Search billions of records on Ancestry.com
   
Website logo - Click to go to Home page




The Project Gutenberg EBook of Woman's Institute Library of Cookery, Vol. 4, by 
Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net


Title: Woman's Institute Library of Cookery, Vol. 4
       Volume 4: Salads and Sandwiches; Cold and Frozen Desserts;
              Cakes, Cookies and Puddings; Pastries and Pies

Author: Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences

Posting Date: November 25, 2011 [EBook #9938]
Release Date: February, 2006
First Posted: November 2, 2003

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1

*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK W.I. LIBRARY OF COOKERY, VOL 4 ***




Produced by Charles Aldarondo, Keren Vergon, Steve Schulze
and PG Distributed Proofreaders











WOMAN'S INSTITUTE LIBRARY OF COOKERY

VOLUME FOUR


SALADS AND SANDWICHES

COLD AND FROZEN DESSERTS

CAKES, COOKIES, AND PUDDINGS

PASTRIES AND PIES



WOMAN'S INSTITUTE OF DOMESTIC ARTS AND SCIENCES, Inc.


PREFACE

This volume, the fourth of the Woman's Institute Library of Cookery, deals with salads, sandwiches, cold desserts, cakes, both large and small, puddings, pastry, and pies. Such foods constitute some of the niceties of the diet, but skill in their preparation signifies at once a housewife's mastery of the science of cookery.

In Salads and Sandwiches are presented so simply the secrets of appetizing salads that they can be grasped by even a novice, and sandwiches of numerous varieties, from those appropriate for afternoon teas to those suitable for the main dish in the meal, are so treated that they appear to rise above the ordinary place usually accorded them. One need never hesitate to prepare a menu for an afternoon or evening social affair or the salad course in a luncheon or dinner after a study of this part of the volume.

A glance through Cold and Frozen Desserts will convince one very quickly that a large number of the desserts that complete our meals are served cold. The mere mention of custards, gelatine desserts, and such frozen mixtures as ice creams, ices, frappés, sherbets, mousses, parfaits, and biscuits, all of which are explained here, is sufficient to indicate that this is an extremely delightful part of the subject of cookery. Entertaining takes on a new and simplified meaning when one knows how to make and serve such dishes.

To be able to make cakes and puddings well is one of the ambitions of the modern housewife, and she has an opportunity to realize it in a study of Cakes, Cookies, and Puddings, Parts 1 and 2. Sweet food in excess is undesirable, but in a moderate quantity it is required in each person's diet and may be obtained in this form without harm if it is properly prepared.

The two classes of cakes--butter and sponge--are treated in detail both as to the methods of making and the required ingredients, and numerous recipes are given which will enable the housewife to provide both plain and fancy cakes for ordinary and special occasions. Puddings that are prepared by boiling, steaming, and baking, and the sauces that make them appetizing, receive a goodly share of attention.

Pastries and Pies completes this volume, rounding out, as it were, the housewife's understanding of dessert making. To many persons, pastry making is an intricate matter, but with the principles thoroughly explained and each step clearly illustrated, delicious pies of every variety, as well as puff-paste dainties, may be had with very little effort.

Upon the completion of a study of this volume, the housewife will find herself equipped with a knowledge of the way to prepare many delicacies for her meals. While these are probably not so important in the diet as the more fundamental foods, they have a definite place and should receive the attention they deserve.




CONTENTS


SALADS AND SANDWICHES

Salads in the Diet,
Composition of Salads,
Ingredients of Salads,
Relation of Salads to Meals,
Principles of Salad Making,
Serving Salads,
Salad Dressings and Their Preparation,
Vegetable Salads,
Combination Fruit-and-Vegetable Salads,
Fruit Salads,
High-Protein Salads,
General Principles of Sandwich Making,
Bread-and-Butter Sandwiches,
Vegetable Sandwiches,
Fruit Sandwiches,
High-Protein Sandwiches,
Hot Sandwiches,
Open Sandwiches,
Canapes,

COLD AND FROZEN DESSERTS

The Dessert in the Meal,
Composition and Food Value of Desserts,
Principles of Dessert Making,
Sauces and Whipped Cream,
Principles of Custard Making,
Recipes for Custards and Related Desserts,
Principles of Gelatine Making,
Recipes for Gelatine Desserts,
Principles of Frozen-Dessert Making,
Procedure in Freezing Desserts,
Ice Creams,
Frozen Custards,
Ices,
Frappés,
Sherbets,
Mousses, Parfaits, and Biscuits,
Molding Frozen Desserts,
Serving Frozen Desserts,

CAKES, COOKIES, AND PUDDINGS

Cake and Pudding Mixtures in the Diet,
Ingredients Used in Cakes,
General Classes of Cakes,
General Equipment for Cake Making,
Procedure in Cake Making,
Sponge Cakes and Their Preparation,
Recipes for Sponge Cake and Its Variations,
Butter Cakes and Their Preparation,
Recipes for Butter Cakes,
Cake Icings and Fillings,
Varieties of Small Cakes,
Cup and Drop Cakes,
Cookies,
Kisses and Macaroons,
Ladyfingers and Sponge Drops,
Cakes Made With Yeast,
Cream Puffs and Éclairs,
Doughnuts and Crullers,
Pudding Sauces,
Preparation of Puddings,
Recipes for Puddings,

PASTRIES AND PIES

Nature of Pastries and Pies,
Ingredients Used for Pastry,
Utensils for Pastry Making,
Methods of Mixing Pastry,
Making and Baking Pastry for Pies,
Utilizing Left-Over Pastry,
Recipes for Pastry,
Double-Crust Pies,
One-Crust Pies,
Puff Paste,
Serving Pastry,





SALADS AND SANDWICHES

SALADS IN THE DIET

1. So much variety exists among salads that it is somewhat difficult to give a comprehensive definition of this class of foods. In general, however, salads may be considered as a dish of green herbs or vegetables, sometimes cooked, and usually chopped or sliced, sometimes mixed with fruit or with cooked and chopped cold meat, fish, etc., and generally served with a dressing. For the most part, salads take their name from their chief ingredient, as, for instance, chicken salad, tomato salad, pineapple salad, etc. Just what place salads have in the meal depends on the salad itself. A high-protein salad, such as lobster salad, should take the place of the meat course, whereas, a light salad of vegetables or fruits may be used as an additional course.

2. IMPORTANCE OF SALADS.--Salads are often considered to be a dish of little importance; that is, something that may be left out or added to a meal without affecting it to any great extent. While this may be the case in a meal that is composed of a sufficient variety of foods, salads have a definite place in meals as they are planned in the majority of households. Often there is a tendency to limit green vegetables or fresh fruits in the diet, but if the members of a family are to be fed an ideal diet it is extremely important that some of these foods enter into each day's meals, a fact that is often overlooked. There is no more effective nor appetizing way in which to include them in a meal than in the serving of salads. In addition, salads make a strong appeal to the appetite and at the same time are beneficial so far as the health of the family is concerned.

3. PURPOSES OF SALADS.--Because of the wide variety of salads and the large number of ingredients from which a selection may be made in their preparation, salads can be used for various purposes. The housewife who gives much attention to the artistic side of the serving of food in her home will often use a salad to carry out a color scheme in her meal. This is, of course, the least valuable use that salads have, but it is a point that should not be overlooked. The chief purpose of salads in a meal is to provide something that the rest of the foods served in the meal lack.

Even though it is not desired to use the salad to carry out a color scheme, it should always be made an attractive dish. As is well known, nothing is so unappetizing as a salad in which the ingredients have not been properly prepared, the garnish is not fresh and crisp, or the dressing and salad ingredients have been combined in such a way as to appear messy or stale looking. There is no excuse for such conditions, and they need not exist if proper attention is given to the preparation of the salad.

4. SELECTION OF SALADS.--Although salads, through their variety, offer the housewife an opportunity to vary her meals, they require a little attention as to their selection if a properly balanced meal is to be the result. Salads that are high in food value or contain ingredients similar to those found in the other dishes served in the meal, should be avoided with dinners or with other heavy meals. For instance, a fish or a meat salad should not be served with a dinner, for it would supply a quantity of protein to a meal that is already sufficiently high in this food substance because of the fact that meat also is included. Such a salad, however, has a place in a very light luncheon or a supper, for it helps to balance such a meal. The correct salad to serve with a dinner that contains a number of heavy dishes is a vegetable salad, if enough vegetables are not already included, or a fruit salad, if the dessert does not consist of fruit. In case a fruit salad is selected, it is often made to serve for both the salad and the dessert course.

5. SALAD ACCOMPANIMENTS.--In addition to the ingredients used in the preparation of salads, dressings usually form an important part. These vary greatly as to ingredients and consequently as to composition, but most of them contain considerable fat and therefore increase the food value of the salad. Then, too, an accompaniment of some kind is generally served with salads to make them more attractive and more pleasing to the taste. This may be a wafer or a cracker of some description or a small sandwich made of bread cut into thin slices and merely buttered or buttered and then spread with a filling of some sort. Such accompaniments, of course, are not a necessity, but they add enough to the salad to warrant their use.


COMPOSITION OF SALADS

6. The composition, as well as the total food value, of salads depends entirely on the ingredients of which they are composed. With an understanding of the composition of the ingredients used in salads, the housewife will be able to judge fairly accurately whether the salad is low, medium, or high in food value, and whether it is high in protein, fat, or carbohydrate. This matter is important, and should receive consideration from all who prepare this class of food.

7. PROTEIN IN SALADS.--As may be expected, salads that are high in protein have for their basis, or contain, such ingredients as meat, fish, fowl, cheese, eggs, nuts, or dried beans. The amount of protein that such a salad contains naturally varies with the quantity of high-protein food that is used. For instance, a salad that has hard-cooked eggs for its foundation contains considerable protein, but one in which a slice or two of hard-cooked egg is used for a garnish cannot be said to be a high-protein salad.

8. FAT IN SALADS.--The fat in salads is more often included as a part of the dressing than in any other way, but the quantity introduced may be very large. A French dressing or a mayonnaise dressing, as a rule, contains a sufficient proportion of some kind of oil to make the salad in which it is used somewhat high in fat. In fact, salads are often used as a means of introducing fat into a meal, and whenever this is done they should be considered as one of the dishes that supply energy-producing food material to the meals in which they are served.

9. CARBOHYDRATE IN SALADS.--For the most part, salads do not contain carbohydrate in any quantity. If fruits are used, the salad will, of course, contain a certain amount of sugar. Salads in which potatoes, peas, beets, and other vegetables are used also contain starch or sugar in varying quantities. However, with the exception of potato salad, salads are probably never taken as a source of carbohydrate.

10. MINERAL SALTS IN SALADS.--In the majority of salads, mineral salts are an important ingredient. Meat and fish salads are the only ones in which the mineral salts are not especially desirable, but they can be improved in this respect if a certain amount of vegetables are mixed with them. Green-vegetable salads are the most valuable sources of mineral salts, and fruit salads come next. In addition, these two varieties of salads contain vitamines, which are substances necessary to maintain health. Cheese and egg salads, which are high-protein salads, are also valuable for the vitamines they supply.

11. CELLULOSE IN SALADS.--Vegetable and fruit salads serve to supply cellulose in the diet. Unless the meals contain sufficient cellulose in some other form, the use of such salads is an excellent way in which to introduce this material. Of course, the salads composed of foods high in cellulose are lower in food value than others, but the salad dressing usually helps to make up for this deficiency.


INGREDIENTS OF SALADS

12. VARIETY IN SALAD INGREDIENTS.--One of the advantages of salads is that the ingredients from which they can be made are large in number. In fact, almost any cooked or raw fruit or vegetable, or any meat, fowl, or fish, whether cooked expressly for this purpose or left over from a previous meal, may be utilized in the making of salads. Canned foods of these varieties may also be used to advantage for salads during the winter when fresh foods are expensive and difficult to procure. The idea that such foods cannot be used is wrong.

13. As far as meats are concerned, they are not used so extensively in salads as are fruits and vegetables. Often, however, veal or pork may be used to increase the quantity of material needed to make certain salads, such as chicken salad. Canned fish or fish freshly cooked makes appetizing salads, and if there is not a sufficient quantity of one kind on hand, another may be added without impairing the quality of the salad.

14. As has already been stated, almost any vegetable, raw, canned, or freshly cooked, can be used in the making of salads. In addition, these vegetables may be combined in almost any way. Small amounts of two, three, four, or more vegetables may be combined with an appetizing salad dressing and served as a luncheon or dinner salad. If no definite recipe is followed but whatever material that happens to be on hand is utilized, the result is not only an appetizing salad, but a saving of vegetables that might otherwise be wasted.

[Illustration: FIG. 1]

15. Fruits, both canned and raw, are largely used in the making of salads. As with vegetables, almost any combination of them makes a delicious salad when served with the proper dressing. Thus, a slice of pineapple, a canned peach or two, or a few spoonfuls of cherries may be added to grapefruit, oranges, bananas, or whatever fruit may happen to be most convenient or easy to procure and served with the salad dressing that is preferred. Vegetables are seldom used with fruits, celery being the only one that is ever employed in this way. On the other hand, nuts are much used with fruits, vegetables, meats, and fish in the making of salads and any variety may be utilized.

16. SALAD GARNISHES.--The garnishing of salads, while it may seem to be an unimportant part of the preparation of this food, is really a matter that demands considerable attention. Lettuce is used oftenest for this purpose, but almost any edible green, such as endive, watercress, etc., makes an excellent garnish. Generally when lettuce is the garnish, the leaves are used whole, but if they are not in good condition for garnishing or if use is to be made of the coarse outside leaves of the stalks, they may be arranged in a pile, rolled tight, and then, as shown in Fig. 1, cut with a sharp knife into narrow strips. Lettuce prepared in this way is said to be shredded, and a bed of it makes a very attractive garnish for many kinds of salad. Among the other foods used as a garnish are certain vegetables that give a contrast in color, such as pimiento, green peppers, radishes, and olives. Slices of hard-cooked eggs or the yolks of eggs forced through a ricer likewise offer a touch of attractive color.

17. NATURE OF SALAD DRESSINGS.--When a salad is properly made, a salad dressing of some kind is usually added to the ingredients that are selected for the salad. This dressing generally has for its chief ingredient a salad oil of some kind, many satisfactory varieties of which are to be found on the market. Olive oil has always been the most popular oil used for this purpose, and in many respects it is the most desirable. It can be obtained in several grades, the price varying with the excellence of the quality. The best grades have a yellowish color, the poorest ones are somewhat green, and those of medium quality shade between these two colors. The best grades are also clear, while the poorer ones are usually cloudy, the better the quality the less cloudy the oil. Besides olive oil, however, there are oils made of cottonseed, corn, and nuts. Many of these products are cheaper than olive oil and are almost, if not quite, as satisfactory. In combination with the oil that is used for salad dressing, there is always an acid of some kind, such as vinegar or lemon juice. To these ingredients are added spices and flavoring. Such a dressing is prepared without cooking, the ingredients being combined by proper mixing or beating.

18. Another kind of dressing that is much used is known as boiled salad dressing. Its ingredients are similar to those used in the uncooked salad dressing, but usually less fat is employed and eggs alone or eggs and some starchy material are used for thickening.

Then, again, entirely different kinds of dressing may be made for fruit salads. Sometimes these dressings contain no fat, and other times they have for their basis sweet or sour cream, but usually they are made so that they are somewhat acid to the taste.


RELATION OF SALADS TO MEALS

19. Because of the large variety of ingredients that may be used in the making of salads, it is usually possible to make the salad correspond properly with the other dishes in the meal. This is a little more difficult to accomplish when left-over materials are used in salads, but, even in this event, the addition of ingredients that will make the salad more nearly approach what must be supplied is usually possible. If the meal is to be a light one and the salad is to serve as the principal dish, it should be sufficiently heavy and contain enough food value to serve the purpose for which it is intended. It should be decided on first, and then the rest of the dishes should be planned to correspond with the salad.

On the other hand, when the meal is a heavy one and the salad is to be one of the lighter dishes, the main dishes should be decided on first and the salad planned so that it will correspond properly with the other dishes. For instance, with meat or fish as the main course of the meal, a fish, egg, or cheese salad would obviously be the wrong thing to serve. Instead, a light salad of vegetables or fruits should be selected for such a meal. It should be remembered, also, that if the other dishes of a meal contain sufficient food value to make the meal properly nourishing, a salad containing a rich dressing will provide more than a sufficient supply of calories and consequently should be avoided.

20. Another point that should not be neglected in selecting a salad is that it should be a contrast to the rest of the meal as far as flavor is concerned. While several foods acid in flavor do not necessarily unbalance a meal so far as food substances and food value are concerned, they provide too much of the same flavor to be agreeable to most persons. For instance, if the meal contains an acid soup, such as tomato, and a vegetable with a sour dressing, such as beets, then a salad that is also acid will be likely to add more of a sour flavor than the majority of persons desire.

Then, too, it is not a good plan to serve in the salad the same vegetable that is served in the soup or the dinner course. Thus, creamed celery and a salad containing celery, and tomato soup and tomato salad are bad combinations and should, like others similar to them, be carefully avoided. Even though such vegetables may be on hand in quantity, they can usually be kept for another meal.


PRINCIPLES OF SALAD MAKING

21. CONDITION OF SALAD INGREDIENTS.--When the kind of salad to be served is decided on, the selection and preparation of the materials are the next matters to receive attention. Very often materials that are on hand are utilized in this way, but if it is possible to select the ingredients expressly for the salad, they should be very carefully chosen. Any kind of salad, but particularly a vegetable or a fruit salad, becomes much more attractive if it is made with ingredients that are in good condition and that are attractive in appearance. They should therefore be fresh and crisp and never mushy, wilted, nor limp. Of course, this does not mean that material that is slightly unattractive must be discarded, for it can usually be prepared so that it can be utilized in some way. However, much of the deterioration of salad ingredients before they are used can be avoided if proper attention is given to them after they come into the home. Without doubt, the best way in which to keep radishes, celery, parsley, watercress, and other greens that are much used in salads is to wrap them loosely in a moist cloth as soon as they are received in the home and then put them in a cool place. Small muslin or linen bags having a draw-string in the top are very good for this purpose, but they are not a necessity, for old napkins or small pieces of worn cloth will do very well.

22. CLEANING AND FRESHENING SALAD INGREDIENTS.--In the making of a salad, the cleaning of the ingredients used is a very important part of the work. While nothing should be wasted in the process of preparation, decayed or discolored leaves, stems, or parts of fruits and vegetables should, of course, be removed. Every lettuce leaf and every part of other salad vegetables should be looked over carefully and washed separately in cold water. To accomplish this, the stalks or leaves must be taken apart after the root is cut off. Then, before they are used, they should be examined carefully again in order to make sure that no small bugs nor worms and no dirt remain on them. Such vegetables will become crisp if they are allowed to remain in cold water long enough to bring back their natural freshness. A little ice added to the water helps to accomplish this more quickly. It should be remembered, however that lettuce leaves bruise and break easily and so must be handled carefully if the best appearance is desired.

23. When cucumbers are to be used for salad, they should be peeled and put immediately into cold water to become crisp, or they may first be sliced or diced and then put into the cold water. They should never be allowed to stand for any length of time in salt water. If it is desired to season them with salt, a little may be added to the water in which they are made crisp, but it will also be necessary to add ice to make the water as cold as possible. The old idea that soaking cucumbers in salted water removes something injurious has been proved to be untrue, and they are just as satisfactory, so far as their flavor and condition are concerned, when they are not subjected to this treatment. Radishes, celery, and cabbage may be made crisp in the same way as are cucumbers and lettuce.

In the event that any of these vegetables are allowed to stand in water, they must be properly drained before they are used in a salad, for any water that remains on them will dilute the dressing. If they must be dried very quickly, they may be patted carefully between folds of cloth, preferably linen or cheesecloth, or they may be allowed to stand for a few minutes in a wire basket or a colander. Care should be taken, however, not to allow them to stand until the good that has been accomplished by making them crisp in cold water is undone.

24. PREPARING FRUITS FOR SALADS.--After fruits have been carefully cleaned, they are ready to be peeled and cut into pieces of the size desired for the salad. An effort should always be made to have the pieces equal in size, similar in shape, and not too small. They should be peeled in an economical way, but at the same time should be prepared as attractively as possible.

25. In the preparation of oranges for a salad, the fruit is peeled as if it were an apple, the peeling being cut deeply enough to remove the skin that covers the sections. After the entire orange is peeled, the contents of each section should be removed by passing a sharp knife as closely as possible to the skin between the sections and then taking out the pulp without any of this skin. The sections may then be used whole or cut into pieces.

Grapefruit may be prepared in the same way as oranges. Upon the removal of the whole sections, they may be left whole or they may be cut once or twice, depending on the kind of salad and the appearance desired. When grapefruit or oranges are prepared in this manner, they make a much more agreeable ingredient for fruit salad than when they are simply cut into chunks and the tough skin is allowed to remain on the pieces. No waste need be permitted in this process, for the juice may be extracted from what remains after the sections have been removed by pressing it in a fruit press or by any other means and then utilized in the making of the salad dressing or kept for some other purpose.

Bananas, which are often used in salads, should be peeled, any bruised or decayed portions should be removed, and the surface should then be scraped slightly with a paring knife in order to remove the pithy surface, which, when eaten, has a puckery, disagreeable effect.

26. When fruits of any kind have been prepared for salad and cannot be used at once, they may be kept from wilting and discoloring if they are put where they will keep cool and are sprinkled with a little lemon juice that is slightly diluted with water. Before the salad materials are mixed with the salad dressing, however, all juices or liquid of any kind should be carefully drained from them, for these will dilute the dressing and produce a salad that is less appetizing in both appearance and flavor.

27. PREPARING NUTS FOR SALADS.--When nuts are to be used in a salad, they should never be ground in a grinder; rather, they should be chopped or cut into small pieces with a knife. After being so prepared, they should be added to the salad just before it is put on the table. This is a matter that should not be overlooked, for if the salad is allowed to stand very long after the nuts are added they will discolor the dressing and cause the salad to become dark and gray looking.

28. MARINATING SALAD INGREDIENTS.--To improve the flavor of such salads as chicken, veal, lobster, or crab, the ingredients are usually marinated with a sour dressing of some description before the salad dressing is added. As is explained in Essentials of Cookery, Part 2, marinating involves the seasoning of meat or fish by means of vinegar or French dressing. The preparation used to marinate salad ingredients may be plain vinegar to which salt and pepper are added, or it may be a French dressing, which is prepared by mixing vinegar, olive oil, salt, and pepper in the proper proportions. Whichever preparation is used should be poured over the materials after they are cut or prepared for the salad, and only enough to moisten each piece slightly should be used. The ingredients should then be carefully mixed with the dressing to avoid breaking or crushing them and should be allowed to stand in a cold place for a few minutes. Then they should be drained so that none of the material used to marinate them remains on the salad when the other dressing is added. With this done, the salad is ready for whatever salad dressing is to be used.

29. Potato salad and salads containing such vegetables as carrots, peas, string beans, etc. are also improved by being marinated in the same way as salads made of meat, fowl, and fish. This sort of preparation involves a little more work, it is true, but it usually produces such gratifying results that it justifies the expenditure of the extra effort. In the first place, a slightly smaller amount of salad dressing will be required when the ingredients are marinated and, in addition, a better looking dish can be made, for the dressing need not be mixed with the salad but merely placed on top.

30. In case the housewife prefers not to take the time nor the trouble to marinate a salad, she should at least mix thoroughly with salt and pepper the ingredients that require seasoning. The fact that a salad should be a well and highly seasoned dish must never be overlooked. As can be readily understood, a bland salad without character is never so appetizing as one that is crisp, fresh, well made, and properly seasoned.


SERVING SALADS

31. Several different ways of serving salads are in practice. Perhaps the most convenient method of serving this dish is to prepare individual portions of it on salad plates in the kitchen and then set these on the table at each person's place. If a simple table service is followed, the salad may be put on the table at the same time as the rest of the meal. The correct position for the salad plate is at the left-hand side of the dinner plate and just a little nearer to the edge of the table than the bread-and-butter plate. The plates on which salad is served should be large enough to prevent the difficulty in eating that would be experienced if the plate were a trifle small. It should therefore be remembered that the salad plate is the next larger in size to the bread-and-butter plate.

32. In case individual salads are to be prepared, the plate should first be garnished with whatever vegetable green is selected for this purpose. If lettuce is to be used, a single leaf, several very small center leaves, or a small quantity of shredded lettuce will be sufficient, for a great deal of garnish is never desirable. In case the leaves are very large, one may be divided in half and each part utilized. Then the salad ingredients, which have already been combined, should be piled in a neat heap on top of the garnish either with or without the salad dressing. If the salad dressing is not mixed with the materials, a spoonful or two of it should be placed on top of them. Sometimes, for the effect of color, additional garnish of some kind is used. For a vegetable or a meat salad, this may be egg yolk put through a sieve, slices of hard-cooked eggs, olives or radishes cut in fancy shapes, or strips of pimiento; and for fruit salad, it may be cherries or colored fruits cut into various fancy shapes.

33. Another method of serving this dish is to place the entire salad on a rather large, deep plate, such as a chop plate or a regular salad dish, and then serve it at the table whenever it is desired. When this is done, the dish that is used should be well garnished with a bed of vegetable green in the same way that a small individual plate is garnished. Then the salad ingredients should be nicely arranged on this bed, and the dressing, if it has not already been mixed with them, should be poured over the whole. In serving salad in this way, there is much more chance of arranging the ingredients symmetrically and garnishing the salad attractively than when it is served on small plates. The large plate containing the salad, together with the small salad plates, should be placed before the hostess or whoever is to serve the salad. When it is served, a leaf of the lettuce or other green used for garnishing should first be put on each salad plate and the salad should be served on this. A large fork and a large spoon are needed when salad is served in this manner.

34. Still another, way of serving salad, and perhaps a more attractive one than either of those already described, consists in arranging the ingredients in a salad bowl, placing this on the table, and serving from the bowl to the salad plates. In this method, a French dressing is generally used, and this is often mixed at the table and added to the salad just before it is put on the small plates. Such a salad can be made very attractive, and it should be remembered above all things that the appearance of a salad is its great asset until it is eaten and that an artistically made salad always helps to make the meal more satisfactory.

35. In a dinner, the salad is generally served as a separate course, but in such a meal as luncheon it may be used as the main dish. If it is used as a separate course, it should be served immediately after the dinner course has been removed from the table. The salad plate should be placed directly before the person served. Forks especially designed with a wide prong on one side and known as salad forks are the right type of fork to serve with this dish, but if none are available ordinary table forks of a small size may be used. It should be remembered that the salad should not be cut with the knife at the table, but should be eaten entirely with the fork.


SALAD DRESSINGS AND THEIR PREPARATION

36. As has been implied, various salad dressings may be made to serve with salads. The kind of dressing to select depends both on the variety of salad served and on the personal preference of those to whom it is served. Some of these contain only a few ingredients and are comparatively simple to make, while others are complex and involve considerable work in their making. Whether simple or elaborate, however, the salad dressing should be carefully chosen, so that it will blend well with the ingredients of the salad with which it is used.

A number of recipes for salad dressings are here given. They are taken up before the recipes for salads so that the beginner will be familiar with the different varieties when they are mentioned in connection with the salads. As many of the recipes as possible should be tried, not only for the knowledge that will be gained, but also for the practical experience.

37. FRENCH DRESSING.--A dressing that is very simply made and that can probably be used with a greater variety of salads than any other is French dressing. For instance, it may be used with any vegetable salad, with salads containing almost any combination of fruit, and with meat, fish, and egg salads. It is true, of course, that fruit-salad dressing blends very well with fruit salad and is considered by most persons to be more delicious than French dressing, but if one is pressed for time and does not have the necessary ingredients for making any other kind, this one may nearly always be utilized. In addition to these uses, French dressing, as has been previously explained, may also be used to marinate salads before mayonnaise or other dressing is mixed with them. A point that should always be remembered in the making of this dressing or any other dressing containing oil is that the flavor of the oil has much to do with the desirability of the finished dressing.

FRENCH DRESSING

Measure the dry ingredients and place them in a bowl. Measure the vinegar and oil and add them to the dry ingredients. If possible, place a piece of ice the size of a walnut in the bowl. Beat with a fork until the ingredients are thoroughly mixed and the oil and vinegar form an emulsion that will remain for a short time. The ingredients will separate if the dressing is allowed to stand, but the colder they are, the more easily will the emulsion form and the longer will it remain. If ice cannot be used, have the ingredients as cold as possible before mixing them.

38. Sometimes a more highly seasoned French dressing is desired. In such an event, there should be beaten into the dressing just described the following ingredients:

39. MAYONNAISE DRESSING.--Although mayonnaise dressing is prepared without the application of heat, it is not one of the simplest dressings to prepare. It meets with much favor, being used almost as extensively as French dressing, but it is perhaps less desirable with fruit salads than with others. It is also much used as a basis for numerous other dressings. Since it requires considerable time for its preparation, a wise plan is to make more than enough for one meal. However, it should not be made in large quantities, for the oil separates from the remainder of the ingredients if it is allowed to stand too long. If it is thoroughly beaten and kept extremely cold, it may perhaps keep for a week, but keeping it longer than that is not advisable. Before serving, it may be thinned by beating either sweet or sour cream into it. It may be made fluffy and light and its quantity may be increased by beating whipped cream into it.

MAYONNAISE DRESSING

Mix the dry ingredients in a bowl. Separate the eggs and add the yolks to the dry ingredients. Beat these with a rotary egg beater until they are well mixed. To this mixture, add a few drops of oil and continue to beat. Add a drop of the vinegar or lemon juice, a few more drops of oil, and beat constantly. Gradually increase the quantity of oil added each time, but do not do this rapidly. As the oil is added and the beating is continued, it will be noted that the mixture grows thicker, but when vinegar is added the mixture is thinned. The quantity of vinegar is so much less than that of oil that the oil may be added in small amounts two or three times in succession before vinegar is added.

This process is rather long and slow, but if the mixing is done correctly, the result will be a thick, smooth mixture that will not separate for possibly 6 or 7 days. Mayonnaise mixers, which may be procured for making this dressing, make the work easier, but they are not at all necessary. Mayonnaise may be made as successfully with a bowl and a rotary beater, if it will just be remembered that the liquid ingredients must be added slowly and that they must be as cold as possible.

40. COOKED MAYONNAISE.--A dressing that is very similar both in texture and taste to the mayonnaise just explained and perhaps a little easier to make is known as cooked mayonnaise. This dressing, as will be noted from the accompanying recipe, may be made in larger quantities than the uncooked mayonnaise.

COOKED MAYONNAISE

Mix the 2 tablespoonfuls of oil and the flour and pour in the vinegar. Add the boiling water and stir the mixture until it is perfectly smooth and well mixed. Place over the fire and cook for about 5 minutes. Remove from the fire and cool. When completely cooled, add the salt, mustard, and paprika. Separate the eggs and beat the yolks and whites separately. Add the egg yolks to the mixture. Add the 2 cupfuls of oil a little at a time, beating thoroughly with a rotary beater each time oil is added. When all of this is completely mixed and thoroughly beaten, fold in the stiffly beaten egg whites.

41. THOUSAND ISLAND DRESSING.--By using the cooked or the uncooked mayonnaise dressing as a basis and adding to it the ingredients listed here, a very delightful salad dressing, called Thousand Island dressing, is the result. All the ingredients need not be added if it is inconvenient to do so, still the dressing is better when they are all used. This dressing is particularly good when served with plain lettuce salad, with lettuce and tomatoes, with lettuce, tomatoes, and cucumbers, or with any other plain-vegetable salad.

THOUSAND ISLAND DRESSING

Into the mayonnaise stir the chilli sauce, pimiento, pepper, and onion, and lastly, add the hard-cooked egg chopped into fine pieces. Chill and serve.

42. BOILED SALAD DRESSING.--Although boiled salad dressing is not so great a favorite as the uncooked mayonnaise dressing, it has the advantage of being less expensive. Then, too, it is one of the dressings that may be made without oil, and so finds favor with those to whom oil is not agreeable. However, oil may be substituted for the butter that is given in the recipe. It will be noted that the preparation of this dressing is similar to that of a custard with the addition of flour. Since the flour requires longer cooking than the eggs, they are added last so that there will be no danger of overcooking them. If the dressing curdles, it may be known that the eggs have cooked too long, but this condition may be remedied by placing the pan containing the dressing in a pan of cold water as soon as the curdling is observed and then beating vigorously with a rotary beater.

BOILED SALAD DRESSING

Melt the butter in the inner pan of a double boiler, add the flour, salt, sugar, mustard, and milk. Cook over the flame until the mixture is thickened. Beat the eggs, stir them into the mixture, and add the vinegar, beating rapidly. Place in the large pan of the double boiler and allow this to cook until the eggs have thickened. Cool and serve.

43. SOUR-CREAM DRESSING.--Sour-cream dressing is not a very economical one to make unless there happens to be sour cream on hand. It is, however, a very good dressing for both fruit and vegetable salad.

SOUR-CREAM DRESSING

Melt the butter in the upper part of a double boiler, add the flour, sugar, salt, vinegar, and sour cream. Cook together over the flame until the mixture thickens. Beat the egg yolks and add them to this. Place in the lower part of the double boiler and cook until the egg yolks thicken. Beat the egg whites and fold them with the whipped cream into the salad dressing. Cool and serve.

44. CREAM DRESSING.--A simple dressing that requires very little time or skill in preparation and that affords a means of using up cream that has soured is the one given in the accompanying recipe. Sweet cream may also be used in the same way if desired, and this makes an excellent dressing for cabbage salad, plain cucumber salad with lettuce, or fruit salad. If the dressing is to be used for fruit salad, lemon juice may be used in the place of vinegar.

CREAM DRESSING

Whip the cream with a rotary beater until it is stiff. Then add the sugar, salt, and vinegar, and continue beating until the mixture is well blended. Cool and serve.


VARIETIES OF SALADS AND THEIR PREPARATION

VEGETABLE SALADS

45. With the knowledge already obtained of the food value of the vegetables that are generally used as ingredients in vegetable salads, the housewife ought to have no difficulty in determining whether she is giving her family a salad that is high or low in food value. For instance, she should know that the food value of a plain lettuce or cucumber salad is lower than that of one made from potatoes because of the different values in the vegetables used.. In addition, she ought to be familiar with the fact that the dressing added to salads has, in most cases, greater food value than the other ingredients of the salad. Equipped with such knowledge, she will observe that the vegetable salads here given are comparatively low in food value. Consequently, nearly every one of them will lend itself nicely for use with a dinner or a comparatively heavy meal.

46. In these recipes, as well as in those for the other kinds of salad, the proportion of ingredients may be varied according to the quantity of the particular food in supply. For instance, if a recipe for a salad of peas and celery calls for 1 cupful of each of these vegetables and only 3/4 cupful of celery can be obtained, there is no reason why the difference cannot be made up by using 1 1/4 cupfuls of peas. But if such a change is to be made, the ingredients should be increased or decreased in the correct proportion. Then the quantity of salad that the recipe is intended to produce will not be altered and the housewife will know just how many the salad will serve. In the various recipes, about 1/2 cupful of salad is the quantity allowed for each person. This may be enlarged or made smaller in order to suit the quantity of other foods served at the same meal.

47. ASPARAGUS SALAD--Salad in which asparagus is the chief ingredient is one that may be served during the entire year, for either freshly cooked or canned asparagus may be used; in fact, the canned asparagus is considered by many persons to be better than that which is freshly cooked. It may be cut into inch lengths or the tips may be cut down about 4 inches from the top or even farther.

ASPARAGUS SALAD
(Sufficient to Serve Five)

Garnish salad plates with the lettuce. Place the asparagus tips in an orderly pile on the lettuce leaf. Cut a thin strip of the pimiento, and place this across the tips in the center. Just before serving, pour a spoonful or two of any desired salad dressing over this or place the salad on the table and serve the dressing, allowing each person to take what is desired.

[Illustration: FIG. 2]

48. BEET-AND-BEAN SALAD.--An excellent winter salad and one that may be made from canned or left-over vegetables is beet-and-bean salad. If string beans happen to be left over or only part of a can remains, they may be combined with beets that are canned or freshly cooked for the purpose. This salad should be carefully combined just before serving, since the beets will discolor the rest of the ingredients if it is allowed to stand any length of time.

BEET-AND-BEAN SALAD
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

Cut the string beans into half-inch lengths and cut the beets into half-inch dice. Season each well with salt and pepper. Just before serving, garnish salad plates with lettuce, combine the two vegetables, and place in a heap on a lettuce leaf. Pour French dressing or any other salad dressing desired over them, but do not mix the salad dressing with the vegetables.

[Illustration: FIG. 3] 49. CABBAGE SALAD.--A salad that always finds favor is made by combining cabbage with a boiled salad dressing or with an uncooked sour-cream dressing. Salad of this kind may be served in any desired way, but a rather novel way to serve it is illustrated in Fig. 2. The contents of a head of cabbage is removed, leaving four or five of the outside leaves intact. The shell thus formed is cut into points around the top and then filled with shredded cabbage and the dressing that is to be used. When this is placed on a bed of lettuce, an attractive dish is the result.

To make cabbage salad, select a firm head of cabbage, pull off the outside leaves, and wash. Cut the head in half down through the heart and root and cut each half into quarters. Then, as shown in Fig. 3, place each quarter on a cutting board and with a sharp knife shave off the cabbage. If desired, however, the cabbage may be shredded with a cabbage cutter. If the cabbage, upon being cut, is found to be wilted, place it in cold water and let it stand until it becomes crisp. Drain off the water carefully and allow the cabbage to drip in a colander or dry it between pieces of old linen. With the cabbage thus prepared, season it with salt and mix it with the desired dressing. Serve on lettuce in a salad dish, on individual salad plates, or in the manner shown in Fig. 2.

50. CABBAGE-AND-CELERY SALAD.--Cabbage and celery combine very well, for they are similar in color and crispness. They can be procured at the same time of the year, and while celery is not cheap, cabbage is a comparatively inexpensive food and the two combined make an inexpensive salad. Because the color of both is very much the same, pimiento is added to give a contrasting color.

CABBAGE-AND-CELERY SALAD
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

Cut the cabbage in the manner just explained, cut the celery into thin pieces across the stem, and dice the green pepper or pimiento or both into very small dice. Measure each of these, combine them, season with the salt and vinegar, and just before serving drain carefully. Serve on lettuce with any desired salad dressing.

51. WINTER SALAD.--A salad made entirely of winter vegetables may be prepared when there are no fresh vegetables in supply. If any of the vegetables are left over, the others may be prepared to use with the left-over ones. A good plan to follow when carrots, turnips, or potatoes are being prepared for a meal is to cook more than is necessary for the one meal and then set aside part of them for a salad to be served at another meal.

WINTER SALAD
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Cook turnips, carrots, and potatoes whole in boiling water until tender enough to be pierced with a fork. If they have not been peeled before cooking, peel and cut into small dice. Mix, add the onion, marinate with French dressing, and allow to stand for a short time. Garnish salad plates with lettuce leaves, pile the salad on the lettuce, and serve with any desired salad dressing.

52. CAULIFLOWER SALAD.--Cauliflower makes a rather unusual salad, and for a change it will be found to be delightful. It does not combine with other vegetables very readily, but a cooked floweret or two may often be used to garnish another vegetable salad.

CAULIFLOWER SALAD
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Prepare a head of cauliflower for cooking according to the directions given in Vegetables, Part 1. Cook in boiling salted water until tender, but quite firm. Drain and cool. Arrange the flowerets on a salad plate garnished with lettuce and serve with French dressing or any other desired salad dressing.

53. CAULIFLOWER-AND-TOMATO SALAD.--A salad in which cauliflower and tomatoes are combined is attractive in appearance if it is nicely made. It also has the advantage of being simple to prepare. When cauliflower is cooked for salad, care must be taken not to cook it so long as to discolor it or cause it to fall to pieces.

CAULIFLOWER-AND-TOMATO SALAD
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Select firm, ripe, medium-sized tomatoes. Place them in boiling water to scald them, and then dip them quickly into cold water and remove the skins. Cut out the stem ends and slice each tomato half way between the stem and blossom ends. Place each half tomato on a salad plate garnished with a lettuce leaf, stick a stem of the cauliflower into the center, and serve with boiled salad dressing or mayonnaise.

54. CELERY SALAD.--One means of using stalks of celery that are just a little too coarse to serve nicely on the table is to combine them with radishes and make a salad. The more tender celery, of course, makes a better salad. If the radishes selected for the salad are of the red variety and they are used without peeling, they add a touch of color to the dish.

CELERY SALAD
(Sufficient to Serve Five)

Cut the celery into fine dice, and dice the radishes more finely than the celery. Mix the two together, add the onion, and just before serving mix with any desired salad dressing. Serve on salad plates garnished with lettuce.

55. SLICED CUCUMBER-AND-ONION SALAD.--An attractive way in which to serve sliced cucumbers and onions is shown in Fig. 4. A single large cucumber should be selected for this salad, and Bermuda onions with a mild flavor will be found to be best.

[Illustration: FIG. 4]

With a sharp knife, peel the skin from the cucumber in narrow strips back to the stem end, but do not cut the strips loose from the end. After the peeling has all been removed, place the cucumber on a board and cut it into thin slices. Place on a small platter, as shown, arrange slices of onion around the edge, and pour French dressing over the whole. Dust with paprika and serve. A number of slices of cucumber and one or two slices of onion should be served to each person.

[Illustration: FIG. 3]

56. CUCUMBER SALAD.--Besides serving plain slices of cucumber on a lettuce leaf, as may be done at any time, cucumbers may be used as an ingredient in the making of many salads. A rather attractive way in which to use cucumbers is shown in Fig. 5 and is explained in the accompanying recipe.

CUCUMBER SALAD
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Peel the cucumbers, cut them into halves, and with a small spoon scoop out the cucumbers in chunks, so that a boat-shaped piece of cucumber that is about 1/4 inch thick remains. Dice the pieces of cucumber which have been scooped from the center, and place the cucumber shells in ice water so as to make them crisp. Mix the diced tomato, celery, and cucumber together, and just before serving drain them carefully so that no liquid remains. Mix with salad dressing, wipe the cucumber shells dry, fill them with the salad mixture, and place on salad plates garnished with lettuce leaves. Cut the pimiento into thin strips, and place three or four strips diagonally across the cucumber, as shown in the illustration.

57. CUCUMBER-AND-TOMATO SALAD.--A salad made of cucumbers and tomatoes is very attractive because of the contrasting colors of the vegetables, and it is at the same time extremely palatable. When such a salad is to be made, small, firm tomatoes and rather large cucumbers that do not contain very large seeds should be selected. Peel the cucumbers and tomatoes and cut them into slices of any desired thickness. Garnish salad plates with lettuce, and on this place a ring of the slices, alternating the tomatoes with the cucumbers. In the center, put a slice of cucumber or tomato and serve with any desired salad dressing.

[Illustration: FIG. 5]

58. ONION SALAD.--To persons who are fond of the flavor of onions, the salad given in the accompanying recipe is very agreeable, but it is a wise plan not to serve onions or salads containing onions unless every one who is served is certain to enjoy them. When a salad is made from onions, a mild onion, such as the Bermuda or Spanish onion, should be selected.

ONION SALAD
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Peel the onions and slice them into thin slices. Chop the parsley and add it to 1 or 2 tablespoonfuls of French dressing. Use comparatively coarse leaves of lettuce and shred them. Arrange the slices of onion on a bed of the shredded lettuce, pour the French dressing with the parsley over all, and serve.

59. PEAS-AND-CELERY SALAD.--Peas may be freshly cooked for peas-and-celery salad, but canned peas will do just as well. Left-over peas not prepared with cream sauce may also be utilized nicely in this way, or if a portion of a can of peas is needed for the meal, the remainder may be used for a smaller quantity of salad than here stated. Boiled salad dressing will be found to be best for this combination of vegetables.

PEAS-AND-CELERY SALAD
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

Drain canned peas as dry as possible and mix with the diced celery. Just before serving, add the salad dressing and mix thoroughly. Serve on salad plates garnished with lettuce.

60. TOMATO SALAD.--Fresh tomatoes make a delightful salad because of their appetizing appearance and color. In fact, when they are placed on a bed of green garnish, nothing can be more delightful. Tomatoes may be served whole on a lettuce leaf or they may be sliced. Then, again, as shown in Fig. 6, they may be cut from the center into sections that are allowed to fall part way open. In any of these forms, they may be served with French dressing, mayonnaise, or any cooked salad dressing.

[Illustration: FIG. 6]
[Illustration: FIG. 7]

61. STUFFED-TOMATO SALAD.--An attractive salad in which vegetables of almost any kind, fresh or canned, may be used to advantage is the stuffed-tomato salad shown in Fig. 7. Medium-sized, well-ripened tomatoes are best to select. The vegetables that may be used for the stuffing are celery, radishes, onions, cucumbers, cooked asparagus, green peas, and string beans. Any one or any desirable combination of these vegetables will make a satisfactory filling.

STUFFED-TOMATO SALAD
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Cut out the stem and blossom ends of the tomatoes and hollow out the center so as to leave a shell. Dice the contents of the tomatoes and mix with the other diced vegetables. Marinate the diced vegetables with French dressing and put into the tomato shells, heaping each one as shown. Place on lettuce leaves and serve with mayonnaise.

62. COMBINATION SALAD.--A combination salad may be made of almost any combination of vegetables. The one given here contains only fresh vegetables, but, if desired, others may be added or some of those mentioned may be omitted. This will be found to be a very attractive way in which to make a large salad to be served from a bowl or a deep plate.

COMBINATION SALAD

Garnish a bowl or a plate with lettuce, arrange on it slices of tomato, Spanish or Bermuda onions, and peppers. Garnish these with radishes cut into rose shape and stems of celery cut in any desired way. Be sure that the vegetables, which should all be crisp and fresh, are thoroughly cleaned and drained before being put on the plate. Add the salad dressing in the preferred way. It may be poured over the vegetables in the large dish, passed to each individual, or put on the salad plates by the person who serves. French dressing is without doubt the most suitable for combination salad, but mayonnaise or cooked salad dressing may be served with it if desired.

63. POTATO SALAD NO. 1.--Potato salad is usually considered to be an economical salad. It may be made with left-over potatoes or potatoes cooked especially for this purpose. If there are in supply a large number of small potatoes, which are difficult to use in ordinary ways, they may be cooked with the skins on and peeled to be used for salad when they have cooled. A boiled salad dressing is perhaps the most desirable for such a salad.

POTATO SALAD No. 1
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

Dice the potatoes into 1/2-inch dice, chop the onion fine, and mix the two. Add the celery seed and parsley and season the whole with salt. Just before serving, mix well with boiled dressing. Garnish a salad bowl or salad plates with lettuce, place the salad on the lettuce, and then garnish with slices of hard-cooked egg.

