first blow. When it fell it found the Allies unprepared. A full half-million picked German troops marched across Belgium on the 20th and 21st of August; but when the first encounters began on the Sambre the British Armies were not in their positions. The first Allied plan was already impracticable before the British Army took its place about Mons and prepared to give battle. The Sambre line could be no longer maintained; but the British commander, not yet notified of the fact, set himself to the forlorn hope of forbidding the advance of an army many times greater than his own force.

The Battle of Mons was decided before it had begun; and the troops who were compelled to retreat had planned quite another sort of episode. Sir John French and his Generals had to retire in haste from the peril of being surrounded and cut off.

At some phases of long drawn out war of positions it was forgotten that the Army which first took the field had to face the war of movements, and that only their astounding skill and courage enabled them to cope[62] with it in its worst aspect. German generals have recently proclaimed their belief that the British Army will not be able to succeed in open warfare. Bernhardi even said that he doubted if the troops could face a European army. But this latter statement was made before the war, and it has perished in the light of numerous German defeats. The former can never survive our recollection of the conduct of the most difficult operations in open warfare by Sir John French and his Generals. An enforced retreat is a more searching test of military skill than any that is known to soldiers, and it was such an experience that met the British Army on the threshold of the War.

At Mons the Army made retreat possible. The battle was not of long duration; but it was sufficient to put an end to Bernhardi's hopes. The fierce onset of the Germans was broken by the amazing skill and coolness of a numerically inferior army, provided with hardly any of the instruments which were to give the tone to the war. Yet the few British machine guns and the incomparable riflemen inflicted losses that had never been expected by the enemy. German officers have explained their amazement at seeing the cool unhurried firing after the troops had been hammered time and again with an overwhelming weight of artillery.

They had scarcely any cover; but when the bombardment was over the quiet orders were instantly obeyed and the men met the enemy as though on manœuvres. Dispositions had been carefully made and the Germans met a deadly check. But this skill and courage was called upon more searchingly in the retreat which followed. The Germans seemed to be round both their wings. Indeed the first few days were fought in certainly what must have appeared to be partial envelopment. Le Cateau was a rearguard battle, such as perhaps has never been fought in history before. The men were too tired to do anything but put their fortunes to the final test; and, though overwhelmed by shrapnel, they won through. Courage alone cannot explain such a feat. Experience and the coolness that is born of it only explains half; the skill of the commanders could alone have justified the decision to stand at such hazards and could alone have brought the men through them. Le Cateau was won by the better troops. The British were moved back; but the check they administered gave them breathing space for the future.

[63]

The proportions of the force they had to meet were now clearer to the British commanders. By the Marne they had taken a surer measure. On the Aisne they put their judgment to the test and the successes of the First Corps in winning to the crest of the ridge, but lately cleared by the French, shewed that their reading of the situation was correct. Yet they were still to go through the final ordeal. They were taken north and set to tasks that were again incommensurate with their force. The army was still smaller than that of Belgium; and yet they were encouraged to look forward to Bruges, whence great German reinforcements were at that moment hastening south. Part of the army was falling back towards Ypres, and before this peaceful old Belgian town one of the decisive battles of history gradually emerged.

How the British Army survived Ypres is one of the mysteries upon which time can throw little light. But how it saved Ypres and survived at the same time can only be known from an investigation into the courage and surpassing skill of the splendid organism which had our honour in its keeping. The endurance under a ceaseless battering, the repeated readjustments that were necessitated by the mere weight of the onslaught, the mere mechanism of carrying on from day to day under such a strain can only be explained by a tribute to skilful handling that needs no emphasis. Officers acted with an insistent recognition of the issues at stake. The line, momentarily breached at Gheluvelt, was immediately restored before the orders of the supreme command could direct the operation. But this was only one great example of the skill that found expression everywhere and all the time.

Many of these generals, whose lives shine but vaguely through the facts which outline them, fought through these days of trial. All of them had other and stranger experience under other suns; but the experience they had garnered met its supreme test in the first phase of the war. When it had passed the barque of the army had ridden the troubled waters and was safe in harbour with only its terrible wounds to bear witness to the ordeal it had survived. Some of the commanders were fighting in other climes and came to the decisive theatre of the war when the great crisis had passed. They and all are part of the country's patrimony, part of its insurance of victory. They form a striking ensemble. Guardsmen some of them, with the halo which surrounds that name since[64] the war began; engineers others, with the cool and calculating craftsmanship of their kind; others, again, of the artillery with bitter memories of the numerical weakness of their arm in the hour of trial and yet remembering fierce and glorious hours at Le Cateau, where they stood to the service of their guns and did the work of ten times their number. And there is not wanting a representative of the newest arm—the air service, which have many things to teach soldiers yet.

They are one in that goodly fellowship of great soldiers who have come through the fire of the fiercest battles in the world's history. We can glimpse their metal in their actions. We have recently seen how potent still is the skill which directs in the face of all scientific and mechanical development of the war. It is natural for us who read daily the record of our soldiers to be more conscious of their small failures, than of their great success. But trace the broad lines of the war, retread those trampled roads of northern France once more behind the armies these men led, remember their mastery in the darkest days and their record becomes luminous with the assurance of final victory.


[65]

I
FIELD-MARSHAL VISCOUNT FRENCH OF YPRES, K.P., G.C.B., O.M., G.C.V.O., K.C.M.G.

LORD FRENCH'S name will descend to posterity as the leader of the British Expeditionary Force. Were all his other great services to his country reckoned as naught, his name would live for ever by reason of the German Emperor's vainglorious allusion to "French's contemptible little army." For, as long as the British Empire shall endure, men will hold in honour "the old Contemptibles," who shattered for ever an Emperor's dreams of world supremacy and made his boast recoil upon his head.

John Denton Pinkstone French comes of one of the most ancient Irish families, the Frenches of Galway and Roscommon, of whom Lord French of French Park, Roscommon, is the head. The Field-Marshal is fifth in descent from John French, M.P., who fought in the army of William III. and commanded a troop of Enniskillen Dragoons at Aughrim in 1689. His grandfather left Ireland at the beginning of the XIXth century and settled in Kent at Ripple Vale, near Deal, where, on September 28th, 1852, Lord French of Ypres was born.

Lord French's father was Captain John French, R.N., who retired from the service with the rank of Post Captain and died when the boy, his only son, was but two years old. Upon his mother, a Scottish lady, a Miss Eccles from the neighbourhood of Glasgow, devolved the upbringing of the infant son and his five sisters. After a brief sojourn at Harrow, the boy was sent to Eastman's School at Portsmouth to prepare for the Navy. In 1866, in his fourteenth year, he entered the "Britannia," and thence passed out as a midshipman.

At the age of 18, young John French sought the advice of a family friend and decided to make the change which was destined to alter the whole course of his life. He entered the militia and spent two years in the Garrison Artillery at Ipswich (1871 to 1873). Then he passed into the regular army, being gazetted, at the age of 21, to the 8th Hussars, with whom, however, he remained only a short time, transferring, after a few weeks, to the 19th Hussars, the regiment with which he passed the first half of his life as a soldier.

In 1880 Captain French became Adjutant of the Northumberland Yeomanry, and was thus, to his great disappointment, prevented from accompanying his regiment, the 19th, to Egypt in 1882. However, his chance came two years later when he went out as second in command of the 19th to join Wolseley's Nile Expedition. French was at Abu Klea and in the subsequent desperate fighting, and he was actually the[66]
[67]
[68]
first man of the column to learn, from the lips of Stuart Wortley, of the fall of Khartum and the death of Gordon. For his good work in Egypt French was mentioned in despatches and returned to England as Lieutenant-Colonel.

French
FIELD-MARSHAL VISCOUNT FRENCH

Five years of garrison duty followed. In 1891 Col. French took the 19th Hussars out to India, being stationed first at Secunderabad and afterwards at Bangalore. In 1893 he returned to England and retired on half-pay. In the following year he was entrusted with the compilation of the Cavalry Drill-book, and 1895 found him installed at the War Office as Deputy-Adjutant-General under Sir Redvers Buller.

From now on French rose rapidly in his profession. As commander of the 2nd Cavalry Brigade at Canterbury (1897), and the 1st Cavalry Brigade at Aldershot (1898), he had ample scope to elaborate his theories on cavalry training. None was more tenacious than French of maintaining the "cavalry spirit" in the British Cavalry, but he had recognized in Egypt the advantages of teaching the cavalry to fight dismounted as well. His theories were violently combated, but his justification was at hand. The time was approaching when he was to burst into prominence as England's main hope in South Africa.

Lord French was given command of the cavalry in Natal, and landed in South Africa on October 12th, 1899, the day after the declaration of war. He returned to England in July, 1902, with an almost unbroken record of successes in the campaign to his name.

His next command was the 1st Army Corps at Aldershot. Here for five years he worked at high pressure with the watch-word of "Efficiency." From Aldershot French was summoned by Lord Haldane, then Secretary of State for War, and given the appointment of Inspector-General of the Forces. In this post he laid the bases of the Expeditionary Force and of the Territorial Army which was to prove its valuable auxiliary in the years to come. In 1911 he was appointed Chief of the Imperial General Staff and held this appointment until 1914, when he resigned.

From his retirement he was summoned to take command of the Expeditionary Force. He left London on the afternoon of Friday, August 14th, and landed in France that evening. For sixteen months he remained at the head of the British Army in France, which he watched expand from the four Divisions of the Retreat from Mons into a vast army of a million men. In December, 1915, he was recalled to take up the post of Commander-in-Chief of the Home Forces. At the New Year, 1916, he was created a Viscount.