64. POTATO SALAD NO. 2.--The salad given in the accompanying recipe is perhaps more of a combination of vegetables than it is a potato salad. However, if there is in supply a small amount of celery, or perhaps a cucumber, or both, this is an excellent way in which to make use of them. In addition to the ingredients given in the recipe, others may be added to this salad, such as a few diced radishes, a diced green pepper or two, or a pimiento.

POTATO SALAD No. 2
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Prepare the vegetables in the usual way, dicing them carefully, and just before serving mix them together, season well with salt, and add the salad dressing. Boiled dressing is preferable. Place in a salad bowl or on salad plates garnished with lettuce.

65. OLD-FASHIONED POTATO SALAD.--The potato salad given in this recipe is agreeable to persons who like the flavor of smoked meat. It is an excellent salad to serve for a lunch or a supper with cold ham, frankfurters, or any cold sliced meat.

OLD-FASHIONED POTATO SALAD
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

Slice cold boiled potatoes into medium thick slices. Cut the strips of bacon into small cubes and fry until crisp in a frying pan. Stir the flour into the hot fat, and to this add the vinegar and water. Season this dressing well with salt and pepper and pour it hot over the potatoes, mixing carefully so as not to break the slices. Add the chopped parsley last. Serve warm if desired, or allow it to cool before serving.

66. TOMATO-AND-STRING BEAN SALAD.--Besides being appetizing in flavor and appearance, tomato-and-string-bean salad, which is illustrated in Fig. 8, has the advantage over some salads in that it can be made of either fresh or canned vegetables. For the salad here shown, tomatoes and beans canned by the cold-pack method were used. If it is desired to duplicate this salad, place a canned tomato or a peeled fresh tomato in the center of a plate garnished with lettuce and around it place several piles of three or four canned or freshly cooked beans. Serve with French dressing or any other desired salad dressing.

[Illustration: FIG. 8]

67. STRING-BEAN SALAD.--Either string or wax beans may be used for string-bean salad, which is shown in Fig. 9, and they may be cooked freshly for the purpose or be home canned or commercially canned beans. To make this salad, place a neat pile of beans on a lettuce leaf resting on a plate and moisten with a few drops of vinegar or lemon juice. Serve with mayonnaise or cooked salad dressing. If desired, the beans may be cut into inch lengths and mixed with the dressing, but this does not make so attractive a salad.

68. GREEN-VEGETABLE SALAD.--There are a number of green vegetables that are much used for salad either alone or with other vegetables. All of them are used in practically the same way, but a point that should not be overlooked if an appetizing salad is desired is that they should always be fresh and crisp when served. Any salad dressing that is preferred may be served with them. Chief among these green vegetables come lettuce, including the ordinary leaf lettuce, head lettuce, and romaine lettuce, which is not so common as the other varieties. Several kinds of endive as well as watercress may also be used for salad.

[Illustration: FIG. 9]

COMBINATION FRUIT-AND-VEGETABLE SALADS

69. Sometimes it is desired to make a salad that contains both fruits and vegetables. Various fruits can be used for this purpose, but celery, as has been stated, is about the only vegetable that combines well with fruit, unless, of course, the garnish, which is nearly always a vegetable, is considered a part of the salad. Recipes for several very appetizing salads containing both vegetables and fruits follow.

70. APPLE-AND-CELERY SALAD.--If an excellent winter salad is desired, apple-and-celery salad should be selected, for both celery and apples are best during the winter months. As they are very similar in color, they are not especially appetizing in appearance when combined for a salad, but they make a very popular combination with most persons.

APPLE-AND-CELERY SALAD
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

Prepare the apples and celery as short a time before serving as possible, but if it is necessary that the apples stand for any length of time, sprinkle them with a little lemon juice and water to keep them from turning brown. Just before serving, mix them with the salad dressing. Place on salad plates garnished with lettuce and serve.

71. WALDORF SALAD.--If to the apple-and-celery salad just explained 1/2 cupful of chopped English walnut meats is added, what is known as Waldorf salad will result. The nuts, which should be added to the mixture just before placing it on the table, may be mixed with the other ingredients or they may be placed on top. Nuts that are to be used for such a purpose should not be run through a grinder, but should be cut with a knife or chopped with a chopping knife and bowl.

72. GRAPEFRUIT-AND-CELERY SALAD.--Celery is sometimes used with grapefruit to make a salad. This combination is most often served with French dressing, but any other desirable dressing may be used as well. Prepare the grapefruit in the same way as oranges are prepared for salad, and cut each section into three or four pieces. Add to this an equal amount of diced celery and serve on a lettuce leaf with any desired dressing.


FRUIT SALADS

73. Salads made of fruit are undoubtedly the most delicious that can be prepared. In addition to being delightful in both appearance and flavor, they afford another means of introducing fruit into the diet. As fruit is decidedly beneficial for all persons with a normal digestion, every opportunity to include it in the diet should be grasped.

Some fruit salads are comparatively bland in flavor while others are much more acid, but the mild ones are neither so appetizing nor so beneficial as those which are somewhat tart. Advantage should be taken of the various kinds of fresh fruits during the seasons when they can be obtained, for usually very appetizing salads can be made of them. However, the family need not be deprived of fruit salads during the winter when fresh fruits cannot be secured, for delicious salads can be made from canned and dried fruits, as well as from bananas and citrus fruits, which are usually found in all markets.

74. FRUIT-SALAD DRESSING.--Various dressings may be served with fruit salad, and usually the one selected depends on the preference of those to whom it is served. However, an excellent dressing for salad of this kind and one that most persons find delicious is made from fruit juices thickened by means of eggs. Whenever a recipe in this Section calls for a fruit-salad dressing, this is the one that is intended.

FRUIT-SALAD DRESSING

Mix the fruit juices, add the sugar, beat the eggs slightly, and add them. Put the whole into a double boiler and cook until the mixture begins to thicken. Remove from the fire and beat for a few seconds with a rotary egg beater. Cool and serve.

75. COMBINATION FRUIT SALAD.--The combination of fruits given in the accompanying recipe makes a very good salad, but it need not be adhered to strictly. If one or more of the fruits is not in supply, it may be omitted and some other used. In case canned pineapple is used for the salad, the juice from the fruit may be utilized in making a fruit-salad dressing.

COMBINATION FRUIT SALAD
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Prepare the grapefruit and oranges according to the directions previously given. Slice the banana crosswise into 1/4-inch slices and cut each slice into four sections. Dice the apples and cut the pineapple in narrow wedge-shaped pieces. Mix the fruit just before serving. Add the salad dressing, which may be fruit-salad dressing, French dressing, or some other desirable salad dressing, by mixing it with the fruit or merely pouring it over the top. Serve on salad plates garnished with lettuce leaves. Place a maraschino cherry on top.

76. SUMMER COMBINATION SALAD.--Any agreeable combination of fruits which may be obtained during the same season will be suitable for summer combination salad. The combination given in the accompanying recipe includes strawberries, pineapple, and cherries. However, pineapple and cherries may be used alone, or strawberries and pineapple may be used without the cherries, or red raspberries may be used to garnish such a salad.

SUMMER COMBINATION SALAD
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Prepare the fruits just before serving. Put them together, place on salad plates garnished with lettuce, and serve with the fruit-salad dressing.

77. FILBERT-AND-CHERRY SALAD.--If something different in the way of salad is desired, cherries that have been seeded and then filled with filberts will prove a delightful change. With this salad, which is shown in Fig. 10, any salad dressing may be served, but fruit-salad dressing makes it especially delicious.

[Illustration: FIG. 10]

78. DATE-AND-ENGLISH-WALNUT SALAD.--Persons who are fond of dates will find a salad made of dates and walnuts very palatable. In addition, such a salad is high in food value. Select firm whole dates, wash, and dry between clean towels. Cut a slit in the side of each date and remove the seed. Place half an English walnut meat inside and press the date together. Garnish salad plates with lettuce and serve five or six of the dates in a star shape for each serving. In the center, pour a spoonful or two of cream salad dressing, boiled salad dressing, or any other dressing that may be desired.

79. APPLE-DATE-AND-ORANGE SALAD.--The combination of fruits required by the accompanying recipe is an easy one to procure in the winter time. Apple-and-date salad is a combination much liked, but unless it is served with a rather sour dressing, it is found to be too bland and sweet for most persons. The addition of the orange gives just the acid touch that is necessary to relieve this monotonous sweetness.

APPLE-DATE-AND-ORANGE SALAD
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Peel the apples and dice them into fine pieces. Wash the dates, remove the seeds, and cut each date into six or eight pieces. Prepare the oranges as directed for preparing oranges for salad, and cut each section into two or three pieces. Just before serving, mix the fruits carefully so as not to make the salad look mushy, pile in a neat heap on garnished salad plates, and serve with any desired dressing.

80. CALIFORNIA SALAD.--During the months in which California grapes can be found in the market, a very delicious salad can be made by combining them with grapefruit and oranges. Either Malaga or Tokay grapes may be used.

CALIFORNIA SALAD
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Prepare the grapes by washing them in cold water, cutting them into halves, and removing the seeds. Remove the sections from the oranges and grapefruit in the way previously directed, and cut each section into three or four pieces. Mix the fruits and drain carefully so that they contain no juice or liquid. Pile in a heap on salad plates garnished with lettuce and serve with any desired dressing.

81. BANANA-AND-PEANUT SALAD.--A very good fruit-and-nut combination for a salad consists of bananas and ground peanuts. The bananas, after being cut in half lengthwise, are rolled in the peanuts, placed on a lettuce leaf, and served with dressing. If it is desired to improve the flavor, the bananas may be dipped into the salad dressing before being rolled in the peanuts.

Peel the required number of bananas, scrape the pithy material from their surface, and cut in half lengthwise. Grind the peanuts rather fine and roll each half of banana in them. Place on a garnished salad plate and serve with boiled dressing.

82. FRUIT IN CANTALOUPE SHELLS.--During cantaloupe season, a delightful fruit salad can be made by combining several different kinds of fruit with the meat of cantaloupe and serving the mixture in the cantaloupe shells. Such a salad is an excellent one to serve when dainty refreshments are desired or when something unusual is wanted for a nice luncheon.

Cut cantaloupes in half crosswise, and, using the French cutter, cut some of the meat into round balls. Dice the remainder and mix with any combination of fruit desired. Place this in the cantaloupe shells after cutting points in the top edge. Garnish with the balls cut from the cantaloupe and serve with any desired dressing.

83. PINEAPPLE-AND-NUT SALAD.--Because of its refreshing flavor, pineapple makes a delicious salad. It may be combined with various foods, but is very good when merely nuts and salad dressing are used, as in the accompanying recipe.

Place slices of canned pineapple on salad plates garnished with lettuce leaves. Mix whipped cream with salad dressing until the dressing becomes stiff, and place a spoonful or two of this in the center of each slice of pineapple. Sprinkle generously with chopped nuts, English walnuts or pecans being preferable.

HIGH-PROTEIN SALADS

84. Salads that are made with cheese, eggs, fish, or meat may be classed as HIGH-PROTEIN SALADS, for, as has already been learned, these foods are characterized by the protein they contain. Of course, those made almost entirely of meat or fish are higher in this food substance than the others. However, the salads that contain a combination of cheese and fruit are comparatively high in protein, and at the same time they supply to the diet what is desirable in the way of a fruit salad.

[Illustration: FIG. 11]

85. POINSETTIA SALAD--Cream cheese, such as Neufchâtel or Philadelphia cream cheese, combines very well with some fruits and vegetables. It is used with pineapple and cherries in the preparation of poinsettia salad, which is illustrated in Fig. 11. As can be imagined, this makes a pretty decoration for a Christmas table or a salad to be served around holiday time.

POINSETTIA SALAD
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Mix the cream cheese with the cream and salt, and form this into small round balls with the fingers. Place the rounds of pineapple on salad plates garnished with lettuce, and put the cheese ball in the center of the pineapple. Cut the maraschino cherries in half, and then cut each half into narrow strips that resemble petals of a flower. Place five or six of these over the top of the cream cheese with the points meeting in the center, as shown in the illustration. Serve with any desired dressing, but instead of adding the dressing to the salad put it in a mayonnaise bowl and allow each person at the table to add it.

[Illustration: FIG. 12]

SALADS AND SANDWICHES

86. PEACH-AND-CREAM-CHEESE SALAD--An excellent way of using canned peaches is to combine them with cream cheese for a salad, as shown in Fig. 12. If a smaller salad is desired, half a peach may be used and the cheese placed on top of it. Firm yellow peaches are the best ones to use for this dish.

PEACH-AND-CREAM-CHEESE SALAD
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

Mix the cream and salt with the cheese and shape into balls. Place a ball between two peach halves, and press them together tightly. Place on garnished salad plates, pour salad dressing over the top, and garnish with two halves of the nuts. If desired, the nuts may be chopped and sprinkled over the top.

[Illustration: FIG. 13]

87. PEAR-AND-CHEESE SALAD--If other fruits are not in supply for use in salad and pears can be obtained, they may be utilized with cream cheese in a pleasing way, as Fig. 13 shows.

PEAR-AND-CHEESE SALAD
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

Mix the cream and salt with the cheese and shape into balls. Place one-half of a pear with the hollow side up on a salad plate garnished with a lettuce leaf and the other half with the hollow side down beside it. Put a ball of the cheese in the hollow of the upturned half and press half an English walnut on top of that. Add the dressing and serve. French dressing is recommended for this salad, but some other salad dressing will answer.

[Illustration: FIG. 14]
[Illustration: FIG. 15]

88. Green-Pepper-and-Cheese Salad.-In Fig. 14 is shown a vegetable-and-cheese combination in the form of a salad made of green pepper and cheese. To make this kind of salad, select firm green peppers, one being sufficient if a large one can be obtained. Season cream cheese well with paprika and a little additional salt if necessary. Cut the top from the pepper, clean out the inside, and pack tight with the cheese. Cut the filled pepper into thin slices, place two or three of these slices on a salad plate garnished with lettuce leaves, and serve with French dressing.

89. DAISY SALAD.--If an effective, somewhat ornamental salad is desired, daisy salad, which is illustrated in Fig. 15, will prove satisfactory. As will be observed, this salad resembles a daisy. To make it, cut celery into strips about 2 inches long and trim one end of each round. These strips will serve to represent the daisy petals. Place them on salad plates garnished with lettuce, laying them so that they radiate from the center and their round ends are toward the outside of the plate. Then, for the center of the daisy effect, cut the yolks of hard-cooked eggs into halves and place one half, with the rounded side up, on the ends of the celery. Serve with French dressing.

[Illustration: FIG. 16]

90. HUMPTY DUMPTY SALAD.--In Fig. 16 is shown an attractive-appearing and extremely appetizing salad known as Humpty Dumpty salad. It consists of tomatoes and hard-cooked eggs garnished with pieces of stuffed olives, the manner in which the egg is placed in each portion accounting for its name.

For this salad, select rather small, firm, ripe tomatoes. Peel them in the usual way, and when cutting out the stem remove a sufficient portion of the tomato to accommodate the end of an egg. Place each tomato with this part uppermost on a salad plate garnished with lettuce. Cut the hard-cooked eggs into halves, crosswise, remove the yolk and mash and season it with salt, pepper, and a little vinegar. Replace the yolk in the white and force this into the depression in the tomato. Place a stuffed olive in the egg yolk and serve with French or other desired salad dressing.

91. WATER-LILY SALAD.--A means of using eggs in salad without the addition of other foods is found in water-lily salad, which is illustrated in Fig. 17. If eggs are to be served for a luncheon or some other light meal, this method may add a little variety to the usual ways of serving them.

[Illustration: Fig. 17]

Hard-cook one egg for each person to be served, remove the shells, and cut the eggs into halves, lengthwise. Remove the yolks, mash them, and season with salt, pepper, and vinegar. Cut the halves of egg whites into three or four pointed pieces, cutting from end to end of the half. Place these in a star shape on salad plates garnished with lettuce. Form the seasoned egg yolk into a ball and place it in the center over the ends of the egg whites. Serve with any desired salad dressing.

92. EASTER SALAD.--Cream cheese makes an attractive salad when formed into egg-shaped balls and served in a nest of shredded lettuce. To prepare this salad, which is known as Easter salad, shred lettuce finely and place it in the shape of a nest on salad plates. Make tiny egg-shaped balls of cream cheese moistened with sufficient cream to handle. Place three or four of these in the inside of the lettuce. Dust with paprika and serve with any desired dressing.

93. SALMON SALAD.--Persons who are fond of salmon will find salmon salad a very agreeable dish. In addition to affording a means of varying the diet, this salad makes a comparatively cheap high-protein dish that is suitable for either supper or luncheon.

SALMON SALAD
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Look the salmon over carefully, removing any skin and bones. Break into medium-sized pieces and mix carefully with the celery, onion, and chopped pickles. Marinate this with the French dressing, taking care not to break up the salmon. Drain and serve with any desired salad dressing on salad plates garnished with lettuce.

94. TUNA-FISH SALAD.--A salad that is both attractive and appetizing can be made by using tuna fish as a foundation. This fish, which is grayish-white in color, can be obtained in cans like salmon. As it is not high in price, it gives the housewife another opportunity to provide her family with an inexpensive protein dish.

TUNA-FISH SALAD
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Open a can of tuna fish, measure 1 cupful, and place in a bowl. Dice the celery and cucumber, mix with the fish, and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Dilute some vinegar with water, using half as much water as vinegar, and sprinkle enough of this over the mixture to flavor it slightly. Allow the mixture to stand for about 1/2 hour in a refrigerator or some other cold place and just before serving pour off this liquid. Heap the salad on lettuce leaves, pour a spoonful of mayonnaise over each portion, and serve.

95. LOBSTER OR CRAB SALAD.--Lobster salad and crab salad are made in practically the same way, so that a recipe for one may be used for the other. The meat may be either fresh or canned, but, of course, fresh lobster or crab meat is more desirable if it can be obtained.

LOBSTER OR CRAB SALAD
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Chill lobster or crab meat and add the diced celery. Marinate with French dressing, and allow this mixture to stand for 1/2 hour or so before serving. Keep as cold as possible. Drain off the French dressing and heap the salad mixture on garnished salad plates or in a salad bowl garnished with lettuce. Pour mayonnaise dressing over the top, garnish with slices of hard-cooked egg, and serve.

[Illustration: Fig. 18]

96. SHRIMP SALAD.--Shrimps may be used in an attractive salad in the manner shown in Fig. 18. Persons who care for sea food find this a most appetizing dish. Like lobster and crab, shrimp may be purchased in cans, and so it is possible to have this salad at any season.

First marinate the shrimps with French dressing and then heap them on a plate garnished with lettuce leaves. Add thin slices of hard-cooked egg whites, and place a tender heart of celery in the center of the plate. If desired, some thin slices of celery may be marinated with the shrimp. Serve with mayonnaise dressing.

97. CHICKEN SALAD.--A favored means of using left-over chicken is to make chicken salad of it. It is well, however, if the chicken can be prepared especially for the salad and the nicer pieces of meat used. This is usually done when chicken salad is to be served at a party or special dinner. If the chicken is scarce, veal or pork may be substituted for one-third or one-fourth of the meat.

CHICKEN SALAD
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Cut the meat from the bones of a chicken and dice it. Dice the celery, clean the green pepper, and cut it into small pieces. Mix the pepper and the celery with the chicken. Marinate with French dressing, chill, and allow to stand for about 1/2 hour. Drain the dressing from the salad mixture, serve in a garnished salad bowl or on garnished salad plates, pour mayonnaise over the top, and garnish with strips of pimiento.

[Illustration: FIG. 19]

98. STUFFED CELERY.--An appetizing relish may be prepared by stuffing celery in the manner shown in Fig. 19. Stuffed celery is not exactly a salad, but it may be used to take the place of a salad in a meal. It is often served with soup as an appetizer, but since it is high in food value it deserves a place of greater prominence in the meal. Any desirable cheese may be used to make the stuffing. Roquefort cheese is probably the most popular one, but many persons do not care for it. Cream cheese, ordinary American cheese, or even cottage cheese finely mashed may be used for this purpose.

Put into a bowl the quantity of cheese needed to fill the number of stalks of celery desired, mash it finely with a fork, and mix it with cream or salad dressing until it is of a thick, creamy consistency. Season highly with a dash of red pepper and salt and, if desired, mix with very finely chopped nuts. Fill the hollows of the stems of celery with the mixture, sprinkle with paprika, and serve on a plate garnished with lettuce.


SANDWICHES

NATURE OF SANDWICHES

99. When salads are mentioned, Sandwiches naturally come to the mind, for while they have many other uses, they are often served as an accompaniment to a salad. Sandwiches are generally thought of as two thin slices of bread put together with a filling, such as meat, cheese, fruit, etc. However, there are as many varieties of sandwiches as of salads and they serve a large number of purposes. For instance, they may be merely two pieces of buttered bread put together or they may be elaborate both as to shape and contents. In reality, many different things are considered as sandwiches. Sometimes one piece of bread spread with a filling and usually decorated in some way is served with afternoon tea or a very light luncheon. Then, again, sandwiches often consist of three layers of bread instead of two, and for other kinds the bread is toasted instead of being used plain.

As in the case of salads, the housewife must determine from their composition, the place that sandwiches should take in the meal, for their food value depends on what is used with the bread. A sandwich that is high in food value may be used as the main dish in a light meal, while one that is comparatively low in this respect generally accompanies another dish, as, for instance, a salad, or is used to take the place of plain bread.


GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF SANDWICH MAKING

100. BREAD FOR SANDWICHES.--Although sandwiches vary greatly in both form and contents, bread or something that may be substituted for it always forms the foundation of this class of food. White bread is much employed for this purpose, but rye, graham, brown, or whole-wheat bread, or in fact any other desirable kind, may be used, depending on the nature of the sandwich or the kind preferred. Several matters concerning the bread that is used, however, should receive attention if successful sandwiches are to be the result.

[Illustration: Fig. 20]

101. In the first place, the bread used should be at least 24 hours old, as difficulty will be experienced in cutting bread that is any fresher. Another requirement is that the bread should be firm and of a comparatively fine texture. The shape of the loaf must also be taken into consideration. As is easily understood, there will be a considerable waste of bread if a round sandwich is made from a square loaf or a square sandwich is cut from a round loaf. When round sandwiches are desired, it is advisable to bake the bread in round loaves, unless some good use can be made of the bread that is trimmed off in cutting the sandwiches.

102. For sandwich making, bakers often sell special sandwich bread. Some persons prefer sandwiches made of such bread, but, as a rule, it will be found easier to use the ordinary bread baked by the baker or bread that is baked in the home for this purpose. When bread is being made for sandwiches, a good plan is to give the dough a little additional kneading and, toward the end of the kneading, to work in a small amount of flour, perhaps a little extra sugar, and, if desired, an egg. Then, if it is not allowed to rise as much as usual, it will make a bread that is finer in texture and easier to handle.

103. UTENSILS FOR SANDWICH MAKING.--Very few utensils are required for the making of sandwiches, but those which are used must be of the right kind if well-made sandwiches are desired. To cut the bread, a large sharp knife must be used, for, generally, the bread is required to be cut thin and this cannot be done successfully unless the knife is sufficiently sharp. In addition, a case knife or a small spatula is needed for the spreading of the bread. If sandwiches in any quantity are to be spread with a filling besides butter, two case knives or a case knife and a spatula should be provided.

104. MAKING SANDWICHES.--The point that should be remembered about sandwiches is that they should be as dainty as possible. Therefore, the bread should usually be cut thin and the crust should be removed. If a large number of sandwiches are to be made, it is often a good idea to remove the crust from the loaf, as shown in Fig. 20, before slicing the bread. More frequently, however, the cutting is done first, as in Fig. 21. Then after the bread is spread, the crust is removed from a pile of slices at a time. A little difficulty will be experienced in making sandwiches unless care is taken in matching the slices. After being cut, they should be laid out in pairs with corresponding sides together, so that when they are spread two pieces that do not fit will not have to be put together.

[Illustration: Fig 21] [Illustration: Fig. 22]

The plan of spreading the end of the loaf and then slicing off the piece that is spread is sometimes advocated, but it is not recommended, for it has no special advantage and then, too, the bread is difficult to handle after it has been spread.

105. No matter what kind of filling is to be used for sandwiches, the slices are usually buttered before the filling is applied. To make the butter soft enough to spread easily, it should be creamed with a spoon, as shown in Fig. 22, but it should never be melted. With the bread sliced and the butter creamed, one of a pair of slices should be spread with butter, as in Fig. 23, and the other with filling, and then the two slices should be put together. After a number of sandwiches have been made, they should be placed on top of one another and, as shown in Fig. 24, the crusts should be cut from a small pile at one time.

[Illustration: Fig. 23]   [Illustration: Fig. 24]

Sometimes, if sandwiches are being made in quantity, the butter is worked into the filling instead of being spread on the bread. As this plan saves time and does not detract from the food value of the sandwich, it may be followed whenever it seems advisable.

106. Variety can be obtained from time to time in the shapes of sandwiches by cutting the bread in different ways. For instance, one time it may be cut into strips lengthwise, another time into halves crosswise, and again, diagonally, so as to form triangular pieces. To vary the sandwich filling, a lettuce leaf may be placed on the buttered slice of the bread and the slice containing the filling put on top of this. Lettuce used in this way makes a delightful addition to cheese, meat, egg, or vegetable sandwiches.

107. It is often necessary to make sandwiches some time before they are to be served. In such an event, they should be kept moistened so that they will be fresh when they are served. To accomplish this, they may be wrapped first in oiled paper and then in a damp towel, or if oiled paper is not in supply, the towel alone will answer the purpose, provided it is not made too damp and a dry towel is wrapped on the outside.


PREPARATION OF SANDWICHES

BREAD-AND-BUTTER SANDWICHES

108. Often it is desired to serve bread and butter with a certain dish and yet something more is wanted than just two pieces of bread spread with butter and put together. While bread-and-butter sandwiches are probably the simplest kind that can be made, variety can be obtained in them if the housewife will exercise a little ingenuity. Fig. 25 shows what can be done in the way of bread-and-butter sandwiches with very little effort, for the two plates on the left contain sandwiches made merely of bread and butter.

[Illustration: Fig. 25]

109. ROUND SANDWICHES.--The round sandwiches on the rear left plate in Fig. 25 can be made of brown bread or of white bread, or both varieties may be served in the event that some one does not care for brown bread. To make these, cut slices of bread from a loaf and, by means of a round cutter, cut them round in shape. Out of the top slice of each sandwich, cut a round hole with a small round cutter or a thimble. After spreading both slices with butter and placing them together, cut a thick slice from a stuffed olive and insert this in the hole in the top slice.

110. RIBBON SANDWICHES.--The sandwiches on the plate in front in Fig. 25 are known as ribbon sandwiches. To make these, cut white bread and graham bread in very thin slices, butter them, and then alternate a slice of white with a slice of graham until there are three or four layers. Place the pile under a weight until the butter becomes hard and then cut down in thin slices. The attractive sandwiches here shown will be the result.

111. CHECKERBOARD SANDWICHES.--Another way of serving bread and butter is in the form of checkerboard sandwiches. These are no more difficult to make than the ribbon sandwiches, but the slices of the bread must be cut evenly and all must be of the same thickness. In addition, the bread should be firm and close-grained and the butter should be put on thickly enough to make the slices of bread stick together. Cut three slices each of graham bread and white bread 1/2 inch in thickness. Spread one side of each slice thickly with butter. Place a slice of graham between two slices of white bread and a slice of white between two slices of graham. Trim these piles evenly and cut them into 1/2-inch slices. Butter these slices and put them together so that brown bread will alternate with white and white with brown. Place the slices under a weight in a cool place until the butter becomes perfectly hard. Then cut them into thin slices for serving and they will be found to resemble a checkerboard.


VEGETABLE SANDWICHES

112. Certain vegetables may be used with bread and butter to make very appetizing sandwiches. The vegetables most often used for this purpose are lettuce, tomatoes, cucumbers, celery, and onions. Generally, when vegetables are to be used for sandwich filling, the sandwiches should be made immediately before they are to be served, as they are apt to become moist if they are allowed to stand very long. An exception to this is celery sandwiches, which are made in the form of rolls and which must stand piled close together for some time in order for the butter to become hard enough to stick them together.

113. LETTUCE SANDWICHES.--Cut white bread into slices about 1/4 inch thick and spread these thinly with butter. Place a leaf or two of tender lettuce between each two slices and spread with thick salad dressing. Put the slices of bread together, trim off the edges of the lettuce and the crusts if desired, and serve.

114. TOMATO SANDWICHES.--Slice bread about 1/4 inch thick and spread the slices with butter. Peel firm red tomatoes and cut them into thin slices. Cover one slice of bread with a slice of tomato, spread this with thick salad dressing, and, if desired, place a lettuce leaf over this. Cover with a second slice of bread, trim the edges, and serve.

115. CUCUMBER SANDWICHES.--Peel and slice into thin slices a medium-sized cucumber that does not contain large seeds. Place the slices in very cold water to make them crisp. Slice bread about 1/4 inch thick and spread the slices with butter. Place thin slices of cucumber on one piece, spread with thick salad dressing, and put a lettuce leaf on top of this, if desired. Cover with the second slice of bread, trim the edges, and serve.

[Illustration: Fig. 26]

116. ROLLED CELERY SANDWICHES.--Cut 1/4-inch slices from a comparatively fresh loaf of bread. Trim the crusts and spread with butter. Cut the stems of tender celery into pieces that are as long as the bread is wide. Place the celery on one edge of the bread, fill the center of the stem with salad dressing, and roll the celery into the bread like a jelly roll. Place a moist napkin in the bottom of a bread pan and stack the rolls in rows, with the loose edge down, so that they will stay rolled. When all have been placed in the pan, fold the edges of the napkin across the top and allow them to stand for a few hours before serving. This cannot be done with bread that is dry. If the sandwiches are to be served at once, the edges will have to be tied or fastened with toothpicks.

In case it is desired not to use celery in rolled sandwiches, a filling of cream cheese or jam may be added after the bread is buttered and each piece then rolled in the manner explained. An idea of how attractive rolled sandwiches are may be obtained from Fig. 26. When served in a decorated sandwich basket, as shown, these sandwiches give a very dainty touch to a luncheon or a tea.

117. ONION-AND-PEPPER SANDWICHES.--Cut bread into slices about 1/4 inch thick and spread these with butter. Slice Spanish or Bermuda onions into thin slices and cut a green pepper into thin rings. Place a slice of the onion on one piece of buttered bread and on top of this put two or three rings of green pepper. If desired, spread with salad dressing, or merely season the onion with salt and pepper. Place the second slice of bread on top, trim the edges, and serve.


FRUIT SANDWICHES

118. Sandwiches that have fruit for their filling appeal to many persons. For the most part, dried fruits are used for this purpose and they usually require cooking. Another type of fruit sandwich is that which has jelly or marmalade for its filling. As fruit sandwiches are sweet and not very hearty, they are much served for afternoon tea or to provide variety when another kind of sandwich is being served.

119. DATE SANDWICHES.--To any one who desires a sweet sandwich, the date sandwich in the accompanying recipe will be found to be very agreeable. Not all sandwich fillings seem to be satisfactory with other bread than white, but the filling here given can be utilized with white, graham, or whole-wheat bread.

DATE FILLING

Wash the dates and remove the seeds. Steam them over hot water or in a double boiler until they are soft, and then mash them thoroughly. Squeeze the juice from the lemon, grate the yellow part of the rind and mix with the juice, and add both to the steamed dates. Then add the nut meats chopped very fine.

To make the sandwiches, cut thin slices of bread and spread one slice with butter and the corresponding slice with the date filling. Place the two together, trim the crusts if desired, and serve.

120. FRUIT SANDWICHES.--The three fruits mentioned in the accompanying recipe may be used in equal proportions as here given, only two of them may be utilized, or the proportions may be changed to suit the supply on hand. This sandwich may be made with white bread, brown bread, graham bread, or whole-wheat bread.

FRUIT FILLING

Wash the dates, figs, and raisins, and remove the stones from the dates. Steam all together until they are soft, mash thoroughly, and add the juice and the grated rind of the orange.

Cut thin slices of bread, spread one slice with butter, and spread the opposite slice with this filling. Place the two together, trim the edges if desired, and serve.

121. APRICOT SANDWICHES.--To people who are fond of apricots, sandwiches containing apricot filling are very delicious. If jelly or marmalade is plentiful, it may be used in place of the apricots to make the sandwich.

APRICOT FILLING

Wash and soak the apricots, and when they are thoroughly softened cook them until tender in just enough water to keep them from burning. Put them through a sieve or a colander and add the sugar, cinnamon, and lemon juice to the pulp. Place over the fire and cook until the mixture becomes thick, stirring constantly to keep it from scorching. Set aside to cool.

Cut bread into thin slices, butter one slice, and spread the other of each pair of slices with the apricot filling. Put each two slices together and trim the edges if desired. Serve.

122. JELLY AND MARMALADE SANDWICHES.--Jelly and marmalade always make acceptable filling for sandwiches, and as these foods are usually in supply sandwiches containing them require less trouble to prepare than do most sandwiches. Then, too, if two kinds of sandwiches are to be served for a tea or a little lunch, sandwiches of this kind are very nice for the second one. They are made in the usual way, but if the jelly or marmalade is very thin, it is an excellent plan to spread each slice of bread used for the sandwich thinly with butter so that the filling will not soak into the bread.

Slices of Boston brown bread steamed in small round cans, such as baking-powder cans, and a filling of jelly or marmalade make dainty little sandwiches for afternoon tea.


HIGH-PROTEIN SANDWICHES

123. When sandwiches of a substantial nature are desired, those in which high-protein foods are used as fillings will be found very acceptable. Here considerable variety may be had, for there are a number of these foods that make excellent fillings. Some sandwiches of this kind are suitable for serving with salads while others, such as those containing meat or chicken, are very satisfactory for picnics or light lunches.

124. JELLY-AND-CREAM-CHEESE SANDWICHES.--A sandwich that is very dainty as well as unusually good is made by using both jelly and cream cheese for filling. Sandwiches of this kind are shown on the plate to the right in Fig. 25. If a red jelly, such as currant jelly, is used, the appearance of the sandwich will be better than if a light jelly or a very dark jelly is used.

Cut the bread very thin and match three slices for the sandwich instead of two. Spread the first piece thinly with butter and spread the opposite side of the second piece with jelly. Place this on the buttered bread and spread the other side with cream cheese. Spread another piece with butter and place this on top of the cream cheese. Trim the edges if desired, and cut into narrow strips. Serve.

125. RYE-BREAD-AND-CHEESE SANDWICHES.--Rye bread and cheese make a favored combination with many persons. Swiss cheese is an excellent kind to serve with rye bread, but the American-made Cheddar cheese does very nicely if the other cannot be procured.

Cut rye bread into slices about 1/4 inch thick. Spread them very thinly with butter, and between each two slices place a thin slice of the cheese. Serve mustard with sandwiches of this kind for any one who may desire it.

126. CHEESE SANDWICHES.--Cheese combined with pimiento, sweet pickles, olives, and nuts makes a filling that has an excellent flavor. Sandwiches containing this filling will be found to be very good for picnics or lunches. Their food value, which, of course, is high, depends somewhat on the amount of filling used.

CHEESE FILLING

Put the cheese through a grinder unless it is soft enough to mash. Chop the pimiento, pickles, nuts, and olives quite fine and add the cheese. Work together with a spoon. Cut bread into thin slices, spread one piece with butter, the other one with the cheese filling, place the two together, trim if desired, and serve.

127. CHEESE-AND-NUT SANDWICHES.--Cream cheese is used in the accompanying recipe, but other cheese may be substituted for it if desired. Sandwiches containing this filling are high in both protein and fat, and may be served very nicely with a vegetable salad.

CHEESE-AND-NUT FILLING

Mash the cheese with a spoon and add the salad dressing. Just before making the sandwiches, add the nut meats, which have been chopped very fine. If this mixture is put together and allowed to stand for any length of time before serving, the filling will grow dark.

Cut bread thinly, butter one slice, place filling on the opposite slice, put together, trim if desired, and serve.

128. PEANUT-BUTTER SANDWICHES.--Peanut butter alone makes a rather dry sandwich, as it has a peculiar consistency that makes it difficult to swallow without moistening. This condition can be overcome by adding a little salad dressing to the peanut butter.

Place a few tablespoonfuls of peanut butter in a bowl and pour a sufficient amount of salad dressing into it to moisten it enough to spread. Season with salt. Cut slices of bread thin, spread one piece with butter, the opposite piece with peanut butter, place together, trim if desired, and serve.

129. HARD-COOKED-EGG SANDWICHES.--An excellent sandwich filling can be made by seasoning hard-cooked eggs and combining them with vinegar. To make this filling, cook the desired number of eggs until they are hard. Remove them from the shells and put them through a sieve. Season well with salt and pepper and then add sufficient vinegar to make them of a good consistency to spread. Cut bread thin, spread one piece with butter, and the opposite piece with the egg mixture. Put them together, trim the edges if desired, and serve.

130. MEAT SANDWICHES.--Cold cooked meat may be used in sandwiches in the usual way by putting thin slices between buttered bread, or it may be put through the grinder or chopped finely and then mixed with salad dressing until thin enough to spread. With the meat may also be chopped pickles, olives, a small amount of onion, green pepper, pimiento, or anything desired for flavoring. Left-over roast meat that will not slice very well and trimmings from ham may be utilized in this way.

When a filling of chopped meat is to be used, slice bread thin, spread one slice with butter and the opposite slice with the meat filling. Put together, trim if desired, and serve.

131. CHICKEN SANDWICHES.--Cold chicken sliced thinly, put between pieces of crisp toast, and spread with salad dressing, makes a sandwich that is most delicious and offers a pleasant change from the usual plain-bread sandwich. Cut bread 1/4 inch thick and toast it a delicate brown on both sides. Spread thinly with butter when it comes from the toaster. Between each two pieces place thin slices of chicken. Spread the chicken with a small amount of salad dressing, place a lettuce leaf on top of this, and cover with a second piece of toast. Serve.

132. CHICKEN-SALAD SANDWICHES.--When there is on hand only a small amount of chicken that is perhaps not in the right condition for slicing, it is a good plan to make a salad of it and use this for sandwich filling. If necessary, a little veal or pork may be used with the chicken.

CHICKEN-SALAD FILLING

Chop all the ingredients very fine, mix together, and season well with salt and pepper. Add sufficient salad dressing to moisten well. Cut bread thin and spread a slice with butter and another slice with the sandwich mixture. Place a lettuce leaf over this, put the two pieces of bread together, trim and serve.


HOT SANDWICHES

133. All the sandwiches thus far discussed are served cold, but various hot sandwiches can also be made. As these generally have meat or a high-protein food for their filling, they may be used as the main dish in the meal in which they are served. Sandwiches of this kind are excellent for a light luncheon or for supper.

134. HOT-MEAT SANDWICHES.--If both meat and gravy remain from a roast, a very excellent luncheon dish may be made by slicing the meat thin, placing it on slices of bread, and pouring the gravy, which has been heated, over both the bread and meat. There may be a second layer of bread on top of the meat if desired.

135. HOT FRIED-EGG SANDWICHES.--A very good way in which to serve eggs is to sauté them and then make sandwiches of them. Spread slices of bread thinly with butter. Break the desired number of eggs into a frying pan with melted butter or other fat, season with salt and pepper, and fry on one side. Then turn and fry on the other side until the yolk becomes quite hard. Place an egg on one slice of the buttered bread, place a second slice over this, and serve while hot.

136. HAM-AND-EGG SANDWICHES.--The combination of ham and eggs is always a good one, but it becomes especially palatable when used in a sandwich, as here explained. Slice boiled ham into thin slices and sauté in hot fat for a few minutes. Then break into a bowl as many eggs as will be required, beat slightly, and pour over the slices of ham in the frying pan. When the mass has cooked well on one side, turn and cook on the opposite side. There should not be sufficient egg to make this very thick. Season well with salt and pepper and when the mixture is thoroughly cooked, cut it into pieces of a size to fit the bread used for the sandwiches. Cut the bread, butter it slightly, place a piece of the ham-and-egg mixture between each two slices of bread, and serve hot. If desired, toast may be used in place of bread and a more delicious sandwich will be the result.

137. CLUB SANDWICHES.--Nothing in the way of sandwiches is more delicious than club sandwiches if they are properly made. They involve a little more work than most sandwiches, but no difficulty will be experienced in making them if the directions here given are carefully followed. The ingredients necessary for sandwiches of this kind are bread, lettuce, salad dressing, bacon, and chicken. The quantity of each required will depend on whether a two- or a three-layer sandwich is made and the number of sandwiches to be served.

Cut the bread into slices about 1/4 inch thick and cut each slice diagonally across to form two triangular pieces. Trim the crust and toast the bread on a toaster until it is a light brown on both sides and then butter slightly if desired. Slice chicken into thin slices. Broil strips of bacon until they are crisp. On a slice of toast, place a lettuce leaf and then a layer of sliced chicken, and spread over this a small quantity of salad dressing, preferably mayonnaise. On top of this, place strips of the broiled bacon and then a second slice of toast. If desired, repeat the first layer and place on top of it a third slice of toast. This should be served while the bacon is still hot. Thin slices of tomato may also be used in each layer of this sandwich if desired.

138. CHEESE DREAMS.--With persons who are fond of melted cheese, a favorite kind of sandwich is that known as cheese dreams. These make a good dish for a Sunday evening supper or for an evening lunch.

Cut bread about 1/4 inch thick. Cut slices of cheese about half as thick, and between each two slices of bread place a slice of the cheese. Place these on a broiler, broil first on one side and then on the other until the cheese is thoroughly melted, or sauté the sandwiches in a frying pan with melted butter, first on one side and then on the other. Serve while hot.


OPEN SANDWICHES

139. If sandwiches that are entirely different and at the same time attractive are desired for an afternoon tea or to serve with a salad, open sandwiches will undoubtedly find favor. Fig. 27 illustrates several varieties of such sandwiches and shows how artistically they can be made. These are merely submitted as suggestions, but with a little ingenuity, the housewife may work out in designs any ideas she may have. To make such sandwiches attractive, fancy cutters of various shapes will be found helpful. As here shown, round, diamond-shaped, crescent-shaped, triangular, and star-shaped cutters have been used.

140. The most suitable materials for open sandwiches include cream cheese, jam, stuffed olives, chopped parsley, hard-cooked eggs with the yolks or whites forced through a ricer, pimiento cut into attractive shapes, and any other material that will add either flavor or color. Either white or brown bread may be used. After cutting the bread in the preferred shapes, spread first with butter, if desired, and then with cream cheese, jam, or jelly. With this done, decorate the sandwiches in any desired way. Slices of stuffed olives are placed in the center of several here shown and strips or small pieces of pimiento are used for much of the decoration. On those that have jam or jelly for their foundation, cream cheese put through a pastry tube forms the decoration.

[Illustration: FIG. 27]

141. If an accompaniment for a salad is desired and time will not permit the making of open sandwiches, small crisp crackers, decorated with cream cheese, as shown in Fig. 28, will be a very good substitute. These are excellent with a vegetable or a fruit salad; also, when served after the dessert they make a good final course to a meal.

[Illustration: FIG. 28]

To prepare them, add cream to cream cheese until it is thin enough to be forced through a pastry bag. Using the rosette tube in the bag, make a single rosette in the center of each wafer. Dust with paprika and serve.

CANAPES

142. CANAPES.--Although differing somewhat from the open sandwiches that have been described, canapes are usually placed under this head. Canapes are small pieces of bread toasted or sautéd in butter and then spread with some highly seasoned material, such as caviar, anchovy paste, well-seasoned smoked or canned salmon, or a vegetable mixture. They are served either hot or cold as an appetizer or as a first course for lunch or dinner.

To make canapes, toast or sauté slices of bread and cut them into any shape desired. Cover each piece with a thin layer of the material to be used and then decorate in any of the ways shown in Fig. 27 or in any other manner. Sometimes a thin layer of tomato is used, but often just a border of some material of contrasting color, such as the yolk of egg forced through a ricer, finely chopped parsley, a thin strip of pimiento, etc., is placed around the edge.


SALADS AND SANDWICHES

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS

(1) Discuss the importance of salads and their value in the diet.

(2) In planning meals to include salads, what rules should be observed in order to make the meals balance properly?

(3) Of what value to the salads are the accompaniments often served with them?

(4) What ingredients used in salads make them satisfactory as high-protein salads?

(5) How is fat usually supplied in making salads?

(6) What salad ingredients are of the most value for supplying mineral salts?

(7) To what extent are vegetables and fruits combined in making salads?

(8) Of what value are salads in the use of leftovers?

(9) (a) What is meant by garnishing salads? (b) How may coarse lettuce be used to advantage for garnish?

(10) (a) Describe the best quality of olive oil. (b) What other kinds of oils may be used as salad oils?

(11) (a) What ingredients beside oil are included in the making of the various kinds of salad dressings? (b) What is the value of each?

(12) Describe the ideal condition of ingredients used for salads.

(13) How may salad ingredients be freshened if they have become wilted?

(14) Describe the cleaning of lettuce for salad.

(15) (a) When may a salad serve as a dessert? (b) In making a salad that contains nuts, when should they be added?

(16) (a) Tell how and why marinating is done. (b) What kind of salads should always be marinated?

(17) At what time during a meal is the salad served when it is used as a separate course?

(18) (a) Give several points that must be observed if mayonnaise dressing is to be successfully made. (b) What utensil is best for the cooking of boiled salad dressing? Tell why.

(19) (a) Describe the bread that may be used to best advantage for sandwiches. (b) Into what shapes may sandwiches be cut so that there will be no waste of bread?

(20) (a) How should butter be prepared for spreading sandwiches? (b) How may sandwiches be kept moist when they are prepared some time before they are to be served?

ADDITIONAL WORK

Give a recipe for an original salad in which at least one ingredient is a left-over.






COLD AND FROZEN DESSERTS

THE DESSERT IN THE MEAL

GENERAL DISCUSSION

1. A dessert always consists of sweet food of some kind, and in the usual meal it is served as the last course. Sometimes, especially in more elaborate meals, another course, such as cheese and coffee, may follow, but ordinarily the dessert is the last food that is served.

The eating of something sweet after the heavy course of a meal has undoubtedly become a habit with almost every person. At any rate, a dinner in which a dessert is not included generally leaves one unsatisfied and gives the feeling that the meal has not been properly completed. Some housewives, however, make the mistake of serving a heavy dessert after a large meal, with the result that those served leave the table feeling they have had too much to eat. If this occurs, the same combination of food should be avoided another time and a simple dessert used to follow a dinner that is already sufficiently heavy.

2. There is nothing fixed about the dessert course of a meal. It may be very simple or it may be as complicated and elaborate as desired. To make an elaborate dessert usually requires a good deal of time, and unless time and care can be devoted to such a dessert it should not be attempted. However, whether a dessert is simple or elaborate, it should always be made sufficiently attractive to appeal to an appetite that is already almost satisfied. Besides providing a chance to end a meal in an attractive and appetizing way, it offers a splendid opportunity to carry out a color scheme that may be adopted for a meal. Of course, this is seldom done, except for a party or a company meal, for a color scheme has no particular value other than to appeal to the esthetic sense.

3. The cost of desserts is also a matter that may be varied. For instance, it may be low, as in plain rice pudding, which contains merely rice and milk, or it may be high, as in such concoctions as mousse or parfait, which may contain cream, eggs, gelatine, and fruit. It is possible then, with correct planning, to make the price of the dessert equalize the cost of the meal. For example, if the previous courses have contained expensive foods, the dessert should be an economical one, whereas an expensive one is permissible either when an elaborate meal is desired or when the cheapness of the food served before the dessert warrants greater expense in the final dish.

4. The fact that desserts are often a means of economically utilizing left-over foods should not be overlooked. A famous cooking expert is responsible for the statement that any edible left-over may be utilized in the making of soup, salad, or dessert. This is an important truth to keep in mind, for, with the exception of a knowledge of the correct purchase and cooking of foods, nothing makes so much for economy in cookery as the economical use of leftovers.

5. Desserts are really of two kinds: those which are heavy, such as hot puddings and pastry, and those which are light or of a less substantial nature, such as gelatine, custards, ices, etc. In general, light desserts are either frozen or allowed to cool before they are used and consequently may be made some time before the serving of the meal. It is with desserts of this kind that this Section deals, the heavier desserts being discussed elsewhere.


COMPOSITION AND FOOD VALUE OF DESSERTS

6. Attention should be paid to the composition and food value of desserts in order that the meals in which they are served may be properly balanced. For instance, when a housewife understands the value of the ingredients used in the preparation of a dessert, she will be able to determine the kind of dessert necessary to supply what is lacking in the meal. Of course, if she first decides on a particular dessert that she wants to serve, it will be necessary for her to plan the other dishes accordingly. This, however, is not the logical way in which to plan meals. It is much more reasonable to have the dessert supply anything that the meal may lack in the way of food constituents.

In considering the food value of desserts, it should be remembered that they are just as valuable as the ingredients they contain. The ingredients in which this class of foods is highest are carbohydrate in the form of starch or sugar or both, protein, especially when eggs in any quantity are used, and fat.

7. CARBOHYDRATE IN DESSERTS.--As a rule, the carbohydrate in desserts is obtained from two sources. It is furnished by the sugar, honey, or other sweetening that is added to the mixture, or it is in the form of starch added to thicken, as in the case of corn starch, or material actually used as the basis of the dessert itself, such as rice, tapioca, bread, etc. These ingredients are, of course, easily digested if they are properly cooked. On the whole, desserts can therefore be regarded as high-carbohydrate foods.

8. PROTEIN IN DESSERTS.--Protein is usually supplied in desserts by means of eggs and milk. Custard made almost exclusively of these two foods is sufficiently high in protein to be taken into account in the planning of the main dish for the meal. Because of the presence of this food substance in many desserts, proper cooking is a matter to which attention must be given, for it makes for digestibility as well as consistency. Cream added to desserts also supplies a little protein. If wheat flour is used, it adds a small amount of protein in the form of gluten. Most of the starchy preparations, such as tapioca, rice, corn starch, etc., however, are almost entirely devoid of protein material. Gelatine desserts are sometimes thought to be high-protein foods, but, as is explained elsewhere, gelatine is not regarded as true protein. If such desserts are to contain protein, it must come from some other source.

9. FAT IN DESSERTS.--Fat is usually added to desserts in the form of cream. Sometimes, a little butter is used in the making of a dessert, but for the most part the chief source of fat in desserts is the plain or whipped cream that is added to them or served with them.


PRINCIPLES OF DESSERT MAKING

10. ATTRACTIVENESS OF DESSERTS.--Attractiveness, as has been mentioned, is essential in a dessert if it is to appeal to an appetite that may be nearly satisfied by the time the dessert course is reached. To render dessert attractive, it should be carefully made and artistically garnished and served. It may be made to appeal through a sense of beautiful proportion, an attractive color combination, or an attractive or artistic preparation. Because sweets are liked by most persons, it is seldom difficult to prepare attractive desserts. Indeed, the housewife who fails in this respect may be said to be unsuccessful in the easiest part of cookery.

11. ECONOMICAL USE OF INGREDIENTS.--The ingredients required for dessert making are usually expensive ones, although there are some marked exceptions to this rule. In view of this fact, the housewife should strive to use economically the various ingredients she purchases. For instance, the first strawberries, which, because of their scarcity, are much more expensive than the later ones, may be made to go much further if they are used in shortcake than if they are served as plain fruit. In making a fruit gelatine, apples and bananas, while they may not be so attractive as canned pineapple and maraschino cherries, are much cheaper and may be used for a considerable portion of the fruit that is put into the gelatine. Then, too, it is well to remember that cream goes much further with desserts when it is whipped than when it is served plain.

12. APPLYING COOKERY RULES TO DESSERTS.--If the best results in dessert making are to be obtained, the rules that govern the cooking of various ingredients in other dishes should be observed. For instance, eggs should not be cooked at a higher temperature in making desserts than when they are being poached. Then, again, starchy materials that are used to thicken desserts or that form a basis for these dishes must be thoroughly cooked in order to be agreeable and digestible. Therefore, to put both starchy materials and eggs into a dessert at the same time and give them the same amount of cooking at the same temperature, is, as the woman who understands cookery knows, not only a very poor plan, but a possible means of ruining good material. Another waste of good material results when a custard is so prepared that it is half water or when a rice or a bread pudding floats in liquid that was never intended to be served with it. Again, nothing is less tasty than a corn-starch pudding or a blanc mange in which the starch has not been thoroughly cooked or a tapioca pudding in which the centers of the tapioca are hard and uncooked. Such mistakes as these, however, can be avoided if the housewife will apply to desserts the principles she has learned in other parts of cookery, for knowledge coupled with care in preparation is the keynote of successful dessert making.

The cookery methods usually applied in the preparation of desserts are boiling, steaming, dry steaming, and baking. As these methods are explained in Essentials of Cookery, Part 1, and are used constantly in the preparation of the majority of dishes served in a meal, they should by this time be so well understood that practically no difficulty will be experienced in applying them to desserts.


COLD DESSERTS AND THEIR PREPARATION

SAUCES AND WHIPPED CREAM

13. SAUCES.--Many cold desserts may be served without any accompaniments, but very often they are much improved by the addition of a sauce of some kind. For instance, when a custard or a blanc mange is very thick and heavy, it can be made more agreeable to the taste if it is served with a sauce of some description. Several recipes for sauces that may be used with any cold dessert in need of an accompaniment are here given, so that the housewife will not be at a loss when she desires to serve a sauce with a dessert she has made.

14. The sauce to use depends on the dessert that it is to accompany. The custard sauce here given could be used, for example, with plain corn-starch mixtures that do not contain eggs or with other desserts of this nature. It is also very satisfactory with chocolate or rather highly flavored desserts. On the other hand, the chocolate sauce may be served with custard mixtures or desserts that require additional flavor. The fruit sauce, in which may be utilized any left-over juice from canned or stewed fruit, may be served with any dessert with which it seems to blend well.

CUSTARD SAUCE

Heat the milk in a double boiler, reserving enough to moisten the corn starch. Mix the sugar, corn starch, and salt, and moisten with the cold milk. Add this to the hot milk. Stir until thick and cook for about 15 minutes. Beat the egg, add this to the mixture, and continue cooking until the egg has thickened. Add the vanilla, cool, and serve.

CHOCOLATE SAUCE

Melt the chocolate over the fire, add half the milk, and cook together for a minute or two. Add the sugar and salt to the corn starch, and moisten with the remainder of the milk. Pour this into the chocolate and milk and cook until thickened. Place in a double boiler and cook for 10 or 15 minutes. Add the vanilla and serve.

FRUIT SAUCE

Moisten the corn starch, sugar, and salt with the fruit juice, and cook together until the corn starch has thickened the mixture. Place in a double boiler and cook for 10 or 15 minutes. The amount of sugar must be gauged by the kind of fruit juice used. If it is very sour, a greater quantity of sugar will be needed. Cool and serve.

BUTTERSCOTCH SAUCE

Boil sugar, sirup, and butter until the mixture reaches 230 degrees F. or until it will form a very soft ball when tested in cold water. Remove from the fire and allow it to cool a little; then beat the cream into it.

FUDGE SAUCE

Mix together the sugar, water, and melted chocolate. Boil the mixture for 5 minutes. Cool it slightly, then add the butter and vanilla.

15. WHIPPED CREAM.--Whipped cream is frequently served with cold desserts in place of a sauce or as a garnish. If cream is too thin to whip, it will have to be served plain, but it is an economy to whip it, for whipped cream goes much further. To make whipping possible, the cream must have a comparatively high percentage of fat. The higher the percentage of fat, however, the more expensive will be the cream.

16. One of the requirements of successfully whipped cream, especially in summer, is that it be as cold as possible. Warm cream does not whip nearly so readily as cold. If it is necessary to whip cream in warm weather or in a warm place, the bowl containing the cream may be packed in a larger one containing ice and salt and allowed to stand for some time before the whipping is begun.

17. A bowl-shaped utensil with a round bottom is the best to use for whipping cream. Either an egg whip or a rotary beater may be used to do the beating, which should be done rapidly. If the cream does not show signs of whipping within a reasonable time, the result is likely to be the formation of little globules of butter. Cream that whips properly will become stiff and light in a short time. After cream has been whipped till stiff, it should be sweetened slightly with sugar and flavored with vanilla or any other desirable flavoring.




CUSTARD DESSERTS

PRINCIPLES OF CUSTARD MAKING

18. Many of the desserts that are served cold come under the head of custards. These are dishes high in protein and consist of two varieties: those thickened entirely by eggs and known as true custards and those in which a starchy material is used for part of the thickening. They may be cooked by steaming, dry steaming, or baking.

19. In true custards there must be a sufficient number of eggs to thicken the desired amount of milk, for nothing else produces thickening. To these two ingredients may be added sweetening in the form of sugar, sirup, honey, etc. and flavoring of any desirable kind. The plain custard thus produced makes an excellent dessert and one that is easily digested. In fact, it can be digested with such ease that it is used perhaps more frequently in the diets of children and invalids than any other single dessert. For instance, when it is necessary that eggs and milk be taken in the diet, they usually become monotonous after a time, but a little variety may be added to the diet by serving them in the form of custard. While this is an expensive dessert when eggs are high in price, its value is such that it should be prepared frequently for children in spite of its cost.

20. Although custards are considered to decrease in quality as fewer eggs are used and starch in some form is added for thickening, many excellent custard desserts are made in this way. Then, too, plain custard is often utilized in the making of desserts, such as tapioca, rice, and bread puddings. In such an event, fewer eggs are used and the starchy material is depended on for a certain amount of the thickening. Because the starchy foods used are generally cheaper than eggs, custard desserts that rely partly on starch for their thickening are more economical than those thickened entirely by eggs. They are also different in composition and texture, being lower in protein because of a smaller proportion of eggs and higher in carbohydrate because of additional starch; nevertheless, they are delicious desserts and find much favor.

21. For its thickness, or solidity, a custard depends largely on the thickening property of the protein material in the eggs. Here, again, as in the preparation of other foods, only a certain proportion of milk and eggs will thicken, or solidify, upon being cooked. In general, the correct proportion for a plain custard is 1 egg to 1 cupful of milk. So important is this proportion that it should be memorized. Before the eggs are added to the milk, they are, of course, beaten, but their beating is a matter of little consequence, for they are used merely to supply thickening and give richness and not to produce lightness. Therefore, they need only be mixed well and beaten slightly, as any increase in the amount of the beating adds nothing.

The sweetening and flavoring used in custards should be in sufficient quantity to suit the tastes of those who are to eat the dessert. However, the usual proportion of sugar is 1 tablespoonful to 1 egg and 1 cupful of milk. A tiny pinch of salt added to a mixture of this kind always improves its flavor and should never be omitted.

Because of the various ways of making custards, they differ somewhat when they are done. They may be thin enough to pour or they may be set and so thick that they can be cut. The consistency of the finished product depends, of course, on the proportion of the ingredients used and the method of cookery adopted.


RECIPES FOR CUSTARDS AND RELATED DESSERTS

22. BAKED CUSTARD.--Practically no skill is required in the preparation of baked custard, but care must be taken during the baking in order that the right temperature be applied for the proper length of time. Custard of this kind is quickly made and finds favor with most persons. It may be baked in individual baking dishes and then served in these or it may be cooked in a large baking dish and served either before or after it is placed on the table. Individual baking dishes are perhaps more satisfactory, for, as there is a smaller amount of material, the heat can penetrate more quickly and evenly to the center. Whatever kind of dish is used, however, should be placed in a pan of warm water, so that the custard will bake evenly. The water in the pan should not boil, as this tends to make the custard whey, or separate.

[Illustration: FIG. 1]

23. Several tests can be applied to custard to determine whether it is sufficiently baked. As the heat penetrates to the center last, this part is the last to cook and it is therefore the place where the testing should be done. One test consists in touching the center with the tip of the finger to find out whether it is firm or not. A more common test, however, is shown in Fig. 1. To perform this test, the blade of a silver knife is inserted in the center, as illustrated. If the blade comes out clean, it may be known that the custard is sufficiently baked, but if the mixture sticks to the knife, the custard requires more baking. Before the knife blade is inserted, however, the skin that covers the custard must be broken; if this is not done, the skin is sure to cling to the knife.

24. The chief requirement of a successful custard is that its texture be right, and the temperature at which the baking is done is largely responsible for this point. Too high a temperature or too long cooking will cause the custard to curdle and leave the edges full of holes. A smoother texture may be obtained if egg yolks alone instead of the yolks and whites are used to thicken the custard. The proportions given in the accompanying recipe make a custard of very good texture, but if a greater proportion of eggs is used, the result will be a firmer, harder custard.

BAKED CUSTARD
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

Beat the eggs slightly, add the sugar and salt, and continue beating while adding the milk. Add the vanilla. Pour into a buttered baking dish or individual baking dishes, place in a moderately hot oven in a pan of warm water, and bake until the custard is set, testing with the finger or a silver knife. Remove from the heat, cool at once, and serve cold.

25. CARAMEL CUSTARD.--Caramel is nothing more nor less than browned sugar, but if the process of caramelizing the sugar is performed carefully, the result will be a delicious flavoring material that may be used for desserts of any kind or for making sauces to serve with desserts. When the sugar is browned to make caramel, a certain amount of sweetness is lost, so that more sugar must be used than would ordinarily be needed to sweeten the same amount of custard.

To make the caramel required in the accompanying recipe, place 1/2 cupful of sugar in a small saucepan over the fire. Allow the sugar to melt slowly, stirring it as little as possible. When it has completely melted and no more of it remains white, add 1/2 cupful of boiling water. Allow this to cook until a heavy sirup is formed. Care must be taken not to burn the sugar black, for if this is done, the custard, or whatever is flavored with the caramel, will have a burnt taste. The color should be a clear reddish-brown. Maple sirup may be used in the same way as caramel by cooking it until it becomes thick.

CARAMEL CUSTARD
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Heat the milk in a double boiler, add the caramel to the milk, and then cool the mixture. Beat the eggs and add them to the caramel and milk. Add the salt and vanilla. Pour the custard into buttered baking dishes, set in a pan of warm water, and bake in a moderate oven until firm. Cool and serve.

[Illustration: FIG. 2]

26. SOFT CUSTARD.--The custard given in the accompanying recipe is commonly known as boiled custard, but this is in no sense a correct name, for the custard at no time reaches the boiling point. The common method of preparation is dry steaming, for which the double boiler is an essential utensil. If one is not in supply, however, a saucepan placed in a larger pan of water will serve the purpose. The custard should be stirred continuously during its cooking. Then it will not set nor thicken as does baked custard, even though the proportion of eggs and milk may be higher.

The test for soft custard, which is exactly opposite from that for baked custard, is shown in Fig. 2. As soon as the custard mixture lightly coats a spoon it is done. Then it should be removed from the fire and the inner part of the double boiler removed from the outer part to avoid the application of any more heat. If too much heat has been applied or the custard has been cooked too long, the result will be a curdled mass. As soon as this is observed, the custard should be removed from the hot water, placed at once into a pan of cold water, and beaten vigorously with a rotary egg beater. To improve it further, it may be poured through a fine wire sieve or strainer. Unless the curding has gone too far or the egg has been cooked a great deal too long, this treatment will produce a very decided improvement in the custard and possibly bring it to a normal condition.

SOFT CUSTARD
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

Heat the milk in the inner pan of a double boiler. Separate the eggs. Beat the yolks slightly, and to them add the sugar and salt. Dilute with a little of the hot milk. Blend well together and pour into the hot milk. Stir constantly until the mixture coats a spoon, and then remove from the fire. Beat the egg whites until they are stiff but not dry, and fold them into the mixture. Flavor with the vanilla and lemon extract, cool, and serve.

To obtain variety in soft custards, chocolate, caramel, maple, and other flavors may be used in their preparation in the same way as for baked custards.

27. FRENCH CREAM.--A custard dessert that is easily made and that most persons are fond of is French cream. As will be noted in the accompanying recipe, only one egg is used and corn starch is supplied for the remainder of the thickening. It is always necessary to salt mixtures containing starch, as any starchy food has a raw taste when it is prepared without salt.

FRENCH CREAM
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

Heat the milk in a double boiler, reserving a sufficient amount to moisten the corn starch. Mix the corn starch with the sugar and salt, moisten with the cold milk, and add to the milk in the double boiler when it has heated. Stir until the mixture has thickened very slightly. Cook in the double boiler for 20 or 30 minutes. Beat the egg, add a small amount of the hot mixture to the beaten egg, and then pour this into the thickened milk, stirring rapidly to keep the egg from curding. Cook for a minute or two, remove from the fire, add the flavoring, cool, and serve.

28. FLOATING ISLAND.--The dessert known as Floating Island does not differ very much from soft custard. It is slightly thicker and contains whipped cream, which is used for the island. If whipped cream cannot be obtained, however, the white of egg may be substituted for it. In such an event, the white of the egg included in the recipe may be retained when the custard is made and used on top by sweetening it with sugar or perhaps by beating into it a small amount of pink jelly.

FLOATING ISLAND
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

Heat the milk in a double boiler, retaining enough to moisten the corn starch. Mix the corn starch, sugar, and salt, and moisten with the cold milk. Add this to the heated milk in the double boiler, stir until the mixture has thickened, and then cook for 20 to 30 minutes. Beat the egg, add to it a spoonful of the hot mixture, and then pour this into the double boiler, stirring to prevent the curding of the egg. Cook for a minute or two, or until the egg has had time to thicken, remove from the heat, and add the vanilla. When cold, serve in individual dishes or glasses with a spoonful of whipped cream on top of each portion.

29. CORN-STARCH CUSTARD.--A dessert that is a little heavier than either French cream or Floating Island but not heavy enough to be molded is the corn-starch custard given in the accompanying recipe. If desired, it may be served with sauce, plain cream, or whipped cream, or it may be eaten without any of these.

CORN-STARCH CUSTARD
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

Heat the milk in a double boiler, reserving enough to moisten the corn starch. Mix the corn starch, sugar, and salt, and moisten with the cold milk. Add this to the hot milk, and stir until the mixture has thickened. Cook for 20 or 30 minutes. Beat the egg, add a spoonful of the hot mixture to the egg, pour this into the double boiler, and cook for a minute or two, or until the egg has thickened. Remove from the fire, add the vanilla, cool, and serve.

30. COCONUT-CORN-STARCH CUSTARD.--The flavor of coconut in custard is agreeable, but the toughness of this ingredient with a soft custard is not always acceptable. In the preparation of the custard given in the accompanying recipe, the idea is to obtain the flavor without the use of the coconut in the custard.

COCONUT-CORN-STARCH CUSTARD
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

Heat the milk in a double boiler, retaining enough of it to moisten the corn starch. Put the coconut into the milk while it is hot, and allow it to remain for 5 or 10 minutes after the milk has become heated. Then strain through a ricer or a strainer to remove all the liquid possible, and return the milk to the double boiler. Mix the sugar and salt with the corn starch and moisten with the cold milk. Add this to the hot milk and cook for 20 or 30 minutes after it has thickened. Beat the egg and add a little of the hot material to it; then pour it into the double boiler and cook for a minute or two, or until the egg has thickened. Flavor with a few drops of vanilla, remove from the fire, cool, and serve.

31. SNOW PUDDING.--An excellent custard dessert called snow pudding can be made by following the directions here given. This pudding is especially attractive when served with chocolate sauce, as the sauce makes an agreeable contrast in color as well as in flavor. Other sauces, however, may be used with this dessert if desired. The yolks of the eggs may be made into a custard sauce and served with it, or a fruit sauce may be used.

SNOW PUDDING
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

Heat the milk in a double boiler, reserving a sufficient amount to moisten the corn starch. Mix the corn starch, sugar, and salt and moisten with the cold milk. Add this to the hot milk and stir continuously until the corn starch thickens the milk. Cook for 20 to 30 minutes and remove from the fire. Beat the egg whites until they are stiff and fold them into this mixture. Add the vanilla, pour into a serving dish or individual dishes, cool, and serve with chocolate or any desired sauce.

32. PLAIN BLANC MANGE.--A blanc mange is usually a mixture thickened to such an extent with starchy material that it may be turned out of a mold or cut into cubes. The plain blanc mange given here requires a well-flavored sauce to relieve its bland taste.

PLAIN BLANC MANGE
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

Heat the milk in a double boiler, reserving enough to moisten the corn starch. Mix the corn starch, sugar, and salt and moisten with the cold milk. Pour into the hot milk and stir until the corn starch has thickened. Allow this to cook for 30 to 35 minutes, beat to keep smooth, and then remove from the fire and add the vanilla. Moisten cups or molds with cold water and fill with the blanc mange. Cool, turn out of the molds, and serve with any desired sauce.

[Illustration: FIG. 3]

33. CHOCOLATE BLANC MANGE.--Chocolate added to blanc mange gives it an excellent flavor. If a sauce is desired with this blanc mange, custard sauce is the best one to use. An attractive way in which to serve chocolate blanc mange is shown in Fig. 3. The entire recipe is made into one mold, which, when cold, is turned out on a dish, surrounded with slices of banana, and garnished with whipped cream.

CHOCOLATE BLANC MANGE
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

Mix the sugar, cocoa, and salt and moisten with some of the milk. Place over the fire in the inner pan of a double boiler and allow it to come to a boil. Moisten the corn starch with some of the milk and add the rest to the cocoa mixture in the double boiler. Heat together in the boiler and stir the corn starch into this. Continue stirring until the corn starch has thickened the mixture, and then cook for 30 to 35 minutes. Remove from the fire, add the vanilla, pour into a mold moistened with cold water, cool, and serve with sweetened cream, custard sauce, or as shown in Fig. 3.

34. RICE CUSTARD.--A very good way in which to use left-over rice is to make a rice custard of it. If no cooked rice is on hand and rice is to be cooked for some other dish, it is not a bad plan to increase the amount slightly and use what remains for rice custard. The best method of preparing rice for this dessert it to steam it, but boiled or Japanese rice may also be used.

RICE CUSTARD
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Beat the eggs and to them add the sugar, hot milk, salt, and nutmeg. Pour this mixture over the rice. Place in a buttered baking dish, set the dish in a pan of warm water, and bake in a moderate oven until the custard is set. This will probably require about 45 minutes. Cool and serve.

35. POOR MAN'S PUDDING.--If a very economical dessert is desired, poor man's pudding should be tried. However, this requires considerable fuel and some care in its preparation, for it needs long, slow cooking in order to make it a good pudding, but when it is properly made it is a very delicious dessert. If a coal stove is used, it is a good plan to make such a dessert as this on a day when the stove is heated for ironing or for some other purpose that requires the use of fuel covering a long period of time.

POOR MAN'S PUDDING
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Wash the rice in the usual way and place it in a baking dish. Add the sugar, salt, a grating of nutmeg, and a few thin slices of lemon rind. Pour in the milk, place in a slow oven, and bake for several hours. Stir frequently to prevent the top surface from browning, and if there is any possibility of this occurring, cover the baking dish with a cover. One hour before the pudding has finished baking, clean the raisins and add them. When done, remove from the oven, cool, and serve. When the pudding is served, the grains of rice should be whole and the liquid should be of a creamy consistency. If the pudding is too dry when cool, add a little more milk and return to the oven for a few minutes.

36. TAPIOCA CREAM.--In the dessert here given, as well as in several that follow, tapioca is used as the thickening material. TAPIOCA is practically a true starch and is taken from the roots of the cassava plant, which grows in tropical and subtropical regions. In the process of its manufacture, most of the starch cells are ruptured. It may be purchased in two forms: one that is large in size and called pearl tapioca and the other, very small and known as minute tapioca. Pearl tapioca does not require as long cooking if it is first soaked in cold water for a number of hours. Minute tapioca cooks in much less time than pearl tapioca.

Tapioca cream is a soft custard that should be thin enough to pour when it is cold. It may be served with whipped cream if desired or may merely be poured into dessert dishes or sherbet glasses and served plain. A spoonful of pink jelly on top of each serving makes a very attractive garnish.

TAPIOCA CREAM
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Soak the tapioca in cold water for 4 or 5 hours before making the dessert, and then drain off all the water. Heat the milk in a double boiler, stir the tapioca into the hot milk, and cook until it is thick and transparent, being sure that none of the centers are uncooked. Add the sugar and salt. Separate the whites and yolks of the eggs. Beat the yolks, mix a small amount of the hot tapioca with them, and stir into the tapioca in the double boiler. Stir until the eggs have thickened and then remove from the fire. Beat the whites until they are stiff and fold, with the vanilla, into the tapioca. Cool and serve.

37. TAPIOCA CUSTARD.--If something different in the way of a tapioca dessert is desired, tapioca custard will no doubt be very acceptable. This dessert has the consistency of a baked custard containing tapioca, and in preparation and proportion that is really what it is.

TAPIOCA CUSTARD
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Soak the tapioca for 4 or 5 hours and drain off the water. Cook the tapioca and the milk in a double boiler until it is transparent and remove from the fire. Beat the eggs and to them add the sugar, salt, and vanilla, and stir this into the tapioca. Turn into a buttered baking dish and bake until the custard mixture is set. Cool and serve.

38. MINUTE-TAPIOCA CUSTARD.--Minute tapioca does not require soaking nor as long cooking as pearl tapioca, for the pieces of tapioca being much smaller may be more quickly penetrated by both heat and moisture. Then, too, a smaller proportion of it is required to thicken the same amount of milk.

MINUTE-TAPIOCA CUSTARD
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Heat the milk in a double boiler, add the tapioca, and cook for 15 or 20 minutes. Beat the egg, add to it the sugar and salt, and pour the hot tapioca gradually into this. Flavor with vanilla, turn into a buttered baking dish, place in the oven in a pan of water, and bake for 20 to 30 minutes. Cool and serve.

39. APPLE TAPIOCA.--The combination of fruit and tapioca is agreeable to most persons. Peaches and apples, either fresh or canned, are used oftenest for this purpose. For the apple tapioca here given, the apples should be somewhat sour, as there will then be more character to the dessert. Canned or fresh peaches or canned pineapple may be used in exactly the same way as apples. If canned fruit is used, not so much sugar nor baking in the oven will be necessary.

APPLE TAPIOCA
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

If pearl tapioca is used, soak it for 4 or 5 hours and then drain off all the water. Minute tapioca will need no soaking. Add the tapioca to the boiling water and salt. Cook in a double boiler until the tapioca is entirely transparent. Pare and core the apples, place them in a buttered baking dish, fill each cavity with sugar and cinnamon, and place a piece of butter on top. Pour the hot tapioca over these, place in a hot oven, and bake until the apples are soft. Serve either hot or cold with sugar and cream.

40. CARAMEL TAPIOCA.--Persons who care for caramel as a flavoring will find caramel tapioca a delicious dessert. The caramel for it should be made according to the directions given in Art. 25.

CARAMEL TAPIOCA
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Put the tapioca to soak overnight in the water. When ready to prepare, place in a baking dish with the water used to soak the tapioca and set in a very slow oven. Caramelize half the sugar and add to it the 1/2 cupful of boiling water. Pour this with the remaining cup of sugar over the tapioca and continue to cook in the oven until the tapioca is perfectly clear and the liquid has evaporated sufficiently to make a dessert of the proper consistency to serve. Upon removing from the oven, squeeze the juice of the lemon over the tapioca and stir slowly so that this may penetrate throughout the dessert. Cool and serve with whipped cream.

41. FARINA CUSTARD.--A means of using left-over breakfast cereals is given in the accompanying recipe. Farina is the cereal used, but vitos, cream of wheat, etc. may be used in the same way. Cereal may be cooked especially for the purpose if there is none on hand and the dessert is desired. In this event, it should be cooked in the usual way and may be used either warm or cold.

FARINA CUSTARD
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Mix the farina with the milk. Beat the egg and to it add the sugar and salt. Add this to the farina and milk, stir in the flavoring, and pour in a buttered baking dish. Bake until the mixture is set. This will require about 45 minutes in a moderate oven.


GELATINE DESSERTS

PRINCIPLES OF GELATINE MAKING

42. GELATINE DESSERTS are those in which gelatine forms the basis. GELATINE is an odorless, tasteless substance extracted from the bones and various tissues of animals. It is used in a variety of forms, such as glue and isinglass, but is also purified and prepared commercially for use in desserts. When it is to be used as a thickening agent in dessert making, it is ground and sold in this form, or it is mixed with sugar, flavoring, and acid, when all that is necessary to make it an appetizing dessert is that it be dissolved in hot water. In both of these forms, it is sold under different trade names. The gelatine itself does not provide any appreciable food value, but it is a means of conveying various foods, such as eggs, milk, sugar, and many kinds of fruit and fruit juices, all of which are more or less valuable for their constituents. In addition, it produces desserts that are appetizing and that may be garnished and served in many attractive ways.

43. To be most satisfactory, gelatine desserts should usually be made just heavy enough with gelatine to retain the desired shape. The heavier they become, the more rubbery they are in consistency and the less dainty and agreeable. Their consistency can be regulated by the proportion of liquid to gelatine that is used.

The general method of preparation followed when plain gelatine is used in desserts consists in first soaking the gelatine in sufficient cold water to moisten it, then dissolving it in hot liquid as near the boiling point as possible, and finally cooling it in order to allow it to solidify. As cold is absolutely essential for the mixture to solidify, it is often difficult to prepare a gelatine dessert in the summer time. Therefore, when a dessert of this kind is desired in the warm weather, it should always be begun long enough before it is to be served to allow it to become thoroughly solid. As it is usually difficult to tell how much time this requires on a warm day, even with a refrigerator or other cold place, it is much safer to overestimate the time required than to underestimate it.

44. Boiling does not, as was formerly thought, destroy the power of coagulation in gelatine for at least some time. Therefore, when necessary, it may be boiled for 10 or 15 minutes without causing any change. One fruit that will prevent gelatine from solidifying, however, is raw pineapple. This is an important point to remember in connection with gelatine desserts. If it is desired to use fresh pineapple with gelatine, it will first be necessary to bring the pineapple to the boiling point in order to destroy the property that prevents the gelatine from solidifying.

45. The proportion of liquid to gelatine is another factor to be reckoned with in the successful making of gelatine desserts. This differs in the various kinds of gelatine, but the proper proportion is usually stated on the package in which the gelatine comes or on a folder inside the package. The amount mentioned is usually what is considered to be ideal for the preparation of gelatine dishes and may generally be relied on. In hot weather, however, it is advisable to use just a little less liquid than the directions require.

In using the different brands of unsweetened and unflavored gelatines, the proportion of liquid to gelatine is usually similar. 1/2 ounce of this granulated gelatine, which is 1/2 of the amount usually put up in a package, will solidify 1 quart of liquid. If this proportion is kept in mind, little difficulty will be experienced in using this form of gelatine. For convenience in measuring small amounts of the granulated gelatine, it will be well to remember that 1 ounce of this material equals 4-1/2 tablespoonfuls. Thus, if a recipe calls for 1/2 ounce of gelatine, it is simply necessary to measure 2-1/4 tablespoonfuls to get the required amount to solidify 1 quart of liquid.


RECIPES FOR GELATINE DESSERTS

[Illustration: FIG. 4] 46. PLAIN GELATINE.--A very good dessert can be made of fruit juice solidified by means of gelatine. Any canned fruit juice or any mixture of juices that will blend well and produce a jelly of agreeable flavor may be used for this purpose. These are usually brought to the boiling point before being added, but in case juices that may be injured by heating are used, they may be added cold and the gelatine dissolved in boiling water. When this is done, a little additional lemon will be necessary in order to increase the flavor.

Plain jelly made according to the accompanying recipe may be served in various attractive ways. One method of serving it is shown in Fig. 4. To prepare it in this manner, pour the gelatine mixture into stemmed glasses and allow it to solidify. When partly solid, decorate the top with wedge-shaped pieces of pineapple and place a cherry in the center, as illustrated. When entirely solid, place the glass on a small plate and serve. The fruit may be omitted if desired and whipped cream served on the gelatine.

Plain jelly is also attractive when poured into a large mold, allowed to solidify, and then turned out on a plate. If the mold is moistened with cold water before the gelatine is poured into it, no difficulty will be experienced in removing the jelly when it becomes solid. The center of the mold may be filled with whipped cream before it is put on the table or the jelly may be served plain and the whipped cream then added to each serving from another dish.

PLAIN GELATINE
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Soak the gelatine in the cold water until it is well moistened. Strain the fruit juices, heat to boiling point, and pour over the gelatine. Add the lemon juice and a sufficient amount of sugar to sweeten. Allow to solidify and serve in any desired manner.

47. ORANGE JELLY.--An excellent dessert is the result when orange juice is used for flavoring and gelatine for thickening. This jelly may be poured into molds that have been moistened with cold water, or, as shown in Fig. 5, it may be poured into orange skins made to resemble baskets and then garnished with whipped cream.

[Illustration: FIG. 5] ORANGE JELLY
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Soak the gelatine in the cold water until it is well moistened, and dissolve with the boiling water. Add the sugar and the lemon and orange juice strained. Pour into a large mold or individual molds and set aside to solidify. Serve in any desired way.

48. COFFEE JELLY.--If fruit juices are difficult to obtain, coffee jelly, which will be found to be very pleasing, may be used occasionally. However, it is necessary that whipped cream be served with coffee jelly in order to make it a really delightful dessert.

COFFEE JELLY
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Prepare the coffee freshly and make it stronger than that which would ordinarily be used for the table. Be sure that it contains no grounds. Soak the gelatine in the cold water, and dissolve in the boiling water. Add the sugar and coffee. Pour into moistened molds and allow to cool. Serve with sweetened whipped cream.

49. FRUIT GELATINE.--Almost any combination of fruit juices, as well as any single fruit juice, may be used with gelatine in the making of fruit gelatine. The accompanying recipe contains fruits that may be used, but other fruits than those given may perhaps be found to be even more agreeable.

FRUIT GELATINE
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Moisten the gelatine in the cold water and dissolve in the boiling water. Add the sugar and the orange, pineapple, and lemon juice, and allow this to cool. Dice the pineapple. Prepare the oranges by peeling them, removing the pulp from the sections, and cutting it into small pieces. Slice or dice the banana and break each nut into six or eight pieces. Mix the fruits and nuts, place in a mold that has been moistened with cold water, and pour the cold jelly over them. Allow this to solidify, turn from the mold, and serve with whipped cream.

50. LEMON SNOW.--If a light, spongy dessert to serve with a heavy dinner is desired, lemon snow should be tried. It may be made with other sour-fruit juice and is particularly agreeable if the color of the fruit juice used is a pretty one. Fruit coloring may be used in the preparation of dishes of this sort if desired.

LEMON SNOW
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Soak the gelatine in the cold water, dissolve it in the boiling water, and add the sugar. When cold, add the strained lemon juice. When the gelatine mixture is just beginning to solidify, add the egg whites, beating with a rotary beater until the mixture begins to hold its shape. If desired, a fruit of some kind may be placed in a mold that has been moistened with cold water and the mixture poured over it, or the plain mixture may be poured into the mold without the fruit. Whipped cream or custard sauce improves this dessert to a large extent.

51. SPANISH CREAM.--A gelatine dish containing eggs is usually a delightful dessert, and Spanish cream is no exception to this rule. If it is properly made, a part of the mold will have the consistency of a custard, above this will be a layer of jelly, and on top will be a layer of fluffy material. This dessert is more attractive if a little pink coloring is used in its preparation.

SPANISH CREAM
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Soak the gelatine in the cold water. Heat the milk in a double boiler, add the gelatine, and cook until it is completely dissolved. Separate the eggs, beat the yolks, and to them add the sugar and salt. Stir into the mixture in the double boiler, and cook until the eggs have thickened. Remove from the fire, beat the egg whites until they are stiff, and fold them into the mixture. Add the vanilla. Pour into a mold that has been moistened with cold water, cool, and serve. If coloring is added, it may be put in upon removing the dessert from the stove.

[Illustration: FIG. 6]

52. STRAWBERRY CREAM PUFF.--One of the most attractive desserts that can be made of gelatine is strawberry cream fluff. It is especially delicious in warm weather, but plenty of time must be allowed for it to solidify. Any desired way of serving it may be followed out, but a method that is always pleasing is illustrated in Fig. 6. The gelatine mixture is piled into stemmed glasses and then surrounded by thin pieces of sponge cake or ladyfingers, as here shown. A few fresh strawberries or strawberries that have been canned in thick sirup make an attractive garnish. If a deeper shade of pink is desired than the strawberry juice gives, pink coloring may be added before the whipped cream is beaten into the gelatine.

STRAWBERRY CREAM FLUFF
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Soak the gelatine in the cold water. Heat the strawberry juice to the boiling point, and add it to the soaked gelatine. Add the lemon juice and sugar and place the gelatine where it will cool. When it has started to solidify, beat into it the whipped cream and continue beating until the mixture stands up well when dropped from a spoon. Place in a mold and cool. Serve in any desired way.

53. PINEAPPLE CREAM FLUFF.--If pineapple is preferred to strawberries, pineapple cream fluff may be made according to the accompanying directions. Canned pineapple may be utilized nicely in the preparation of this dessert. If it is in rings, it should be chopped into small pieces, but grated pineapple needs no further preparation. Fresh pineapple used for the purpose must be cooked before it can be used in this dessert.

PINEAPPLE CREAM FLUFF
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Soak the gelatine in the cold water. Heat the pineapple juice to the boiling point and add it to the soaked gelatine. Add the sugar and set aside to cool. After the gelatine has started to solidify, beat the whipped cream and the grated pineapple into it. When solidified and ready to use, turn out on a plate and serve with whipped cream. If desired, the pineapple may be left out of the dessert and, instead, a spoonful placed on the top of each serving.

54. MARSHMALLOW WHIP.--Something rather unusual in the way of a gelatine dessert can be had by making marshmallow whip according to the accompanying recipe.

MARSHMALLOW WHIP
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Soak the gelatine in 1/2 cupful of water. Bring 1 cupful of water to the boiling point, dissolve the gelatine in it, and place in ice water to cool. Put the sugar to cook with 1/2 cupful of water, and cook until the sirup will spin a thread or until it will form a firm ball when tried in cold water. Beat the egg whites, pour the hot sirup gradually over them, and continue beating. Add the gelatine, which by this time should be commencing to solidify. Divide the mixture into three equal parts. To one add a little pink coloring and some strawberry flavoring and pour into a mold that has been wet with cold water. To one of the remaining parts, add the chocolate, which has been melted, mixed with a tablespoonful or two of sugar and 2 tablespoonfuls of water, and cooked to a smooth paste. Continue beating this until it is stiff, and then pour it in the mold on top of the strawberry flavored whip. To the remaining third, add the vanilla, beat until it is stiff, and pour on top of the chocolate whip. These colors may be arranged in any desirable way, others may be used, or the whip may be made up simply in one color or in two. After it has become set and hardened, turn from the mold, and serve, using whipped cream if desired.



FROZEN DESSERTS

PRINCIPLES OF FROZEN-DESSERT MAKING

55. NATURE OF FROZEN DESSERTS.--Frozen desserts were formerly confined almost entirely to warm weather, but they are now used during the entire year and served on almost any occasion. They are without doubt the daintiest dessert that can be served and are popular with almost every one. A very ordinary meal becomes much more attractive when a frozen dessert is served with it, and a dainty luncheon or an elaborate dinner seems incomplete without a dessert of this nature. In reality, it is quite impossible to serve, in either hot or cold weather, any dessert that is as pleasing as an ice or an ice cream of some kind.

56. In addition to being delicious and finding favor with most persons, frozen desserts occur in unlimited variety. They include ice creams of various kinds, frozen custards and punches, sherbets, ices, frappés, mousses, parfaits, and biscuits. Recipes for several varieties of each of these kinds are given in this Section, and it will therefore not be a difficult matter to select a frozen dessert that will be suitable for any meal in which it may be served. The preparation of frozen desserts, however, need not be confined to a certain limited number of recipes, as a recipe may be devised to suit almost any occasion or condition. For instance, if there are certain fruits or fruit juices in supply that should be used, an excellent way in which to utilize them is in a frozen dessert of some kind. After a little experience, the housewife will find that she can produce excellent results by merely combining the ingredients she has on hand or those corresponding with the meal in which the frozen dessert is to be served.

57. The food value of frozen desserts varies with the ingredients used in their preparation, it being extremely high in some and very low in others. Therefore, the particular one to select depends somewhat on the other dishes in the meal. On the whole, they contain very healthful ingredients, so that, if they are properly made, they may have a place in the diets of both children and grown ups, sick persons and well ones. Whether or not certain individuals should eat frozen desserts is sometimes a troublesome question. There may be conditions under which desserts of this kind should not be included in the diet, but these need not give the housewife any particular concern.

58. Frozen desserts may be purchased ready made, but those made in the home cost less, are usually more delicious, and can be prepared in greater variety. As they are not difficult to make and are not necessarily an expensive dessert, the housewife should often include them in her meals. Therefore, an ice-cream freezer of a size that will accommodate the requirements of the members of the family is a good thing to add to the cookery equipment. Ices and ice creams can be made in a pail that has a cover and a bail, such as a lard pail, but this is not a very convenient equipment and does not produce such satisfactory results as those obtained with a good freezer. Some desserts of this kind may be frozen without the use of a freezer, but, as a rule, they contain materials that make them rather expensive.

59. THEORY OF FREEZING.--So that the best results may be secured in the making of frozen desserts, it is well that the theory of freezing be thoroughly understood. The two things necessary for the freezing of such desserts are ice and salt. When these are brought together and the ice melts, a salt solution is formed, since salt has a tendency to combine with moisture whenever they come in contact with each other. In order to obtain this result in the freezing of desserts, it is necessary, of course, that the ice be melted. The warmth required to make this melting possible comes from the contents of the can inside the ice-cream freezer. When this warmth is absorbed by the ice, the cold temperature released by the melting of the ice passes into the ice-cream mixture. The result is that the ice tends to become liquid and the contents of the can solid by the exchange of temperatures. To make the mixture of uniform consistency, it is usually agitated by means of a dasher during the freezing process. This incorporates air into the mixture and consequently makes it light and increases its volume.

60. PROPORTION OF ICE TO SALT.--The ingredients used in the mixture have much to do with the texture of the ice cream when it is frozen. For instance, a mixture that is thin and composed largely of water will not have so smooth a consistency when frozen as a heavier mixture in which cream or eggs or both are present and a smaller proportion of water is used. Another important factor in the texture of the finished product is the proportion of ice to salt, for this has much to do with the length of time required for freezing the mixture. The smaller the proportion of salt, the slower will be the freezing process, for the melting of the ice takes place more slowly; but the result of this slow freezing is a finer, smoother texture. Granular, coarse-grained frozen desserts, such as some sherbets and frappés, are frozen with a large proportion of salt, which permits the freezing to take place more quickly.

61. On this rapidity in freezing also depends to a large extent the increase in quantity that takes place in the frozen mixture. Any one who has had experience in making ice cream knows that the can of the freezer cannot be filled before the freezing is begun or it will overflow during the freezing process. Even if it is only two-thirds or three-fourths full, it will be entirely full when the freezing is completed. This increase depends somewhat on the kind of mixture, as has been stated, as well as on the way in which the crank of the freezer is turned, but it is more largely determined by the proportion of ice and salt and consequently by the length of time required for the freezing. As can be readily understood, the more turning that is done, the greater will be the quantity of air incorporated into the mixture and naturally the more increase in volume.

62. TABLE SHOWING DETAILS OF FREEZING.--As an aid to the housewife in the making of frozen desserts, Table I is presented. In it are given the names of the various kinds of frozen desserts, together with the usual texture of each, the proportion of ice and salt required to freeze each, the way in which it freezes, and the increase in volume that can be expected in each. In trying out the recipes that follow, it will be well for the housewife to refer to this table for the particular dessert that she is making, for then she will be able to carry out the freezing more successfully and will understand what to expect in the finished product.

TABLE I

FROZEN DESSERTS
Kind of DessertTextureProportion of Ice and SaltManner of FreezingIncrease in Volume Per Cent
Philadelphia ice creamFine3 to 1Slow25 to 40
Custard ice creamFine3 to 1Slow25 to 40
Frozen custardFine3 to 1Slow25 to 40
SherbetSlightly granular2 to 1Rapid20 to 30
IceSlightly granular2 to 1Rapid20 to 30
FrappéGranular1 to 1Very rapid10 to 20
Frozen punchGranular1 to 1Very rapid10 to 20
MousseFine2 to 1Very slowNone
ParfaitFine2 to 1Very slowNone
BiscuitFine2 to 1Very slowNone





PROCEDURE IN FREEZING DESSERTS

63. The preparation of frozen desserts is comparatively simple in nature, for it usually involves nothing except the cooking of the raw ingredients and the proper combining of the materials required in the recipe. Sometimes a custard mixture containing starch is prepared, and other times a real custard is made. The same rules that apply to the preparation of these dishes under other conditions should be followed here. As the housewife is already familiar with these principles, she will find that there is very little to master about the preparation of frozen desserts up to the time of freezing. A point that should always be remembered, however, is that the mixture should be prepared long enough before the freezing to be entirely cold when it is put into the freezer, and that, if possible, it should be cooled in a refrigerator. No trouble will be experienced in preparing enough frozen dessert for the number that are to be served if it is remembered that 1 quart of unfrozen mixture will serve six to eight persons when it is frozen.

64. FREEZING THE MIXTURE.--With the preparation of the mixture well understood, the housewife should turn her attention to the principles that are involved in its freezing. As has been explained, a can that has a cover and a bail may sometimes be used, especially if the dessert does not need turning, but a freezer is necessary for good results in the preparation of a frozen dessert that requires turning. In the case of those that need no turning, such as mousses, parfaits, etc., a mold of some kind or a vacuum freezer is required.