In the title he assumed the Field-Marshal has commemorated the sternest battle he fought across the Channel. Ypres was the supreme test. When the full history of the war comes to be written, the Empire will realize how much it owes its security to the high patriotism and indomitable tenacity of the Commander-in-Chief of the Expeditionary Force.


[69]

II
LIEUT.-GENERAL SIR WILLIAM PULTENEY, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., D.S.O.

LIEUTENANT-GENERAL SIR WILLIAM PULTENEY, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., D.S.O., was born on May 18th, 1861. He joined the Scots Guards from the Militia in 1881. In 1882 he served in the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, and was present at the action of Mahuta and the battle of Tel-el-Kebir, winning a medal with clasp and bronze star. He was promoted Captain, Scots Guards, in 1892. Employed under the Foreign Office in the Uganda Protectorate between 1895 and 1897, he saw service in the Unyoro Expedition of 1895, winning a medal, and in the Nandi Expedition of 1895-6. In the latter he was mentioned in despatches and gained the D.S.O.

In 1897 he became Major, and in the same year was made Vice-Consul to the Congo Free State, an office he held until 1899. He again saw active service in the South African War, 1899-1902. He was in the advance on Kimberley, and took part in the operations in the Orange Free State, Transvaal, Orange River Colony, and Cape Colony. In these operations he commanded the 1st Battalion of the Scots Guards in 1900, and later took command of a Column. He was mentioned in despatches, gained the brevet of Colonel, together with the Queen's Medal and six clasps and the King's Medal with two clasps. He became Colonel of the Scots Guards in 1904 and was given the C.B. in 1905. Between 1908 and 1909 he commanded the 16th Brigade in the Irish Command, and in the latter year was promoted Major-General. In July, 1910, he became General Officer in command of the 6th Division, Irish Command, holding this position until 1914.

Pulteney
LIEUT.-GEN. SIR WILLIAM PULTENEY

He was appointed to command the III Corps on its formation, August 4th, 1914. At the Marne this "Corps" consisted of the 4th[70]
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Division and the 19th Brigade, and thus constituted it fought under General Pulteney throughout the battle of the Marne and the Aisne. In May, 1915, General Pulteney was promoted Lieutenant-General. He has received distinguished mention in despatches ("He showed himself to be a most capable commander in the field and has rendered valuable service") and has been decorated with the Legion of Honour (Second Class), and the Order of the Crown (Second Class); in addition to these war honours the K.C.M.G. and the K.C.B. have been bestowed upon him.


[73]

III
LIEUT.-GENERAL SIR RICHARD CYRIL BYRNE HAKING, K.C.B., K.C.M.G.

LIEUTENANT-GENERAL SIR RICHARD CYRIL BYRNE HAKING, K.C.B., p.s.c., was born January 24th, 1862. He entered the Hampshire Regiment in 1881 and became Captain in 1889, having been Adjutant of the 2nd Battalion from June, 1885 to June, 1890. He took part in the Burmese Expedition of 1885-7, was mentioned in despatches and received a medal with clasp. He was Deputy Assistant Adjutant General in the Cork district from early in 1898 to September, 1899, when he became Major and took up the same post (D.A.A.G.) on the Staff in the South African War; for his services in the war he was mentioned in despatches and won the Queen's Medal and three clasps.

In 1901 he became a Professor at the Staff College, becoming D.A.A.G. of the College in 1904. He became Colonel in 1905, and the next year he was employed in the Southern Command, first as General Staff Officer. It was all the same, only the title was changed 3rd Division. In 1908 he was made Brigadier-General, General Staff, Southern Command, and in 1911 took over the Command of the 5th Brigade, having, the year before, been made a Companion of the Order of the Bath.

Haking
LIEUT.-GEN. SIR R. C. B. HAKING

At the beginning of the present war he continued in command of the Brigade, and fought with it at Mons, on the Aisne, and at the first Battle of Ypres, and on December 28th, 1914, was promoted Major-General for Distinguished Service in the Field, became Lieutenant-General (temporary) in September, 1915. He has been mentioned in despatches in this war ("Special credit is due to Major-General Haking, commanding 1st Division, for the prompt manner in which he arranged[74]
[75]
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this counter-attack and for the general plan of action, which was crowned with success"), and has been created Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath, and Knight Commander of the Order of St. Michael and St. George.


[77]

IV
LIEUT.-GENERAL SIR CHARLES FERGUSSON, BART., K.C.B., M.V.O., D.S.O.