The usual type of freezer consists of a pail, generally wooden, and a can of smaller size that sets inside of the pail. The space between the can and the pail is where the ice and salt that freeze the mixture are packed. The can, which is the container for the mixture, contains a removable dasher that is turned during the freezing and thus beats air into the mixture. It is covered with a top that has an opening in the center through which one end of the dasher extends, and a ring of cogs surrounding this opening. For the entire freezer there is a top piece that fastens to both sides of the wooden bucket. It contains a set of cogs that fit into the cogs on the cover of the can. To one side of this piece is attached a crank, which, upon being turned, moves both the can containing the mixture and the dasher inside the can.

65. The first thing to be done in the freezing of any dessert is to get the ice ready for use. This may be done in numerous ways, but perhaps the most convenient one is shown in Fig. 7. A bag made of a heavy material, such as canvas or ticking, and wooden mallet are used for this purpose. Place the ice in the bag and, as here shown, hold the bag shut with one hand and pound it with the mallet held in the other. Continue the pounding until the ice is broken into small pieces, and then empty it into a dishpan or some other large pan. After the proportion of salt to ice has been decided upon, mix the salt with the ice in the manner shown in Fig. 8.

[Illustration: FIG. 7]   [Illustration: FIG. 8]
[Illustration: FIG. 9]   [Illustration: FIG. 10]

66. Before the freezer is used, scald the can and the dasher thoroughly with boiling water as shown in Fig. 9, and then set them aside to cool. When entirely cold, fit the can into the freezer, and then, as shown in Fig. 10, pour the mixture into the can. Remember that the mixture should come to within only one-third or one-fourth of the top of the can. With the cover placed securely on the can and the top of the freezer attached, proceed to pack the ice and salt into the freezer. As shown in Fig. 11, fill the space between the can and the container with these materials, using a large spoon for this purpose. Work them down around the can with the small end of a potato masher or similar implement, as in Fig. 12, packing the freezer as tightly as possible and making sure that the ice comes higher than the surface of the mixture inside of the can.

When the packing has been finished, see that the top is securely attached and that the hole in the side of the freezer is well stopped up. Then proceed to freeze the cream. Turn the crank slowly, for nothing is gained by turning the mixture rapidly at the temperature at which it is put into the freezer. After the temperature has been reduced considerably, and just as the mixture begins to thicken a trifle, start turning the crank more rapidly. The air incorporated just at this time by the turning of the dasher increases the volume considerably, for it will remain held in the mixture.

[Illustration: FIG. 11]   [Illustration: FIG. 12]

67. PACKING THE MIXTURE.--If the frozen dessert is to be served at once, turn the crank until it is difficult to turn any longer. However, in case the dessert is not to be used as soon as it is made, it should be frozen only moderately hard and then packed and allowed to freeze more. During this second freezing process, a condition occurs that is known as ripening and that improves the quality as well as the flavor of the dessert. After the freezing has been carried on to the desired degree, unfasten the top of the freezer, wipe the can thoroughly around the top with a cloth to make sure that all salt and ice are removed, and then remove the cover. Proceed at once to lift out the dasher and to scrape it clean with a knife or a spoon, as shown in Fig. 13. Push down the frozen dessert in the can carefully and tightly with the aid of a spoon. To prepare it for packing, stretch a piece of waxed paper over the top of the can, replace the cover, and fit a cork into the hole in the cover through which the top of the dasher extends, as Fig. 14 shows. With this done, remove the stopper from the hole in the side of the freezer and, as Fig. 15 shows, run off the brine that has formed by the melting of the ice. Then repack the freezer with a mixture of ice and salt in the proportion of 2 to 1 and set aside until needed.

[Illustration: FIG. 13] [Illustration: FIG. 14]

68. USING A VACUUM FREEZER.--There are some frozen desserts that do not necessarily require the incorporation of air by means of a dasher to be satisfactory. For desserts of this kind, a vacuum freezer, that is, one that requires no turning, may be used.

In such a freezer a container extends down through the center of the can and is surrounded by an air space. The mixture to be frozen is poured into this container from the top and the ice-and-salt mixture that does the freezing is put in from the bottom and takes up the air space. Covers fasten securely both the top and the bottom. A handle attached to one side makes the handling of such a freezer an easy matter.

By many, a freezer of this kind is considered a decided advantage over the usual variety of freezer, for it requires no turning, but there are certain disadvantages about its use that should be understood before one is secured. In the first place, the expansion that is produced in the mixture by the incorporation of air when an ordinary freezer is used does not occur in a vacuum freezer. Also, the texture of the finished product is not, as a rule, equal to that of the dessert made in a freezer turned with a dasher. In addition, it is necessary to crack the ice somewhat finer for a vacuum freezer and to mix it thoroughly with the correct proportion of salt required for the particular kind of mixture frozen.

[Illustration: FIG. 15] [Illustration: FIG. 16]
[Illustration: FIG. 17] [Illustration: FIG. 18]

69. When a vacuum freezer is to be used, turn it upside down and insert the ice-and-salt mixture through the opening in the bottom. Then close it tight, turn it right side up, and with the top open, pour in the mixture as shown in Fig, 16. Screw the top on tightly in the manner shown in Fig. 17, just as the bottom is screwed on, and set the freezer aside. After the mixture has stood for about 15 minutes, open the freezer from the top and stir the contents down from the sides with a knife or a spoon, as in Fig. 18. Then replace the cover and allow the freezing to continue for 10 minutes more. At the end of this time, open the freezer again, repeat the stirring, refasten the cover, and continue the freezing for another 5 minutes. The mixture should then be ready to serve.


RECIPES FOR FROZEN DESSERTS

ICE CREAMS

70. PHILADELPHIA ICE CREAM.--Perhaps the simplest of frozen desserts to make is Philadelphia ice cream, but it requires cream in order that its texture be good. For this reason, it is not so economical as some of those which are a trifle more complicated to prepare. It consists of cream sweetened, flavored, and then frozen. This is a particularly attractive way in which to make ice cream when strawberries, red raspberries, or peaches are in season, as these fresh fruits may be crushed and added to the cream, instead of plain flavoring.

The recipe here given for the preparation of Philadelphia ice cream contains vanilla as the flavoring, but fresh fruit of any desirable kind may be added, this recipe being used merely as a basis. Usually 1 1/2 cupfuls of crushed fruit is required for a quart of cream. It is necessary, however, to vary the quantity of sugar with the nature of the fruit used. For instance, if fresh strawberries are used, more sugar will be required than if canned ones are used, because sugar has already been added to these. The best plan is to test the mixture before freezing it, remembering always that more sugar is required for a frozen dessert than would be necessary if the mixture were not to be frozen.

PHILADELPHIA ICE CREAM
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Scald the cream in a double boiler, add the sugar and the vanilla, and cool. If desired, add 1 1/2 cupfuls of crushed fruit. If pineapple is used, it may be grated or shredded instead of being crushed. Place in a freezer and freeze according to the directions previously given.

71. VANILLA ICE CREAM.--Plain ice cream is usually made from ingredients that are somewhat cheaper than those used to make Philadelphia ice cream. It consists usually of a custard foundation, to which are added flavoring, sometimes fruit, and usually thin cream. The custard foundation is often made with corn starch and a small amount of raw egg. The same rules must be observed in the preparation of this foundation for ice cream as have been learned in the making of custards. Frequently some starchy material, such as flour or corn starch, is used for thickening in the preparation of this dessert. Some persons prefer flour, as they believe that the presence of flour cannot be detected so easily as that of corn starch; however, a recipe using each is given. The mixtures used for this ice cream should not be boiled, but cooked in a double boiler. If desired, fruits, either cooked or raw, or nuts may be added to the ice cream for variety.

VANILLA ICE CREAM No. 1
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Mix the flour, sugar, and salt with sufficient cold liquid to moisten well. Add this to the remainder of the milk and the cream heated in a double boiler. Stir until thickened, and cook for about 20 minutes. Beat the eggs and add slowly to the mixture, stirring rapidly to prevent curding. Cook until the egg has thickened, strain, add the vanilla, cool, and freeze.

VANILLA ICE CREAM No. 2
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Scald the milk and stir into it the corn starch mixed with half the sugar. Stir constantly until thickened, and cook for 15 to 20 minutes. Beat the eggs, add the remaining sugar, mix with a little of the hot mixture, and stir into the double boiler. Remove from the heat, add the cream, strain, cool, add the flavoring, and freeze.

72. CHOCOLATE ICE CREAM.--Next to vanilla ice cream, chocolate seems to be the most desired. Some persons think this variety is difficult to make, but if the accompanying directions are carefully followed, no difficulty will be experienced and a delicious dessert will be the result.

CHOCOLATE ICE CREAM
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Mix the sugar and water and cook until a sirup forms. Add this to the melted chocolate and cook together until the two are well blended. Add this mixture to the heated milk and cream, which have been seasoned with the salt and thickened with the flour. Beat the eggs and add to the hot mixture, stirring rapidly to prevent curding. Remove from the heat, cool, add the vanilla, strain, and freeze.

73. MOCHA ICE CREAM.--As the flavor of coffee is usually well liked, Mocha ice cream, which has coffee for its flavoring, is a dessert that often finds a place in the meal. It is especially nice to serve in the hot weather when hot coffee is omitted from the meal.

MOCHA ICE CREAM
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Heat the water and add it to the coffee. Allow this to stand on the back of the stove for about 1/2 hour, and then strain through cheesecloth. Heat the milk in a double boiler, and to it add the strained coffee. Beat the eggs and add the sugar and salt to them. Stir into this a spoonful of the hot milk and coffee and then add to the mixture in the double boiler. Cook until the eggs have thickened, stirring constantly to prevent curding. Remove from the heat, cool, add the cream and vanilla, strain through a fine sieve, and freeze.

74. CARAMEL ICE CREAM.--No more delicious ice cream can be made than that flavored with caramel. It is usually very fine in texture and rich in flavor.

CARAMEL ICE CREAM
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Caramelize 1/2 of the sugar and add the water. Cook to a sirup. Prepare a custard with the milk, remaining sugar, flour, egg, and salt. Remove from the heat, add the caramel and the cream, strain, add the vanilla, cool, and freeze.

75. JUNKET ICE CREAM WITH PEACHES.--An attractive frozen dessert can be made by freezing junket and serving it with canned peaches and peach sirup. This may be made into a mold and the mold garnished with the peaches, or it may be served on individual plates and a half of a peach put on each plate.

JUNKET ICE CREAM WITH PEACHES
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Mix the cream and milk, add the sugar and salt, and heat in a double boiler until lukewarm. Dissolve the junket tablets in the cold water and add to the lukewarm milk. Add the flavoring and the green coloring, making the junket a pale green, and stand in a warm place until set. Turn into a freezer and freeze. If desired, mold and garnish the mold with the peaches. Add sugar to the peach juice and cook until a thick sirup is formed. Pour this over the whole and serve. If it is desired not to mold the ice cream, serve it with a peach on individual serving plates and pour a spoonful of peach sirup over each portion.

76. FRENCH ICE CREAM.--No more delicious ice cream can be made than that given in the accompanying recipe and known as French ice cream. It is especially nice for serving when something very attractive is desired, as at a dainty luncheon or an afternoon or evening party.

FRENCH ICE CREAM
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Heat the milk and add the sugar and beaten yolks of the eggs. Cook until the mixture thickens, remove from the fire, add the cream, vanilla, and lemon. Cool and freeze.

FROZEN CUSTARDS

77. Frozen custard makes a very desirable kind of frozen dessert. If properly made, the result is a delightfully rich dessert of smooth texture. It may be frozen without turning or in the usual way. A similar mixture is used in some of the recipes of the more complicated frozen desserts given later. Fruits and nuts may be used in the preparation of frozen custard to procure variety. During the season when eggs are expensive, this dessert is a rather extravagant one, so that from the standpoint of economy it should be made in the spring and summer.

78. PLAIN FROZEN CUSTARD.--If a frozen dessert that is easily made is desired, plain frozen custard should be tried. The accompanying recipe gives directions for custard of this kind.

PLAIN FROZEN CUSTARD
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Heat the milk in a double boiler. Separate the eggs, beat the yolks, and add the sugar and salt to them. Add this to the hot milk, stirring rapidly until the mixture thickens. Remove from the heat, beat the egg whites, and fold them into the mixture. Add the vanilla and lemon extract, cool, and freeze.

79. FROZEN CUSTARD WITH NUTS.--Plain frozen custard can be greatly improved by the addition of nuts. The nuts used may be blanched almonds roasted in the oven until they are brown, hickory nuts, English walnuts, pecans, black walnuts, or a mixture of any of these. They should not be put through a grinder, but should be put into a chopping bowl and chopped fine with a chopping knife. Prepare the mixture and freeze to a mush, then open the freezer, add a cupful of chopped nuts, close the freezer, and complete the freezing.

80. FROZEN CUSTARD WITH RAISINS.--Frozen custard is also delicious when maple sirup is used in its preparation and raisins are added before the freezing is complete.

FROZEN CUSTARD WITH RAISINS
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Steam the raisins until they are soft. Heat the milk in a double boiler. Beat the eggs, add the maple sirup, and add this to the milk. Cook until the mixture has thickened, remove from the heat, and stir in the cream and vanilla. Cool and freeze to a mush; then add the raisins and continue freezing until stiff. Serve.

81. TUTTI-FRUTTI FROZEN CUSTARD.--A very rich dessert can be made by adding chopped nuts and several kinds of fruit to custard and then freezing it to make tutti-frutti custard. Such a dessert is high in food value and is suitable for a meal in which other rich food is not served.

TUTTI-FRUTTI FROZEN CUSTARD
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Heat the milk in a double boiler. Beat the egg yolks and add the sugar and salt. Add this to the hot milk and stir until the custard has thickened. Cool, add the vanilla, chopped citron, maraschino juice, cherries, nuts, pineapple, and coconut. Place in a freezer and freeze until stiff. Pack and let stand until time to serve.


ICES

82. Ices are simple mixtures of fruit juice and sugar diluted with water and then frozen. They are expected to be somewhat sour, and, as a rule, lemon juice is relied on to assist in obtaining this flavor. In addition, lemon juice also helps to bring out the flavor of the fruit used as the basis of the ice.

As a rule, a very smooth texture is not desired in this dessert; consequently, ice is frozen quite rapidly and, as will be noted in Table I, with a high proportion of salt. Unless the fruit used in an ice is expensive, this is probably the cheapest frozen dessert that can be made, for it seldom contains any other ingredients than those mentioned. It is usually clear, but occasionally the fruit pulp is used in addition to the fruit juice. When this is done, the mixture should not be frozen too hard, as the fruit is apt to become icy. Fresh, canned, or preserved fruit may be used. The sugar used for ices is usually cooked with the water to form a sirup. Otherwise, the sugar often fails to dissolve and remains granular, preventing the ice from being as sweet as it should be for the amount of sugar used.

83. LEMON ICE.--The ice most frequently made is that flavored with lemon. It is very refreshing when served plain, but it can be improved by the addition of fruit. A very delightful way in which to serve it is to place a large spoonful in a sherbet glass, pour over this a spoonful or two of the sirup from maraschino cherries, and then garnish with diced bananas.

LEMON ICE
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Mix the water and sugar, bring to a boil, and cool. Add the lemon juice, turn into a freezer, and freeze. Serve in any desired way.

84. ORANGE ICE.--Persons fond of oranges generally welcome orange ice as a dessert. As orange ice is somewhat bland in flavor, it is improved by the addition of a little lemon juice.

ORANGE ICE
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Cook the sugar and water until a thin sirup is formed, add the lemon and orange juice, and freeze.

85. FRUIT ICE.--No more refreshing dessert for warm weather can be made than fruit ice. Orange and lemon juice are used as the foundation, and grated pineapple and crushed strawberries are added for flavoring.

FRUIT ICE
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Cook the sugar and water until a thin sirup is formed, and then cool. Add the juice of the oranges and lemons, the grated pineapple, fresh if possible, and the crushed strawberries. Freeze and serve.

86. FROZEN SPICED PUNCH.--Something entirely different in the way of a frozen dessert can be made by making frozen spiced punch according to the accompanying directions. A dessert of this kind is a fitting conclusion to a meal that is somewhat hearty and varied in its nature.

FROZEN SPICED PUNCH
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Put the cloves and cinnamon into the water, place over the fire, bring to the boiling point, and then add the sugar. Cook together for a few minutes, remove from the fire, and cool. Add the pineapple, orange, and lemon juice, strain, add the wintergreen oil, and freeze.

87. MINT PUNCH.--When meals containing rich meats and other rich foods are served, it will be found that mint punch adds just what is needed to balance them. It is an easy dessert to make, as will be seen from the accompanying recipe.

MINT PUNCH
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Cook the sugar and water until a thin sirup is formed. Cool and add the juice of the lemons. Wash and chop the leaves of the mint into small pieces, and add these to the liquid. Add the peppermint oil and sufficient coloring to make it a pale green. Freeze. The fresh mint leaves may be omitted if desired.


FRAPPÉS

88. FRAPPÉS, in composition, are very similar to ices, consisting usually of crushed fruit or fruit juice, water, and sugar. They are granular when frozen, and, as they are never frozen as hard as ice cream and ices, they are of a mushy consistency. They are more often used for serving with a heavy course in a dinner or between two courses than as a dessert. The freezing of frappés is accomplished rapidly, for, as will be observed from Table I, the proportion of ice and salt used is 1 to 1. This, together with the fact that the mixture contains a large proportion of water, accounts for the granular nature of frappés. Any desirable fruit may be used in the preparation of this dessert. If it is a rather bland fruit, such as peaches, raspberries, etc., lemon juice should be added in order to give a sour taste and the mixture will need to be sweetened accordingly.

89. CRANBERRY FRAPPÉ.--To the dinner course of a meal in which chicken, turkey, duck, or other fowl is served, cranberry frappé is often added. It may be used in place of the cranberry jelly and will be found to be a delightful change.

CRANBERRY FRAPPÉ
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Put the cranberries to cook with the water. When all the berries have become soft, force them through a colander, add the sugar, and put over the fire to cook until the sugar is completely dissolved. Remove from the fire and cool, add the juice of the lemons, and freeze.

90. CIDER FRAPPÉ.--A delightful addition to a Thanksgiving dinner is cider frappé. It should be served with the dinner course rather than as a dessert.

CIDER FRAPPÉ
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Place the water and sugar over the fire and cook until the sugar is dissolved. Cool and then add the sirup to the cider and the juice of the lemons. Freeze.

91. CHERRY FRAPPÉ.--No more attractive frappé can be served than that flavored with cherries and colored with a pink coloring. It is very refreshing and adds much to the meal in which it is served.

CHERRY FRAPPÉ
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Add the sugar to the water and cook until the sugar is dissolved. Cool, add the juice of the lemons, the chopped cherries, cherry juice, and sufficient pink coloring to make the mixture a pale pink. Freeze.


SHERBETS

92. SHERBETS, according to definition, are flavored water ices, but as they are now commonly understood, they have come to have a different meaning. Desserts now regarded as sherbets are ices to which are added egg whites, gelatine, milk, or any combination of these things. The addition of such ingredients improves the texture very much, for sherbets are less likely to be granular than ices.

Sherbets may be made from fruits or fruit juices of any kind, and these may be either canned or fresh. Some mixtures of fruits are more agreeable than others, and an effort should be made to combine the fruits that make the best mixtures. When a bland fruit is used as the basis for a sherbet, a more acid one should be added to improve the flavor.

93. MILK SHERBET.--The accompanying recipe for milk sherbet may be made as here given, or any desired kind of crushed fruit and fruit juice may be added to it to give a distinctive fruit flavor. The quantity of lemon used may be decreased slightly, especially if the fruit added is sour. If a large amount of unsweetened fruit is added, it may be necessary to increase the quantity of sugar. This point should be looked after carefully before freezing.

MILK SHERBET
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Mix the sugar, milk, and juice of the lemons. Stir until the sugar is dissolved. The milk, of course, will curd, but when it is frozen the curd will have disappeared entirely. Place in a freezer and freeze until firm.

94. RASPBERRY SHERBET.--If a delightful dessert is desired, raspberry sherbet should be made. Fresh raspberries are preferred in a dessert of this kind, but canned raspberries may be used if it is made out of the raspberry season.

RASPBERRY SHERBET
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Mix the milk, raspberries, juice of the lemon, and sugar. Stir until the sugar is dissolved. Freeze.

95. PEAR SHERBET.--Pear juice is, of course, rather bland in flavor, but it makes a very appetizing sherbet if it is combined with lemon juice.

PEAR SHERBET
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Mix the fruit juices and water and add the sugar. Soak the gelatine in a little cold water and add sufficient boiling water to dissolve it. Pour this into the mixture. Freeze until of a mushy consistency. Add the beaten egg white and continue to freeze until stiff.

96. STRAWBERRY SHERBET.--As nearly every one is fond of strawberries, a sherbet in which this fruit is used will always be appreciated. Fresh strawberries are required in the accompanying recipe, and so this dessert must be made during strawberry season.

STRAWBERRY SHERBET
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Crush the strawberries, add them with the juice of the lemon and sugar to the milk. Stir until the sugar is dissolved. Freeze to a mush, add the beaten egg whites, and continue to freeze until the sherbet is solid.

97. GRAPE SHERBET.--Sherbet in which grape juice is used for flavoring makes a change from the usual kind of frozen desserts. A little lemon juice is used with the grape juice to make it more tart.

GRAPE SHERBET
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Mix the grape juice, water, and milk. Soak the gelatine in a little cold water and add sufficient boiling water to dissolve. Pour this into the liquid and add the sugar and the juice of the lemon. Stir until the sugar is dissolved. Place in a freezer and freeze.

MOUSSES, PARFAITS, AND BISCUITS

98. Nature of Mousses, Parfaits, and Biscuits. Mousses, parfaits, and biscuits differ from other frozen desserts in that they are frozen in molds rather than in a freezer. Mousses and parfaits are similar in nature, and still there is a slight distinction between them. Mousses nearly always contain gelatine and are frequently made without eggs, while parfaits are composed largely of sirup, eggs, and cream. Biscuits are usually made of a mixture similar to mousses and parfaits, but are molded in individual molds.

Since the desserts are frozen without being turned, they must be of a heavy, smooth texture, so that they will not be granular when they are frozen, as would be the case if a fine mixture were packed in a mold and frozen without turning. In many of them, whipped cream and beaten eggs are folded in to give lightness. In the ordinary manner of freezing, this lightness would be lost, but it is retained in this method because the mixture is undisturbed during the freezing process. Considerable time is required to freeze these heavy mixtures; in fact, if a mousse contains too large a proportion of gelatine, there is difficulty in freezing it at all.

99. MOLDING: MOUSSES, PARFAITS, AND BISCUITS.--The molding of mousses, parfaits, and biscuits, while different from the freezing of other frozen desserts, is not a difficult matter. They are usually put in a mold of some kind and the mold is then covered with a mixture of ice and salt. After the mixture is prepared, crack the ice as previously explained, and mix it with salt in the proportion of 2 to 1. As a rule, a very large dish pan or other utensil that will hold a sufficient quantity of ice to cover the mold well is used for freezing the packed mold. Set the mold in the pan of ice and salt until it is thoroughly cooled, and then fill it with the mixture to be frozen. Often, to improve the appearance, the mold is first lined with a frappé or an ice and then filled with the heavier mixture. Such an arrangement provides an opportunity for a color scheme and at the same time facilitates the removal of the dessert from the mold.

With the mold filled in the desired way, wrap several layers of oiled paper in a band around the edge and press the cover down tightly to prevent the entrance of any salt water. Then pack the closed mold in the pan of ice and salt, being careful to have it completely covered. It may be necessary to pour off the water and repack with ice and salt once during the freezing. Care should be taken not to freeze the mixture too long, for, at best, it is hard to remove these desserts from the mold and this difficulty is increased if they are frozen too hard.

[Illustration: FIG. 19]

100. CARAMEL MOUSSE.--A melon mold makes a very attractive dessert when used for the molding of caramel mousse. After being turned out of the mold on a platter and garnished with peaches, this dessert will appear as in Fig. 19. In addition to being attractive, caramel mousse is so delicious that it appeals to practically every one.

CARAMEL MOUSSE
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Make 1/2 cupful of the sugar and the 1/2 cupful of water into caramel. Place the can of evaporated milk into a pan of warm water, allow it to come to a boil over the flame, and then cool the can in the refrigerator. Soften the gelatine with the 1/4 cupful of water and then dissolve in the caramel while it is boiling hot. Pour the cold milk into a bowl, add the egg white, and beat together vigorously. When the gelatine and caramel have become cool and have started to set, gradually add the mixture to the milk and egg white, beating constantly. If it is desired to hasten the thickening process, set the bowl in which the mixture is being made into a pan of ice. Add the rest of the sugar, the vanilla, and the salt, and continue beating until the whole begins to thicken. Place in a mold and freeze in a pan of ice and salt. When frozen, turn from the mold onto a platter and garnish with canned peaches in the manner shown. Over each serving, pour some of the peach juice, which has been boiled down into a thick sirup.

101. CHOCOLATE MOUSSE.--If persons to be served are fond of chocolate desserts, chocolate mousse should be prepared. This may be packed in a mold of any desired kind.

CHOCOLATE MOUSSE
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Melt the chocolate in a double boiler. Add the sugar and half of the water. Cook over the flame until the mixture is thick and smooth. Soften the gelatine in 1/4 cupful of water, bring the remaining 1/4 cupful of water to the boiling point, and dissolve the gelatine in it. Add this to the cooked chocolate and sugar, heat the thin cream in a double boiler, and mix the two. Add the vanilla, strain, and cool in a pan of ice water. When the mixture begins to thicken, whip the heavy cream and fold it in. Mold, pack in ice and salt, and freeze.

102. BANANA-AND-APRICOT MOUSSE.--Mousses are sometimes made of fruits, but when this is done, the proper combination should be secured. Bananas and apricots combine very well. An excellent dessert will therefore result if the directions given in the accompanying recipe are carefully followed.

BANANA-AND-APRICOT MOUSSE
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Force ripe bananas through a sieve to make the banana purée. Soak and stew dried apricots and force these through a sieve to make apricot purée. Mix the two and add the lemon juice. Add 1/2 cupful of the water to the sugar and cook until a thick sirup is formed. Add this to the fruit purée. Soften the gelatine in 1/4 cupful of cold water, heat the remaining 1/4 cupful to the boiling point, and dissolve the gelatine. Add the gelatine to the fruit mixture and place in a pan of ice water to cool. Whip the cream until it is stiff and fold this into the fruit mixture when it begins to thicken. Mold, pack in ice, and freeze.

103. MAPLE PARFAIT.--Maple sirup may be combined with eggs and whipped cream to make maple parfait. As may be judged from the ingredients used, this is a very rich dessert; therefore, it should not be used in a meal in which the other dishes are hearty. Maple parfait makes an excellent dish to serve with cake that is not very rich as refreshments for a party.

MAPLE PARFAIT
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Beat the eggs. Cook the maple sirup for a few minutes only and pour this slowly over them. Stir constantly to prevent the curding of the eggs. Place in a double boiler and cook until the mixture thickens. Cool in a pan of ice water. Whip the cream until it is stiff and fold this into the mixture. Mold, pack in ice and salt, and freeze.

104. CAFÉ PARFAIT.--Coffee used to flavor parfait makes a dessert that appeals to many. When hot coffee is not included in the meal on a warm day, this beverage need not be omitted altogether, for it may be used to flavor the dessert.

CAFÉ PARFAIT
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Scald the coffee and milk together for about 20 minutes, strain, and add the sugar and thin cream. Stir until the sugar dissolves. Beat the eggs and add them to the warm mixture. Cook together until the eggs have thickened and then cool. Whip the heavy cream, fold this into the custard, and freeze. Serve with sweetened whipped cream.

105. STRAWBERRY ANGEL PARFAIT.--As the name implies, strawberry angel parfait is a very dainty dessert. Nothing more delightful can be made during the season when fresh strawberries can be obtained. It is suitable for serving at the conclusion of a meal, but it is especially satisfactory for a party or other social affair.

STRAWBERRY ANGEL PARFAIT
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Boil the sugar and water until the sirup threads. Beat the egg whites and pour the hot sirup over them, beating rapidly. Cool. Whip the cream and fold it in, add the crushed strawberries and vanilla, and freeze in a mold.

106. CANTON PARFAIT.--Preserved Canton ginger is used for the flavoring of Canton parfait. The sirup that comes with the ginger is also used in the preparation of this dessert. Canton parfait is somewhat of a departure from the ordinary dessert, but is favored by many persons.

CANTON PARFAIT
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Cook the sugar and water together until they form a thin sirup. Beat the eggs, pour the hot sirup over them, and add the thin cream. Cook in a double boiler until the eggs have thickened. Cool, add the ginger chopped into small pieces, the ginger sirup, vanilla, and lemon juice. Fold into this the heavy cream whipped until it is stiff. Freeze in a mold.

107. BISCUIT TORTONI.--Something entirely different in the nature of a frozen dessert can be had by preparing biscuit tortoni. This is frozen in a mold as are parfaits and mousses, but instead of the entire mold being served, it is packed in paper cases, and one of these served to each person. Macaroons are used to flavor this dessert, and a layer of the crumbs is sprinkled over the top of each serving.

BISCUIT TORTONI
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Cook the sugar and water until it threads. Beat the eggs and add the sirup to the beaten eggs. Then add the thin cream, return to the fire, and cook until the mixture thickens. Set aside to cool. Beat the heavy cream until it is stiff, and fold this into the custard. Make macaroon crumbs by drying macaroons and beating them until they are quite fine. Add 1 cupful of these crumbs and the vanilla to the parfait mixture, place in a mold and freeze. When frozen, remove from the mold, pack in paper cases, cover with a layer of macaroon crumbs, and serve.


MOLDING FROZEN DESSERTS

108. After desserts have been frozen in the various ways that have been explained, they are often molded and then allowed to stand in ice and salt until they are well set. In this way, many attractive desserts can be made and numerous color schemes carried out. Some of the molds that are used for this purpose are shown in Fig. 20. The one in the center is known as a melon mold, and it is the one used in the preparation of the caramel mousse shown in Fig. 19. It may also be used for the molding of desserts that are already frozen. The mold to the left is known as a brick mold, and is much used for Neapolitan ice cream, while the small one to the right is an individual mold used for individual serving. Both the top and the bottom of the brick mold are in the form of covers that are removable. Directions for the molding of several desserts of this kind are here given and other frozen mixtures may be molded in a similar way.

[Illustration: FIG. 20]
[Illustration: FIG. 21]

109. NEAPOLITAN ICE CREAM.--A combination of an ice and two kinds of ice cream, usually of different colors, makes what is known as Neapolitan ice cream. Various ways of combining these are in practice; for instance, chocolate ice cream and strawberry ice cream may be combined with lemon ice, or strawberry and vanilla ice cream and orange ice may be used together. The ice creams and ices must, of course, be thoroughly frozen before they are packed in the mold.

Prepare the mold by placing a piece of oiled paper over the bottom cover and setting the mold in this. Then put a layer of ice cream of one color into the mold, as shown in Fig. 21, pack on top of this the second color of ice cream, and put the ice on top, or pack the ice between the two kinds of ice cream. Pack each layer tight and push the frozen mixtures well into the corners so that there will be no holes. Cover the top well with another piece of oiled paper, as shown in Fig. 22, place the cover on, and pack the mold into ice and salt, using a proportion of 2 to 1. Allow this to stand until it is well set. To serve, remove from the mold, cut slices from the brick, and place on plates, preferably those covered with paper doilies.

[Illustration: FIG. 22]

110. BOMBE GLACÉ.--A combination of an ice and a mousse or parfait mixture makes a delightful dessert known as Bombe glacé. Contrasting colors should be used if possible in order to make a beautiful dessert. This is usually made in a melon-shaped mold, but it may be made in a round mold, such as a tin can, if the can is perfectly water-tight.

Line the mold with an ice and fill the center with a mousse or a parfait. Place in a mixture of ice and salt and freeze. When it has become solid, turn out the entire mold on a suitable dish and serve it at the table.


SERVING FROZEN DESSERTS

111. Frozen desserts offer an opportunity for variety in serving, because they occur in so many different forms. The method of serving depends, of course, on the nature of the frozen dessert, but any one of them that may be served from a large plate or dish is always attractive. This may be done, as has been explained, if the frozen mixtures are molded either as a single kind or as a combination of two or more kinds.

112. To remove a molded dessert from the mold before serving, first clean the mold thoroughly of ice and salt and wipe it dry with a cloth. Then remove the cover and allow it to stand for a few minutes in a warm place. This treatment will cause the outside of the frozen mixture to melt slightly and permit it to slip easily from the mold. A warm cloth or warm water is sometimes used to melt the surface, and it accomplishes the work more quickly; but when the mold is so treated it is likely not to look so well. As soon as the surface is a trifle soft, turn the mold out on a dish and serve it immediately.

[Illustration: FIG. 23]

113. Receptacles of numerous kinds are in use for individual servings of frozen desserts. Slices of ice cream cut from a brick mold and individual molds are usually served on a small plate about the size of a bread-and-butter plate. It may be placed directly on the plate, or a paper doily of the proper size may be put on the plate and the frozen dessert set on this. Sherbet glasses are much used for individual portions and are very attractive for this purpose, especially when they have long stems. Paper cases, such as those shown in Fig. 23, also make excellent receptacles for individual servings. They may be plain or fancy and are generally used to carry out a color scheme or a decorative idea. Meringues having the bottom removed and the center scooped out are sometimes used as cases in which to serve ice cream. These are made of egg white and sugar and baked in the oven. They are not difficult to prepare, as the recipes for them in Cakes, Cookies, and Puddings, Part 2, explain, and they are often garnished with whipped cream. All such receptacles are placed on a small plate either with or without a paper doily of the right size.

[Illustration: FIG. 24]

114. It is a little more difficult to serve desserts frozen in a freezer than those which an molded. However, there are numerous ways of garnishing and serving such desserts to add to their attractiveness. Candied fruits, such as cherries and pineapple, candied violet, mint, and rose leaves, maraschino and crème-de-menthe cherries, fresh strawberries, preserved cherries, strawberries, and other fruits, sliced peaches or bananas, whipped cream, toasted coconut, chopped nuts of different kinds, and various kinds of fruit sirups may all be used to advantage with these desserts. Fig. 24 shows ice cream served in a stemmed sherbet glass with grape juice and garnished with whipped cream and a maraschino cherry. Then, too, a chocolate sirup made by cooking sugar, water, and chocolate or sugar, milk, and chocolate may be served hot or cold over ice cream and similar desserts. Another excellent dip is made of any kind of fruit juice thickened with sugar. The marshmallow whip explained in Art. 54 may be made in any desirable color and then used alone or with a dip as a garnish for ice cream.


COLD AND FROZEN DESSERTS

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS

(1) Discuss briefly the value of desserts with meals.

(2) What points should be considered in the selection of desserts?

(3) What is the value of an attractive appearance in a dessert?

(4) (a) How do the general rules of cookery apply in the preparation of desserts? (b) Give an example.

(5) Of what value to desserts is: (a) a bland sauce? (b) a highly seasoned sauce?

(6) (a) Mention the proportion of eggs and milk for a custard. (b) Describe the method of making and baking plain custard.

(7) (a) Give a common test for determining when baked custard is done. (b) Give the test for soft custard.

(8) (a) How should pearl tapioca be prepared for cooking? (b) What should be its appearance when it has been cooked?

(9) How is gelatine prepared when it is to be used for desserts?

(10) Give the theory for the freezing of desserts.

(11) Give the proportion of ice to salt for: (a) ice cream; (b) sherbets; (c) ices; (d) frappés; (e) frozen punch; (f) frozen desserts that are packed and not turned to freeze.

(12) Describe the procedure in getting a mixture ready to freeze.

(13) To what is the increase in quantity during the freezing of a mixture due?

(14) How does the rate of speed in turning the dasher affect the freezing of a dessert?

(15) How can you determine when the mixture in a freezer is sufficiently frozen?

(16) What should be done in making a frozen dessert when the freezing has been completed?

(17) State the advantages and disadvantages of a vacuum freezer.

(18) What are: (a) ices? (b) sherbets?

(19) How is a mold of ice cream packed?

(20) Describe an original way of serving ice cream.




CAKES, COOKIES, AND PUDDINGS (PART 1)

CAKE AND PUDDING MIXTURES IN THE DIET

1. CAKE is a mixture of flour, eggs, sugar, butter, and liquid that is baked in the oven in a variety of forms and distinguished by a tender texture and a sweet flavor. Closely allied to cake mixtures proper are many others, including cookies, small cakes, puddings, etc. While these differ from cakes in some respects, they are similar in use, ingredients, or methods of preparation. Because of this similarity, a number of these related mixtures are taken up in connection with cakes.

2. Foods of this class, which are usually served as dessert, are for the most part considered as luxuries and, of course, are not used so extensively in the diet as other classes of foods. However, sweet food is required to a certain extent in each person's diet, and it may be obtained in this agreeable form without overbalancing the food account if a little economy is practiced elsewhere. Thus, a small quantity of cake or pudding that is light, not too rich, and properly made may be served without injury to most persons as a dessert or as an accompaniment to a dessert. For children, the less rich and sweet mixtures, such as cookies, are preferable to rich cake and very sweet confections and may be fed to them occasionally.

3. Because of the almost unlimited variation in the proportion of ingredients, considerable variety exists in desserts of this kind. Cakes range from those made with only eggs for leavening to those containing very few eggs and having the standard proportion of other leavening agents. For instance, there is sponge cake; which contains no shortening and no leavening except eggs, in contrast with butter cake, which has much shortening or little, as the case may be, and requires proportionate quantities of flour and leavening other than eggs. Then there are soft, rich cookies containing shortening and sugar and the harder, less rich ones containing a greater proportion of flour.

4. In addition to cakes and puddings proper, there are many mixtures that can scarcely be classed as cakes at all. A few of them, such as meringues, are so sweet and delicate that they could be considered as confections, but they are discussed in connection with cakes because they take the place of cake in the meal. The peculiar pastes used for the making of cream puffs and éclairs are not in reality cakes, nor are they real pastry, but because they are served as desserts and belong somewhere in this class, they are included here. Doughnuts and crullers are perhaps more often thought of as quick breads than as cakes. However, the mixtures used for them are sweet. They differ from the mixtures for cakes only in being less rich, but by the peculiar method of their preparation in deep fat these foods become richer than the majority of cakes. Then there are a few varieties of cakes made with yeast which are related to cake in some respects and can well be taken up in this connection.

5. The proportions of liquid to flour for the various kinds of cake mixtures do not differ materially from those of the batters and doughs given in Hot Breads. Still, the increased amount of sugar, eggs, and shortening must always be considered, for these ingredients make considerable variation in the general proportions. All that is said in Hot Breads concerning leavening agents and the proportions in which they are used applies with equal force to the making of cakes.

6. To be able to make foods of this nature well is one of the triumphs of the modern housewife. But this accomplishment is not beyond the limitations of any woman who masters the principles of cookery and diligently applies them to this part of the subject. In addition to making desserts that are merely palatable, she can, with a little practice, learn to decorate these foods, particularly cakes, both attractively and artistically. When she is equipped with such knowledge, she will be able to present her family with many varieties of this pleasing dessert.



CAKES

INGREDIENTS USED IN CAKES

NECESSARY INGREDIENTS

7. QUALITY OF INGREDIENTS.--The materials used in the making of cakes should be of as good quality as possible, and when put into the cake they should be in the best condition. In this phase of cookery, as in all others, better results are obtained when good materials are used. Besides possessing this general characteristic, certain of the ingredients require special attention.

8. FAT FOR CAKES.--The fat used for cakes must necessarily be of an agreeable flavor, and for this reason butter is the kind in general use. There are, of course, other fats that may be used to advantage either as part or all of the fat required. However, when another fat is to take the place of butter, one that is practically flavorless should be chosen. Oleomargarine of various kinds, Crisco, and even some of the liquid fats are very satisfactory, especially in the making of cookies.

9. SWEETENING FOR CAKES.--Numerous varieties of sugar may be employed in the making of cakes. Probably granulated sugar is used more frequently than any other, but brown sugar, soft sugar, and confectioner's sugar all have a place in cake making. Any of these may be used in the preparation of icing as well as for an ingredient of the cake itself.

10. LEAVENING FOR CAKES.--An important source of leavening in cakes is eggs. For cakes to be most satisfactory, the eggs employed should be strictly fresh. During the season when they are scarce and consequently high in price, recipes that require only a few eggs should be prepared.

Baking powder, which is also an important leavening in cakes, should be of an approved brand that can be relied on to do the work expected of it. Soda and cream of tartar are sometimes used together, and, again, soda is used alone with molasses or sour milk. For every 3 eggs in a cake mixture, 1 teaspoonful of the baking powder called for in the recipe may be omitted. Altitude affects the amount of baking powder required in cakes. The quantity given in the recipes is correct for altitudes varying from sea level to 1/2 mile high, but it should be reduced one-fifth at an elevation of 1 mile, and three-tenths at an elevation of 7,000 feet.

11. LIQUID FOR CAKES.--Milk, as a rule, is the liquid used in cake making. It may be skim milk or whole milk, it may consist of part water and part milk, or it may be entirely water, depending on the kind of cake. When a large number of eggs are used in a cake, very little liquid is employed. Sometimes the liquid consists of molasses and sour milk used together, separately, or with some other liquid.

12. FLOUR FOR CAKES.--The flour used in the preparation of cakes may be bread, pastry, or blend flour, depending on the kind of cake desired. While a blend, or an all-purpose, flour makes a satisfactory cake, pastry flour, which is milled from soft winter wheat, or better still, cake flour, is more nearly ideal as the excess gluten is removed, and it is much finer milled; hence it produces a lighter, finer, more delicate cake. Wheat flour is the kind that is generally used, but other flours, such as white corn meal, rice flour, and potato flour, though producing a drying effect, are sometimes combined with wheat. A tablespoonful of corn starch sifted with the bread or hard wheat flour is an improvement over straight bread flour, but as it has a drying effect, it is not to be recommended.


MISCELLANEOUS INGREDIENTS

13. In addition to the ingredients that have just been mentioned, there are numerous other ingredients that are often used in cakes. Some of them are used for the purpose of adding flavor and variety to otherwise plain cakes, while many of them are used entirely for the purpose of flavoring. These ingredients, like the necessary ones, should be of excellent quality. It is essential that their use and value be understood, for by means of them pleasing variety may often be secured with just a plain-cake recipe. For instance, a plain cake as a foundation may be varied by using with it raisins, nuts, spices, coconut, preserved fruits of various kinds, or flavoring of some sort. To be able to use these ingredients properly, it is well for the housewife to be familiar with their nature and the treatment that must be given to them before they can be used.

14. CURRANTS AND RAISINS.--As has already been learned, currants and raisins are varieties of dried grapes. Currants do not contain seeds, but raisins come in both seeded and seedless varieties, and either of these are satisfactory for cake making. Currants are often dry and hard, and as they are usually very dirty they require considerable cleaning to prevent them from being gritty when the cake is eaten. Because of these facts, currants are not very satisfactory and consequently are usually replaced by raisins, which may be used, either chopped or whole, for any of the purposes currants are used. If small raisins are desired, sultanas, which are a small, light-colored, and mild-flavored variety, are the best to purchase. These two fruits increase the food value of the mixtures to which they are added. Raisins, being extremely high in carbohydrate, are especially valuable as an ingredient.

Before currants and raisins are used in cake mixtures, they should be thoroughly cleaned. To clean them, place them in a colander, and then turn a stream of cold water over them and rub them between the fingers until all dirt or other foreign material is removed. When clean, allow them to dry as thoroughly as possible before using them.

15. MISCELLANEOUS FRUITS.--Fruits other than currants and raisins are often used in the preparation of cakes and puddings. These, which may be dried, canned, or preserved, include dates, figs, citron, apricots, prunes, cherries, plums, pears, peaches, and pineapple. Candied orange and lemon peel are generally used in the preparation of fruit cake. All of these fruits add food value and flavor.

A certain amount of preparation must be given to fruits before they can be used in cakes. All of them except the canned fruits must be thoroughly washed, and some of them, such as dates, must have the stones removed. Those which are very hard, as, for instance, figs and citron, may be steamed to make them soft. The steaming may be done by placing the fruit in a colander over a vessel of boiling water and covering the colander to retain the steam. When treated in this manner, these fruits will cut more easily and will be softer and more moist in the finished cake.

16. NUTS.--In the making of cakes, nuts of almost any variety may be utilized. Not only do they add a large amount of food value in the form of fat, but they increase the richness of the cake and provide a very delightful flavor. The nut meats are generally too large in size to be used whole, and so they must be made smaller before they are added to the mixture. They may be put through a chopper, but usually it is preferable to chop them with a chopping knife in a bowl or cut them into pieces with a paring knife.

It should be remembered, however, that the use of nuts in a cake adds greatly to the cost, for, with the exception of peanuts, they are rather expensive, particularly when they are bought shelled. As can readily be understood, both the nuts themselves and the labor involved in removing the shells must be paid for. The cost, of course, may be reduced by buying the nuts in the shells and shelling them at home.

17. COCONUT.--The flesh of the coconut when shredded is much used in the preparation of cakes, being put in the cake mixture or used in connection with icing between the layers and over the top layer. Coconut may be purchased already shredded in boxes or cans, or it may be obtained in the shells and then shredded at home. That which is prepared commercially either is dried, when it will be found to be somewhat hard, or is mixed with the milk of the coconut or with glycerine, which keeps it soft. Much more satisfactory coconut can be secured by procuring a coconut, cracking open the shell, removing the flesh, and then grating or grinding it. Coconut of this kind will be found to be very delicious and will make excellent cake. In case coconut becomes dry and hard before it is used, it can be softened by steaming it in the manner in which dried fruits are steamed.

18. CHOCOLATE AND COCOA.--Materials that are much used for flavoring cake mixtures and icings are chocolate and cocoa. Chocolate is sold in pound and half-pound cakes in both the bitter and the sweetened form, while cocoa is sold in packages or bottles in powder form. The bitter chocolate gives the greatest amount of food value and flavor and is therefore used the most. Cocoa is neither so strong in flavor nor so high in food value as chocolate, but it can be substituted for chocolate when this is not in supply.

19. SPICES.--In many kinds of cake, spices are needed to give the desired flavor. When they are to be used for this purpose, they should be obtained in the ground form and then mixed with the dry ingredients. The principal varieties used in cakes are cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, and allspice. Sometimes a combination of all these is added to the mixture, but very often just a little cinnamon or a mild flavoring of nutmeg is all that is required. When spices are purchased, the best possible brands should be selected, because these things are very easily adulterated with other materials and adulterated spices have not so much strength as the better kinds.

20. FLAVORING EXTRACTS.--In cake preparation, almost more than in any other part of cookery, flavoring extracts have a place. They are used in plain cakes that do not contain any of the other miscellaneous ingredients, and some of them are also added to many cake mixtures and icings that contain fruits, nuts, spices, chocolate, etc. Vanilla, which is an alcoholic extract of the vanilla bean, is probably used more frequently than any other flavoring. The alcoholic extracts of orange, lemon, almond, pistachio, and various other flavors are also valuable in cake making. When any of these flavorings are used in cakes, it should be remembered that much of their strength is lost through the baking. Therefore, in order that the cake may be well flavored after it is baked, a comparatively large quantity of flavoring must be used.


GENERAL CLASSES OF CAKES

21. Although many varieties of cake can be made, they may all be put into two general classes: sponge cake and butter cake. These classes may also be regarded as cake made without butter and cake made with butter, for it is the presence or absence of fat in a cake mixture that makes the difference in the method of mixing the ingredients and determines the texture after baking. While there are many true examples of each of these classes, it must be remembered that there are also numerous variations of the two which must be placed in either one or the other of these classes. For instance, a true sponge cake does not contain baking powder, but some recipes for sponge cake are given in which baking powder is included. Such recipes must be regarded as variations of sponge cake, for they are more similar to that than to butter cake.

The ingredients are not, however, the only source of difference between these two general classes of cakes. They also differ as to the method used to combine the ingredients, the correct oven temperature for baking, and the length of time required for the baking. All these differences must be thoroughly understood if successful cake making is to be the result.


GENERAL EQUIPMENT FOR CAKE MAKING

22. The different forms of cake require, of course, different utensils, and these are taken up in connection with the preparation of each class. However, it is well for the housewife to be familiar at the outset with the general equipment used in the making of cakes and similar foods.

23. The utensils required for the mixing of the ingredients are somewhat similar to those used in the preparation of hot breads. An earthen bowl is preferable for the mixing of the batter. If this kind is not available, an enamel one rather than an aluminum one should be used. When cake dough is stirred in an aluminum dish, the sides usually become darkened and are liable to discolor the mixture.

Spoons for the mixing of the ingredients are also important. Enameled spoons are not very satisfactory, because the enamel is likely to chip off the edges. Aluminum spoons may be used. In fact, they have lightness in weight which recommends their use, but if much stirring is done, a slight discoloration is apt to occur from the spoon. Wooden spoons or spatulas are found to be the most satisfactory for this purpose. They are light in weight, cause no discoloration, and do not chip nor wear off.

24. Two measuring cups, one for the dry ingredients and one for the wet materials, should be provided, as they will prove a convenience. A tablespoon, a teaspoon, and a case knife are also necessary for measuring. To remove any foreign material from the flour and at the same time make it light, a flour sifter is required.

25. Certain utensils are required for the beating of the eggs used in cakes. If they are to be beaten separately before being put into the mixture, a bowl and a rotary egg beater should be provided. In case the eggs are to be separated and the whites beaten alone, a flat dish, such as a platter or a soup plate, and an egg whip are the most satisfactory.

26. The kind of pan required for the baking of cakes depends entirely on the kind of cake that is to be prepared. Fig. 1 shows the types of pans for which the housewife will have the most use. The square pan at the left is suitable for any kind of cake that is to be baked in the form of a loaf. In front of this is a layer-cake pan with a removable bottom. This type of layer-cake pan is the most satisfactory, for the cake may be lifted right out of the pan rim on the cake-pan bottom and the bottom then easily removed from the cake after it has been placed on the cooler. Of course, pans without false bottoms may also be used successfully with a little care. The large flat pan at the right is a pan for the baking of all kinds of cookies. On this is shown a round pan having a removable bottom, to the center of which is attached a tube. Sponge cakes, although they may be baked in loaf-cake pans, are generally baked in a pan of this kind. Pans for individual cakes range in size from large muffin pans, like the one shown at the right front, to pans that produce cakes very small in size.

[Illustration: FIG. 1: cake pans.]

PROCEDURE IN CAKE MAKING

PREPARATION OF INGREDIENTS

27. In cake making, as in the preparation of other dishes, a systematic plan must be followed if good results are desired. A housewife cannot expect to have a successful cake if she has to stop during the mixing to get some of the ingredients or some of the utensils ready. Before the mixing is begun, all the utensils and ingredients should be collected and any of the ingredients that require special preparation should be prepared. Then, if the recipe is correct, if the ingredients are measured accurately and combined correctly, and if the baking is done properly, success in cake making is assured.

28. The first thing to be done, when a cake is to be made, is to read the recipe to determine just what is required and to find out whether all the ingredients called for are in supply. With this done, all the utensils should be placed conveniently on the table and the ingredients collected and measured. Some authorities advise the weighing of the ingredients in cake because weight is always regarded as more accurate than measure. If a recipe calls for weights, it will be found easier to use them than to try to change them to measure; but when a recipe requires measures, and does not state weights, it would be unwise to attempt to use scales for measuring.

29. The measuring of the fat often requires a little attention. For instance, if only 1/4 cupful of butter or some other fat is required, it may perhaps be more convenient to measure it with a tablespoon than with a cup. Otherwise, unless the recipe calls for melted fat, the fat should be measured by pressing it down tight into the cup until it reaches the mark indicating the required amount. If the fat is hard and cold, as is usually the case when it is first taken from the refrigerator or other cold place, it will be difficult to cream. A good plan is to let the fat stand until it is 70 degrees Fahrenheit, or ordinary room temperature, before the mixing is begun.

30. The dry ingredients used in cakes include the sugar, flour, baking powder, spices, etc. Granulated sugar seldom requires any preparation except measuring. However, sugar other than granulated, particularly brown sugar and pulverized sugar, should be rolled with a rolling pin and then sifted in order to free it from any lumps it might contain. Flour should be sifted once before measuring and again with the baking powder, or soda and cream of tartar, and salt in order to mix them. Other dry ingredients, such as spices and occasionally pulverized sugar, may also be sifted with the flour and other dry ingredients. If the dry leavening agent appears to be lumpy when the cover is removed from the can, it should be worked smooth with a spoon and sifted before it is measured. A very small mesh wire sieve may be used for this purpose.

31. The liquid should be measured by pouring it into the measuring cup with the cup stationary and level. The eggs, which are, of course, one of the liquid ingredients, should be neither broken until just before they are to be used, nor beaten until the mixture is brought to the point where the eggs are to be added. If the whites are to be used for the preparation of icing after the cake is baked, they should be kept in a cool place until they are beaten.

32. Fruits, nuts, and other miscellaneous ingredients should be prepared before the mixing of the cake is begun; that is, they should be cleansed, cut, ground, or chopped, as the case may be, so that it will not be necessary to stop the mixing of the cake to do any of this work. If they are to be dredged with flour, this may be done at the time they are prepared.


PREPARATION OF PANS

33. The pan or pans in which the cake is to be baked should also be prepared before the mixing is begun. The treatment to be given to the pans depends to a large extent on the cake that is to be put into them. Butter cake or any of its variations requires greased pans, whereas sponge cake should be put in pans that are not greased.

34. BUTTER-CAKE PANS.--The fat used to grease pans of any kind should be a clean, tasteless fat. Less will be required to cover the surface of the pan if an oil rather than a solid fat is used. In case butter is selected for this purpose, it should first be melted and then allowed to stand until the clear fat that rises to the top can be gathered. However, fats that are less expensive than butter are perfectly satisfactory for greasing pans, and so butter should not be used unless other fats are not available.

35. Muffin pans or individual pans of any kind should first be greased with a brush or a small piece of clean paper dipped into the fat that is to be used, and then dusted with flour. The flour should cover the surface of the pan, but should be shaken out so that no more than just a film remains over the grease. A brush may also be used for the greasing of other pans, but it is not recommended, as the fat is apt to become rancid in the brush, and if it is cleansed as often as is necessary to keep it in good condition, a great deal of fat, which clings to the brush, will be wasted. A small piece of paper dipped in fat will be found much more economical and quite as satisfactory for this work.

[Illustration: FIG. 2: loaf pan.]

36. Loaf-cake pans, that is, pans that make cake in the form of a loaf, should first be greased and then, as shown in Fig. 2, have the bottom covered with a piece of oiled paper or light wrapping paper that may be oiled after being put into the pan. This paper should be the exact width of the bottom of the pan and should be long enough to cover the bottom and extend up to the top of each end. The sides of the pan need not be covered, as it is a simple matter to loosen the cake from them with a knife. When the cake is turned out of the pan, the paper will stick to the cake, but it may be easily removed by merely pulling it off.

37. Layer-cake pans, whether they have false bottoms or not, should be greased and then covered with a light layer of flour, just as is done with individual pans. If such a pan does not have a false bottom and the cake seems to stick to it, the best plan is to turn the pan upside down and place a cold damp towel on it for a few minutes. This will moisten the surface of the bottom sufficiently to permit the pan to be removed without difficulty.

38. SPONGE-CAKE PANS.--The preparation of sponge-cake pans differs from that for butter-cake pans because of the nature of the cake. No grease of any sort should be applied to the surface of sponge-cake pans. If desired, they may be dusted with flour, but even this is not necessary, as very satisfactory results are obtained by putting the cake mixture into the bare pan.


SPONGE CAKES AND THEIR PREPARATION

METHOD OF PROCEDURE

39. With the ingredients and utensils gathered and prepared, the mixing of the cake may be begun at once. The method of mixing depends entirely on the kind of cake that is being made, sponge cake involving a different procedure from butter cake. These methods should be thoroughly mastered, so that there will be no danger of confusing them and so that the recipe will not need to be referred to constantly during the mixing of the cake. When an ingredient that is not usually included in the ordinary butter or sponge cake is found in the recipe, the way in which this ingredient is added to the mixture should be carefully noted, so that no mistake will be made.

40. NATURE OF SPONGE CAKE.--A true sponge cake contains nothing besides eggs, sugar, flour, and flavoring material. The eggs, sugar, and flour are used in equal amounts, the eggs and sugar being about the same by weight or measure and the flour half as much by weight. For instance, a successful sponge cake can be made with a cupful each of eggs, sugar, and flour. To these ingredients the juice of 1/2 lemon is usually added, and sometimes the grated rind of the lemon is used also. The simple variation in sponge-cake mixtures is the addition of liquid, which is usually water, sometimes cold and sometimes hot. In the true sponge cake, eggs supply all the leavening, but it is possible to economize in the number of eggs by using leavening of some other kind, such as soda and cream of tartar or baking powder. The texture of a sponge cake in which leavening other than eggs is used is not so good as that of the true sponge cake, but if this leavening is used discreetly, it is possible to decrease the number of eggs somewhat without sacrificing too much in texture. However, it is useless to try to make a good sponge cake with fewer than three eggs, for the other ingredients--flour, sugar, leavening, and liquid--are not sufficient to produce a delicious cake.

[Illustration: FIG. 3]

41. COMBINING THE INGREDIENTS.--The ingredients required for a true sponge cake and the utensils used in making such a cake are shown in Fig. 3. As will be observed, both the utensils and the materials are so placed on the table in front of the one who is to make the cake that the work may be performed with the least amount of effort.

If the whole eggs are to be used, break them into the mixing bowl and beat them with a rotary egg beater, as shown in Fig. 4, until they are thick and lemon-colored. In case only the whites are to be used, beat them with an egg whip on a flat dish or in a large bowl until they are stiff. To the beaten egg, add the sugar a little at a time, as shown in Fig. 5, beating it into the egg with the rotary beater.

[Illustration: FIG. 4, Using the rotary egg beater.] [Illustration: FIG. 5, Beating in the sugar.]

Either granulated or pulverized sugar may be used, but pulverized is the better of the two, because it is lighter. When the sugar is added at this time, sift the flour several times, and, as in Fig. 6, add it last, folding it into the mixture with a wire egg whip. However, if it is desired to do so, the sugar and flour may be sifted together and added at the same time, or both the sugar and flour may be sifted separately and then added to the eggs alternately. Then add the flavoring and, if liquid is to be used, put it in at this time. In case leavening is supplied, sift it in with the flour. The mixture is then ready for the pan. Place the ungreased pan conveniently on the table and then, as shown in Fig. 7, pour the mixture from the bowl into it. Scrape the sides of the bowl well, so that there will be no more waste than is necessary.

[Illustration: FIG. 6] [Illustration: FIG. 7]

42. BAKING SPONGE CAKE.--As soon as the mixture has been poured into the pan, set it in a moderate oven to bake. The temperature should be about 300 degrees Fahrenheit when the cake is put into the oven, but it may be gradually increased to 350 or 400 degrees. If the temperature cannot be determined, the paper test may be applied. This consists in placing a piece of white paper in the oven. To be right for sponge cake, the heat should turn this paper a moderate brown in 4 minutes. The time for baking depends, of course, on the size of the cake, but usually more time is required than for butter cake.

In putting the cake into the oven, set it on the lower rack, as here the mixture will be in a position to come up with the heat of the oven, which, as is known, has a general tendency to rise. If it is placed on the top rack where the heated air is necessarily passing down toward the outside walls because of the circulation that is established, there will be a certain amount of pressure on top of the cake which will prevent it from rising. Allow the cake to remain on the lower rack until it has risen to its fullest extent, and then, if necessary, remove it to the top rack for browning.

[Illustration: FIG. 8]

43. Several tests to determine whether sponge cake is ready to remove from the oven can be applied. One of these consists in observing the cake in the pan. After it has risen as much as it will rise, a small amount of shrinkage will, as shown in Fig. 8, loosen the cake from the sides of the pan. Another test, which is known as the finger test, consists in making a depression in the center of the cake. If the cake is baked sufficiently, it will spring back to fill the depression, but if it is not done, the depression will remain.

[Illustration: FIG. 9]

44. REMOVING SPONGE CAKE FROM PAN.--When sponge cake is taken from the oven, it requires different treatment from that of butter cake. Instead of removing it from the pan immediately, turn it upside down on a cooler to sweat, as shown in Fig. 9. Allow it to remain in this way until it has shrunken sufficiently from the pan, and then lift off the pan. If necessary, the cake may become completely cold before the pan is taken from it. Close adherence to these directions will prevent any trouble that may arise in removing sponge cake from the pan.


RECIPES FOR SPONGE CAKE AND ITS VARIATIONS

45. PLAIN SPONGE CAKE.--The ideal proportions for a sponge cake are given in the accompanying recipe and upon these proportions the other recipes are based.

PLAIN SPONGE CAKE

Beat the eggs until they are thick and lemon-colored. Add the sugar gradually and continue to beat. Sift the flour several times and fold into the mixture. When the ingredients are thoroughly mixed, add the grated rind and the juice of the lemon, pour into a sponge-cake pan, and bake.

46. COLD-WATER SPONGE CAKE.--The accompanying recipe is a slight variation from the true sponge cake, for it contains leavening other than eggs and a small amount of cold water. No difficulty will be experienced in making a cake according to this recipe if the directions are carefully followed.

COLD-WATER SPONGE CAKE

Beat the eggs until they are thick and lemon-colored. Add the sugar gradually and continue beating. Grate the yellow part from the lemon rind and add it with the juice. Pour in the cold water, continuing to beat. Sift in the baking powder with the flour and add to the egg mixture. Pour into a sponge-cake pan and bake.

47. HOT-WATER SPONGE CAKE.--Hot water and leavening in the form of soda and cream of tartar are used in the accompanying recipe for sponge cake. The texture is not just the same as that of a plain sponge cake, but if the recipe is carefully followed an excellent cake will be the result.

HOT-WATER SPONGE CAKE

Beat the eggs with a rotary beater until they are thick and lemon-colored. Sift the flour, powdered sugar, soda, and cream of tartar together several times. Sift these into the eggs and continue beating. When all of the dry ingredients have been added, pour in the boiling water, flavor with the vanilla, and pour into a sponge-cake pan and bake.


48. ORANGE SPONGE CAKE.--Sponge cake is delicious when it is flavored with orange. No leavening except the eggs is used in the recipe for cake of this kind. Lemon may be used in place of orange and 1/2 cupful of finely chopped nuts may be added.

ORANGE SPONGE CAKE

Beat the eggs with a rotary beater until they are light and lemon-colored. Add the granulated sugar gradually. Sift into this the flour, and continue the beating until all are mixed. Add the orange juice and extract, pour into a sponge-cake pan, and bake.

49. SUNSHINE CAKE.--Nothing more delicious in the way of cake can be made than sunshine cake. It is especially nice to serve with a frozen dessert of some kind, for it is not too rich and it is attractive in color.

SUNSHINE CAKE

Separate the eggs. Beat the yolks with a rotary beater until they are thick and lemon-colored. Beat the egg whites until they are foamy, add the cream of tartar, and continue beating until they are dry. Fold the sugar into the egg whites and then fold the yolks into this mixture. Sift the flour several times and add it. Add the lemon juice and vanilla, pour into a sponge-cake pan, and bake.

50. ANGEL CAKE NO. 1.--A variety of sponge cake in which only the egg whites are used is known as angel cake. Some persons hesitate to make cake of this kind because of the number of eggs it takes, but usually the yolks that remain can be put to very good use and so the cake is no more expensive than most others.

ANGEL CAKE No. 1

Sift the flour and powdered sugar together four or five times in order to make them very light. Beat the egg whites with a whip until they are foamy. Add the cream of tartar, and continue beating until they are stiff enough to heap up in a mound and stay this way. Sift the mixture of flour and sugar a little at a time into the egg whites and continue beating until all is added. Flavor with the vanilla, place in a sponge-cake pan with a tube in the center, and bake in a very moderate oven.

51. ANGEL CAKE NO. 2.--If a slightly larger cake than the first angel-cake recipe will make is desired, the accompanying recipe should be followed. Its texture is practically the same as that of the other cake.

ANGEL CAKE No. 2

Sift the flour and sugar separately four or five times. Beat the egg whites until they are foamy and add the cream of tartar, continuing to beat until they are stiff. Add the powdered sugar gradually, continuing the beating. When all this has been added, sift in the flour, and fold it in with as light a motion as possible. Pour into a sponge-cake pan with a tube in the center, and bake in a very moderate oven, raising the temperature slightly at the end.

52. POTATO-FLOUR SPONGE CAKE.--When a substitute for wheat flour must be used and the supply of eggs is not large, the family need not be deprived of excellent cake, for potato sponge cake can be made. This resembles angel food to a certain extent, as it is white in color and tender in texture. It is a splendid cake to serve with rich frozen desserts.

POTATO-FLOUR SPONGE CAKE

Beat the egg whites until stiff. Cook the sugar and water until the sirup threads. Add this sirup to the egg whites and beat well. Sift the potato flour, wheat flour, and cream of tartar three times, and then fold into the mixture. Add the flavoring, turn into a pan, and bake for about 40 minutes.

53. SPONGE CAKE WITH POTATO FLOUR.--The accompanying recipe for sponge cake contains honey for part of the sweetening, both the yolks and the whites of the eggs, and potato flour. When sugar and wheat flour are scarce, this is a very good cake to make.

SPONGE CAKE WITH POTATO FLOUR

Boil the honey, sugar, and water to the soft-ball stage. Separate the eggs, beat the yolks until thick and lemon-colored, and then beat the sirup into them. Add the grated lemon rind and juice, stir in the potato flour, and finally fold in the whites of the eggs, beaten very light. Bake in a tube pan for about 50 minutes.


BUTTER CAKES AND THEIR PREPARATION

METHOD OF PROCEDURE

54. NATURE OF BUTTER CAKE.--The ingredients for a simple butter cake consist of butter or other fat, sugar, flour, eggs, leavening, and liquid. The proportion of flour and liquid in cake of this kind is similar to that of a thick, or muffin, batter, that is, 2 measures of flour and 1 measure of liquid; but it should be remembered that the addition of other ingredients, such as butter, sugar, and eggs, alter this proportion to a certain extent. However, it is possible to make up a cake recipe from a muffin recipe by using 1/2 as much sugar as flour and 1/2 as much butter as sugar. With a knowledge of these proportions, the housewife will be able to judge how near a new recipe comes to being a reasonable one and what the possibilities of its success are.

[Illustration: FIG. 10]

55. COMBINING THE INGREDIENTS.--The method of mixing all cakes that include butter as an ingredient is similar. It is explained and illustrated in detail, so that the housewife may become thoroughly familiar with it and thus be prepared to apply it in the preparation of any variety of butter cake. In case a recipe contains additional ingredients, the way in which these are combined should be noted carefully and then carried out.

[Illustration: FIG. 11] [Illustration. Fig. 12]

56. In the making of any kind of butter cake, the ingredients and utensils should be collected and conveniently placed if the best results are desired. Fig. 10 shows these assembled ready to begin the mixing. As will be observed, layer-cake pans are included in the equipment, but these may be replaced by pans of other kinds if it is not desired to make a layer cake. Before the mixing begins, grease whatever pans are to be used and then dust them lightly with flour so that they will be ready when the mixture is prepared.

[Illustration. Fig. 13]

57. As the first step in the making of butter cake, cream the butter in the mixing bowl, as shown in Fig. 11; that is, work it with a wooden spoon until it is soft and creamy. Then add the sugar from the measuring cup very slowly, as in Fig. 12, stirring continually so that the mixture will remain creamy. The eggs are the next ingredient to be added. These are put in whole and unbeaten, whole and beaten, or they are separated and the yolks and whites beaten separately. If the whole eggs or the yolks are to be beaten, break them into a bowl and beat them with a rotary egg beater as Fig. 13 shows. As has already been learned, the whites, when added alone, should be beaten with an egg whip. When the eggs have been added to the mixture, beat it well so as to make it as light as possible and then stir in the liquid. The mixture will then appear as in Fig. 14. Next add all the dry ingredients to the flour, and, as illustrated in Fig. 15, carefully sift all into the mixture. If desired, the liquid and flour may be added alternately, a little at a time. With all the ingredients combined, beat the mixture vigorously for a short time to make sure that everything is thoroughly mixed, and then, as shown in Fig. 16, pour it into the pans that have been greased and floured. If a two-layer or a three-layer cake is to be made, it may be divided evenly to fill two pans or three pans, but if a loaf cake is desired, all of it should be poured into one pan.

[Illustration: Fig. 14] [Illustration: Fig. 15]

58. BAKING THE MIXTURE.--Place the pans containing the cake mixture on the bottom rack of the oven in order that it may have an opportunity to rise properly. The form in which the cake is made determines the correct temperature for the oven. Loaf cake requires more time for baking than small cakes or layer cake; consequently, the oven should not be so hot for cake of this kind as for the other types. A temperature of 350 to 400 degrees Fahrenheit is suitable for loaf cake, while small cakes or layer cake should have a temperature of at least 400 to 450 degrees. Be careful not to move the cake in the oven until it has risen sufficiently and has set; otherwise, it may fall when it is moved. If this precaution is observed and the cake falls, it may be known that the falling is due to a wrong proportion of ingredients and not to a draft nor the slamming of the oven door, as many housewives think. A cake that rises in the center and cracks open contains either an insufficient quantity of liquid or too much flour. If, upon being baked, a layer is higher on one side than on the other, it was probably spread unevenly in the pan before it was put in the oven or the oven rack itself was not level. This condition may be caused by uneven heat in the oven.

[Illustration: Fig. 16]

59. To determine whether a butter cake is baked sufficiently or not, several tests may be made. Cake of this kind does not shrink from the sides of the pan as does sponge cake, but the finger test mentioned may be applied, just as in the case of sponge cake. If, upon making a depression in the center of the butter cake, the surface springs back to fill the depression, it may be known that the cake is done. Another test consists in inserting a toothpick in the center of the cake. If it comes out clean, the cake has finished baking, but if some of the mixture sticks to the toothpick, more baking is required.

[Illustration: Fig. 17]

60. CARE OF BUTTER CAKE AFTER BAKING.--As soon as a butter cake is sufficiently baked, take it from the oven and remove it from the pan at once. See that the cake is loosened from the bottom and sides of the pan before attempting to turn it out. It can be loosened around the sides by means of a knife, and usually a slight shaking of the pan up and down or the inserting of the knife a little under the cake will be sufficient to loosen it from the bottom. Here the advantage of pans having removable bottoms is evident. When such pans are used, lift the cake out of the pan on the removable bottom and, as shown in Fig. 17, run a long thin knife under the cake until it is entirely loosened from the pan. Then slip the bottom out from under the cake and allow the cake to cool. A cake cooler, such as the one here shown, is the most convenient thing to use for the cooling of cakes. If one of these is not available, clean towels spread on a flat surface make a very good substitute. Allow the cake to become entirely cool before attempting to ice it.


RECIPES FOR BUTTER CAKES

61. ONE-EGG CAKE.--One of the most economical cakes that can be made is the one-egg cake given in the accompanying recipe. However, when only one egg is used, a comparatively small quantity of cake mixture is the result. If it is desired to make a layer cake of this mixture, it will be necessary to double the quantities of the ingredients.

ONE-EGG CAKE

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, beat the egg, and add it. Mix and sift the flour and baking powder. Add the milk and the flour alternately until all the flour and liquid are added. Add the vanilla. Bake in a shallow loaf pan, making a single layer. Ice with any desirable icing.

62. PLAIN LAYER CAKE.--As a layer cake is usually iced over the top and contains an icing or a filling of some kind between the layers, a plain-cake mixture, such as that given in the accompanying recipe, is the most suitable kind.

PLAIN LAYER CAKE

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, beat the eggs well, and add to the mixture. Sift the flour and baking powder together and add alternately with the milk, adding milk first. Add the vanilla, pour into layer-cake pans and bake. Ice with any kind of icing.

63. NUT LAYER CAKE.--A delicious cake can be made by adding nuts to the cake mixture given in the following recipe. This is baked in layers and then iced in any desired way.

NUT LAYER CAKE

Cream the butter and add the sugar gradually. Beat the eggs and add them. Sift the flour and baking powder together, and add the milk and the dry ingredients alternately. Fold in the chopped nuts, add the vanilla, pour into layer-cake pans, and bake.

64. CHOCOLATE NUT CAKE.--Another delightful layer cake is the chocolate nut layer cake given in the accompanying recipe. The layers are put together with a thick layer of white boiled icing, and the top one is covered with a covering of the same.

CHOCOLATE NUT CAKE

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, beat the egg, and add it to the mixture. Stir in alternately the milk and the flour and baking powder. Melt the chocolate in a double boiler and stir this into the dough. Fold in the chopped nuts, add the vanilla, and bake in a loaf or two rather thin layers. If baked in layers, remove them from the pans and cool. Ice the first layer with a very thick covering of white boiled icing almost as thick as the layer itself. Place the second layer of cake on top of this and cover with another thick layer of icing.

65. SOUR-MILK CHOCOLATE CAKE.--A very good chocolate cake can be made by using sour milk instead of sweet milk. In such cake, soda takes the place of baking powder, for, as has already been learned, the leavening is produced by the action of the soda on the acid in the milk.

SOUR-MILK CHOCOLATE CAKE

Cream the butter, add the sugar, and cream well together. Beat the egg and add to the butter and sugar. Melt the chocolate. Sift the flour and soda together, and add to the mixture alternately with the sour milk. Beat well together and add the vanilla and melted chocolate. Pour into a loaf-cake pan and bake.

66. DEVIL'S FOOD.--Sometimes an entirely dark cake is desired. In such an event, devil's food, in which both chocolate and spices are used for flavoring, should be prepared. Such a cake is baked in a thick layer and is covered with chocolate icing.

DEVIL'S FOOD

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, and beat the eggs and add them. Sift the flour, baking powder, cinnamon, cloves, ginger, and nutmeg together, and add the milk alternately with these dry ingredients. Melt the chocolate in a double boiler and stir into the cake mixture. Add the vanilla. Bake in a flat pan in a thick layer. Ice with chocolate icing and cut into 2-inch squares.

67. RAISIN SPICE CAKE.--Most persons are very fond of cake containing raisins and spices. A good combination of spices used for such cake is cloves, cinnamon, and nutmeg, cloves being used in the smallest quantity.

RAISIN SPICE CAKE

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, and beat the eggs and add them. Sift the flour, baking powder, and spices together, and add these alternately with the milk, adding milk first. Fold in the raisins, pour the mixture into a loaf-cake pan, and bake in a moderate oven. This cake may be served with or without icing.

68. NUT SPICE CAKE.--Nuts and spices combine very well in cake, as shown in the accompanying recipe. This cake is usually baked in a loaf pan, and may be served with or without icing.

NUT SPICE CAKE

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, and beat the eggs and add them. Sift the flour, baking powder, and spices together. Add the milk and dry ingredients alternately, fold in the nuts, pour into a loaf-cake pan, and bake in a moderate oven.

69. WAR CAKE.--Cakes of almost every description contain eggs, but very good cake can be made without eggs, as in the accompanying recipe. This cake, which is known as war cake, contains only a small quantity of butter. Raisins increase its food value and spices are used for flavoring.

WAR CAKE

Boil the sugar, butter, water, and raisins together, and cool. Then to the flour add the salt, spices, and soda, and sift these into the boiled mixture. Pour into a loaf-cake pan and bake.

70. WHITE CAKE.--An ideal white cake can be made by using the whites of five eggs with the proper proportions of butter, sugar, flour, liquid, and leavening. Such a cake is usually baked in a large flat pan and then cut into squares.

WHITE CAKE

Cream the butter and add gradually the sugar and the beaten whites of eggs. Sift the flour and baking powder together and add alternately with the milk. Beat this mixture well. Pour into a sheet-cake pan, 9 inches by 12 inches, and cover with powdered sugar and a rather thin layer of shredded coconut. Bake for about 40 minutes in a moderate oven. Remove from the pan, cool, and serve without icing.

71. FEATHER CAKE.--A cake that is easily made and that is a general favorite is known as feather cake. As may be inferred from the name, such cake is very light in weight and tender in texture.

FEATHER CAKE

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, and beat the eggs and add them. Sift the flour and baking powder together, and add alternately with the milk to the mixture. Add the flavoring. Beat rapidly for a few minutes, pour into a loaf-cake pan, and bake. Ice with simple white icing.

72. GOLD CAKE.--The cake given in the accompanying recipe and known as gold cake is very attractive in color, as well as appetizing in taste. To produce the gold color, only the yolks of the eggs are used. Orange extract is used for the flavoring.

GOLD CAKE

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, beat the yolks of the eggs until they are thick and lemon-colored, and add them. Sift the flour and baking powder together, and add alternately with the milk. Add the orange extract and bake in a loaf-cake pan. Cover with white icing and serve.

73. ICE-CREAM CAKE.--Because of the nature of the cake here given, it is called ice-cream cake. Only the whites of the eggs are used, and so the cake is white in color. It is baked in layers and is frosted with white icing.

ICE-CREAM CAKE

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, and pour in the milk. Sift the flour and baking powder together and add them. Beat the egg whites until they are stiff, fold these in, and add the vanilla. Bake in layers, and put marshmallow filling between the layers and on top. Chopped hickory nuts may also be put between the layers and spread on top if a more delicious ice-cream cake is desired.

74. CORN-STARCH CAKE.--An excellent cake will result when the following recipe is carefully worked out. It gets its name from the fact that corn starch is used for a part of the thickening. This cake is usually baked in a loaf-cake pan and then covered with icing.

CORN-STARCH CAKE

Cream the butter and add the sugar gradually. Sift the corn starch, baking powder, and flour together. Add the milk and then the dry ingredients. Beat the egg whites until they are stiff and fold them in. Add the vanilla and lemon extract. Bake in a loaf-cake pan. Ice with chocolate or caramel icing.

75. CINNAMON CAKE.--A cake that is inexpensive and not very rich but at the same time favored by many persons is the cinnamon cake here given. It is slightly dark in color, due to the cinnamon that is used in it. Caramel icing seems to be the most suitable for cake of this kind, but if desired white icing may be used.

CINNAMON CAKE

Cream the butter and add the sugar gradually. Separate the eggs, beat the yolks, and add them to the mixture. Stir in the milk. Sift the flour, baking powder, and cinnamon together and add these. Beat the egg whites until they are stiff, and fold them into the cake dough. Bake in layers or in a loaf and ice with white or caramel icing.

76. POUND CAKE.--Often a cake that will keep for some time is desired. In such an event, pound cake should be made, for it will remain fresh for a long period of time if it is stored in a closely covered receptacle. It is usually served without any icing and is cut into small, thin slices. The recipe here given makes enough cake for two loaf-cake pans.

POUND CAKE

Steam the citron until it is soft, cut into thin strips, and then into small pieces. Cream the butter until it is white, sift the sugar in slowly, and beat the two until the sugar is dissolved. Add the eggs one at a time without previously beating them, and beat each egg in thoroughly before the other is added. Stir in the flour and mace and bake in a very slow oven, in one large or two small loaf-cake pans.

77. CARAMEL CAKE.--Cake flavored with caramel affords a change from the usual varieties of cake. The caramel used for this cake should be prepared in the manner explained in Cold and Frozen Desserts.

CARAMEL CAKE

Cream the butter and add the sugar gradually. Add the caramel, water, and beaten egg yolks. Stir in the flour and baking powder sifted together. Add the vanilla and fold in the stiffly beaten egg whites. Bake in layers. Ice with any kind of white icing.

78. JELLY ROLL.--Many housewives do not attempt to make jelly roll, because they consider it a difficult matter. However, no trouble will be experienced in making excellent jelly roll if the following recipe is carried out explicitly.

JELLY ROLL

Beat the eggs until light, add the sugar gradually, and continue beating. Stir in the milk, and then add the flour, which has been sifted with the baking powder and salt. Melt the butter and beat into the cake mixture. Line the bottom of a flat pan with paper, and grease the paper and the sides of the pan. Cover the bottom of the pan with a thin layer of the mixture spread evenly. Bake until done in a moderate oven. Remove from the pan at once, and turn out on paper sprinkled thickly with powdered sugar. Remove the paper from the bottom of the cake, and cut off a thin strip as far as the crust extends in on the sides and ends of the cake. Spread with a thick layer of jelly and roll. After the cake has been rolled, place a piece of paper around it, wrap in a slightly dampened napkin or towel, and allow it to stand until it cools. Unless the rolling is done as soon as the paper has been removed from it, the cake is likely to crack.

79. LADY BALTIMORE CAKE.--If an excellent cake for a special occasion is desired, Lady Baltimore cake should be served. It is made in layers, between which a filling containing fruit and nuts is spread. A white icing of any desirable kind is used to cover the cake.

LADY BALTIMORE CAKE

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, and continue creaming. Stir in the milk. Sift the flour and baking powder together and add them. Fold in the stiffly beaten egg whites and add the vanilla. Bake in square layer pans or in two thick layers in loaf-cake pans. When cold, fill with the following filling and ice with any desirable white icing.

FILLING FOR LADY BALTIMORE CAKE

Cook the sugar and milk until it forms a soft ball when dropped in cold water. Remove from the fire and cool. Beat until it begins to look creamy, and then add the raisins, figs or dates, and nuts. When stiff enough, spread a thick layer on one layer of the cake, place the other layer of cake on top, and cover with a thin layer of white icing.

80. BRIDES CAKE.--When a bride's cake is mentioned, one naturally thinks of a large, round cake entirely covered with thick, white icing. The cake here given is one of this kind, and in addition may be ornamented in any desired way. Besides being very attractive in appearance, this cake is delicious in taste.

BRIDE'S CAKE

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, and stir in the milk. Sift the flour and baking powder together and add to the mixture. Beat the egg whites until they are foamy. Add the cream of tartar to them and beat until stiff. Fold in the egg whites, add the vanilla, and bake in a deep, round pan. Cover with plain white frosting and ornament with icing in any desired way.

81. FRUIT CAKE.--In the preparations for Christmas festivities, fruit cake usually has an important place. But besides being very appropriate cake for the holiday season, fruit cake is a splendid cake to make because of its keeping qualities. It may be kept for a long time if it is properly cared for. The best plan is to wrap it in oiled paper and then put it away in a closely covered receptacle, such as a tin box. In fact, fruit cake is much better if it is baked a month before it is to be eaten and is moistened several times during that time by pouring over it and allowing to soak in a few teaspoonfuls of orange juice or diluted grape juice.

FRUIT CAKE

First prepare the fruits for the cake. Cream the butter, stir in the sugar gradually, add the eggs unbeaten, and continue beating. Add the molasses, milk, and flour with which the soda and spices have been sifted, and then fold the fruits, which have been prepared, into this mixture. Another way of adding the fruit is to pour a layer of the cake mixture into the cake pan, sprinkle this generously with the fruit, then another layer of dough and another layer of fruit, and finally a layer of dough with just a little fruit sprinkled on top. Whichever plan is followed, prepare the pan by covering the bottom with 1/2 inch of flour and then placing a piece of greased paper over this. This heavy layer of flour prevents the cake from burning. Put the cake in a very moderate oven and bake for about 2 hours. If a fruit cake without a heavy crust is desired, the mixture may be steamed for 3 hours in an ordinary steamer and then placed in the oven just long enough to dry the surface.

82. WHITE FRUIT CAKE.--While dark fruit cake is popular with the majority of persons, white fruit cake has been coming into favor for some time and is now made extensively. It contains a larger variety of fruit than the dark cake and nuts are also used. Cake of this kind may be baked in the oven or steamed.

WHITE FRUIT CAKE

Steam the citron and apricots until they are soft, and then cut them in the required manner. Prepare the other fruits and the almonds. Cream the butter, add the sugar, egg, and milk, and beat thoroughly. Sift the baking powder and spices with the flour and add these. Dredge the fruits and nuts with flour and fold them into the mixture. Bake for 2 hours in a slow oven in small loaf pans lined with paper and containing about a 1/2 inch layer of flour in the bottom, or steam for 3 hours and then bake for a short time in a moderate oven.

83. WEDDING CAKE.--Fruit cake has been used so much for wedding cake that it has come to be the established cake for this purpose. However, when fruit cake is to be used for weddings, a richer variety is generally made, as will be observed from the ingredients listed in the accompanying recipe. Wedding cake is usually cut into small pieces and presented to the guests in dainty white boxes.

WEDDING CAKE

Prepare the fruits and dredge with one-third cupful of the flour. Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, and beat together thoroughly. Separate the eggs, beat the yolks until they are thick and lemon-colored, and add to the sugar and butter. Sift the flour, soda, and spices together, and add to the mixture. Fold in the egg whites beaten stiff, add the grape juice, and fold in the fruits. Bake in the same way as fruit cake.


CAKE ICINGS AND FILLINGS

NATURE, PURPOSE, AND APPLICATION

84. Certain varieties of cakes are served plain, but the majority of cakes are usually covered with a sugar mixture of some description known as icing. In addition, if a cake is baked in layers, a filling, which may be either the same as the icing used for the covering or a mixture resembling a custard, is put between the layers to hold them together. These icings and fillings are used for the purpose of improving both the taste and the appearance of the cake, as well as for the purpose of retaining the moisture in it. Some of them are very simple, consisting merely of powdered sugar mixed with a liquid, while others are more elaborate and involve a number of ingredients. They may be spread over the cake, put on thick in a level manner, or arranged in fancy designs on a plain background of simple icing with the use of a pastry tube or a paper cornucopia. These decorations may be made in white or in various colors to suit the design selected for decoration.

85. It is well to understand just what cakes may be served without icings and fillings and what ones are improved by these accompaniments. Sponge cakes, as a rule, are not iced elaborately, for a heavy icing does not harmonize with the light texture of this kind of cake. If anything is desired, a simple sugar icing is used or the surface of the cake is moistened with the white of egg and then sprinkled with sugar. Butter cakes, especially when baked in layers, although they are often much richer than sponge cakes, are usually iced. When they are baked in the form of loaf cakes, they may or may not be iced, as desired. Very rich cakes made in loaf-cake form are usually served without icing, unless they are served whole and it is desired to make them attractive for a special occasion.

[Illustration: FIG. 18, Plain iced cake.]
[Illustration: FIG. 19, Decorated cake.]

86. For the most part, icings are put on plain, as in Fig. 18, but there are some occasions for which an attractively decorated cake is desired. For instance, birthday cakes, wedding cakes, or cakes for parties and dinners are often served whole from the table, and when this is done, the cake should be made as attractive as possible. The work of decorating such cakes may prove somewhat difficult at first, but just a little practice in this direction will produce surprising results. Figs. 19 and 20 show what can be done in the way of decoration with very little effort. The cake shown in Fig. 19 is suitable for a special occasion, such as a party, while the one in Fig. 20 is a birthday cake.

[Illustration: FIG. 20, Birthday cake with candles.]

These cakes are first covered with a plain white icing and then decorated in any colors desired. The candle holders on the birthday cake, which may be purchased in various colors, correspond in color with the decoration on the cake. Original ideas and designs may thus be worked out in an attractive way to match a color scheme or carry out a decorative idea. A pastry tube is the most satisfactory utensil for this purpose, but a tiny paper cornucopia made of stiff white paper may be used to advantage for the decoration of small cakes and even for certain designs on large ones.

87. The cake that comes out of the pan with a smooth surface is the one to which an icing or a filling may be applied most satisfactorily. Unless absolutely necessary, the cake should not be cut nor broken in any way before it is iced, as a cut surface is apt to crumble and produce a rough appearance. If the cake must be cut, as is the case when small fancy shapes are made out of baked cake, the pieces should be glazed with a coating of egg white mixed with a very small quantity of sugar and beaten just enough to incorporate the sugar. Then, if they are allowed to dry for 4 or 5 hours before being iced, no crumbs will mix with the icing.

CAKE ICINGS AND THEIR PREPARATION

88. VARIETIES OF ICINGS.--Icings are of two varieties: those which require cooking and those whose ingredients are not cooked. In uncooked icings, which are easily made, sugar, such as confectioner's, is moistened with a liquid of some kind and then flavored in various ways. The more common of the cooked varieties are made by beating a hot sugar sirup into well-beaten egg whites. After being flavored, icings of this kind may be used without the addition of other ingredients or they may be combined with fruits, nuts, coconut, etc.

89. UNCOOKED ICINGS.--Confectioner's sugar is the most satisfactory for uncooked icings, and it is the kind most commonly used for this purpose. The finer this sugar can be secured, the better will the icing be, XXXX being the most desirable. As such sugar forms very hard lumps when it is allowed to stand, it should be rolled and sifted before it is mixed with the other ingredients. The material used to moisten the sugar may be lemon juice or some other fruit juice, water, milk, cream, egg white, butter, or a combination of these. Enough liquid should be used to make the icing thin enough to spread easily.

90. The ingredients used in uncooked icings determine to a certain extent the utensils required to make the icings. A fine-mesh wire sifter should be used to sift the sugar. A bowl of the proper size to mix the materials should be selected, and a wooden spoon should also be secured for this purpose, although a silver spoon will answer if a wooden one is not in supply. To spread the mixture on the cake, a silver knife produces the best results. If the icing is to be put on in ornamental way, the equipment already mentioned, that is, a pastry bag or a paper cornucopia, should be provided.

COLD-WATER ICING

Add the sugar to the water and lemon juice, beat together thoroughly, and spread on any desired cake.

PLAIN ICING

Beat the white of the egg until it is stiff. Sift in the sugar and add a little of the water occasionally until all the water and sugar are added. Beat together thoroughly, add the flavoring, and spread on the cake.

ORANGE ICING

Sift the sugar into the orange juice and beat thoroughly. Add the orange extract and just a little of the orange coloring for an even tint. Spread on the cake.

CHOCOLATE WATER ICING

Melt the chocolate in a double boiler, add the boiling water and the sugar, and stir together until smooth. Add the vanilla. Spread on the cake.

WHITE ICING

Beat the egg whites until they are stiff, sift in the powdered sugar, add the vanilla, and beat together until the icing is of a consistency to spread.

BUTTER ICING

Cream the butter, add the sugar, diluting it with the cream, and add the vanilla. Beat the egg white and add to the mixture, continuing the beating until the mixture is dry and ready to spread.

CHOCOLATE BUTTER ICING

Cream the butter and add the sugar gradually, moistening with the milk and egg to make the mixture thin enough to spread. Melt the chocolate in a saucepan over hot water and pour into the icing mixture. Add the vanilla. Beat thoroughly and if more sugar or liquid is needed to make the icing thicker or thinner, add until it is of the right consistency to spread.

ORNAMENTAL ICING

Put the egg whites into a bowl, add a little of the sugar, and beat. Continue adding sugar until the mixture becomes too thick to beat well, and then add the lemon juice. Add the remainder of the sugar, and continue beating until the icing is thick enough to spread. Spread a thin layer over the cake and allow it to harden. When this is dry, cover it with another layer to make a smooth surface, and add more sugar to the remaining icing until it is of a very stiff consistency. Color and flavor as desired, place in a pastry bag, and force through pastry tubes to make any desired designs.

[Illustration: FIG. 21, Assembling layer cake.]

91. COOKED ICINGS.--A few cooked icings are made without egg whites, but for the most part icings of this kind consist of a sugar sirup beaten into egg whites that have been whipped until they are stiff. Success in making icing of this kind depends largely on boiling the sirup to just the right degree, for when this is done the icing will remain for a short time in a condition to be handled. If the sirup is not cooked long enough, the icing will not stiffen and it will have to be mixed with powdered sugar to make it dry. In the event of its being boiled too long, the icing will have to be applied quickly, for it is likely to become sugary. A thermometer is a convenient utensil to use in making icings of this kind, for with it the housewife can determine just when the sirup is boiled to the right point. However, after the housewife has had a little experience, excellent results can be achieved in the way of icings without a thermometer if the mixture is tested carefully. The beating of cooked icings also has much to do with the nature of the finished product. They should be beaten until they are of just the proper consistency to spread and still will not run off the surface of the cake.

92. Because of the nature of cooked icings, it is necessary that the work of applying them to cakes be completed as quickly as possible. A case knife or a spatula is the best utensil for this purpose.

To ice a layer cake, pour some of the icing on the layer that is desired for the bottom and then spread it over the layer quickly until it is smooth and as thick as desired. If coconut or any other ingredient, such as chopped nuts or fruit, is to be used, sprinkle it on the icing as in Fig. 21. Then take up the second layer carefully, as shown, and place it on the iced first layer. Pour the remainder of the icing on this layer and spread it evenly over the top and down the sides, as shown in Fig. 22. The cake will then be covered with a plain white icing that will be sufficient in itself or that may serve as a basis for any desired ornament. If coconut, fruit, or nuts have been used between the layers, sprinkle the same over the top, as shown in Fig. 23, while the icing is still soft.

[Illustration: FIG. 22, Icing layer cake.]

Sometimes, after the icing has been spread, it may be found that the surface is not so smooth as it should be. Any roughness that may occur, however, may be removed as soon as the icing has become entirely cold by dipping a clean silver knife into hot water and, as shown in Fig. 24, running it gently over the entire surface. This treatment takes only a little time and greatly improves the appearance of the cake.