LIEUTENANT-GENERAL SIR CHARLES FERGUSSON, Bt., K.C.B., M.V.O., D.S.O., was born January, 1865. He entered the Grenadier Guards in 1883, and became Captain in 1895. In 1896 he was attached to the Egyptian Army, serving with the 10th Soudanese Battalion until 1898. With them he went through the Dongola Expedition of 1896, and the Nile Expeditions of 1897 and 1898, being severely wounded in the latter. For his work in these expeditions he was mentioned in despatches five times, won the Egyptian Medal and seven clasps, as well as the D.S.O., and received Brevet of Major, Lieutenant-Colonel, and Colonel.

In 1899 he commanded the 15th Soudanese on the Nile and won another clasp to the Egyptian medal, as well as the Second Class of the Modjidie Order. After the fighting he commanded the garrison and district of Omdurman in 1900, and from 1901 to 1903 was Adjutant-General of the Egyptian Army. Returning to England he commanded the 3rd Battalion of the Grenadier Guards until 1907, the year in which the M.V.O. was bestowed upon him. It was the year, too, in which he became Brigadier-General on the General Staff of the Irish Command, a position which he held until 1908. In September, 1908, he was promoted to the rank of Major-General, and with this rank he held the post of Inspector of Infantry between 1909 and 1912.

Fergusson
LIEUT.-GEN. SIR CHARLES FERGUSSON

In 1913 he was appointed to the command of the 5th Division, with which he proceeded to France with the original Expeditionary Force. The 5th Division fought on the left of the line at Mons, and on the morning of the 24th had need of all the skill of its commander to[78]
[79]
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extricate it from being outflanked by the Germans. In August, 1914, he was promoted Lieutenant-General, and from January, 1915, he commanded the II, which took a prominent part in the capture of Hill 60, and subsequently the XVII Army Corps. His war honours include mention in despatches and his creation as Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath. He has also received the Order of the Crown (Second Class).


[81]

V
LIEUT.-GENERAL SIR GEORGE HENRY FOWKE, K.C.B., K.C.M.G.

LIEUTENANT-GENERAL SIR GEORGE HENRY FOWKE, K.C.B., was born September 10th, 1864. He entered the Royal Engineers in 1884 and became Captain in 1892. In the South African War of 1899-1902 he gained his Brevets of Major and Lieutenant-Colonel, in addition to winning the Queen's Medal with three clasps, the King's Medal with two clasps, and being mentioned in despatches. He served in the Defence of Ladysmith, including the sortie of December 7th, 1899, and in the operations in Natal and the Transvaal, east of Pretoria.

From 1902 to 1904 he was employed under the Civil Government in the Transvaal as Director of Works and M.L.C. In 1905 he was attached to the Japanese Army in Manchuria, during the Russo-Japanese War. In this campaign the order of the Sacred Treasure (Third Class) was bestowed on him, and also the Japanese War Medal. In 1906 he became an Instructor at the school of military Engineering, holding this position until 1908, when he was promoted Lieutenant-Colonel, Royal Engineers, and appointed C.R.E., 1st Division. He became Colonel in 1910, going to the War Office as Assistant Adjutant-General of the Royal Engineers in the same year.

In 1913 he was promoted Brigadier-General (Temporary), Inspector of Royal Engineers, and at the outbreak of this war became Brigadier-General, Royal Engineers. His wide experience was of great value in the positional warfare which ensued after the first Battle of Ypres.

Fowke
LIEUT.-GEN. SIR GEORGE FOWKE

In 1915 he was promoted to the rank of Major-General, and became Engineer-in-Chief, while in 1915 he became a Temporary[82]
[83]
[84]
Lieutenant-General, holding the office of Adjutant-General. Besides being mentioned in despatches ("I wish to particularly mention the services performed by my Chief Engineer, Brigadier-General G. H. Fowke"), Sir George Fowke has been during this war created first C.B., and then K.C.B., as well as K.C.M.G., and the Order of Leopold (Third Class) has been bestowed upon him by the King of Belgium, and Commander of the Legion of Honour.


[85]

VI
LIEUT.-GENERAL SIR AYLMER HUNTER-WESTON, K.C.B., D.S.O.

LIEUTENANT-GENERAL SIR AYLMER HUNTER-WESTON, K.C.B., D.S.O., J.P., and D.L. (Ayrshire), M.P. for North Ayrshire (1916), was born September 23rd, 1864. He was educated at Wellington College, Royal Military Academy and Staff College. He entered the Royal Engineers in 1884 and saw his first service in 1891, when he took part in the Miranzai Expedition. He became Captain in the following year. In the Waziristan Expedition of 1894-5 he served as the Commander of the Bengal Sappers and Miners on Sir W. Lockhart's Staff. He was slightly wounded in this campaign, and besides getting a medal with clasp, he was mentioned in despatches and gained his Brevet of Major. During the Dongola Expedition of 1896 he was attached to Sir Herbert Kitchener's Headquarter Staff as Special Service Officer, and his work gained him further mention in despatches, the 4th Class Medjidieh, the Egyptian Medal with a clasp, and the Queen's Medal. In the South African War he commanded the Mounted Engineers, Cavalry Division. Later he became Deputy-Assistant-Adjutant-General to the Cavalry Division, and subsequently Chief Staff Officer to General French. Finally he was given independent command of a Mobile Column. He took part in the operations about Colesburg, in the Relief of Kimberley, in the Battle of Paardeberg, and the operations in the Orange Free State, the Transvaal, and Cape Colony. He commanded five cavalry raids during the advance to Pretoria, cutting the railway North of Bloemfontein and Kroonstad. He was several times mentioned in despatches, was promoted Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel, and received the Queen's medal with seven clasps, and the D.S.O. Between 1904 and 1908 he was first D.A.A.G. and then General Staff Officer in the Eastern Command. From 1908 to 1911 he was Chief[86]
[87]
[88]
General Staff Officer of the Scottish Command. From 1911 to 1914 he was Assistant Director of Military Training at the War Office. Early in 1914 he was promoted Brigadier-General and appointed to the Command of the 11th Infantry Brigade at Colchester. At the outbreak of War in August, 1914, he brought this Brigade out to France, and took part with it in the Great Retreat, in the subsequent advance, and in all the later fighting in France and Flanders. He was several times mentioned in despatches and was promoted Major-General (1914) for distinguished services in the field. In March, 1915, he was given the command of the 29th Division and commanded it at the landing at Cape Helles on the Gallipoli Peninsula as well as in the advance. He was given command of all British troops at the Southern end of the Gallipoli Peninsula, and in May, 1915, was promoted Temporary Lieutenant-General to command VIII Corps. He was praised by Sir Ian Hamilton for "his invincible self-confidence, untiring energy, and trained ability." Since March, 1916, he has been in command of the VIII Corps in France. In this war he has been several times mentioned in despatches, and has been made a K.C.B., Commandeur of the Legion of Honour, and Grand Officier of the Belgian Crown.

Hunter-Weston
MAJOR-GENERAL SIR A. G. HUNTER-WESTON

[89]

VII
LIEUT.-GENERAL SIR CLAUD WILLIAM JACOB, K.C.B.

LIEUTENANT-GENERAL SIR CLAUD WILLIAM JACOB, K.C.B., was born November 21st, 1863. He joined the Worcester Regiment in 1882, and saw active service in 1890, when he took part in the Zhob Valley Expedition. In 1893 he became Captain, and in 1901 Major in the Indian Army.

He was employed on the North-West Frontier of India between 1901 and 1902, in the Waziristan Expedition, in which he won a Medal and a Clasp. He was promoted Lieutenant-Colonel of the Indian Army in 1904, and received his Brevet of Colonel in 1908. He served on the Staff in India as General Staff Officer, 1st Grade, between 1912 and 1915.

In the latter year he became Brigadier-General (Temporary), commanding the Dehra Dun Brigade. With his brigade he fought through the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, when the Bois du Biez was taken by a magnificent charge and several times cleared, though it could not be held. The brigade made a brilliant début in the European War, and their charge was only held up by the line of the river. He was promoted Major-General in January, 1916, became temporary Lieutenant-General in May of the same year, and was promoted Lieutenant-General in June, 1917.

[90]

Jacob
LIEUT.-GEN. SIR C. W. JACOB

[91]
[92]

In addition to these promotions for distinguished service in the present war, he has been mentioned in despatches, the Order of St. Vladimir (Fourth Class with swords) has been bestowed upon him, and he was created first C.B. and then K.C.B.


[93]

VIII
MAJOR-GENERAL SIR ARTHUR EDWARD AVELING HOLLAND, K.C.B., M.V.O., D.S.O.

MAJOR-GENERAL SIR ARTHUR EDWARD AVELING HOLLAND, C.B., M.V.O., D.S.O., was born April 13th, 1862. He entered the Royal Artillery in 1880, and saw active service in Burmah from 1885 to 1889, winning a medal and two clasps. He was promoted Captain in 1888. Between 1895 and 1898 he was Deputy-Assistant Adjutant-General for the Royal Artillery in the Madras Presidency, India.

In the South African War (1899-1902) he took part in the operations in the Transvaal, Orange River Colony and Cape Colony. He was twice mentioned in despatches and was awarded the D.S.O., together with the Queen's Medal and four clasps. He became Major, Royal Artillery, in 1898. From 1903 to 1905 he acted as Assistant Military Secretary to the Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Malta, being given the M.V.O. while he was so serving. At the end of that period he became Lieutenant-Colonel. He was promoted Colonel in 1910, and in that year became Assistant Military Secretary at the Headquarters of the Army. In September, 1912, he became Commandant at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, being graded as a General Staff Officer, 1st Grade. In January, 1913, he was promoted Temporary Brigadier-General while still at the Royal Military Academy.