CARAMEL ICING

Boil the ingredients together until a soft ball is formed when the mixture is tried in cold water. Cool and beat until of the right consistency to spread. Spread this icing rather thin. If desired chopped nuts may be added to it while it is being beaten.

MAPLE ICING

Maple icing may be made by following the recipe given for caramel icing, with the exception of using maple sugar in place of the brown sugar.

[Illustration: FIG. 23, Sprinkling iced cake with garnish.]
BOILED ICING

Put the sugar and water to cook in a saucepan. Boil until a fairly hard ball is formed when the sirup is tried in cold water or until it threads when dropped from a spoon, as shown in Fig. 25. If a thermometer is used to test the sirup, it should register 240 to 242 degrees Fahrenheit when the sirup is taken from the stove. Beat the egg white, add the cream of tartar, and continue beating until the egg white is stiff. Then, as in Fig. 26, pour the hot sirup over the beaten egg white very slowly, so as not to cook the egg, beating rapidly until all the sirup has been added.

[Illustration: FIG. 24, Smoothing surface of icing with knife.]

Continue to beat with a spoon or egg whip until the icing is light and almost stiff enough to spread on the cake, as in Fig. 27. Then place the bowl over a vessel containing boiling water, as in Fig. 28, and beat for 3 or 4 minutes while the water boils rapidly underneath. With this treatment, the icing will not change in consistency, but will become easier to handle and will permit of being used for a longer period of time without becoming hard. In fact, it may be kept until the next day if desired by placing a moist cloth over the top of the bowl so as to prevent a crust from forming.

[Illustration: FIG. 25, Testing hard ball stage of sirup.]
CHOCOLATE ICING

If chocolate icing is desired, a square of melted chocolate may be added to the icing given in the preceding recipe after the sirup has been added to the egg white.

BROWN-SUGAR BOILED ICING

Boil the sugar and the water until it threads or forms a fairly hard ball when tried in cold water.

[Illustration: FIG. 26, Pouring hot sirup over beaten egg whites.]

Beat the egg whites until stiff, adding a pinch of cream of tartar while beating. Pour the hot sirup over the egg whites and continue beating. Flavor with vanilla if desired. Beat until stiff enough to spread and, if desired, cook over boiling water as described for boiled white icing.

TIME-SAVING ICING

Put the sugar, water, and egg white into the upper part of a small double boiler. Have the water in the lower part boiling rapidly. Set the part containing the ingredients in place and beat constantly for 7 minutes with a rotary egg beater, when a cooked frosting that will remain in place will be ready for use. The water in the lower receptacle must be boiling rapidly throughout the 7 minutes.

[Illustration: FIG. 27, Beating icing until light.] [Illustration: FIG. 28, Beating over rapidly boiling water.]

CAKE FILLINGS

93. As already explained, any icing used for the top of the cake may also be used for the filling that is put between the layers, but often, to obtain variety, an entirely different mixture is used for this purpose. A number of recipes for cake fillings are here given, and from these the housewife can select the one that seems best suited to the cake with which it is to be used. As will be noted, many of them are similar to custard mixtures, and these, in addition to being used for cakes, may be used for filling cream puffs and éclairs. Others contain fruit, or nuts, or both, while still others resemble icing, with the exception of being softer. No difficulty will be experienced in making any of these fillings if the directions are carefully followed. They should be applied to the cake in the same way as icings.

FRENCH FILLING

Heat the milk to scalding in a double boiler. Mix the sugar, flour, and salt. Pour the hot milk over this, and stir rapidly to prevent the formation of lumps. Return to the double boiler and cook for 15 to 20 minutes. Beat the eggs slightly and add them to the mixture. Cook for 5 minutes longer. Add the flavoring, cool, and place between layers of cake or use for filling cream puffs or éclairs. Half of the recipe will be sufficient for cake filling.

CHOCOLATE FILLING

If chocolate filling is desired, melt 1-1/2 squares of chocolate and add to the French filling while it is hot.

COFFEE FILLING

A very good coffee filling may be made by scalding 2 tablespoonfuls of coffee with the milk, straining to remove the grounds, and then adding to French filling for flavoring.

FRUIT CREAM FILLING

Whip the cream until stiff, add the sugar, and fold in the crushed fruit. Place between layers of cake.

RAISIN-AND-NUT FILLING

Boil the sugar and water until they form a firm ball when tried in cold water. Chop the raisins and nuts and add them to the sirup. Cook until stiff enough not to run, and place between layers of cake.

COCONUT FILLING

Heat the milk to scalding with the coconut. Mix the sugar and corn starch, pour the hot milk into it, and stir rapidly so as to prevent lumps from forming. Cook for 15 or 20 minutes. Beat the egg slightly, add to the mixture, and cook for 5 minutes more. Cool and spread between layers of cake.

LEMON FILLING

Mix the corn starch and sugar, and add to this the boiling water. Put to cook in a double boiler, add the butter, the grated rind of the lemon, and cook for 15 or 20 minutes. Beat the egg slowly, add to the mixture, and cook for 5 minutes more. Remove from the heat and add the juice of the lemon. Cool and spread between layers of cake.

ORANGE FILLING

Orange filling may be made by using grated orange rind in place of the lemon in the recipe for lemon filling and 1 tablespoonful of lemon juice and 2 tablespoonfuls of orange juice.

MARSHMALLOW FILLING

Boil the sugar, water, and cream of tartar until the sirup threads. Beat the egg white until stiff, add the sirup slowly so as not to cook the egg, and beat constantly until thick enough to spread on the cake without running. This may be used for icing, as well as filling.


CAKES, COOKIES, AND PUDDINGS (PART 1)

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS

(1) Discuss briefly the use of cake in the diet.

(2) What leavening materials are used in cake making?

(3) (a) What are the two general classes of cakes? (b) In what way do they differ?

(4) Of what value in cake making are pans with removable bottoms?

(5) Give the various steps up to mixing in making a cake.

(6) How should pans be prepared for: (a) butter cakes? (b) sponge cakes?

(7) Give the general proportion of ingredients for sponge cake.

(8) Give the order necessary for combining the ingredients in sponge cake.

(9) (a) Describe the baking of sponge cake. (b) How can you tell when sponge cake is ready to be taken out of the oven?

(10) When and how is sponge cake taken from the pan in which it is baked?

(11) (a) Give the general proportion of liquid and flour used for butter cake. (b) What makes this proportion vary?

(12) Give the steps necessary for mixing the ingredients of butter cake.

(13) Describe the baking of butter cake.

(14) (a) How can you tell when butter cake is sufficiently baked? (b) How is it removed from the pan and cooled?

(15) What is the value of cake icing?

(16) (a) What ingredients are used to make the simplest icings? (b) What kind of sugar is best for uncooked icings?

(17) What kind of icing should be used for sponge cake? Tell why.

(18) How is the surface of a cake that is to be decorated with an ornamental design prepared?

(19) (a) Describe the icing of a layer cake. (b) How may a rough surface of icing be made smooth?

(20) (a) Tell how boiled icing is made. (b) What is the test for determining when the sirup is boiled sufficiently?




CAKES, COOKIES, AND PUDDINGS (PART 2)

SMALL CAKES

VARIETIES OF SMALL CAKES

1. Under the heading Small Cakes are included numerous varieties of cakes made of many different kinds of materials and baked in various shapes and sizes. Some of them, such as meringues and kisses, contain nothing except eggs and sugar and consequently are almost confections. On the other hand, many of them, including cookies of all kinds, drop cakes, ladyfingers, etc., are merely the usual sponge and butter-cake mixtures altered in such ways as may be desired. In addition, there are cream puffs and éclairs, the various kinds of cakes made with yeast, and doughnuts and crullers, all of which, while not exactly cake mixtures, are similar enough to small cakes in preparation and use to be discussed in connection with them.

2. NATURE OF MIXTURES FOR SMALL CAKES.--The mixtures used for small cakes are made into batters and doughs of various thicknesses. For instance, the batter used for cup cakes is as thin as that for layer cake; that for drop cakes must be stiff enough to hold its shape when it is dropped on a flat sheet; while cookies require a dough that is stiff enough to be rolled out in a thin layer and then cut into various shapes with cutters. The mixing of cakes of this kind differs in no way from that of large cakes, the greater thickness being obtained merely by the addition of flour.

3. BAKING SMALL CAKES.--Small cakes bake more quickly than large ones; consequently, a hotter oven is required for them. Cookies will bake in 10 to 15 minutes. They should rise and start to brown in 1/2 of this time, and should finish browning and shrink slightly in the remaining half. Drop cakes require a little more time than cookies. They should rise during the first third of the time, brown slightly during the second, and finish browning and shrink during the last third. Cup cakes being larger require from 15 to 25 minutes to bake, depending on their size. They should rise and brown in the same way as drop cakes. The baking of most of the other varieties demands special attention and is discussed in connection with the cakes themselves.

When the majority of small cakes, including cookies, are put into the oven to bake, they should be set on the lower rack. Then, when the browning has started, they should be changed to the upper rack, where they will brown more quickly. This transfer may also be necessary in the case of the larger sized cup cakes.

Small cakes baked in muffin pans should be allowed to stand for several minutes after being removed from the oven in order to cool. Then a knife or a spatula should be run around the edge to loosen each cake from the pan. If the pan is then turned upside down and tapped lightly once or twice, the cakes will, as a rule, come out in good condition. Cookies and drop cakes should be taken from their pans or sheets while warm and then allowed to cool on a cake cooler or on clean towels spread on a table.


PREPARATION OF SMALL CAKES

CUP AND DROP CAKES

4. NATURE OF CUP AND DROP CAKES.--CUP CAKES are a variety of small cakes baked in muffin pans. Many of the mixtures used for large cakes may be made into cup cakes by baking them in pans of this kind. Instead of pouring the mixture into the pans from the bowl, as is done in the case of large cakes, it is put into them by means of a spoon, as shown in Fig. 1. The pans should be filled only about half full in order to give the mixture an opportunity to rise. When the cakes are baked, they usually reach the top of the pans.

[Illustration: FIG. 1]

5. Cup cakes may be served plain or they may be iced in any desired way. Fig. 2 shows a group of cakes of this kind, the three on the right being cup cakes without any icing or decoration and the rest, cup cakes iced and then decorated in a variety of ways. As will be observed, cup cakes lend themselves well to decoration. The materials used here for the decorating are chiefly citron and maraschino cherries, both of which may be cut into a variety of shapes. The cakes are first covered with a white icing for a foundation, and the decorative materials are applied before it becomes dry. Other materials may, of course, be used for decorating cup cakes, and original designs may be worked out in a number of attractive ways.

[Illustration: FIG. 2]

6. DROP CAKES differ from cup cakes in that a stiffer batter is used and the mixture is then dropped from a spoon on a greased and floured cooky sheet. As shown in Fig. 3, which illustrates a plate of drop cakes ready to serve, cakes of this kind are not generally iced. However, the mixture used for them often contains fruits and nuts.

7. RECIPES FOR CUP AND DROP CAKES.--Several recipes for cup cakes and drop cakes are here given. No difficulty will be experienced in carrying out any of them if the suggestions already given are applied. With each recipe is mentioned the approximate number of cakes the recipe will make. The exact number it will produce will depend, of course, on the size of the cakes; the smaller they are the greater will be their number.

[Illustration: FIG. 3]
CUP CAKES
(Sufficient for 1-1/2 Dozen Cakes)

Cream the butter and add the sugar. Beat the eggs and add them. Sift the flour, baking powder, and mace together, and add alternately with the milk. Flavor with the vanilla, put into greased and floured muffin pans, and bake. Cover with chocolate icing and serve.

BROWNIES
(Sufficient for 1 Dozen Cakes)

Cream the butter, add the sugar and molasses, beat the egg and add it. Mix the flour, baking powder, and soda together, and sift into the mixture. Fold in the chopped nut meats, put in thin layers into muffin pans, and bake in a hot oven until done. Remove from the pans, cool, and serve.

CINNAMON CUP CAKES
(Sufficient for 1 Dozen Cakes)

Cream the butter and add the sugar. Beat the eggs and add them. Sift the baking powder, flour, and cinnamon together, and add alternately with the milk. Put into greased and floured muffin pans and bake.

COCOA CUP CAKES
(Sufficient for 1-1/2 Dozen Cakes)

Cream the shortening and add the sugar. Beat the eggs and add them. Sift the flour, cocoa, soda, and baking powder together and add alternately with the milk. Flavor with the vanilla, put into greased and floured muffin pans, and bake in a hot oven. Remove from the pans, cool, and serve. If desired, these cakes may be iced with white icing and sprinkled with coconut.

ROXBURY CAKES
(Sufficient for 1 Dozen Cakes)

Cream the butter and add the sugar gradually. Beat the eggs and add them. Add the molasses and milk. Mix and sift the dry ingredients and stir these into the first mixture. Fold in the finely chopped raisins and nuts. Bake in a moderate oven and ice with white icing.

APPLE-SAUCE CAKES
(Sufficient for 1-1/2 Dozen Cakes)

Cream the butter and add the sugar gradually. Sift the dry ingredients together and add alternately with the apple sauce made according to the following directions. Stir in the raisins dredged with a little of the flour. Bake in muffin pans in a moderate oven for about 15 minutes.

APPLE SAUCE

Peel and quarter the apples. Put them to cook in the water. When soft, force through a sieve, add the sugar, and return to the fire until the sugar is dissolved. Cool and use for the cakes.

SOUR-MILK DROP CAKES
(Sufficient for 3 Dozen Cakes)

Cream the butter and add the sugar, the beaten egg, and the milk. Sift the flour, soda, and baking powder together and add them. Fold in the nuts and raisins. Drop by spoonfuls on a greased and floured cake sheet. Bake rather slowly, remove from the sheet, cool, and serve.

FRUIT DROP CAKES
(Sufficient for 2 Dozen Cakes)

Cream the shortening and add the sugar, egg, and milk. Sift the flour, baking powder, and spices together. Sift these dry ingredients into the mixture and add the raisins. Drop by spoonfuls on a greased and floured cake sheet and bake in a hot oven until light brown.

OAT-FLAKE DROP CAKES
(Sufficient for 2 Dozen Cakes)

Cream the shortening and add the sugar. Beat the egg and add to the mixture. Add the oat flakes and vanilla. Sift the flour, salt, baking powder, and cinnamon together and add alternately with the milk. Drop on greased pans to bake.

GINGER DROP CAKES
(Sufficient for 2 Dozen Cakes)

Cream the shortening, add the sugar, and mix well. Beat the egg and add it. Sift the dry ingredients and add alternately with the milk and molasses. Drop on greased sheets and bake in a moderate oven for about 15 or 20 minutes.

8. APPLYING ORNAMENTAL ICING TO CUP CAKES.--Sometimes it is desired to put icing on cup cakes in an ornamental way. In such an event, an uncooked icing is used and it is usually applied by means of a pastry tube, although certain simple designs can be made with a small paper cornucopia. When icing is to be used for this purpose, it should be of the consistency shown in Fig. 4; that is, it should be so heavy that a large quantity of it will cling to the spoon, and when it drops it will fall in a mass rather than run off.

[Illustration: FIG. 4]

Have the pastry bag clean and dry, and make it ready for use by slipping the pastry tube inside of the bag, as shown in Fig. 5. The point of the tube should protrude from the narrow end of the bag, which is too small to allow the top of the tube to be pushed through. The cakes to be decorated with the aid of a pastry tube are usually prepared, as the cake in the illustration shows, by covering it with a perfectly smooth coating of uncooked icing of some kind.

With the tube inserted and the cake coated, the work of decorating may be taken up. Roll the top of the bag down, as shown in Fig. 6, and into it put as much of the icing as is desired. See that the icing is pushed as far down into the end of the bag as possible. Then, as in Fig. 7, hold the top of the bag shut with one hand and with the other grasp it at the place where the contents end. When the hands have been so placed, press down on the bag so that the icing will be forced from the point of the tube. To make the decorations most satisfactorily, have the point of the tube pressed tightly against the surface of the cake and raise it very slowly as the icing comes out. Otherwise the shape of the design will not be good, as a little experimenting will prove. The rosette tube is used to make the decorations here shown, but if a different form of decoration is desired, one of the other tubes may be selected.

[Illustration: FIG. 5] [Illustration: FIG. 6]

9. With cakes of this kind, it is often desired to have a simple decoration without first applying the foundation icing. This can be done, as shown in Fig. 8, by pressing icing through a pastry bag containing the rosette tube and placing the decoration merely on the center of each cake. This is suggested as an economical use of icing and a decoration a little out of the ordinary. The points of the pastry tube should be bent toward the center in order to produce the rosettes in the manner here shown. In fact, the shape of a rosette can often be changed to some extent by opening or closing these points a trifle.

[Illustration: Fig. 7] [Illustration: Fig. 8]

COOKIES

10. CLASSES OF COOKIES.--Cookies are of two general classes: those which are made thick and are expected to be soft when they are served and those which are made thin and are intended to be crisp and brittle when eaten. Thin, crisp cookies are usually known as wafers or snaps. Soft cookies are made from a dough that contains a little more liquid than that used for brittle cookies. The dough of which both varieties are made should be thick enough to remove from the mixing bowl in a lump and roll out on a board. After being rolled until it is the desired thickness, it is cut into pieces of any desired size and shape and baked in the oven on large flat pans.

11. INGREDIENTS IN COOKIES.--The ingredients used in the making of cookies are similar to those used for drop cakes, with the exception of the amount of flour. In fact, any cooky mixture that is made a little more moist by omitting some of the flour may be used for drop cakes. More flour is needed in cooky mixtures because they must be of a certain thickness in order to be rolled out successfully. The amount of flour needed varies with the kind that is used, more of some varieties of this ingredient being required than of others. It is usually advisable to add the last cup of flour with caution. If the mixture seems to be getting stiff before all the flour is added, what is not needed should be omitted; but if it does not become stiff enough to handle, more should be added.

12. Considerable variety exists in the shortening that may be used in cooky mixtures. If desired, butter may be used, but for most cookies it is not at all necessary that the shortening consist entirely of butter, and for some no butter at all is required. Other fats and oils, such as lard, Crisco, lard compound, Mazola, cottoline, butterine, and any other tasteless shortening, may be substituted for all or part of the butter. Any of the following cooky recipes that contain butter do so because that particular cooky or cake is better when made with butter, but, if desired, some other fat may be used for a part or all of it. In case merely shortening is mentioned, any fat or mixture of fats preferred may be used.

13. PROCEDURE IN MAKING COOKIES.--The combining of the ingredients in cooky mixtures need give the housewife very little concern, for it is accomplished in much the same way as for cup and drop cakes. When all of them have been combined, a dough that is stiff enough to handle and still not so stiff that it is tough should be formed. The chief precaution to be taken in the making of all kinds of cookies is to avoid getting too much flour into the mixture. To produce the best results, the mixture should be so soft that it is difficult to handle. A good plan is to allow it to become very cold, for then it will be much stiffer and may be handled more easily. Therefore, after the dough has been mixed, it is well to set it in a refrigerator or some other cool place and let it stand for several hours before attempting to roll it. In fact, a cooky mixture may be made in the evening and allowed to stand until the next morning before being rolled out and baked. As can readily be understood, such procedure is possible with a stiff mixture like that for cookies, while it would not be practicable with a thin mixture, such as cake batter, because the gas that is formed by the leavening agent would escape from a mixture that is not thick and the cake, after being baked, would have no lightness.

14. With the dough ready to be rolled, divide it into amounts of a size that can be handled conveniently at one time. Take one of these from the mixing bowl and place it on a well-floured board. Work it with the fingers into a flat, round piece, using a little flour on the fingers during this process. Dust the top lightly with flour and, by means of a rolling pin, roll the dough into a flat piece that is as nearly round as possible. Continue rolling with a short, light stroke until the dough is as thin as desired. Remember that light, careful handling is always necessary when any kind of dough mixture is rolled on the board, and that as little handling as possible is advisable. Skill in this respect will come with practice, so the housewife need not be discouraged if she has difficulty at first. For cookies, 1/4 inch is the usual thickness of the dough after it is rolled; but for snaps or wafers the dough should be rolled as thin as possible. If the dough is as moist as it should be, it may be necessary, from time to time, to dust the top with flour as the rolling continues. However, no more flour should be used than is needed to keep the rolling pin from sticking; otherwise, the dough will become too thick and the cookies will be tough and dry.

[Illustration: FIG. 9]

15. When the dough has been rolled until it is of the right thickness, cut it in the manner shown in Fig. 9, using cooky cutters of any desired size and shape. The four cutters shown, which are heart, round, diamond, and star shapes, are the ones that are most commonly used. They are merely strips of tin bent into a particular shape and attached to a handle for convenience in using. In cutting the dough, try to cut it to the best possible advantage, leaving as little space between the cookies as possible. Very often, as, for instance, when diamond-shaped cookies are being cut, the line of one may be the exact line of the one next to it and thus no dough need be left between the cookies.

16. However, as Fig. 9 shows, a certain amount of dough necessarily remains after all the cookies that can be made out of a piece of rolled dough have been cut. Put these scraps together and set them aside until all the fresh dough has been rolled. Then put them together carefully, roll them out again, and cut the piece thus formed into cookies just as the others were cut. Some persons are in the habit of working these scraps in with the next piece of dough that is rolled out, but this is not good practice, for by the time they are rolled on the board a second time, more flour will be worked into them than into the dough with which they were put and the texture will not be the same.

[Illustration: FIG. 10]

17. BAKING COOKIES.--Have a cooky sheet or other large shallow pan greased and floured, and as soon as all the cookies are cut from a piece of dough, pick them up with the aid of a spatula, as in Fig. 9, and arrange them on the pan. Do not place them too close together, or upon baking they will stick to one another and lose their shape. As soon as a pan is filled, set it in the oven, either directly on the bottom or on a low rack. If the temperature of the oven is correct, the cookies should begin to rise within 2 or 3 minutes after they are put into the oven. After they have baked on the bottom and have risen as much as they will, they will appear as shown in Fig. 10. At this point, set them on a higher rack to brown on top. In this browning, they will shrink to some extent, so that the finished cookies will not have so smooth an appearance as when they are placed on the top rack. When done, they should be slightly brown, and if it is found that they are too brown on top, it may be known that the oven temperature was a little too high or perhaps that they should have had a little less time on this rack. Molasses cookies require special care to prevent them from burning, for, as is explained in Hot Breads, any food containing molasses burns readily. A comparatively short time is necessary for the baking of cookies, but they should be left in the oven long enough to be thoroughly baked when removed. When ready to serve, properly baked cookies should appear as in Fig. 11.

[Illustration: FIG. 11]

18. RECIPES FOR COOKIES.--With the principles of cooky making well understood, the housewife is fully qualified to try any of the recipes that follow. As will be noted, a number of recipes are here given and so a pleasing variety may be had. Some of them are suitable for certain occasions and some for others. For instance, barley-molasses cookies are very good with coffee for breakfast, while filled cookies make an excellent cake for picnic lunches. Cream cookies or vanilla wafers could be served at an afternoon tea, while sand tarts make a very good accompaniment for ice cream or some other dainty dessert. The nature of the cooky will enable the housewife to determine when it should be served.

GINGER SNAPS
(Sufficient for 4 Dozen Snaps)

Heat the molasses to boiling and pour over the shortening. Sift the dry ingredients together and add these. Cool the mixture until it is stiff and cold, roll as thin as possible, cut with a small round cutter, and bake in a quick oven, being careful not to burn.

CREAM COOKIES
(Sufficient for 3 Dozen Cookies)

Cream the butter, add the sugar, eggs, the cream, and vanilla. Sift the baking powder, salt, mace, and flour together and add these to the mixture. Roll about 1/4 inch thick and cut. Bake in a hot oven.

VANILLA WAFERS
(Sufficient for 6 Dozen Wafers)

Cream the shortening, add the sugar and egg, and continue beating. Pour in the milk and add the vanilla. Sift the flour, baking powder, and salt into the mixture. Roll out as thin as possible, cut with a small round cutter, and bake in a hot oven. These wafers should be crisp and thin when finished.

BARLEY-MOLASSES COOKIES
(Sufficient for 3 Dozen Cookies)

Heat the molasses, pour it over the shortening, and add the milk. Sift the dry ingredients together, and add to the mixture. Cool, roll about 1/4 inch thick, cut, and bake in a quick oven, being careful not to burn.

OATMEAL COOKIES
(Sufficient for 3-1/2 Dozen Cookies)

Beat the egg and add the sugar, cream, and milk. Run the oatmeal through a food chopper, and mix with the flour, baking powder, and salt. Stir all into the mixture, add the melted butter, and mix thoroughly. Roll thin, cut, and bake in a quick oven.

SAND TARTS
(Sufficient for 6 Dozen Tarts)

Cream the shortening and add the sugar and the egg. Sift together the flour, baking powder, and cinnamon, and add these to the mixture. Fold in the beaten egg white. Roll as thin as possible and cut. Split blanched almonds, and after putting the cookies on the cooky sheet, place several halves of almonds in any desirable position on the cookies. Bake in a quick oven until light brown.

HIGHLAND DAINTIES
(Sufficient for 3 Dozen Cookies)

Mix and sift the flour and sugar and work in the butter with the fingers. Roll out about 1/3 inch thick and cut into any desirable shape with small cutters. Brush with the egg yolk to which has been added 1 teaspoonful of water. Bake in a slow oven until light brown.

FILLED COOKIES
(Sufficient for 1-1/2 Dozen Cookies)

Cream the shortening and add the sugar gradually. Next add the beaten egg and the milk. Sift the flour, baking powder, and salt together and add to the mixture. Add the vanilla. Roll very thin and cut into small round, square, or diamond shapes. Spread one cooky with the following filling, cover with a second, press the edges together, and bake in a quick oven.

FILLING FOR COOKIES

Mix the sugar and flour and stir them into the boiling water. Add the raisins and let cook until thick enough to spread on the cookies. Remove from the fire and add the nut meats. Cool slightly and spread. Figs or dates may be used in place of the raisins.

If it is not desired to prepare a filling for the cookies, jam makes a very good substitute.

SOUR-CREAM COOKIES
(Sufficient for 3 Dozen Cookies)

Cream the butter and sugar, add the eggs, and beat thoroughly. Add the cream. Sift the soda, baking powder, and flour and add to the first mixture. Add the lemon extract, roll out thick, and sprinkle with sugar. Cut with a round cutter, place on greased and floured tins, and bake.


KISSES AND MACAROONS

19. NATURE OF KISSES AND MACAROONS.--The varieties of small cakes known as kisses and macaroons are undoubtedly the daintiest ones that are made. Composed almost entirely of sugar, egg whites, and flavoring, they are very delicate in texture and are practically confections. Kisses do not contain any flour, but macaroons need a small amount of this ingredient and some varieties of them contain the yolks, as well as the whites, of eggs. Chopped or ground nuts, coconut, and various kinds of dried or candied fruits are added to these cakes to give them variety.

20. The mixtures of which these cakes are made are either dropped by spoonfuls or forced through a pastry bag into little mounds or rosettes on an inverted pan or a cooky sheet and then baked in a very slow oven. An oven of this kind is necessary, for the mixtures must be practically dried out in the baking. Meringues, although made of a mixture similar to that used for kisses, are usually made in rather large, round, flat shapes, whereas kisses are smaller and are for the most part made in the shape of rosettes. Fig. 12 shows a plate of kisses ready to serve.

21. Marguerites, while not exactly the same as either kisses or macaroons, are given in this connection because the mixture used for them is similar to that for kisses. These, as shown in Fig. 13, are in reality saltines covered with a mixture of egg and sugar to which nuts, coconut, flavoring, etc. may be added for variety. After the sugar covering has been applied, the saltines are set in the oven and baked until slightly brown on top. This variety of small cakes, as well as kisses and meringues, is excellent for serving with afternoon tea, or with ice cream at a party that is to be very dainty.

[Illustration: FIG. 12]

22. RECIPES FOR KISSES AND MACAROONS.--One recipe for kisses, several recipes for macaroons, and directions for the preparation of marguerites follow. If meringues are desired, the recipe for kisses may be followed and the mixture then dropped by spoonfuls, instead of being forced through a pastry tube.

[Illustration: FIG. 13]
KISSES OR MERINGUES
(Sufficient for 1 to 2 Dozen Cakes)

Fine granulated or powdered sugar may be used for these cakes. If powdered sugar is selected, a little more will be required than of granulated. Only fresh eggs should be employed. Separate them and beat the whites with an egg whip, beating slowly at first and more rapidly as the eggs grow stiff. When they have become very stiff, add a tablespoonful of the sugar and continue the beating. When this has been beaten thoroughly, add another tablespoonful, and continue to add sugar in small amounts and to beat until all has been worked in. Add the vanilla. Moisten with cold water a board that is about 1 inch thick, place over it some heavy white paper, and force the mixture through a pastry bag or drop by spoonfuls on the paper. Place the board containing the kisses in a very slow oven, one so slow that instead of baking the kisses it will really dry them. If the oven is too warm, open the oven door slightly to prevent the temperature from rising too high. Bake until the kisses are dry and then remove them from the oven.

If desired, the inside of the meringues, which is soft, may be removed and the shell filled with a filling of some kind. Plain whipped cream or whipped cream to which fresh strawberries and sugar are added makes an excellent filling for this purpose. In fact, meringues filled and garnished with whipped cream make a very delightful dessert.

PECAN MACAROONS
(Sufficient for 1-1/2 Dozen Cakes)

Beat the egg white until stiff and add the sugar gradually, beating constantly. Fold in the nut meats, add the salt, and then drop from the tip of a spoon 1 or 2 inches apart on a cooky sheet covered with buttered paper. Bake in a moderate oven until delicately browned.

ALMOND MACAROONS
(Sufficient for 1-1/2 Dozen Cakes)

Blanch the almonds and force them through a food chopper. Mix the ground almonds and powdered sugar, and gradually add the beaten egg whites until a mixture of the consistency of a stiff dough is formed. Force through a pastry bag or drop with a spoon on a cooky sheet covered with buttered paper. The macaroon mixture spreads during the baking, so space will have to be left between the cakes. Bake in a very slow oven. After removing from the oven, cover for a few minutes with a moist cloth in order to loosen the macaroons.

COCONUT MACAROONS
(Sufficient for 1-1/2 Dozen Cakes)

Mix the sugar and coconut. Beat the egg whites and fold into the coconut and sugar. Drop by spoonfuls on a cooky sheet covered with waxed paper and bake in a slow oven.

OATMEAL-FRUIT MACAROONS
(Sufficient for 3 Dozen Cakes)

Beat the eggs, add the sugar, sirup, and shortening. Fold in the fruit, rolled oats, and salt. Drop by spoonfuls on a greased cooky sheet and bake in a moderate oven.

MARGUERITES
(Sufficient for 3 Dozen Cakes)

Cook the sugar and water until it forms a hard ball when tested in cold water or threads from a spoon. Beat the egg white until stiff, pour the hot sirup into it, and continue beating until the mixture is stiff enough not to run. Add the coconut and chopped nuts and spread a thick layer on saltines. Place in a moderate oven and bake until slightly browned.


LADYFINGERS AND SPONGE DROPS

23. The mixture used for ladyfingers is in reality a sponge-cake mixture, but it is baked in a certain oblong shape known as a ladyfinger shape. Shallow pans that will bake the mixture in the required shape can be purchased, but these need not be secured, for much more satisfactory results can be obtained with a pastry bag and tube after a little practice. The same mixture may be dropped by spoonfuls and baked in small round cakes known as sponge drops. Both ladyfingers and sponge drops, after being baked, are put together in twos by means of a simple sugar icing. Care should be exercised in their baking to prevent them from burning.

Small cakes of these varieties are very satisfactory to serve with a rich gelatine or cream dessert. Then, again, such cakes, especially ladyfingers, are sometimes molded into a frozen dessert or placed in a mold in which a gelatine dessert is solidified. Often they are served with sweetened and flavored whipped cream; in fact, no matter how stale or fresh they may be, they help to make very delicious desserts.

LADYFINGERS No. 1
(Sufficient for 1-1/2 Dozen Cakes)
[Illustration: FIG. 14]

Beat the egg whites until they are stiff and dry. Add the sugar gradually and continue beating. Beat the two egg yolks until they are thick and lemon-colored and add them. Add the flavoring and fold in the flour mixed and sifted with the salt. Cover a cooky sheet with light wrapping paper that is perfectly smooth and marked into spaces 4-1/2 in. long by 1-1/2 in. wide, as shown in Fig. 14. With the aid of a spoon, as illustrated, fill the ladyfinger mixture into a pastry bag containing a plain pastry tube. Then, from the pastry tube, squeeze the cake mixture onto the marked spaces, as shown in Fig. 15, making the mass slightly narrower in the center than at the ends. When all the spaces have been filled, set the pan containing the sheet in a slow oven and bake until dry. Remove from the oven and take from the paper by slipping a sharp knife under each ladyfinger. If the ladyfingers are to be used for cake, they must be put together in pairs with the following simple filling, and they will then appear as in Fig. 16.

[Illustration: FIG. 15]
[Illustration: FIG. 16]
FILLING FOR LADYFINGERS

Beat the orange juice and sugar together until smooth. Place a layer of the mixture between each two ladyfingers.

LADYFINGERS No. 2
(Sufficient for 3 Dozen Cakes)

Separate the eggs and beat the whites with an egg whip until stiff. Sift the sugar and flour together several times, add a little to the eggs, and continue beating. Continue to add the sugar and flour, a little at a time, until all has been added. Beat the egg yolks until they are light and lemon-colored and then beat them into the mixture. Add the lemon juice and force the mixture through a pastry tube in the same way as described in the preceding recipe. Bake in a slow oven. When cool, put together with the orange filling.


CAKES MADE WITH YEAST

24. A few varieties of cake are made light by means of yeast instead of being leavened with eggs or chemical leavening agents. These cakes are, of course, similar to bread in many respects, but they are sweeter and richer than bread and contain eggs. For this reason they are not economical mixtures and should not be made if economy must be practiced. Because of the sugar, butter, and eggs used in them, the action of the yeast is slow; consequently, the processes involved in making these mixtures are neither short nor simple. Often, after they have been baked in a mold, the center is removed and the shells are then filled with different mixtures to make a variety of desserts.

BRIOCHE

Scald the milk, cool until lukewarm, and then add the yeast cakes. When they are thoroughly dissolved, add the sugar, the butter, which has been softened but not melted, and half of the flour. Add the egg yolks and beat with the hands. Add the eggs one at a time and when all have been beaten in thoroughly, continue to add more flour. After all of the flour and also the lemon extract have been added and the mixture is of a consistency to knead, allow it to rise for 6 hours. Punch down and place in the ice box or some other cool place overnight. In the morning, the mixture will be ready to bake in whatever shape is desirable.

The four recipes that follow show various ways in which the brioche may be used to make attractive as well as appetizing desserts.

COFFEE CAKES

Roll the brioche mixture into a long rectangular piece about 1/4 inch thick. Spread with softened butter, fold one-third of the side over the center and the opposite side on top of that, making three layers. Cut this into strips about 3/4 inch wide, cover, and let rise. When light, twist the ends of each piece in the opposite direction, coil, and bring the ends together on the top of the cake. Let rise in pans for 20 minutes, and bake in a moderate oven for about 20 minutes. Upon removing from the oven, brush with confectioner's sugar moistened with enough water to allow it to spread.

BRIOCHE BUNS

Work 1/2 cupful of raisins and 1/2 cupful of chopped nut meats into half of the brioche mixture. Shape into balls about the size of a walnut, and then place close together in a buttered pan. Brush over the top with 1 tablespoonful of sugar dissolved in 2 tablespoonfuls of milk. Bake in a moderate oven for about 25 minutes. Brush a second time with the sugar-and-milk mixture and allow the buns to remain in the oven until they are well browned.

BRIOCHE DESSERT

Fill muffin pans about 1/2 full with the brioche mixture. Allow it to rise nearly to the top, bake in a slow oven, remove when sufficiently baked, and cool. Remove the center from each mold, leaving a shell. The centers may be toasted and served separately. Put a teaspoonful or two of any desirable preserves or marmalade into the shells, fill with sweetened and flavored whipped cream, and over the top sprinkle chopped nuts. This dessert should be prepared just before serving.

BRIOCHE PUDDING

Take enough of the brioche sponge to fill a good-sized mold two-thirds full. Work into this 1/2 cupful of raisins cut into small pieces, 1/4 cupful of candied cherries, 1/2 cupful of chopped nuts, and 1/4 cupful of coconut. Place in a mold and allow it to rise until the mold is nearly full. Bake from 45 minutes to 1 hour, turn out of the mold, and allow to become cold. Cut into thick slices with a knife that has been heated in the flame, and serve with apricot or pineapple sauce.

APPLE CAKE
(Sufficient for Three Good-Sized Cakes)

Scald the milk and cool it to lukewarm. Add the yeast, salt, sugar, and butter, which has been softened but not melted. Add half of the flour and beat in the eggs. When all has been mixed thoroughly, add sufficient flour to make a stiff dough. Knead for a short time and place in a bowl to rise. When risen until double in bulk, roll a piece of the dough 1/2 inch thick to fit a rectangular pan. Allow this to rise until it is light. Peel apples, cut into halves and then into thick slices, and rub them with lemon so they will not discolor. When the bread mixture is light, place the apples on the top in rows. Sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon and bake in a quick oven. Serve with butter or sugar and cream.

SWEDISH TEA RING

Roll a large piece of the mixture used for apple cake into a rectangular shape from 1/4 to 1/2 inch thick, brush with butter, sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon and, if desired, with raisins or chopped nuts. Roll like a jelly roll, and place the two ends together on a cooky sheet so as to form a ring. Try, if possible, to conceal the joining by fastening the ends together carefully. The best way to do this is to cut a slice from each end before joining. Then, with a scissors, cut through the edge of the ring nearly to the center and slightly at a slant, as in Fig. 17. Make the cuts about 1 inch apart and turn the cut slices over so as to show the layers of dough. Brush with milk, dredge with sugar, and bake for about 1/2 hour. When baked, this cake should appear as shown in Fig. 18.

[Illustration: FIG. 17]
[Illustration: FIG. 18]

CREAM PUFFS AND ÉCLAIRS

25. A delicious form of dessert that is usually classed with small cakes includes cream puffs and éclairs. They are made of a special kind of paste that, when baked, becomes hollow in the center, very much as popovers do. The inside is then filled with a mixture similar to a custard mixture or with sweetened and flavored whipped cream. Many persons have an idea that these mixtures are very difficult to make, but the fact is that they may be easily made if the directions for preparing them are carefully followed.

[Illustration: FIG. 19]

26. After the paste has been mixed, the way it is to be treated will depend on whether cream puffs or éclairs are to be made. For cream puffs, which are shown in Fig. 19, it is dropped by spoonfuls on a cooky sheet or a large pan, while in the case of éclairs, several of which are shown in Fig. 20, it is forced through a large round pastry tube so as to form long strips. The shapes are then baked in a hot oven, and during this process they puff up and become hollow in the center. If, upon attempting to fill the shells thus made, the centers are found to contain a little moist, doughy material, this may be removed. The filling may then be introduced either by cutting a slit in the side and putting it in with a spoon or by inserting the end of a pastry tube into the shell and forcing it in with a pastry bag and tube. In addition to being filled with a filling of some kind, éclairs are covered, as here shown, with an icing that usually corresponds in flavor with the filling. For instance, chocolate éclairs are filled with a chocolate filling and covered with a chocolate icing, while coffee éclairs have a coffee filling and a coffee icing.

[Illustration: FIG. 20]

Very small cream puffs are attractive and are often served with small cakes for an afternoon tea or a buffet luncheon. These may be made by dropping the paste with a teaspoon on a cooky sheet, baking it until done, and then filling the shells with any desired paste.

CREAM PUFFS
(Sufficient for 1 Dozen Cream Puffs)

Boil the butter and water together until the butter is melted. Add the flour by pouring it all in at one time. Stir rapidly and cook until the mass does not stick to the sides of the pan. Continue the stirring so that it does not burn. Remove from the fire and cool, so as not to cook the eggs when they are added. Add one egg at a time and mix thoroughly with the mixture before adding another. Drop by spoonfuls on a greased cooky sheet, place close to the floor of the oven, and bake in a hot oven for about 30 minutes or until the puffs are dry and can be lifted from the sheet. Allow them to cool and then fill with whipped cream or a custard filling. Before serving, sprinkle powdered sugar over the top of each.

ÉCLAIRS

When éclairs are desired, make the paste as for cream puffs. Then through a large, round pastry tube, one having a diameter of at least 1/2 inch, force this paste in strips 3-1/2 or 4 inches long, putting the paste on a cooky sheet or some other large pan. Bake in a hot oven in the same way as cream puffs. When cool, fill with a custard mixture of any desired flavoring and cover with an icing of the same flavor.

ROYAL ÉCLAIRS

Royal éclairs are especially delicious and make a very agreeable change from the usual variety. To make these, bake éclairs in the usual shape and set aside to cool. Cut canned peaches into pieces, add sugar to them, and cook down until the sirup becomes thick. Fill each éclair with several spoonfuls of this mixture and, if desired, serve with whipped cream over the top.

CREAM FILLING FOR CREAM PUFFS

Moisten the flour with a little cold milk. Heat the remainder of the milk and add the moistened flour. Cook in a double boiler for 10 or 15 minutes. Beat the egg, add the sugar and salt, and pour this into the hot mixture, stirring rapidly. Cook until the egg is thickened, and then add the butter and vanilla. Remove from the fire, cool, and fill into the cream puffs.

CHOCOLATE FILLING FOR ÉCLAIRS

Cook the chocolate, sugar, and water over the flame until they are well blended. Mix the flour and milk and add to the hot mixture. Cook until the flour has thickened. Add the butter and vanilla. Cool and fill into the éclairs. Cover the tops with a plain chocolate icing.

COFFEE FILLING FOR ÉCLAIRS

Steep the coffee in the milk for 15 minutes. Strain and add the flour and sugar, which have been thoroughly mixed. Cook until the mixture is thickened, stirring constantly to prevent lumps from forming. Add the butter and vanilla, cool, and fill into the éclairs. Cover the top of the éclairs with icing made by thickening a little strong coffee with pulverized sugar.

CARAMEL FILLING FOR ÉCLAIRS

Caramelize 1/2 cupful of the sugar, add the water, and cook until the caramel has dissolved. Mix the remainder of the sugar with the flour and moisten with the milk. Add this to the caramel and cook until the flour thickens completely, stirring constantly to prevent the formation of lumps. Add the butter and vanilla. Cool and fill into the éclairs. Cover the tops with a plain caramel icing.


DOUGHNUTS AND CRULLERS

27. NATURE OF DOUGHNUTS AND CRULLERS.--Some kinds of doughnuts and crullers are made of bread dough, and for this reason really belong to breakfast breads instead of to cakes. However, most of the recipes for these two foods include sugar, shortening, milk, eggs, and leavening, making doughnuts and crullers so similar to cake in their composition that they are usually regarded as cake mixtures. The shortening, which is in smaller amounts than is required for most cakes, is supplied largely by the method of preparation peculiar to these cakes; that is, by their being fried in deep fat. Consequently, some of the same conditions apply in their preparation as in the making of other foods that are cooked in this way. As has already been learned, such foods must either contain a sufficient amount of protein material, such as egg, for instance, or be coated with enough material of this kind to prevent the absorption of fat. In the case of doughnuts, this material is supplied as an ingredient.

[Illustration: FIG. 21]

28. SHAPING DOUGHNUTS AND CRULLERS.--The ingredients used in the making of doughnuts are combined in much the same way as those used in other cake mixtures. A point to remember is that the mixture, like that for cookies, must be stiff enough to handle and roll out, but care should be taken not to use too much flour, for then the doughnuts are likely to be tough. Divide the dough into amounts of a convenient size, place one of these on a well-floured board, and roll out with a rolling pin until about 1/4 inch thick. Then, with a doughnut cutter, as shown in Fig. 21, cut as many doughnuts as possible from the rolled dough. If a regular doughnut cutter is not in supply, a round cookie cutter may be used and then a thimble or some other small round cutter applied to remove the center of the pieces thus cut. As here shown, a plate or some other small dish containing flour should be kept handy and the cutter dipped into this occasionally during the cutting to prevent it from sticking to the dough and marring the appearance of the doughnuts. Collect the centers and scraps that remain after the doughnuts have been cut from a piece and set these aside until all the fresh dough has been used. These may then be rolled out again and cut into doughnuts. If desired, however, the centers may be fried.

29. While doughnuts are usually round and have a hole in the center, they may, for variety, be made in other shapes. For instance, after the dough is rolled out, it is sometimes cut with a sharp knife Into rectangular pieces about 4 inches long and 2-1/2 inches wide and each one of these pieces then cut lengthwise into three strips attached at one end. When cut in this way, the strips are braided and then pinched together at the loose end. Or, the pieces may be made 4 inches long and 2 inches wide, cut into two strips attached at one end, and the strips then twisted around each other and pinched together at the loose end.

[Illustration: FIG. 22] [Illustration: FIG. 23]

30. FRYING DOUGHNUTS AND CRULLERS.--After the doughnuts have been cut in the desired shape, the next step is to fry them. The equipment required for this process consists of a pan or a kettle into which the fat is put, a long-handled frying basket into which the doughnuts are placed, and a receptacle containing hot water into which the doughnuts can be dipped after being fried. Put into the kettle a sufficient amount of fat, which may be any vegetable fat or oil, to cover the doughnuts well, allow it to become hot enough to brown an inch cube of bread in 40 seconds, place several doughnuts in the bottom of the basket, as shown in Fig. 22, and then lower the basket into the hot fat, when it will be found that the doughnuts will rise quickly to the top of the fat. Allow them to brown on one side and then turn them over with a fork and let them brown on the other side. Be careful not to let the fat become too hot during the frying, or the doughnuts will become darker than is desirable before the inside is cooked. If it is found that the fat is getting too hot, turn off some of the heat or remove the deep-fat kettle from the excessive heat.

[Illustration: FIG. 24]

31. As soon as the doughnuts have become an even brown on both sides and have fried through thoroughly, lift the basket out of the fat and rest it on the edge of the frying kettle. Then, as shown in Fig. 23, remove the doughnuts one at a time from the basket with a fork and dip quickly into the pan of boiling water and remove again at once. Dipping the doughnuts into boiling water removes any excessive fat that may remain on the surface. Upon taking them from the water, place them, as in Fig. 24, on a piece of paper that will absorb as much of the remaining fat as possible. When these precautions are taken, the doughnuts will be found to be less greasy and not so likely to disagree with the persons who eat them. After the surface has become dried, the doughnuts may be improved by sprinkling them with pulverized or granulated sugar.