Holland
MAJOR-GENERAL A. E. A. HOLLAND

He left the Academy in September, 1914, when he became Brigadier-General, Royal Artillery, 8th Division, which, after the first Battle of Ypres, went to the front to complete Sir Henry Rawlinson's IV Corps, and served with distinction in the battle near Fromelles in May, 1915. For distinguished services in this war he was created C.B. in[94]
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[96]
1915, and promoted Major-General early in 1916. He received the honour of Knighthood in January, 1918. The work of artillerists but rarely finds notice and tends to be assumed; but General Holland has been mentioned in despatches.


[97]

IX
LIEUT.-GENERAL SIR IVOR MAXSE, K.C.B., C.V.O., D.S.O.

LIEUTENANT-GENERAL SIR IVOR MAXSE, K.C.B., C.V.O., D.S.O., born 1862, joined the Royal Fusiliers in India in 1882, exchanged into the Coldstream Guards as a Captain in 1891, served on the Staff in Scotland and Malta, 1893-4, and joined the Egyptian Army under Colonel Kitchener for the Soudan campaigns of 1897, 1898, and 1899. Was Brigade Major on active service, 1897 to 1898, Chief Staff Officer, Omdurman, 1898, and commanded the 13th Sudanese Battalion, 1898 to 1899, with the rank of Bey. Present at battles of Abu Hamed, Atbara, Omdurman, Elgedid, etc. (two medals, six clasps, D.S.O.).

In the South African war he served as Assistant Adjutant-General with Mounted Infantry and Colonial Corps in the advance to Bloemfontein and Pretoria, 1899 to 1900, and subsequently commanded the South African Constabulary. Present at the battles of Paardeberg, Driefontein, Sand River, Johannesburg, and Pretoria (medal, three clasps, C.B., Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel).

Employed on special duty at the War Office, 1901. Subsequently commanded the 2nd Battalion Coldstream Guards, the Regiment of Coldstream Guards and the 1st Guards Brigade at Aldershot (C.V.O.). He proceeded on active service with this brigade, and commanded it throughout the retreat from Mons to Paris, and in the battles of the Marne and the Aisne in 1914.

Maxse
LIEUT.-GEN. SIR F. IVOR MAXSE

He was then promoted Major-General and appointed to the command of the 18th Division, which he led to France and commanded from 1914 to 1917, including the battles of the Somme and the Ancre and the capture[98]
[99]
[100]
of Thiepval and of Schwaben Redoubt. Promoted temporary Lieutenant-General and K.C.B., January, 1917. Mentioned in despatches eight times, Grand Officer of the Belgian Crown and Commandeur de la Legion d'Honneur.


[101]

X
LIEUT.-GENERAL SIR THOMAS LETHBRIDGE NAPIER MORLAND, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., D.S.O.

LIEUTENANT-GENERAL (temporary) SIR THOMAS LETHBRIDGE NAPIER MORLAND, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., D.S.O., was born August 9th, 1865. He was gazetted Lieutenant to the King's Royal Rifle Corps in 1884, p.s.c. 1892, and became Captain in 1893. He was A.D.C. to the Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Malta from 1895 until he joined the West African Frontier Force in the spring of 1898. In West Africa he saw extensive service. In the operations on the Niger and in the Hinterland of Lagos, 1898, he won a medal and clasp, received his Brevet of Major, and was mentioned in despatches. He commanded in the Kaduna Expedition of 1900, and was again mentioned in despatches and received a further clasp. In the operations in Ashanti in the same year he received his Brevet of Lieutenant-Colonel and a mention in despatches and the medal. He commanded the operations against the Emir of Yola in 1901, and was slightly wounded. In this campaign he was mentioned in despatches and won a medal with clasp and the D.S.O. The Bornu Expedition, 1902, which he commanded, brought him a further mention in despatches, and a fourth clasp. For his work in the Kano-Sokoto Campaign, 1903, he was created a Companion of the Order of the Bath, as well as being again mentioned in despatches. In 1904 he received his Brevet of Colonel, and from 1905 to 1909 was Inspector-General of the West African Frontier Force. He returned to England in 1910 to become Brigadier Commanding 2nd Brigade, Aldershot Command. He became Major-General in 1913. On the outbreak of this war he was made Commander of the 2nd London Division, Territorial Force, a command he held until August 31st, 1914. From September 1st to[102]
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October 16th, 1914, he raised and commanded the 14th (Light) Division. On October 17th, 1914, he took over command of 5th Division of the Expeditionary Force. With this Division he served until July, 1915, when he was appointed to the command of an Army Corps. With this promotion his honours in this war include four mentions in despatches, and his creation as Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath, and as Knight Commander of the Order of St. Michael and St. George.

Morland
LIEUT.-GEN. SIR T. L. N. MORLAND

[105]

XI
MAJOR-GENERAL SIR HUGH MONTAGUE TRENCHARD, K.C.B, D.S.O.

MAJOR-GENERAL SIR HUGH MONTAGUE TRENCHARD, K.C.B, D.S.O, Royal Scots Fusiliers, Commandant Central Flying School since 1914, was born on February 3rd, 1873. He entered the Royal Scots Fusiliers through the Militia in 1893, and became Captain early in 1900. He had meantime seen service in South Africa with the Imperial Yeomanry, Bushmen Corps, and afterwards with the Canadian Scouts. While serving with the latter he was dangerously wounded, and was awarded Queen's Medal with three clasps, and the King's medal with two clasps. He became Brevet-Major in 1902, and served with the West African Frontier Force between 1903 and 1910. Here he rose to be Commandant of the North Nigerian Regiment in 1908, having previously been mentioned in despatches, and having gained the D.S.O. in 1906; with the West African Frontier Force he won a medal and three clasps. Towards the end of 1912 he became Instructor, with the grade of Squadron Commander, to the Central Flying School of the Royal Flying Corps, being promoted a year later, in September, 1913, to Assistant Commandant.

Trenchard
MAJOR-GENERAL H. M. TRENCHARD

At the outbreak of war in 1914 he became Commandant (temporary) of the Military Wing of the Royal Flying Corps. In 1915 he was promoted first Lieutenant-Colonel (January 18th), then Colonel (June 3rd), with,[106]
[107]
[108]
later, the temporary rank of Brigadier-General. He held this rank from August 25th, 1915, to March 23rd, 1916, when he became Major-General (temporary). In the June of 1915 he became A.D.C. (extra) to the King, and Brigade Commander a month later. When the Air Council was formed in January, 1918, he was appointed Chief of the Air Staff.

Since 1914 Major-General Trenchard has been made a Commander and a Knight Commander of the Bath, has been awarded the Order of St. Anne (3rd Class with Swords), and has received distinguished mention in despatches.


[109]

XII
LIEUT.-GENERAL SIR EDWARD ARTHUR FANSHAWE, K.C.B.

LIEUTENANT-GENERAL SIR EDWARD ARTHUR FANSHAWE, K.C.B., was born April 4th, 1859. He joined the Royal Artillery at the time of the Afghan War of 1878, taking part in that campaign and winning a medal. He again saw service in the Soudan in 1885, and won a medal with clasp and a bronze star. He was promoted Captain in 1886, Major in 1896, and Colonel in 1908. In 1909 he was made (Temporary) Brigadier-General, commanding the Royal Artillery, 6th Division, Irish Command, and later he commanded the Royal Artillery in the 5th Division of the same command. In 1913 he commanded the Royal Artillery in the Wessex Division of the Southern Command. In September, 1914, he was promoted Brigadier-General of the Royal Artillery, and held that position until he became Major-General in June, 1915. He was promoted Lieutenant-General (Temporary) in July, 1916. Lieutenant-General Sir Edward Fanshawe has received distinguished mention in despatches, and, in addition to his promotions, has had bestowed upon him first the C.B. and later the K.C.B.

[110]

Fanshawe
LIEUT.-GEN. SIR E. A. FANSHAWE

[111]
[112]

The Western Front
Drawings by MUIRHEAD BONE
"They illustrate admirably the daily life of the troops under my command."
—F.M. Sir Douglas Haig, K.T.
In Monthly Parts, Price 2/- net. Parts I.-V. in Volume form, with extra matter, 15/- net.
  Parts VI.-X. in Volume form, with extra matter, 15/- net.

Mr. Muirhead Bone's drawings are reproduced in the following form, apart from "The Western Front" publication:—

WAR DRAWINGS
Size 20 by 15 inches.   Ten Plates in each part, 10/6 net.
MUNITION DRAWINGS
Size 31 by 22 inches.   Six Plates in portfolio, 20/- net.
WITH THE GRAND FLEET
Size 31 by 22 inches.   Six Plates in portfolio, 20/- net.
"TANKS"
Size 28 by 20 inches.   Single Plate, 5/- net.

BRITISH ARTISTS AT THE FRONT
Continuation of "The Western Front."

The sequel to the monthly publication illustrated by Mr. Muirhead Bone will be issued under the title of "British Artists at the Front."

In size, quality of paper and style this publication will retain the characteristics of its predecessor.

The illustrations will be in colours, and will be provided by various artists who have been given facilities to make records of the War.

Part I will be illustrated by Mr. C. R. W. Nevinson, and Part II by Sir John Lavery, A.R.A.