32. If a large number of doughnuts are made and the hot-water method of drying them is adopted, it will be found that considerable fat will remain in the water. It will therefore pay to allow the fat to become cool and remove it from the surface of the water. Fat in which doughnuts and crullers are fried, after being poured from the dregs that collect in the bottom and reheated, may be clarified by adding several slices of raw potato to it and allowing these to become brown in it. This treatment will remove any foreign taste that the fat may have and make it possible to use the fat again for frying purposes. Fat in which croquettes have been fried may be treated in the same way and used the second time.

33. RECIPES FOR DOUGHNUTS.--A variety of doughnuts that are made light by means of chemical leavening can be prepared, as the following recipes indicate. Sometimes yeast doughnuts are preferred, so a recipe for doughnuts of this kind is also given. If the directions previously given are carefully applied in carrying out any of these recipes, excellent results may be expected. Some persons are prejudiced against the use of doughnuts, claiming that they are indigestible. While this may be true of doughnuts improperly made, those made of good materials and by correct methods are always a favorite and justly so.

DOUGHNUTS
(Sufficient for 2 Dozen Doughnuts)

Cream the butter, add the sugar and then the eggs, and beat thoroughly. Pour in the milk and sift the dry ingredients into this mixture. Divide into amounts that can be handled conveniently, roll out, cut, and fry in deep fat.

POTATO-AND-BARLEY DOUGHNUTS
(Sufficient for 2 Dozen Doughnuts)

Beat the eggs and add the sugar and mashed potatoes. If solid shortening is used, melt it and add to the other ingredients. Pour in the sour milk, mix and sift the barley and wheat flour, salt, mace, soda, and baking powder, and add these to the mixture. Turn the dough out on a board in a quantity that can be handled at one time and knead for a little before rolling it for cutting. Cut and fry in deep fat.

SOUR-MILK DOUGHNUTS
(Sufficient for 3 Dozen Doughnuts)

Mix and sift the dry ingredients and chop in the butter. Beat the egg, add the milk, and stir these into the dry ingredients. After mixing thoroughly, roll about 1/4 inch thick on a board, cut in the desired shape, and fry in deep fat.

DROP DOUGHNUTS
(Sufficient for 2 Dozen Doughnuts)

Mix and sift the dry ingredients. Beat the egg, add the milk to it, and pour the liquid into the dry ingredients. Add the melted fat. Drop by teaspoonfuls into hot fat and fry the same as for doughnuts.

YEAST DOUGHNUTS
(Sufficient for 3 Dozen Doughnuts)

Scald the milk and cool to lukewarm. Dissolve the yeast cake and add it to the milk and a sufficient amount of the flour to make a sponge. Allow this to rise until double in bulk. Then add the eggs, sugar, melted butter, salt, and mace. Beat thoroughly and add enough flour to make a dough. Knead this until it is smooth and elastic and let it rise until double in bulk. Roll out on a board into a sheet about 3/4 inch thick. Cut into long strips about 3/4 inch wide, twist, stretch, and shape like a figure 8. Let these stand on the board or in a pan until they are light and then fry in deep fat.


PUDDINGS AND PUDDING SAUCES

NATURE OF PUDDINGS

34. Many kinds of puddings are used for desserts. Some of them closely resemble cake mixtures, while others are similar to custards, but are thickened with a cooked or a raw starchy material. Formerly, puddings were always boiled in a bag, but now desserts of this kind are prepared by boiling, steaming, or baking. To improve the flavor of puddings, sauces of a contrasting flavor are usually served with them.

35. Puddings are often considered to be rather indigestible foods and in many cases this is true. For this reason, it is not wise to include them to any great extent in the diet of children. Because of the ingredients used in them, they are a heavy food and are usually high in food value. Consequently, some thought should be given to their selection so that they may be suitable for the rest of the meal in which they are served. It seems to be the custom to serve a rich dessert with a heavy meal, but, as is well known, it is less proper with such a meal than with a light meal. A little attention given to this matter will enable the housewife to prepare menus that will provide the family with a properly balanced meal.

36. The time of day and the season of the year for the serving of puddings are also matters that should receive consideration. It is much better to serve desserts of this kind with a noon meal than with an evening meal. Then, too, warm puddings with sauce will be found much more appetizing in the cool season of the year than in warm weather. On the other hand, cool desserts or fruits served as desserts are very much more acceptable in warm weather than during the cold seasons.


PUDDING SAUCES

37. The sauces served with puddings deserve just as much attention as to selection and preparation as the puddings themselves. For instance, a sour sauce that is not rich, such as lemon sauce, should be served with a rich, sweet pudding, while a rich, hard sauce or perhaps a chocolate sauce is the proper kind to serve with a bland, flavorless pudding.

So that the housewife may be perfectly familiar with a variety of sauces and thus know the nature of the sauces mentioned in connection with the puddings themselves, a number of recipes for pudding sauces are given. Some of these are intended to be served hot and others cold, while a few may be served either hot or cold, as preferred. Selection may be made from these for any pudding that is accompanied by a sauce when served. Care should be taken to have the sauce appropriate for the pudding and to follow explicitly the directions given for making it.

LEMON SAUCE NO. 1

Mix the sugar, corn starch, and salt, and add the water gradually, stirring constantly. Boil 5 minutes, remove from the fire, add the butter and lemon juice, and serve.

LEMON SAUCE NO. 2

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, and stir in the yolks of the eggs slightly beaten. Then add the water and cook over boiling water until the mixture thickens. Add the lemon juice and rind and serve at once.

VANILLA SAUCE

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, and stir in the egg yolks beaten slightly. Add the water and cook over boiling water until the mixture thickens. Add the nutmeg and vanilla and serve at once.

HARD SAUCE

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, and then add the flavoring. Beat until the sauce is light and creamy.

STERLING SAUCE

Cream the butter and add the sugar gradually. Add the milk and flavoring, drop by drop, to prevent separation. Beat until fluffy and smooth. Chill and serve.

CHOCOLATE SAUCE

Heat the milk and in it melt the chocolate. Mix the sugar and flour and stir into the mixture rapidly to prevent the formation of lumps. Cook until the sauce thickens, add the butter, and cook for a few minutes longer. Add the vanilla and serve either hot or cold, as desired.

FRUIT SAUCE

Heat the fruit juice, which may be any left-over fruit juice. Mix the sugar and corn starch, add to the hot fruit juice, and cook until the corn starch thickens, stirring constantly to prevent the formation of lumps. Add the lemon juice. Remove from the heat and, if the sauce is desired to be more acid, add lemon juice to suit the taste.

APRICOT SAUCE

Prepare apricot pulp by forcing cooked apricots through a sieve. Whip the cream and fold the apricot pulp into it. Add pulverized sugar to suit the taste.

PINEAPPLE SAUCE

Add the sugar to the water and bring to the boiling point. Add the pineapple and cook until it is tender. If canned pineapple is used, omit 1/2 cupful of the water. Moisten the corn starch with a little water and add it. Cook until it thickens, stirring to prevent lumps.

ORANGE SAUCE

Into the fruit juices, beat the powdered sugar until the sauce is as sweet as desired.

MARASCHINO SAUCE

Mix the fruit juices and chopped cherries, add the sugar, beat well, and serve.

CUSTARD SAUCE

Heat the milk in a double boiler. Mix the corn starch and sugar and add to the milk, stirring so as to prevent the formation of lumps. Continue stirring until the corn starch has thickened and then cook for about 15 minutes longer. Beat the egg, add it to the mixture, and cook for a few minutes longer. Add the vanilla, lemon, and salt. Serve hot or cold.

COCONUT SAUCE

Heat the milk in a double boiler with the coconut. Mix the sugar and corn starch and add to the hot milk and coconut. Stir until the corn starch has thickened and cook for 15 minutes. Add the salt to the egg white and beat until it is stiff. Pour the hot mixture over the egg white and continue beating until thoroughly blended. Add the vanilla and serve either hot or cold.

JELLY SAUCE

Cook the corn starch or arrowroot diluted with cold water, in the boiling water for 5 minutes. Add the jelly or jam, beaten smooth, and let simmer for 3 or 4 minutes. Add sugar, if needed, and the lemon juice. Strain and serve.


PUDDINGS

PREPARATION OF PUDDINGS

[Illustration: FIG. 25]

38. As has already been learned, puddings are cooked by being boiled, steamed, or baked. No different utensils from those used in the making of custards and cakes need be provided for the making of puddings except, perhaps, a steamer. A utensil of this kind, which is required for steamed puddings, consists of a large pan, which sets directly over the flame and into which the water is poured; a second pan, which fits closely into the first one and into which the pudding is put; and a spout, into which the water may be poured. The steamer must be very closely covered in order that all the steam, which does the cooking, may be retained. An apparatus that will answer the purpose of a steamer may be improvised, however, if there are in the supply of household utensils a pan, a colander, and a cover that will fit tight enough to retain the steam; or, instead of putting the pudding directly in the second pan of the steamer, it may be put into individual molds or a pan that will hold a sufficient quantity to serve just the desired number of persons and these then set in the second pan to cook.

39. Steamed puddings ready to serve are shown in Figs. 25 and 26. The pudding in Fig. 25 shows how a pudding that has been steamed in one large mold will appear. The mold used may be just large enough for the number of persons to be served or it may be larger and what remains used for another meal. Fig. 26 shows a pudding that has been steamed in individual molds. Whichever one of these two methods of preparing steamed puddings is preferred may be adopted.

When puddings are cooked by steaming, it should be remembered that the steaming process must be continuous. Therefore, if water must be added during the cooking, boiling water should be used so as not to lower the temperature and stop the formation of steam. After being steamed sufficiently, puddings of this kind are often placed in the oven for a short time in order to dry the surface.

[Illustration: FIG. 26]

40. The baking of puddings is so similar to the baking of cakes and custards that the same directions apply. A few points, however, should be kept well in mind if good puddings would be the result. The utensil in which a pudding that is to be baked is put may be of any desired shape, but it should always be greased. This also holds true in the case of puddings that are to be steamed. Puddings that contain an egg-and-milk mixture, as, for instance, bread pudding, must necessarily, as with custards, be baked at a temperature low enough to prevent them from curding.


RECIPES FOR PUDDINGS

41. In the preparation of many puddings here considered, left-over materials, such as bread, rolls, stale cake, cookies, etc., may be utilized to advantage. Consequently, when the housewife is making desserts, she should endeavor to make good use of all such things in case they cannot be used by themselves.

42. INDIAN PUDDING.--As corn meal is the chief ingredient in the pudding given in the accompanying recipe, it is called Indian pudding, corn meal being a product of Indian corn. For persons who like food containing corn meal, this pudding will prove satisfactory. It has the advantage over other puddings in that it is inexpensive.

INDIAN PUDDING
(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

Mix the corn meal with some of the milk, scald the remainder in a double boiler, and add the moistened corn meal to it. Pour in the molasses, salt, and cinnamon, cook for 15 or 20 minutes in a double boiler, and then pour into a buttered baking dish. Bake in a very slow oven for about 2 hours. Serve with cream or custard sauce.

43. BROWN BETTY.--A baked pudding that always meets with favor among both old and young is Brown Betty. The flavor imparted by the apples and other ingredients to the bread crumbs is delightful, especially when the pudding is prepared according to the accompanying directions.

BROWN BETTY
(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

Butter a baking dish. Make coarse crumbs of the stale bread and place a layer on the bottom of the baking dish. Place on top of this a layer of half the sliced apples and sprinkle with 1/2 of the sugar, to which have been added the nutmeg and cinnamon. Dot with butter, sprinkle with another layer of crumbs, add the remaining apples, sugar, and spices, and dot again with butter. Cover with the remaining crumbs and dot this with the remaining butter. Pour over this the water, lemon juice, and the grated lemon rind. Bake in a moderate oven for about 45 minutes, covering the dish for the first half of the time and removing the cover for the latter part of the baking. Serve with cream, lemon sauce, or hard sauce. The quantity of water necessary depends on the dryness of the crumbs and the juiciness of the apples.

44. BREAD PUDDING.--For utilizing bits of bread that might otherwise be wasted, there is no better plan than to make a bread pudding. This dessert may be used with any dinner or luncheon, as jams, jellies, and practically all kinds of sauce may be served with it to impart a suitable flavor.

BREAD PUDDING
(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

Heat the milk and pour it over the bread crumbs. Allow them to soak until they are soft. Beat the eggs, add the sugar and vanilla to them, and stir this into the mixture of crumbs and milk. Mix thoroughly, pour into a buttered baking dish, and bake in a moderate oven for about 45 minutes. If desired, jelly or jam may be served with the bread pudding or any desirable sauce, such as lemon, vanilla, or custard, may be used and the pudding may be served either hot or cold.

45. MAIZE PUDDING.--A pudding that has both corn starch and corn meal as its basis provides variety. This pudding, called maize pudding, is prepared in a double boiler and then turned into a mold to cool. Either raisins or dates may be added to it to increase its palatability.

MAIZE PUDDING
(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

Scald the milk in a double boiler, mix the corn starch, corn meal, salt, sugar, and cinnamon, and add this to the hot milk, stirring rapidly to prevent the formation of lumps. Continue to stir and cook directly over the fire until the mixture thickens. Then return to the double boiler and cook for about 2 hours. Fifteen minutes before removing from the fire, add the raisins or chopped dates, turn into a mold, and serve either hot or cold with custard sauce.

46. PIERROT PUDDING.--A steamed pudding made of simple ingredients is often desired for serving with an elaborate meal. In such a case, Pierrot pudding will answer very well.

PIERROT PUDDING
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Cream the butter and add the sugar gradually. Then add the milk alternately with the flour, to which has been added the baking powder. Beat the whites of the eggs until they are stiff and fold them into the mixture. Add the vanilla. Butter baking-powder cans or other molds, fill them half full with the mixture, adjust the covers, which should also be buttered, and place in a kettle of boiling water. Raise them from the bottom of the kettle by means of a rack, have the water come half way up around the molds, and cover closely. If small molds are used, steam them only 1 hour. If a large mold is used, steam from 1-1/2 to 2 hours, never allowing the water to get below the boiling point. Remove from the molds and serve with hot chocolate sauce.

47. STEAMED GINGER PUDDING.--A steamed pudding in which the flavor of ginger predominates is given in the accompanying recipe. This kind of pudding is very popular among persons who like such flavor.

STEAMED GINGER PUDDING
(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

Cream the shortening and add the sugar and the beaten eggs. Sift the dry ingredients with the flour and add alternately with the milk. Turn into a buttered mold and steam for about 2 hours. Remove from the mold and serve with sweetened whipped cream or any desired sauce.

48. RAISIN PUFF.--Raisins always increase the food value of a meal, and they are especially good when combined with the ingredients required for the dessert known as raisin puff. This steamed pudding is rather rich and should not, of course, be served with a meal in which the other foods are rich.

RAISIN PUFF
(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

Cream the shortening and add the sugar gradually and the beaten egg. Sift the dry ingredients with the flour and add alternately with the milk. Chop the raisins and fold them into the mixture. Turn into a buttered mold, cover, and steam for 1-1/2 or 2 hours. Remove from the mold and serve hot with whipped cream or any desired sauce.

49. SUET-FRUIT PUDDING.--Steamed puddings in which suet and fruit form two of the ingredients are excellent cold-weather desserts. Such puddings are usually made around the holidays, and under proper conditions will keep for a long time. The accompanying recipe gives directions for making an excellent pudding of this kind.

SUET-FRUIT PUDDING
(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

Force the suet through a food chopper or chop very fine. Then work it with the hands until it is creamy and to it add the bread crumbs. Beat the egg yolks until they are light and add them to the suet and bread crumbs. Add the milk. Add the sugar, grated lemon rind, lemon juice, the raisins, cut into pieces, the molasses, and milk. Sift together the salt, spices, soda, and flour, and sift these into the mixture. Mix thoroughly, fold in the whites of the eggs beaten until they are stiff, turn into a buttered mold, adjust the cover, and steam for about 3 hours. Serve with any desired sauce.

50. CHRISTMAS PUDDING.--A pudding much used during the holiday season is Christmas pudding. The ingredients for this dessert are similar to those for suet-fruit pudding. In fact, both may be used for the same purpose. Christmas pudding is especially good when served with hard sauce, although other sauce may be used with it.

CHRISTMAS PUDDING
(Sufficient to Serve Twelve)

Soak the bread crumbs in the milk. Work the suet with the hands until it is creamy, and to it add the sugar, molasses, and well-beaten eggs. Mix with the milk and bread crumbs, and add the fruit and nuts. Mix the dry ingredients and sift them into the mixture. Add the fruit juice, turn into a buttered mold, and steam for 3 hours. Serve hot with hard sauce or any other desired sauce.

51. POCONO PUDDING.--Directions for still another steamed pudding in which suet is used are given in the accompanying recipe for Pocono pudding. This dessert does not require so many ingredients as suet-fruit or Christmas pudding, and in many cases will answer the same purpose.

POCONO PUDDING
(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

Put the suet, apples, peeled and cored, and the bread crumbs through the food chopper. Beat the yolks of the eggs and add these with the sugar, milk, salt, and grated rind and juice of the lemon. Chop the raisins and add to the mixture. Beat the egg whites and fold these into the mixture. Pour the mixture into buttered molds and steam for 3 to 4 hours. Serve with any desired sauce.

52. STEAMED FIG PUDDING.--A steamed pudding made according to the recipe here given never fails to please. As the name, steamed fig pudding, indicates, it is supposed to have chopped figs added to it, although raisins will answer if figs cannot be obtained.

STEAMED FIG PUDDING
(Sufficient to Serve Twelve)

Cream the butter and add the sugar, molasses, and milk. Mix and sift the dry ingredients and stir these into the mixture. Fold in the chopped figs or raisins and steam in buttered molds for 2 to 3 hours, depending on the size of the molds. Serve hot with any desired sauce.

53. FRESH FRUIT PUDDING.--During berry or cherry season fresh-fruit pudding is an excellent one to make. This pudding is prepared in much the same way as a cake mixture, is combined with the fruit selected, and is then either steamed or baked.

FRESH-FRUIT PUDDING
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Cream the butter and add the sugar. Sift together the dry ingredients and add these alternately with the milk. Beat the egg whites and fold these in. Place a layer of dough in the bottom of a buttered baking dish, put a layer of fruit on top of this, add dough next and then fruit, and have a final layer of dough on top. Cover tight and steam for 1-1/2 or 2 hours or bake without the cover in a moderate oven for about 45 minutes. Serve with a fruit or a hard sauce.

54. COCONUT PUFF.--A light pudding to which shredded coconut is added to give flavor is a satisfactory dessert for a heavy meal. As it is baked in muffin pans, it may be served in a dainty manner.

COCONUT PUFF
(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

Cream the butter and add the sugar. Beat the yolks of the eggs and add them. Sift the dry ingredients with the flour and add alternately with the milk. Fold in the coconut. Beat the egg whites until stiff and fold them in. Bake in buttered muffin pans in a quick oven for 20 minutes. Serve with coconut or any desired sauce.

55. COTTAGE PUDDING.--When a simple baked pudding is desired, the housewife almost instinctively turns to cottage pudding. This pudding has been a favorite in the household for years and may be eaten by young or old. It is not very rich, and so should be served with an appetizing sauce.

COTTAGE PUDDING
(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

Cream the butter, add the sugar, and beat the egg and add it. Sift the flour and baking powder together and add alternately with the milk. Add the vanilla. Bake in a loaf-cake pan and serve hot with lemon, fruit, or chocolate sauce.

[Illustration: FIG. 27]

56. CHOCOLATE BREAD PUDDING.--To the majority of persons the flavor of chocolate is always pleasing. In chocolate bread pudding, this flavor is well blended with the ingredients. This pudding, when baked, may be cut into slices, as shown in Fig. 27, and then daintily served with either hard or custard sauce.

CHOCOLATE BREAD PUDDING
(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

Soak the bread crumbs in 3 cupfuls of the milk. Melt the chocolate in a saucepan and add the sugar and the remaining cup of milk. Cook until the mixture is smooth and add this to the bread and milk. Beat the eggs and add them. Add the salt and vanilla. Pour into a buttered baking dish and bake for about 45 minutes in a moderate oven. Cut into slices and serve with hard or custard sauce.

57. CHOCOLATE PUDDING.--Baked chocolate pudding provides another way in which to serve a dessert in which chocolate flavor predominates. This pudding, because of its food value and the pleasing way in which it may be served, is sure to answer for any meal in which a pudding dessert is desired.

CHOCOLATE PUDDING
(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

Cream the butter, add the sugar, and beat the yolks of the eggs and add them. Add the milk alternately with the flour, which has been mixed and sifted with the baking powder and soda. Melt the chocolate in a saucepan and add. Beat the whites of the eggs until stiff and fold them into the mixture. Flavor with the vanilla. Bake in a pan that will leave a space in the center. It will require about 45 minutes to 1 hour for the baking. Remove from the pan, fill the center with whipped cream, and serve with chocolate sauce.

58. BOSTON CREAM PIE.--Boston cream pie is a dessert that can be made up with some of the recipes already given. It is a favorite dessert with many people and is very high in food value.

To make Boston cream pie, first bake two layers, each about 1 inch thick, in round pans, using the plain-cake or cottage-pudding recipe. Then, between these layers, put a filling about 1/2 inch thick. This filling should preferably be the one used for cream puffs, although any similar filling stiff enough to stand up well may be used instead. Cover the top layer with 1/2 to 1 inch of slightly sweetened and flavored whipped cream. The cake should not be put together until both the layers and the filling have cooled.

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS

(1) In what general way does the thickness of the dough mixture for large cakes differ from that for small cakes other than cup cakes?

(2) (a) In baking small cakes, how does the oven temperature required compare with that required for large cakes? (b) How does the length of time required for baking large and small cakes differ?

(3) If the time for baking small cakes is divided into halves, what should occur in the second half?

(4) Where should the pans for the baking of small cakes be placed in the oven?

(5) Describe an original way of decorating cup cakes.

(6) Describe two classes of cookies.

(7) What precaution must be taken with regard to the flour used in the mixing of cakes?

(8) How thick should the dough be rolled for: (a) cookies? (b) ginger snaps?

(9) Describe the baking of cookies.

(10) Describe the frying of doughnuts and crullers.

(11) Describe a method of removing the excess fat from the surface of doughnuts after they are fried.

(12) By what methods may puddings be cooked?

(13) With what kind of meal and during what kind of weather should heavy, rich pudding be served?

(J4) Of what value are pudding sauces?

(15) (a) Describe the method of steaming pudding. (b) How may the surface of steamed puddings be made dry?




PASTRIES AND PIES

REQUIREMENTS FOR PASTRY AND PIE MAKING

NATURE OF PASTRIES AND PIES

1. Pastry is a shortened dough that is made of flour, water, salt, and fat and used in the preparation of desserts. Chief among these deserts are pies. These are made by baking foods between two crusts of pastry or with a single crust, which may be an upper or a lower one. Originally pies were not intended for desserts. Rather, they were used as the main dish of the meal, as they contained a filling of meat or fish and vegetables. Such pies are still made, but they are not usually the ones intended when pastry for pies is mentioned. It should therefore be understood that the pastry considered in this Section is that which is used with sweet fillings and employed particularly in the making of pies and similar foods that are used for desserts.

Some cooks, especially the French ones, regard as pastry such foods as certain small cakes, the paste used for cream puffs and éclairs, and the sweetened breads made with yeast, such as brioche. In reality, such desserts resemble cakes in use more than they do pastry, and for this reason are discussed in connection with them.

2. Pastry desserts may be made in various fancy shapes for individual servings or in pies that will serve five or six persons. Pies having one crust usually contain a filling that consists of a custard mixture, a mixture thickened with corn starch or flour, or occasionally a fruit mixture. Some pies also have a top crust covering the filling, and when this is the case a fruit filling, either fresh or cooked, is the kind that is generally used.

3. Because of the nature of the materials used in the preparation of pastry desserts, the finished product is necessarily high in food value. For instance, starchy material is provided by the flour, fat by the shortening, and sugar in comparatively large amounts by the filling, whether it be fruit of some kind or a material resembling custard. This fact, rather than the taste or the appetite, should aid in determining whether or not pastry desserts should be included in a meal. While the popularity of such desserts causes them to be used somewhat indiscriminately, their use should always be governed by the nature of the rest of the meal. Thus, if the other dishes served provide enough food value, then a dessert lighter than pie should be chosen; but if the rest of the meal is not sufficiently high in this respect, a wholesome pastry dessert will generally prove to be a wise selection.

4. It is true, of course, that every person must determine for himself whether or not pastry desserts are wholesome enough to be eaten by him. Indigestion is almost sure to result from heavy, soggy, imperfectly baked pastry, because the quantities of fat it contains may be slow to digest and much of the starchy material may be imperfectly cooked. Consequently, it is often not the pie itself but the way in which it is made that is responsible for the bad reputation that this very attractive dessert has acquired. If the correct method of making pastry and pies is followed and the ingredients are handled properly in the making, the digestibility of the finished product need give the housewife very little concern. As a rule, a little experience is needed in order that good results in the making of pastry dishes may be attained, but one who becomes efficient in the other phases of cookery should have no difficulty with foods of this kind.

5. Detailed instructions regarding the making of pastry desserts are given throughout this Section, but if the greatest degree of success is to be attained, it will be well from the very beginning to understand a few general rules that apply to this work. In the first place, the ingredients must be of the right sort and as cold as possible; then they must be handled and combined with dexterity; and, finally, a hot oven must be provided in order that these foods may be properly baked.


INGREDIENTS USED FOR PASTRY

6. The ingredients used in pastry making are neither numerous nor complicated, usually including only flour, salt, shortening, and liquid. If these are correctly combined, they will be all that is required to make a pastry that is light, flaky, and crisp. Occasionally a recipe requiring baking powder will be found and sometimes eggs are called for in mixtures of this kind, but neither of these ingredients is required for successful pastry making. Baking powder may be an advantage when it is used by one who is not experienced in the handling of pastry mixtures, for it helps to make pastry lighter. However, only a small quantity of this ingredient should be used, as a very little will bring about the desired result.

7. FLOUR FOR PASTRY.--Pastry flour is the most desirable for pastry making. It is made from winter wheat, which, as has already been explained, contains less gluten and therefore lacks the gummy consistency of bread flour. For puff paste, which is prepared so as to hold air between thin layers of pastry, bread flour is often used because it retains air better. Flours made of other cereals may also be used. Pastry made of such flours is more difficult to handle, but good results may be obtained if patience and care are exercised. When corn flour, rice flour, and barley flour are used as part of the flour for pastry, it will be found that less shortening is needed than when wheat flour alone is used. The dark flours, such as barley, produce a pastry that is dark in color, but this is no particular disadvantage so long as the quality is not impaired.

No matter what kind of flour is used for the pastry, it should be as dry as possible. At times, putting the flour in a warm oven and allowing it to dry will prove to be advantageous. However, flour so treated should be cooled before it is used, since the cooler the ingredients are the better will be the pastry.

Cereal products of different kinds, such as corn meal, for instance, may be moistened, spread into pans in thin layers, and then baked. The shells thus produced may be filled with various kinds of filling and used very successfully. Such shells, however, can scarcely be considered as real pastry.

8. SHORTENING FOR PASTRY.--A solid fat, that is, one that will remain solid at ordinary room temperature, is the best shortening for pastry making. Oils of various kinds may be used, but in most cases the results are not so successful. If pastry is to have the desired flakiness, the shortening must not be broken into such minute particles and the flour must not be saturated with fat, as is more likely to be the case if oil is used in place of solid fat. In addition to being solid, the fat should be just as cold as possible.

Butter is the fat that is used for puff paste, but for other varieties of pastry almost any desirable fat may be utilized. Lard has always been a particular favorite for pastry making; still, for ordinary pastry making, there are various combinations of fat of both animal and vegetable origin which serve the purpose.

Certain fats left over from various cooking processes in the home can be utilized to advantage in the making of pastry. Chicken fat is a very satisfactory one. A mixture of lard and tried-out beef suet also makes an ideal fat for pastry, the hard flakiness of the suet being particularly desirable. In fact, almost any fat without a disagreeable odor or flavor may be used as all or part of the fat required. As has already been learned, fats may be clarified and freed of their odor by first heating them and then allowing a few slices of raw potato to become hot in them.

9. LIQUID FOR PASTRY.--Water is the only liquid used in pastry making. Water in which small pieces of ice are allowed to melt is especially desirable for this purpose, but if ice cannot be obtained, the water used should be as cold as possible.

10. PROPORTION OF INGREDIENTS.--The proportion of ingredients for the making of pastry varies with the kinds of flour used and the kinds of pastry desired. Some varieties can be made with a comparatively small amount of fat, while others require a large amount. The use to which the paste is to be put will determine the proportion of fat to be used. It varies from the minimum amount of one-sixth as much fat as flour, by measure, or one-third, by weight, which is the proportion for economy paste, to one-half, by measure, or an equal amount by weight, which is the proportion used in the making of puff paste. For the ordinary preparation of pies, an amount midway between the two extremes is usually sufficient, while oftentimes less may be used to advantage. It should be remembered that fat is the most expensive ingredient in pastry making and should be used with discretion.

11. The amount of liquid in proportion to the amount of flour is about one-fourth, by measure, for, as is explained in Hot Breads, pie crust is an example of a stiff dough, and such dough requires four times as much flour as liquid. However, liquid should be added to the other ingredients until the correct consistency is obtained, regardless of the quantity used. The consistency is not right until the flour and the fat cling together in such a way that the mixture may be rolled out to form the crust for a pie. The less liquid used to accomplish this condition, the flakier will be the crust when it is baked. More skill is required in the handling of pastry when the smallest amount of water that can possibly be used is added, but the results achieved usually justify the care that is taken.


UTENSILS FOR PASTRY MAKING

12. The utensils needed for pastry making are few in number and simple in use. They consist of a mixing bowl, two case knives, a spatula, a rolling pin, a flour sieve, two measuring cups, two measuring spoons, and pie tins. Fig. 1 shows the way in which these necessary utensils as well as the required ingredients for pastry should be placed so as to be handy for the person who is to use them. It will be well to observe the placing of these, for much depends on their convenient arrangement. The kind of utensils to use requires consideration, also.

[Illustration: FIG. 1]

13. A bowl of any description may be used for the mixing, the usual cake-making bowl being very satisfactory. As the illustration shows, this utensil should have a round bottom, as the ingredients may be kept together better in such a bowl than in a pan of another kind. The two case knives are needed for mixing the ingredients in the bowl, and the spatula is used in handling the paste. The rolling pin, which is used for rolling out the dough to the required thickness, may be made of any material, but it should be one that will revolve while the handles remain stationary. With such a utensil it is possible to procure a lighter touch than with one that has fixed handles. The flour sieve is an absolute necessity, because the flour for pastry must be made as light as possible by sifting. One of the measuring cups is needed for the flour, or dry ingredient, and the other for the water, or wet ingredient. The two measuring spoons, which should be of different sizes, are used for measuring the salt and the shortening.

The kind of pans to use for pies depends largely on the opinion of the person making the pies. Ordinary tin pans will answer the purpose, but aluminum, baking-glass, or earthenware pans will prove to be more satisfactory because they retain the heat longer than do pans made of other materials. If desired, enamelware pans may be used, but this material chips easily and consequently is not very satisfactory.

The enamel top of a pastry table or the zinc-covered or vitrolite top of a kitchen cabinet will be satisfactory for the rolling out of the pastry, as will also a hardwood molding board. Whichever one of these is used should, of course, be perfectly clean and dry.


PASTRY AND PIE MAKING

METHODS OF MIXING PASTRY

14. Several methods of mixing the ingredients used in pastry are followed, each one producing a different effect in the finished product. The method employed in the making of plain pastry, such as is commonly used for pies, consists in first mixing the shortening and the flour and then adding the liquid.

Another method is adopted for pastries that are intended to be somewhat flakier and of a little better quality than plain pastry. In this method, half of the fat is mixed with the flour and the water is then added to the mixture. With this done, the dough that is formed is rolled out, the remaining fat placed on it, and the pastry then folded and rolled repeatedly in such a way as to incorporate all the fat.

Still another method is followed when puff paste or fancy pastry dishes are desired. Only a very small quantity of fat is mixed with the flour or flour alone is prepared. Water is then added and the mixture is kneaded until it becomes smooth and elastic. When the kneading is done, the dough is rolled out in a certain shape, the fat is placed on it, and, after it is folded over the fat, it is put through a series of foldings and rollings until all the fat is incorporated.

The first and the third of these methods are explained and illustrated here in detail, so that the housewife ought not have any difficulty in producing splendid results. As the second method is practically a combination of the other two, familiarity with them will insure success with it.

Pastry ingredients may be mixed by methods that differ from the three just mentioned. One of these is illustrated in the method given later for the making of easy pastry. This seems to be a complete reversal of the rules observed in making pastry in the usual ways. The water is hot and the fat is melted in it. The flour is added to the liquid and the fat instead of the liquid being added to the flour and the fat. In spite of the fact that all this appears to be contrary, the results obtained by this method are satisfactory.


PASTRY FOR PIES

MAKING AND BAKING

15. PROCEDURE IN MAKING PLAIN PASTRY.--The first step in the making of plain pastry consists in sifting the flour with the salt into the mixing bowl. After this has been done, the fat should be worked into the flour, an operation that may be accomplished in three ways.

The method most commonly adopted is to work in the fat with the fingers; but this plan has its disadvantages in that it is not a very agreeable way and the fat becomes so warmed by the higher temperature of the fingers that it is liable to impair the finished product.

Again, some persons mix the fat with the flour by means of a fork, using this utensil to crush the lumps of fat against the sides of the bowl.

[Illustration: FIG. 2] [Illustration: FIG. 3]

By far the most satisfactory method and the one that produces the best results is that shown in Fig. 2. Put the required amount of fat into the bowl containing the flour and the salt, and then, with two knives, as shown, cut the fat into the flour until the particles of fat are about the size of a small pea. As can readily be seen, this method, which is perhaps as speedy as any method that may be adopted, has the advantage of being entirely sanitary.

16. The next step is that of adding the liquid to the mixture of flour and fat. Heap the particles up in the center of the bowl, make a depression in the mixture, and, as shown in Fig. 3, pour the water into this in a thin stream, stirring the mixture all the time with a knife or a spatula. Be careful to add just enough water to make the mass of fat and flour barely cling together. As soon as the water has been added, gather the mixture into a mass preparatory to rolling it out on the board.

17. At this point, flour the molding board or other surface slightly, shape enough of the dough mixture to cover a pie pan into a rounded mass, and place it on the floured space. Then, as shown in Fig. 4, roll it out with the rolling pin until it is about 1/8 inch in thickness, using a light, careful motion and keeping the piece of dough as nearly round as possible, so that it will fit the pan it is intended to cover.

When the rolling has been completed, roll the edge of the pastry over the rolling pin, hold it carefully over the pie pan, and, as shown in Fig. 5, unroll it gradually so that it will fall in the right place and cover the pan properly. With the paste in the pan, press it lightly with the fingers in order to make it cling closely to the bottom and the sides. Then, as shown in Fig. 6, trim the paste evenly by running a knife around the edge of the pan. When this is done, the pan is properly covered with paste for a one-crust pie or with the bottom crust for a pie that is to have two crusts.

[Illustration: FIG. 4]

18. In case a one-crust pie is to be made, the kind of filling to be used determines whether the crust should be baked first or not. For pies that require comparatively long baking, such as pumpkin pie, for instance, the raw crust is filled with the mixture and the two, crust and mixture, are then baked in the oven together. However, if the filling is one that does not require baking for any length of time, that is, time sufficient to bake the pastry, or if the filling requires a temperature that would be too low to bake the pastry, the crust should be baked first. In such an event, it is necessary to prick very thoroughly the bottom and the sides of the crust with a fork, as shown in Fig. 7, so that the air that is confined in the pastry will not make bubbles by pushing the pastry up as it expands in baking. A perforated pie tin is an advantage in the baking of shells or single-crust pies, for it prevents the air from becoming confined between the pan and the crust and producing air spaces that would cause blisters to form as the pie is baked. If desired, the crust may be placed over the back of the pan and baked, thus forming a shell that may be filled with a cooked filling and served.

[Illustration: FIG. 5] [Illustration: FIG. 6]

19. When a double-crust pie is to be made, place the filling, which is usually fruit, on the bottom crust, but do not prick the crust in the manner just described. With this done, roll out the top crust and, as shown in Fig. 8, mark it with a knife in any design. The design serves as an outlet for the steam that generally forms inside of the pie as the filling cooks; if no provision is made for the steam to pass out, it will push up the crust and thus spoil the appearance of the pie. Next moisten the edge of the lower crust with a little water, putting it on with the finger, as shown in Fig. 9. Then carefully pick up the marked crust, place it over the filling, and press it down so that the edges of the bottom and the top crust cling together well. In applying the top crust, be careful not to stretch it. If it is put on loosely and pressed down on the edge of the lower crust without being pulled, the contents will not be so apt to cook out of the pie. Trim off the uneven edge with a knife and finish the edges of the top and bottom crusts in any desired way. This may be done by fluting the edge with the fingers or, as shown in Fig. 10, making marks with the tines of a fork. When this has been completed, the pie is ready to bake.

[Illustration: FIG. 7]
[Illustration: FIG. 8]

20. BAKING THE PLAIN-PASTRY MIXTURE.--As soon as the pie or other pastry dessert has been prepared, the next step is to bake it. To produce the best results, the pastry should be baked as quickly as possible; consequently, a hot oven is necessary. The baking can be accomplished most successfully in the case of a single crust baked without the filling or a pie containing a mixture that does not require long cooking. Otherwise, the temperature must be sufficiently low to cook the filling so that it will be palatable, and for this reason the pastry is not baked under entirely ideal conditions. The correct temperature for most pastry is from 500 to 600 degrees; that is, the oven should be just about as hot as it can be made. The length of time required for the baking depends entirely on the heat of the oven and the contents of the pie. It should be remembered, however, that to be properly baked, the crust should be neither burned nor pale looking when taken from the oven, but should be a golden brown. Fig. 11 shows a two-crust pie that has had just the right amount of baking.

[Illustration: FIG. 9] [Illustration: FIG. 10]

21. When the filling of the pie does not require so much baking as the crust, it is well to bake the crust partly before putting the filling in. This is particularly advisable in the case of custard pie, for the custard is put in as an uncooked mixture and requires the low temperature necessary for solidifying eggs without causing them to curd. On the other hand, pies containing certain kinds of filling must be baked slowly. When this condition exists, it is advisable to start the baking in a very hot oven, so that the crusts will have the benefit of the high temperature. Then the heat should be gradually reduced until the filling will cook and the crust will not burn.

[Illustration: FIG. 11]

22. Often, especially in the baking of fresh berry or cherry pie, the juice that forms inside the pie cooks out. This is a condition that must be overcome if satisfactory pies are to be the result. Various means of preventing it have been suggested, but one of the successful ones consists in rolling a small piece of paper into a funnel shape, leaving both ends open, and inserting the small end in one of the openings in the top crust. This arrangement provides a vent for the steam, and so the juice is less likely to cook out of the crust while the pie is baking.


UTILIZING LEFT-OVER PASTRY

23. In making pies, it is well to mix only the quantity of paste that is desired for the number of pies to be made. Usually, 1-1/2 cupfuls of flour will make sufficient paste for one double-crust pie, provided the pan in which it is made is not too large. In case it is necessary to make fresh pie on two consecutive days, a good plan is to make at one time enough paste for both days, for what remains after the first pie is made may be allowed to stand in the refrigerator or some other cool place. Then it may be rolled out on the second day and used in exactly the same way as on the first. However, it is a rather difficult matter to make the exact amount of paste for the pies needed. If nothing more remains, there are usually small scraps left over from the trimming of the edge. These should by all means be put to some good use, for the material is equally as good as that which has been used in the pie and there is no reason why it should be wasted.

24. TARTS.-A very good way in which to utilize these scraps is to make tarts of various kinds and shapes out of them. There are a number of attractive ways in which jam, jelly, marmalade, fruit butter, fresh fruits, apple sauce, stewed prunes, or other cooked or canned fruit may be utilized for the making of tarts. These little pastry desserts are the delight of children, most of whom may be permitted occasionally to eat such a satisfactory delicacy.

25. Before attempting to use the pastry scraps, work them together with the hands. Then roll the piece out with the rolling pin until it is the required thickness and cut it out in the shape desired. To make a simple variety of tart, cut two rounds of the paste with a cooky cutter. In one of these, whichever is to be used for the top, make three or four small holes, using a thimble or some other small cutter. Bake these shapes in the oven separately, and after baking spread the whole one with jelly or jam and over this place the one containing the holes.

[Illustration: FIG. 12]

26. Another attractive way in which to make tarts is to cut rounds of the paste, as shown in Fig. 12, cover small pans with these rounds, and then bake them. Upon taking them from the oven, remove them from the pans and fill them with any desired filling in the form of stewed fruit, jam, custards, etc. If canned or stewed fruit is used, cook it down until it is somewhat thick. These little tarts are delicious when they have had a spoonful of meringue baked on the fruit or are served with a spoonful of whipped cream.

27. Still another variety of tart may be made with very little trouble. Cut the rolled paste into pieces about 4 inches square, and, on a triangular half of the square, place several spoonfuls of fruit with additional sugar, if necessary, and add a little flour to thicken the juice that forms. Fold the other triangular half over the fruit to cover it, turn the edges of the bottom half over the edges of the top, and press them down to keep the fruit from running out. Set in the oven and bake until the paste is brown and the filling of the tart is cooked.

28. SMALL PIES.--Sometimes there may be enough paste remaining to make one crust for a small pie. In such an event, cover the pan with the paste, add a fruit filling of some kind, such as cranberries, apple sauce, marmalade, or fruit butter, and then, out of the scraps that remain, cut several narrow strips and place them over the filling. Such an arrangement makes an agreeable change in the appearance of this dessert.

29. CHEESE STRAWS.--Small pieces of pastry that are left over may also be used to make cheese straws, which are one of the accompaniments often served with salads. To make them, roll grated cheese into the mixture until it is well blended. Then roll out the paste until it is about 1/4 inch thick, cut into narrow strips of the desired length, and bake in a hot oven.


RECIPES FOR PASTRY AND PIES

PASTRY

30. Several recipes for pastry that may be used in pie making are here given. These recipes differ as regards the ingredients used and will serve to offer variety in the making of pie crust. With the exception of the recipe for easy pastry, the principles of pastry making already set forth apply to all these recipes alike.

31. PLAIN PASTRY.--Pastry made according to the accompanying directions is the kind that is most frequently used. It requires only a medium amount of shortening, and wheat flour is used in its preparation. It is very satisfactory for any kind of pie desired.

PLAIN PASTRY

Sift the flour and salt into a mixing bowl. Chop the shortening into the flour with knives. When the fat has been chopped into pieces the size of a small pea, add sufficient cold water to make all the particles adhere, mixing them together with a case knife. There should not be enough water added to make the paste stick to either the bowl or the knife. Divide the mass into halves and press each into a round piece with the fingers. Flour the board slightly and roll out about 1/8 inch thick for the pie crust.

32. ECONOMY PASTE.--When both wheat flour and fat must be saved, economy paste should be tried. Barley flour is substituted for part of the wheat flour, and this with the wheat makes an excellent combination.

ECONOMY PASTE

Sift the flour and salt into a mixing bowl. Chop in the shortening until it is in particles about the size of a small pea. Add water until the mass will cling together. Roll into sheets about 1/8 inch thick for pie crust.

33. QUALITY PASTE.--The accompanying recipe gives directions for a very good quality of paste. As will be noted, the lard, which is used for part of the shortening, is added to the flour, and the butter, which forms the other part, is worked into the dough. If the directions here given are carefully followed, excellent results can be expected.

QUALITY PASTE

Sift the flour and salt into a mixing bowl. Add the lard and chop very fine. Add enough water to make a stiff dough. This will require just a little more water than the pastes previously given. Roll the paste in a rectangular form, spread the butter evenly over the paste, and fold so as to make three layers. Turn half way round and roll out so as to make a rectangle in the opposite direction. Fold, turn, and roll in this way four times, handling the rolling pin and paste as lightly as possible. Use to cover the pan and bake in a quick oven.

34. SOUR-CREAM PASTRY.--A slightly different kind of pastry can be made by using sour cream for the liquid and adding a small quantity of soda to neutralize the acid in the cream. Besides providing a means of using up cream that has become sour, this recipe makes a pastry that appeals to most persons.

SOUR-CREAM PASTRY

Sift the flour, salt, and soda together in a mixing bowl. Chop in the shortening and add the cream. Knead the paste slightly and after taking it out on the board, divide it into halves. Proceed in the usual manner for making pastry.

35. EASY PASTRY.--A departure from the usual kind of pastry is easy pastry, directions for which are given in the accompanying recipe. It is more moist and a little more difficult to handle than pastry made in the usual way; consequently, it is more ideal for single-crust pies than for double-crust ones. Besides being easy to make, pastry of this kind will stand a great deal more handling without injury than any other kind. It may be placed on the pan and patted out where it seems too thick or patched where it pulls apart. The amounts given here will make one double-crust pie or two single-crust pies of medium size.

EASY PASTRY

Measure the fat into a mixing bowl, pour the boiling water over it, and stir until all the fat is softened and melted. Sift together the flour, baking powder, and salt, and stir into the water and fat. Divide into two portions and roll for crusts. If the crusts are to be baked before they are filled, prick them well with a fork to prevent the formation of bubbles.


DOUBLE-CRUST PIES

36. As has already been learned, double-crust pies are pies that have both a bottom and a top crust and contain a filling of some kind. The amounts given in the recipes for pastry are sufficient to make the two crusts required for pies of this kind. Any of these recipes may be followed, depending on the variety of pastry desired.

37. APPLE PIE NO. 1.--To make the best possible apple pie, tart apples should be used, for besides giving a good flavor they cook soft inside the pie much more readily than do apples that are more nearly sweet. If sour apples cannot be obtained, lemon juice sprinkled over the apples after they are placed in the crust will help to make them tender. The amount of lemon juice depends, of course, on the sourness of the apples. Any desirable spices may be used for flavoring, cinnamon and nutmeg being the most popular ones. If the apples are very juicy, a little flour mixed with the sugar and sprinkled over them will help to thicken the juice, but usually this is not necessary. A little butter dotted over the apples before the top crust is put on also helps to improve the flavor.

For pie, the apples may be cut in as large or as small pieces as desired. However, it is best to cut them into thick slices or about sixteenths, that is, to cut each quarter into four pieces.

APPLE PIE No. 1

After the pan has been covered with the paste, peel the apples, cut them into pieces of the desired size, and place them into the paste in sufficient quantity to heap the pan. In the process of cooking, there will be a certain amount of shrinkage caused by the apple juice filling in the spaces as the apples cook and soften; therefore, in order to have a pie thick enough when it is baked, the apples must be heaped in the pan before baking. Sprinkle the apples with the sugar, to which has been added the nutmeg or the cinnamon. Sprinkle lightly with salt, add 1 teaspoonful of lemon juice, and, if the apples seem dry, a few tablespoonfuls of water. Dot with butter, wet the edges of the under crust, and place the top crust in position. Bake for about 45 minutes in a moderate oven.