An illustrated Catalogue referring to the above publications will be sent on application to "Country Life," Ltd., 20, Tavistock Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C.2.


[113]

Contents of Part I.
I.— HAIG, FIELD-MARSHAL SIR DOUGLAS, K.T., G.C.B., G.C.V.O., K.C.I.E., A.D.C.
II.— PLUMER, GENERAL SIR H., C.O., G.C.B., G.C.M.G., G.C.V.O., A.D.C.
III.— RAWLINSON, GENERAL SIR H. S., Bart., G.C.V.O., K.C.B., K.C.V.O.
IV.— GOUGH, GENERAL SIR H. de la POER, K.C.B., K.C.V.O.
V.— ALLENBY, GENERAL SIR E. H., K.C.B.
VI.— HORNE, GENERAL SIR H. S., K.C.B.
VII.— BIRDWOOD, GENERAL SIR W. R., K.C.B., K.C.S.I., K.C.M.G., C.I.E., D.S.O.
VIII.— BYNG, GENERAL THE HON. SIR J. H. G., K.C.B, K.C.M.G., M.V.O.
IX.— CONGREVE, LIEUT.-GEN. SIR W. N., V.C., K.C.B., M.V.O.
X.— HALDANE, LIEUT.-GEN. SIR J. A. L., K.C.B., D.S.O.
XI.— WATTS, LIEUT.-GEN. SIR H. E., K.C.M.G., C.M.G.
XII.— SMUTS, LIEUT.-GEN. The Rt. Hon. JAN C., P.C., K.C., M.L.A.

Large Reproductions of some of these Portraits may be obtained, price 2/6 each.


Uniform with this publication.
Admirals of the British Navy
Portraits by FRANCIS DODD
EACH PART 5/- NET.
Contents of Part I.
INTRODUCTION.
I.— JELLICOE, ADMIRAL LORD, G.C.B., O.M., G.C.V.O.
II.— BURNEY, ADMIRAL SIR CECIL, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., D.S.O.
III.— MADDEN, ADMIRAL SIR C. E., K.C.B., K.C.M.G., M.V.O.
IV.— PHILLIMORE, REAR-ADMIRAL SIR R. F., C.B., M.V.O.
V.— BACON, VICE-ADMIRAL SIR R. H. S., K.C.B., K.C.V.O., D.S.O.
VI.— DE ROEBECK, VICE-ADMIRAL SIR J. M., K.C.B.
VII.— NAPIER, VICE-ADMIRAL T. D. W., C.B., M.V.O.
VIII.— BROCK, VICE-ADMIRAL SIR OSMOND de B., K.C.V.O., C.B., C.M.G.
IX.— HALSEY, REAR-ADMIRAL LIONEL, C.B., C.M.G.
X.— PACKENHAM, VICE-ADMIRAL SIR W. C., K.C.B., K.C.V.O.
XI.— PAINE, COMMODORE GODFREY M., C.B., M.V.O.
XII.— TYRWHITT, REAR-ADMIRAL SIR R. Y., K.C.B., D.S.O.

Contents of Part II.
INTRODUCTION.
I.— BEATTY, ADMIRAL SIR DAVID, G.C.B., G.C.V.O., D.S.O.
II.— JACKSON, ADMIRAL, SIR H. B., G.C.B., K.C.V.O., F.R.S.
III.— COLVILLE, ADMIRAL THE HON. SIR S. C. J., G.C.V.O., K.C.B.
IV.— BROCK, ADMIRAL SIR F. E. E., K.C.M.G., C.B.
V.— GRANT, REAR-ADMIRAL H. S., C.B.
VI.— TUDOR, VICE-ADMIRAL SIR F. C. T., K.C.M.G., C.B.
VII.— CALLAGHAN, ADMIRAL OF THE FLEET SIR G. A., G.C.B., G.C.V.O.
VIII.— LEVESON, REAR-ADMIRAL A. C., C.B.
IX.— KEYES, REAR-ADMIRAL ROGER J. B., C.B., C.M.G., M.V.O., D.S.O.
X.— EVAN-THOMAS, VICE-ADMIRAL SIR H., K.C.B., M.V.O.
XI.— BRUCE, REAR ADMIRAL H. H., C.B., M.V.O.
XII.— ALEXANDER-SINCLAIR, REAR-ADMIRAL E. S., C.B., M.V.O.

Hudson & Kearns, Ltd., Printers, Hatfield Street, London, S.E. 1.

Transcriber's Notes:

Punctuation and spelling standardized when a predominant preference was found in this book; otherwise unchanged. Simple typographical errors remedied; most retained.

In Advertisements, Black Letter honorific abbreviations are shown here in boldface.

When originally published, the Tables of Content were on the back covers. In this eBook, each has been moved to the beginning of the Part it references.






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