38. APPLE PIE NO. 2.--Another variety of apple pie is made by cooking the apples, putting them between crusts, and then baking the whole. This pie does not require so much time in the oven, but it needs a hot oven. It has a somewhat richer flavor than the preceding pie, due to the brown sugar used in making it.

APPLE PIE No. 2

Prepare the required number of apples for one pie, place in a baking dish with the water and brown sugar, and bake in the oven until the apples are tender and the water has sufficiently evaporated. This should be done in a slow oven, so as not to burn the apples and to give them rather long cooking. Remove from the oven, place on the lower crust, sprinkle with cinnamon, and cover with the upper crust. Bake in a hot oven until the crusts are sufficiently baked and brown.

39. BERRY PIE.--Blackberries, blueberries or huckleberries, and red and black raspberries may be used for pie in the same way by merely varying the amount of sugar with the sourness of the berries. For instance, blackberries will probably require a little more sugar than raspberries, while blueberries will require the least.

BERRY PIE

Look the berries over carefully and remove any spoiled ones, leaves, and stems. Wash thoroughly and fill the lower crust. Add the sugar mixed with the flour and salt. Cover with the top crust and bake for about 30 minutes in a moderately hot oven.

40. CHERRY PIE.--Both sweet and sour cherries may be used for making pie, but sour cherries are by far the more desirable. Their only disadvantage is that they require a rather large amount of sugar. Cherries used for pies should always be seeded. Canned cherries may be used for this purpose as well as fresh ones, but they are not so delicious. The proportion of sugar used for making cherry pie will, of course, need to be varied according to the sourness of the cherries used.

CHERRY PIE

Fill the lower crust of the pie with the cherries. Mix the sugar, flour, and salt and sprinkle over the top. Moisten the edge of the lower crust, place the top crust in position, and bake in a moderately hot oven for about 30 or 35 minutes.

41. PEACH PIE.--Fresh peaches make a very delicious pie. Canned peaches may be used as well, but they do not make so good a pie. Less sugar will be needed if canned peaches are used instead of fresh ones because they are usually canned with sugar. Clingstone peaches may be used rather advantageously for making pie because the fact that they cannot be cut from the stones in uniform pieces makes less difference for pie than for serving in almost any other way.

PEACH PIE

Fill the lower crust with the sliced peaches and sprinkle with the sugar, salt, and flour, which have been previously mixed. Moisten the edge of the lower crust, cover with the top crust, and bake in a moderately hot oven for 30 to 40 minutes. Peach pie served hot with whipped cream makes a very delicious dessert.

42. THICKENING JUICY FRUITS FOR PIES.--When particularly juicy fruit, such as berries, cherries, peaches, etc., is used for pie, flour or other starchy material must necessarily be used to thicken the juice and thus prevent it from running out when the pie is served. If the fruit is very sour, a proportionately larger quantity of flour will be necessary. This is due to the fact that the acid of the fruit reduces the starch in the flour to dextrine, and this form of carbohydrate does not have so much thickening power as the starch in its original form had.

The same thing takes place when browned flour is used in making sauce or gravy. As experience will prove, browned flour must be used in greater quantity than white flour or a thinner sauce will be the result. The browned flour and the flour cooked with the acid of fruits are similar so far as their thickening power is concerned, for the one is reduced to dextrine by the application of dry heat or hot fat and the other by moist heat and the presence of acid.

43. RHUBARB PIE.--Rhubarb is practically the first fresh material for pie that can be purchased in the spring and is therefore very much appreciated. The most popular form in which it is served is probably in pie. It requires considerable sugar in order to make it palatable and should be thickened with starchy material so that it will not be too juicy when it is served.

RHUBARB PIE

Cut the rhubarb into inch lengths without removing the skin and place in the lower crust. Mix the sugar, corn starch, and salt, and sprinkle over the top. Cover with a top crust and bake in a moderately hot oven for about 35 minutes. If desired, some lemon rind may be grated into the pie to give additional flavor.

44. MINCE PIE.--Mince meat, which is much used for pies during the fall and winter season, is a concoction that finds favor with most people. It may be comparatively simple or it may contain a large variety of ingredients, and in accordance with this variation it may be cheap or expensive. However, the ingredients generally used in this mixture are apples, dried fruits, sugar, molasses, cider, and chopped beef and suet. Other fruits, such as quinces, oranges, and citron, and various spices are also often used for flavoring. The cheaper cuts of meat, such as the neck, shoulder, brisket, etc., are suitable for this purpose, because the meat is ground so fine in making the mince meat that the fact that it was at all tough can be very readily concealed. Such expensive material as citron can be omitted altogether if desired and greater quantities of apples, which are the cheapest ingredient, used. A slight variation in the ingredients does not make any material difference in this mixture and the recipes given are submitted merely as a basis from which to work. If used just as they are given, they will be found to be excellent; but if it is necessary to practice greater economy or if it is not possible to secure all the ingredients called for, they may be varied to suit conditions. The juice from pickled fruits, jelly, or the juice from preserves or canned cherries may be used in any desired proportion in the making of mince meat to replace some of the cider.

45. Mince pie is most palatable when served warm, but it is entirely permissible to make several pies at a time and then warm them in the oven before serving. In this way they may be kept over for several days. Pie of this kind made with the usual ingredients is a heavy dessert, for it contains a certain amount of protein material and is high in fat and carbohydrate. This fact should be taken into consideration in meal planning, so that the dessert may balance properly with the other food.

MINCE PIE

Let the beef simmer in sufficient water to cover it well until it is tender, and then allow it to cool in the water in which it was cooked. This broth may be used as part of the liquid in the mince meat if desired. Chop the meat very fine with a chopping knife and bowl or put it through a food chopper. Chop the apples and quinces, cut the citron, and wash the raisins. Squeeze the juice from the oranges and grate the rinds. Force the suet through a food chopper or chop it with a chopping knife. Mix all these ingredients, add the sugar, liquids, and spices, and place in a large vessel. Simmer slowly for 1 hour. Stir frequently to prevent scorching. If the mince meat is cooked in the oven, it is less likely to scorch. Seal in fruit jars the same as for canned fruit and store for future use.

To bake mince pie, fill the lower crust with the mince-meat mixture, place the upper crust in position, and put the pie into a hot oven. Gradually reduce the heat, baking the pie for about 45 minutes.

46. MOCK MINCE PIE.--If a slightly more economical mince pie than the preceding one is desired, the recipe here given for mock mince pie may be followed. The various ingredients in the quantities mentioned will make enough for four or five pies of regular size. To make up more than this is not advisable because the material will not keep so well, nor is it intended to be stored for future use.

MOCK MINCE PIE

Force the suet and apples through a food chopper or chop them in a chopping bowl. Crush the crackers with a rolling pin and add them. Add the sugar, molasses, corn sirup, cider, vinegar, raisins, spices, and salt. Cook together very slowly for about 1 hour, stirring to prevent burning. If more liquid is required, add cider or some other fruit juice, or, if these are not available, add plain water. Fill the lower crust of the pie with this mixture, cover with the top crust, and start baking in a hot oven, gradually lowering the temperature and continuing to bake for 40 to 50 minutes.

47. MOCK CHERRY PIE.--A pie that closely resembles cherry pie in both flavor and appearance may be had by combining cranberries and raisins. This is an excellent substitute for cherry pie and may be made at times when fresh cherries cannot be obtained and canned cherries are not in supply.

MOCK CHERRY PIE

Wash the cranberries and cut them in half. Wash the raisins and mix them with the cranberries. Add the water and cook until the fruit is soft. Mix the sugar, flour, and butter and add to the mixture. Cook until the flour thickens, place the mixture in the lower crust, cover with a top crust, and bake in a hot oven until nicely browned.

48. DRIED-FRUIT PIES.--Dried fruits may be used very successfully for pies if they are properly prepared. At any time that it is impossible to obtain fresh fruits and no fruits have been canned for pie making, dried fruits will prove to be very satisfactory. Dried apples, apricots, peaches, prunes, and raisins make delicious pies. With the exception of raisins, for which a special recipe is given, the same directions may be used for any of the pies made with dried fruits.

Look the fruit over carefully, wash, and put in sufficient warm water to cover. Soak overnight. Put to cook in the water in which the fruit has been soaked and simmer slowly until tender. Sweeten to taste. The filling is then ready for a pie. Fill the lower crust with the stewed fruit, add about 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, unless a large quantity of juice is used, when more flour will be necessary, cover with a top crust, and bake in a hot oven.

49. RAISIN PIE.--Pie in which raisins are used for the filling is one that may be made at any season of the year and that finds favor with most persons. In pie of this kind, spices are used to add flavor.

RAISIN PIE

Clean the raisins and soak them overnight in the water. Put to cook in the same water and simmer gently until tender. Mix the sugar, flour, spices, and salt and add to the raisins. Cook until the mixture is thick, fill the lower crust of a pie, cover with the top crust, and bake in a hot oven.


ONE-CRUST PIES

50. Many varieties of pies are made with only one crust, and these usually prove more attractive than those having two crusts. As a rule, the filling is a custard or a corn-starch mixture, but often fruits of various kinds, as well as pumpkin and squash, are used in the making of pies of this kind. Frequently, meringue is used as a covering for one-crust pies; or, if an especially delicious dessert is desired, a thick layer of stiffly beaten and sweetened whipped cream is often added to the pie just before serving. Again, a partly open pie is sometimes made, this being done by putting strips or pieces of paste over the filling before the pie is baked. Individual pies of this kind are attractive for special occasions and may be made to advantage if small pie pans are in supply.

The crust for one-crust pies is often placed over the back of the pan and baked. It is then removed, filled with the desired filling, and returned to the oven to complete the baking. Whether the lower crust should not be baked or should be partly or entirely baked before the filling is put into it depends on the character of the filling and the degree of temperature required to cook it.

51. MERINGUE FOR ONE-CRUST PIES.--Since meringue is often used as a garnish for one-crust pies, the housewife should understand its nature and the proper procedure in its making. When it is correctly made and properly baked, it is very attractive and improves the appearance of the dessert, but failure in these respects is likely to result in a tough, shrunken meringue, which had better be omitted, as it detracts from the appearance of the pie and is not agreeable to the taste.

If an attractive, appetizing meringue is to be the result, the eggs that are used must be in good condition and very cold; also, they must be properly beaten so that there will be no loss of air in manipulating the whites when they are placed on top of the pie mixture. The baking is important, too, both the length of time the meringue remains in the oven and the temperature to which it is subjected having a direct bearing on the finished meringue.

52. To make meringue, first separate the whites from the yolks and chill them thoroughly. Beat them with a fork or an egg whip until they are almost stiff, that is, until they will hold their shape fairly well but will drop from the fork or whip when it is raised. At this point, begin to add the sugar, which, if possible, should be either confectioner's or pulverized, although granulated sugar may be used if the others cannot be obtained. Add the sugar slowly and continue the beating until all of it has been incorporated. The meringue is then ready to place on the filling. It should be remembered that the filling must be partly or entirely cooked before the meringue is applied, so that when the pie is returned to the oven nothing but the meringue will require cooking.

[Illustration: FIG. 13]

53. The manner in which meringue is placed on pie has much to do with the appearance of the pie. If it is spread on the filling in an even layer, the pie will invariably look stiff and unattractive. By far the better way is to drop it by spoonfuls roughly over the top of the filling, or first to spread a thin layer over the top in order to cover the entire surface and then to drop the remainder of the meringue over this by spoonfuls. Or, it may be forced through a pastry tube into rosettes or frills of any preferred design. The advantage of applying it unevenly rather than in a thin layer is that the rough surface will brown where the spots are high and the depressions will be a lighter brown or white. When the pie has been covered with meringue, set it in a moderate oven and let it bake for 12 to 15 minutes, or until it is properly browned, when it will appear as in Fig. 13. By no means allow the meringue to remain in the oven longer than this, for as soon as the baking is completed, it will immediately begin to shrink and toughen.

MERINGUE FOR PIES

Beat the egg whites according to the directions given, add the sugar slowly, and continue the beating. Then add the flavoring. Cover the filling, place in a moderate oven, and bake for 12 to 15 minutes.

54. BUTTERSCOTCH PIE.--A sweet dessert that is usually a favorite may be had by making butterscotch pie. The necessary ingredients for this kind of pie are few and simple. When served with whipped cream in place of meringue, it makes a very rich and delicious dessert.

BUTTERSCOTCH PIE

Mix the sugar, corn starch, and salt, and add the boiling water to them. Cook until the mixture has thickened and in the meantime heat the milk. Stir in the butter, add the milk, and cook the entire mixture in a double boiler for 15 minutes. Add the vanilla. Pour into the baked pie crust, cover with meringue, and bake in a moderate oven, or cook without the meringue, then cool and cover with whipped cream before serving.

55. CHOCOLATE PIE.--Chocolate corn-starch pudding or chocolate blanc mange thickened with any starchy material and poured into a baked crust makes chocolate pie. This may be made as strong with chocolate as desired, but care should be taken not to make it too stiff or it will be pasty.

CHOCOLATE PIE

Heat the milk to scalding in a double boiler. Mix the sugar, flour, and salt and add to the milk. Cook over the flame until the flour has thickened. Return to the double boiler and cook for 10 or 15 minutes longer. Melt the chocolate over hot water and add to the mixture. Beat the egg and add slowly to the mixture, remove from the fire, and add the vanilla. Pour into a baked pie crust, cover with meringue, if desired, and bake in a moderate oven for 10 to 15 minutes. If the meringue is omitted, cool and cover with whipped cream just before serving.

56. COCONUT PIE.--The flavor of coconut added to an already delicious corn-starch custard makes a pie that never fails to tempt the appetite of every one. The crust for a pie of this kind should always be baked in a deep pan.

COCONUT PIE

Put the milk in a double boiler and steep the coconut in it until the milk is hot. Mix the sugar, corn starch, and salt, add to the milk, and cook directly over the flame until the mixture has thickened. Return to the double boiler and cook for 10 or 15 minutes longer. Remove from the heat, add the vanilla, and pour into a baked pie crust. Cover with meringue, if desired.

57. CRANBERRY PIE.--Persons who are fond of cranberries are always pleased when cranberry pie is served. As these berries are somewhat tart in flavor, more sugar than is generally used for pie is needed. Before the berries are put on to cook, they should be cleaned according to the directions given in Fruit and Fruit Desserts.

CRANBERRY PIE

Cook the cranberries and water in a closed vessel until the skins have cracked and then add the sugar. Cook for a few minutes longer to allow the sugar to dissolve. Pour into an unbaked pie crust and cover with half-inch strips of paste placed over the top to form a lattice effect. Place in a moderate oven and bake until the crust is nicely browned.

58. CREAM PIE.--The plain corn-starch custard mixture used for cream pie may be flavored as desired. The combination of lemon and vanilla is suggested here to give something a little unusual. If the pie is to be eaten at once upon being made, a layer of sliced bananas or other fresh fruit may be placed on the crust and the custard poured over it after being cooked sufficiently not to affect the fruit. In such an event, the meringue must be baked very quickly, or whipped cream may be used in place of it. This pie may be made with one egg if desired.

CREAM PIE

Scald the milk in a double boiler. Mix the sugar, flour, and salt and stir into the hot milk. Cook over the fire until the flour has thickened. Place in a double boiler and cook for 10 or 15 minutes longer. Beat the yolks of the eggs and add them to the mixture. Remove from the heat, add the flavoring, and pour into the baked crust of a pie. Make meringue of the whites of the eggs, cover the mixture, place in a moderate oven, and bake for 10 to 15 minutes.

59. CUSTARD PIE.--Custard pie is made with the usual proportion of milk and eggs necessary for thickening. A dash of nutmeg is considered to improve the flavor and it also makes the surface of the pie a little more attractive.

CUSTARD PIE

Beat the eggs slightly and add the milk, sugar, salt, and vanilla. Partly bake the crust for the custard, but remove it from the oven before it has begun to get crisp. Pour in the custard, place in a moderate oven, and bake until a knife will come out clean when inserted. The custard should by no means be overbaked, as the result will be the same curding that occurs in an ordinary baked custard.

60. DATE CREAM PIE.--Using dates for pie is a rather unusual means of adding them to the diet, but it is a very good one and produces an excellent dessert. If desired, more of the date purée may be added to the mixture that is given in the recipe. The result will be a filling that has more of the date flavor.

DATE CREAM PIE

Steam the dates in the water in a double boiler until they are soft. Rub through a sieve. Beat the eggs slightly and add them with the milk to the dates. Add the sugar, salt, and cinnamon. Pour into a partly baked pie crust, place in a moderate oven, and continue the baking as for custard pie.

61. LEMON PIE NO. 1.--A plain lemon pie that is comparatively inexpensive may be made by following the directions given here. More eggs, of course, will make a better pie and they may be added if desired. Grating the rind of the lemon adds flavor to the filling, but too much will give a bitter taste. Lemon juice should never be cooked with the corn starch, as the filling will gradually become thinner and the starch will lose its value as a thickening agent.

LEMON PIE NO. 1

Bring the water to the boiling point. Mix the sugar, salt, and corn starch and add to the water. Cook directly over the flame until the mixture is thickened and then place in a double boiler. Separate the eggs, beat the yolks, and to them add the lemon juice and the grated rind of the lemon. Beat all well and add to the corn-starch mixture. Remove from the fire and pour into the baked crust of a pie. Make meringue of the egg whites and place on top of the filling. Brown in the oven, cool, and serve.

62. LEMON PIE NO. 2.--The accompanying recipe is similar to lemon pie No. 1, except that it contains some butter and in quantity is a larger recipe. If more than one pie is desired at a time, it is easy to multiply the quantities given.

LEMON PIE NO. 2

Mix the sugar, salt, and corn starch and add to the boiling water. Cook directly over the flame until the mixture becomes thick. Then place in a double boiler. Separate the eggs, beat the yolks, and add to them the grated rind of lemon and the lemon juice. Stir all into the corn-starch mixture. Add the butter, and when it has melted remove from the heat. Pour the mixture into the baked crust of a pie. Make meringue of the egg whites, cover the filling with the meringue, and bake in a moderate oven until a delicate brown.

63. ORANGE PIE.--An orange pie is similar to a lemon pie, except that orange juice, together with grated orange rind, is used to give flavor and a little lemon juice is added for acidity. Pie of this kind makes a pleasing change from the desserts usually served.

ORANGE PIE

Bring the water to the boiling point. Mix the corn starch, sugar, and salt and add to the water. Cook directly over the flame until the corn starch has thickened. Place in a double boiler. Separate the eggs, beat the yolks, and to them add the grated rind of the orange and the orange and lemon juice. Beat well and add to the corn-starch mixture. Remove from the heat and pour into a baked crust of a pie. Make meringue of the egg whites, cover the filling, and bake until a delicate brown in a moderate oven.

64. PINEAPPLE PIE.--Nothing more delicious in the way of a one-crust pie can be made than pineapple pie. It is similar to lemon pie, but differs in that a certain amount of the fruit is used in the filling. Therefore, unless the fruit is cut very fine, the pie will be difficult to cut.

PINEAPPLE PIE

Bring the water to the boiling point. Mix the corn starch, sugar, and salt and add to the boiling water. Cook directly over the flame until the mixture has thickened. Separate the egg, beat the yolk, and add to the pineapple and lemon juice. Stir this into the corn-starch mixture, remove from the heat, and add the pineapple. Fill a baked crust of a pie, make meringue of the egg white, cover the filling, and bake in a moderate oven until delicately browned.

65. PUMPKIN PIE NO. 1.--There are very few persons with whom pumpkin pie is not a favorite. While it is especially popular in the autumn, it may be made at any time of the year. Sometimes pumpkin is dried or canned in the household or commercially for this purpose. Then, too, pumpkins may be kept all winter if they are stored in a cool, dry place and are not bruised when put away.

PUMPKIN PIE NO. 1

The preparation of the pumpkin is the first step in the making of pumpkin pie. First chop the pumpkin into 3- or 4-inch pieces, remove the seeds, and peel off the skin. Cut the peeled pulp into cubes about 1 inch square and cook with just enough water to start the cooking or steam until the pumpkin is soft. When it has become soft, mash thoroughly or force through a sieve, and then cook again, stirring frequently to prevent the pumpkin from burning. Cook until as much water as possible has been evaporated and the mass of pumpkin seems quite dry. With the pumpkin prepared, mix the milk with it and add the beaten egg. Stir in the sugar, salt, spices, and corn starch. Fill partly baked pie crust with this mixture and bake in a moderate oven until the filling is cooked thoroughly and the crust is baked.

66. PUMPKIN PIE NO. 2.--Pumpkin pie is in reality a form of custard to which spice is added, but much of the original flavor of the pumpkin is lost if too much spice is used. The finished product should not be dark in color, but a golden brown. This dessert becomes much more delicious by adding a layer of whipped cream to it just before serving.

PUMPKIN PIE NO. 2

Prepare the pumpkin as directed in Art. 65 and add the milk to it. Beat the eggs and add to them the sugar, salt, and spices. Stir this into the mixture. Fill partly baked pie crust and bake in a moderate oven until the mixture is set and the crust is baked. Serve plain or spread a layer of whipped cream over the pie when it has cooled.

67. SQUASH PIE.--Pie that is similar to pumpkin pie may be made by using winter squash instead of pumpkin. It is somewhat finer in texture than pumpkin, and most persons consider it to be superior in flavor. When squash is desired for pies, it should be prepared in the same way as pumpkin.

SQUASH PIE

Mix the squash and milk and add the beaten egg, sugar, salt, and spices. Fill an unbaked pie crust, place in a moderate oven, and bake until the mixture is set and the crust is brown.

68. STRAWBERRY PIE.--The season for strawberries being short, it is usually desired to use them in as many ways as possible. Strawberry pie is offered as one of the more unusual ways. Made into individual pies or tarts and served with whipped cream, this furnishes a very attractive dessert.

STRAWBERRY PIE

Spread the strawberries on a single unbaked crust of a pie. Mix the sugar and flour and sprinkle over the berries. Put half-inch strips of paste across the top in the form of a lattice. Place in the oven and bake until the crust is brown, the strawberries are well cooked, and the juice is thick.

69. SWEET-POTATO PIE.--The amount of milk needed for making sweet-potato pie varies according to the dryness of the potatoes. Before they can be used for pie, the sweet potatoes must be cooked until they are tender and then mashed. The quantities given in the accompanying recipe will make enough filling for two pies.

SWEET-POTATO PIE

To the sweet potatoes add the dry ingredients and the unbeaten eggs, and then beat the mixture thoroughly. Pour in the milk and stir well. Turn into a partly baked pie crust, place in a moderate oven, and bake until the filling is set.

70. OPEN PEACH PIE.--Pare sufficient peaches to cover a single-crust pie. Cut them into halves, remove the seeds, and place in a single layer over an unbaked pie crust. Cover with 1 cupful of sugar to which have been added 3 tablespoonfuls of flour. Dot well with butter, add 1/4 cupful of water, and place in the oven. Bake until the crust is brown and the peaches are well cooked. Apples used in the same way make a delicious dessert.


PUFF PASTE

71. PROCEDURE IN MAKING PUFF PASTE.--The making of puff paste differs somewhat from the making of plain pastry. If puff paste is to be successful, it must be made carefully and with close attention to every detail. Even then the first attempt may not prove to be entirely successful, for often considerable experience is required before one becomes expert in the making of this delicate pastry.

[Illustration: FIG. 14]

The best time to make puff paste is in the cold weather, as the butter, which is the fat used, can be handled more easily and rolled into the paste with greater success if it, as well as the other ingredients, are cold. If puff paste is desired in weather that is not cold, the mixture will have to be placed on ice at various intervals, for it positively must be kept as cold as possible. However, it is always preferable to make puff paste without the assistance of ice. Further essentials in the making of successful puff paste are a light touch and as little handling as possible. Heavy pressure with the rolling pin and rolling in the wrong direction are mistakes that result in an inferior product. The desirable light, tender qualities of puff paste can be obtained only by giving attention to these details.

72. Before beginning the mixing of puff paste, wash the bowl, spoon, and hands first in hot water to insure perfect cleanliness and then in cold water to make them as cold as possible. Measure the ingredients very carefully, or, better, weigh them if possible.

[Illustration: FIG. 15] [Illustration: FIG 16]

Put the butter in a mass in the bowl and, as shown in Fig. 14, wash out the salt by running cold water over the piece and working it with a wooden spoon or a butter paddle. When it becomes hard and waxy and may be handled with the hands, take it from the bowl and remove the water by patting it vigorously, first on one side and then on the other. Finally, form it into a flat, oblong piece and set it into the refrigerator to harden.

73. With the butter ready, break off a tablespoonful or two and mix it with all of the flour except 2 tablespoonfuls, which must be retained for flouring the board, in the same way as for plain pastry. Then add the water, and, when a mass is formed, remove it to a well-floured board and knead it as shown in Fig. 15. When the mixture has become somewhat elastic, cover it with a towel, as shown in Fig. 16, and allow it to remain covered for 3 to 5 minutes.

Then roll it into an oblong piece, and, as in Fig. 17, place the butter on one end of it. Bring the opposite end down over the butter and press the edges together with the tips of the fingers, as shown in Fig. 18. Then, with the rolling pin, make several dents in the dough mixture and the butter, as shown in Fig. 19, and begin to roll, being careful to roll in one direction and not to allow the butter to come through the paste. If it should come through, it will have to be treated until it becomes perfectly cold and hard again before the making can go on.

[Illustration: FIG. 17] [Illustration: FIG. 18]

The quickest and most satisfactory way in which to accomplish this is to wrap it in a piece of linen, set it on a plate in a pan of crushed ice, and place another pan of crushed ice over the top of it. In case this is done once, it will have to be done each time the paste is rolled.

Continue to roll until a rectangular piece is formed, always being careful to move the rolling pin in the same direction and never to roll backwards and forwards. With a long, narrow piece of dough formed, fold about one-third under and one-third over, as shown in Fig. 20, turn the open end toward you, and roll lightly and carefully in one direction until another long, narrow piece of dough is formed. Fold this in the same way, turn it half way around, and roll again. Continue in this manner until the piece has been rolled about six times and, during the entire process, try, if possible, to keep the butter from coming through. As may be readily understood, this can be accomplished only with light, careful handling.

As soon as the rolling has been completed in the manner described, cut the puff paste into the desired shapes and place them on the ice for about 1/2 hour or until they are thoroughly chilled. They are then ready to be baked. If time is too limited to keep the paste on ice for 1/2 hour, chill it as long as possible before baking.

74. BAKING PUFF PASTE.--A very hot oven is required for successful puff paste. In fact, the colder the pastry and the hotter the oven, the better will be the chances for light pastry. The air incorporated between the layers of the paste by the folding and rolling expands in the heat of the oven, causing the paste to rise and producing the characteristic lightness.

[Illustration: FIG. 19] [Illustration: FIG. 20]

For instance, if the pieces of paste are about 1/4 inch thick before baking, they should be 2 inches thick when baked. Set the pan containing the pieces on the floor of the oven in order to give the paste every opportunity to rise. If it seems to rise unevenly, turn it around so that it will get the same heat on all sides. Should there be any danger of the paste burning on the bottom, put pieces of heavy paper or asbestos under the pan and should it appear to burn on top, put pieces of paper directly over the paste on the rack above. Bake until light and nicely browned and then remove from the oven.

75. RECIPE FOR PUFF PASTE.--Either bread or pastry flour may be used in the preparation of puff paste, but if pastry flour is used a tablespoonful or two more will be required.

The amount of cold water needed varies with the absorbing power of the flour. However, only enough should be used to make it possible to knead the mass of dough that forms so that it may become elastic. Kneading develops the gluten in the flour and helps to hold in the fat thus making the paste easier to handle.

PUFF PASTE

Put the flour into a mixing bowl and chop a tablespoonful of the butter into it. Add cold water until a mass that may be removed to a baking board is formed. Then proceed in the manner explained for the making of puff paste.

76. USES OF PUFF PASTE.--Puff paste is seldom used in the making of single- or double-crust pies; instead, it is usually employed for daintier desserts commonly known as French pastry. However, there are really innumerable uses to which it may be put in addition to those for which ordinary pastry can be used. In fact, after the art of making this kind of pastry is mastered, it will prove to be invaluable for serving on special occasions.

77. With puff paste may be made tarts of any kind or shape. Particularly attractive tarts can be made by covering small tins in the manner shown in Fig. 12 and then, after the shapes have been baked, filling each one with half of a peach or half of an apricot and juice that has boiled thick and piling sweetened whipped cream over it.

Puff paste made into the same shapes as those just mentioned for tarts may have placed in it a layer of cake, on top of which may be spread a layer of jam; and, to add a dainty touch, either whipped cream or chopped nuts may be put over the jam. The cake used for such a dessert should preferably be simple butter cake or sponge cake, such as might be baked in a loaf.

Puff paste in the form of tubes and shells may be used for serving foods daintily. Thus, a hollow tube may be made by rolling the paste very thin, cutting it into rectangular pieces, placing each piece over a round stick about 1-1/2 inches in diameter, and then baking. After the baked tube is slipped off the stick, it may be filled with sweetened and flavored whipped cream, to which may be added chopped nuts, chopped fruit, or jam. Small baked shells of puff paste answer very well as timbale cases, which may be filled with creamed mushrooms, creamed sweetbreads, or other delicate creamed food. If shells are not desired, small triangular or round pieces may be cut and baked and creamed food served over them as it would be served over toast.

An attractive dessert may be prepared by baking several rectangular pieces of puff paste in the oven and then arranging them in two or three layers with custard between. Simple sugar icings into which some butter is beaten may also be utilized to advantage in making French pastry of this kind.

Puff paste may also be used as the covering for small individual pies.


SERVING PASTRY

78. To be most palatable, pastry should be served as soon as possible after it is baked. When it is allowed to stand for any length of time, the lower crust becomes soaked with moisture from the filling used, and in this state the pie is not only unpalatable, but to a certain extent indigestible. Consequently, whenever it is possible, only enough for one meal should be baked at a time.

After a pie is taken from the oven, it should not be removed from the pan in which it is baked until it is served. In fact, pie with a tender crust cannot be handled easily and so should be cut while it is still in the pan. Often it is best to serve a pie warm. When this is to be done, it can be served immediately upon being taken from the oven, or if it has been baked for some time and is cold, it may be set in the oven and reheated before serving. Such treatment will freshen any pie that has become more or less stale and, as is well known, pie is much more palatable when it is warm and fresh than when it is cold or stale. In case pies must be kept before being served, they should be stored in a place that is both cold and dry. A refrigerator is too damp and for this reason should not be used; but any other cool place that is sufficiently dry will be satisfactory.

79. Several ways of serving pie are in practice. This dessert may be baked in attractive dishes especially designed for this purpose and then served from them at the table, or it may be baked in an ordinary pie pan and then placed on a plate larger than the pan for serving. Pie of the usual size is generally divided into five or six pieces, a sharp knife being used to cut it. If possible, a pie knife, which is narrow at the end of the blade and gradually grows broader until the handle is reached, where it is very broad, should be provided for the serving of this dessert, for it helps very much in handling the triangular pieces that are cut from a large pie. The plates on which pie is served should be at least as large as salad plates. Very often, instead of serving it from the pan at the table, it is put on plates in the kitchen and passed at the table. Pie is always eaten with a fork, one that is smaller than a dinner fork being used.

80. With most pies containing fruit filling, a small piece of cheese, preferably highly flavored cheese, may be served. This makes a very good accompaniment so far as flavor is concerned, but is omitted in some meals because it may supply too much food value or too much protein. However, if the fact that a high-protein food is to be served at the end of the meal is taken into account when the remainder of the meal is planned, there need be no hesitancy in serving cheese with pie. Of course, when cheese is to be included in the meal in this way, the portions of the protein foods served with the main course should be smaller.

81. A very attractive as well as appetizing way in which to serve pie is known as pie à la mode. This method of serving, which is often resorted to when something extra is desired, consists in placing a spoonful or two of ice cream of any flavor on each serving of apple or other fruit pie. Pie served in this way is high in food value and is a general favorite with persons who are fond of both ice cream and pie.


PASTRIES AND PIES

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS

(1) (a) What is pastry? (b) What is the principal use of pastry?

(2) How should the use of pastry with meals be governed?

(3) What may be said of the flour used for pastry?

(4) Discuss the shortenings that may be used for pastry.

(5) Give the proportions of fat and flour that may be used for pastry.

(6) What may be said of the handling of pastry in its preparation for baking?

(7) Describe a method of mixing fat and flour for pastry.

(8) How is the liquid added to the fat and flour for pastry?

(9) Describe the rolling of pie crust.

(10) How is a pan covered with paste for pies?

(11) How may a single crust that is to be baked before it is filled be kept from blistering?

(12) Describe the making of a top crust and the covering of a pie with it.

(13) What oven temperature is best for baking pastry? Tell why.

(14) On what does the length of time for baking pastry depend?

(15) Describe briefly the making of puff paste.

(16) What may be done with bits of paste not utilized in making pies?

(17) If more than sufficient paste for use at one time is mixed, what may be done with that which remains?

(18) How should pastry be cared for after baking?

(19) Describe the serving of pastry.

(20) Why should starchy material used for thickening not be cooked with acid fruit juice for any length of time if this can be avoided?






INDEX


A

Almond macaroons,
Angel cake,
Apple-and-celery salad,
cakes,
-date-and-orange salad,
pie,
sauce,
-sauce cakes,
tapioca,
Apricot mousse, Banana-and-,
sandwiches,
sauce,
Asparagus salad,

B

Baked custard,
Baking butter cake,
cookies,
plain pastry,
puff paste,
small cakes,
sponge cake,
Banana-and-apricot mousse,
-and-peanut salad,
Barley-molasses cookies,
Beet-and-bean salad,
Berry pie,
Biscuit tortoni,
Biscuits, Definition of,
Molding,
Blanc mange, Chocolate,
mange, Plain,
Boiled icing,
icing, Brown-sugar,
salad dressing,
Bomebe glacé,
Boston cream pie,
Bread-and-butter sandwiches,
-and-cheese sandwiches, Rye-,
for sandwiches,
Bread pudding,
pudding, Chocolate,
Bride's cake,
Brioche,
buns,
dessert,
pudding,
Brown Betty,
-sugar boiled icing,
Brownies,
Butter cake,
cake after baking, Care of,
cake, Baking,
-cake ingredients, Combining the,
cake, Nature of,
-cake pans,
cakes and their preparation,
cakes, Procedure in making,
icing,
icing, Chocolate,
Butterscotch pie,

C

Cabbage-and-celery salad,
salad,
Café parfait,
Cake after baking, Care of butter,
after baking, Care of sponge,
and pudding mixtures in the diet,
Angel,
Apple,
Baking butter,
Baking sponge,
Bride's,
Butter,
Caramel,
Chocolate nut,
Cinnamon,
Cocoa and chocolate in,
Coconut in,
Cold-water sponge,
Cake, Corn-starch,
Devil's food,
Feather,
fillings,
Flavoring extracts in,
from pan, Removing sponge,
Fruit,
Gold,
Hot-water sponge,
Ice-cream,
icings and fillings,
icings, Preparation of,
ingredients, Combining butter-,
ingredients, Combining sponge-,
ingredients, Preparation of,
ingredients, Quality of,
Lady Baltimore,
making, Equipment for,
making, Procedure in,
Miscellaneous fruits in,
mixture, Baking the butter-,
mixture, Baking the sponge-,
Nature of butter,
Nature of sponge,
Nut layer,
Nut spice,
Nuts in,
One-egg,
Orange sponge,
pans, Preparation of,
pans, Sponge-,
Plain layer,
Plain sponge,
Potato-flour sponge,
Pound,
Raisin spice,
Raisins and currants in,
Sour-milk chocolate,
Sponge,
Sunshine,
War,
Wedding,
White,
White fruit,
with potato flour, Sponge,

Cakes, Apple-sauce,
Baking small,
Cinnamon cup,
Cocoa cup,
Coffee,
cookies, and puddings,
Cup,
Cup and drop,
Drop,
Fat for,
Flour for,
Fruit drop,
General classes of,
Ginger drop,
Ingredients used in,
Cakes, leavening for,
Liquid for,
made with yeast,
Nature of mixture for small,
Oat-flake drop,
Ornamental icing for cup,
Preparation of small,
Procedure in making butter,
Procedure in making sponge,
Roxbury,
Small,
Sour-milk drop,
Spices in,
Sweetening for,
Varieties of small,
California salad,
Canapes,
Cantaloupe shells, Fruit in,
Canton parfait,
Caramel cake,
custard,
filling for éclairs,
ice cream,
icing,
mousse,
tapioca,
Carbohydrate in desserts,
in salads,
Care of butter cake after baking,
of salad greens,
of sandwiches after making,
of sponge cake after baking,
Cauliflower-and-tomato salad,
salad,
Celery salad,
salad, Apple-and-,
salad, Grapefruit-and-,
sandwiches, Rolled,
Stuffed,
Cellulose in salads,
Checkerboard sandwiches,
Cheese-and-nut sandwiches,
dreams,
filling for sandwiches,
salad, Green-pepper-and-,
salad, Peach-and-cream-,
salad, Pear-and-,
sandwiches,
sandwiches, Jelly-and-cream-,
sandwiches, Rye-bread-and-,
straws,
Cherry frappé,
pie,
pie, Mock,
salad, Filbert-and-,
Chicken salad,
-salad filling for sandwiches,
-salad sandwiches,
sandwiches,
Chocolate and cocoa in cake,
Chocolate blanc mange,
bread pudding,
butter icing,
cake, Sour-milk,
filling,
filling for éclairs,
ice cream,
icing,
mousse,
nut cake,
pie,
pudding,
sauce,
water icing,
Christmas pudding,
Cider frappé,
Cinnamon cake,
cup cakes,
Classes of cookies,
Cleaning and freshening salad ingredients,
Club sandwiches,
Cocoa and chocolate in cake,
cup cakes,
Coconut-corn-starch custard,
filling,
in cake,
macaroons,
pie,
puff,
sauce,
Coffee cakes,
filling,
filling for éclairs,
jelly,
Cold and frozen desserts,
desserts and their preparation,
-water icing,
-water sponge cake,
Combination fruit-and-vegetable salads,
fruit salad,
salad,
salad, Summer,
Combining butter-cake ingredients,
sponge-cake ingredients,
Composition and food value of desserts,
of salads,
Cooked icings,
mayonnaise,
Cookery rules to desserts, Applying,
Cookies,
and puddings, Cakes,
Baking,
Barley-molasses,
Classes of,
Cream,
Filled,
Filling for,
Cookies, Ingredients in,
Oatmeal,
Procedure in making,
Sour-cream,
Cooky recipes,
Corn oil,
-starch cake,
-starch custard,
Cottage pudding,
Cottonseed oil,
Crab salad, Lobster or,
Cranberry frappé,
pie,
Cream, Caramel ice,
-cheese salad, Peach-and-,
-cheese sandwiches, Jelly-and-,
Chocolate ice,
cookies,
Dessert sauces and whipped,
dressing,
filling for cream puffs,
filling, Fruit,
fluff, Pineapple,
fluff, Strawberry,
French,
Mocha ice,
Neapolitan ice,
Philadelphia ice,
pie,
pie, Boston,
pie, Date,
puffs,
puffs and éclairs,
puffs, Cream filling for,
Spanish,
Tapioca,
Vanilla ice,
Whipped,
Crullers, Frying doughnuts and,
Nature of doughnuts and,
Shaping doughnuts and,
Cucumber-and-onion salad, Sliced,
-and-tomato salad,
salad,
sandwiches,
Cup and drop cakes,
cakes,
cakes, Cinnamon,
cakes, Cocoa,
cakes, Ornamental icing for,
Currants and raisins in cake,
Custard, Baked,
Caramel,
Corn-starch,
desserts,
Farina,
Frozen,
Minute-tapioca,
pie,
Plain frozen,
Custard, Rice,
sauce,
Soft,
Tapioca,
Tutti-frutti frozen,
with nuts, Frozen,
with raisins, Frozen,
Custards, True,

D

Daisy salad,
Date-and-English-walnut salad,
-and-orange salad, Apple-,
cream pie,
sandwiches,
Dessert in the meal,
ingredients, Economical use of,
making, Principles of,
making, Principles of frozen-,
Packing a frozen,
sauces and whipped cream,
Desserts and their preparation, Cold,
Applying cookery rules to,
Attractiveness of,
Carbohydrate in,
Cold and frozen,
Composition and food value of,
Custard,
Fat in,
Frozen,
Gelatine,
General discussion of,
Method of freezing,
Molding frozen,
Principles of making gelatine,
Procedure in freezing,
Proportion of ice to salt in frozen,
Protein in,
Recipes for frozen,
Recipes for gelatine,
Serving frozen,
Devil's food cake,
Diet, Cake and pudding mixtures in the,
Purposes of salads in the,
Salads in the,
Double-crust pies,
Doughnuts,
and crullers, Frying,
and crullers, Nature of,
and crullers, Shaping,
Drop,
Potato-and-barley,
Sour-milk,
Yeast,
Dreams, Cheese,
Dressing, Boiled salad,
Cream,
Dressing, French,
Fruit-salad,
Mayonnaise,
Sour-cream,
Thousand Island,
Dressings and their preparation, Salad,
Nature of salad,
Dried-fruit pies,
Drop cakes,
cakes, Cup and,
cakes, Fruit,
cakes, Ginger,
cakes, Oat-flake,
cakes, Sour-milk,
doughnuts,

E

Easter salad,
Easy pastry,
Éclairs,
and cream puffs,
Caramel filling for,
Chocolate filling for,
Coffee filling for,
Royal,
Economical use of dessert ingredients,
Economy paste,
Egg sandwiches, Ham-and-,
sandwiches, Hard-cooked-,
sandwiches, Hot fried-,
English-walnut salad, Date-and-,
Equipment for cake making,
Extracts in cake, Flavoring,

F

Farina custard,
Fat for cakes,
in desserts,
in salads,
Feather cake,
Fig pudding, Steamed,
Filbert-and-cherry salad,
Filled cookies,
Filling, Chocolate,
Coconut,
Coffee,
for cookies,
for cream puffs, Cream,
for éclairs, Caramel,
for éclairs, Chocolate,
for éclairs, Coffee,
for ladyfingers,
for sandwiches, Cheese,
for sandwiches, Chicken-salad,
for sandwiches, Fruit,
Fruit cream,
Lemon,
Marshmallow,
Filling, Orange
Raisin-and-nut
Fillings and icings, Cake
Cake
French
Flavoring extracts in cake
Floating island
Flour for cakes
for pastry
Fluff, Pineapple cream
Strawberry cream
Food value of desserts, Composition and
Forks, Salad
Frappé, Cherry
Cider
Cranberry
Freezer, Using a vacuum
Freezing desserts, Method of
desserts, Procedure in
Table showing details of
Theory of
French cream
dressing
fillings
ice cream
Fresh-fruit pudding
Freshening salad ingredients, Cleaning and
Fried-egg sandwiches
Frozen custard, Plain
custard, Tutti-frutti
custard with nuts
custard with raisins
custards
--dessert making, Principles of
dessert, Packing a
desserts
desserts, Cold and
desserts, Molding
desserts, Proportion of ice to salt in
desserts, Recipes for
desserts, Serving
spiced punch
Fruit-and-vegetable salads, Combination of
cake
cake, White
cream filling
drop cakes
filling for sandwiches
gelatine
ice
in cantaloupe shells
salad, Combination
--salad dressing
 salads
sandwiches
sauce
Fruits in cake, Miscellaneous
Frying doughnuts and crullers

G

Garnishes, Salad
Gelatine desserts
desserts, Principles of making
desserts, Recipes for
Fruit
Plain
Ginger drop cakes
pudding, Steamed
snaps
Glacé, Bomebe
Gold cake
Grape sherbet
Grapefruit-and-celery salad
Green-pepper-and-cheese salad
-vegetable salad

H

Ham-and-egg sandwiches
Hard-cooked-egg sandwiches
sauce
High-protein salads
-protein sandwiches
Highland dainties
Hot fried-egg sandwiches
-meat sandwiches
sandwiches
-water sponge cake
Humpty Dumpty salad

I

Ice-cream cake
cream, Caramel
cream, Chocolate
cream, French
cream, Mocha
cream, Neapolitan
cream, Philadelphia
cream, Vanilla
cream with peaches, Junket
Fruit
Lemon
Orange
Ices
Icing, Boiled
Butter
Caramel
Chocolate
Chocolate butter
Chocolate water
Cold-water
for cup cakes, Ornamental
Maple
Orange
Ornamental
Plain
Time-saving
Icing, White
Icings and fillings, Cake
Cooked
Kinds of
Preparation of cake
Uncooked
Indian pudding
Ingredients, Condition of salad
in cookies
Marinating salad
of salads
Quality of cake
Variety in salad

J

Jelly-and-cream-cheese sandwiches
and marmalade sandwiches
Coffee
Orange
roll
sauce
Junket ice cream with peaches

K

Kisses and macaroons
or meringues

L

Lady Baltimore cake
Lady fingers
and sponge drops
Filling for
Layer cake, Nut
-cake pans
cake, Plain
Leavening for cakes
Left-over pastry, Utilizing
Lemon filling
ice
pie
sauce
snow
Lettuce sandwiches
Shredded
Liquid for cakes
for pastry
Loaf-cake pans
Lobster or crab salad

M

Macaroons, Almond
Coconut
Oatmeal-fruit
Pecan
Maize pudding
Maple icing
parfait
Maraschino sauce
Marguerites
Marinating salad ingredients
Marmalade sandwiches, Jelly and
Marshmallow filling
whip
Mayonnaise, Cooked
dressing
Meal, Dessert in the
Meals, Relation of salads to
Meat sandwiches
sandwiches, Hot-
used for pastry
used in cakes
Meringue
for one-crust pies
Meringues or kisses
Milk sherbet
Mince pie
pie, Mock
Mineral salts and salads
Mint punch
Minute tapioca
-tapioca custard
Miscellaneous fruits in cake
Mixtures for small cakes, Nature of
Mocha ice cream
Mock cherry pie
mince pie
Molding frozen deserts
Mousses, parfaits, and biscuits
Mousse, Banana-and-apricot
Caramel
Chocolate
Mousses, Definition of
Molding
parfaits, and biscuits

N

Nature of butter cake
of doughnuts and crullers
of mixtures for small cakes
of salad dressings
of sandwiches
of sponge cake
Neapolitan ice cream
Nut cake, Chocolate
filling, Raisin-and-
layer cake
salad, Pineapple-and-
sandwiches, Cheese-and-
spice cake
Nuts in cake

O

Oat-flake drop cakes
Oatmeal cookies
-fruit macaroons
Old-fashioned potato salad
Olive oil, Characteristics of
One-crust pies,
-egg cake,
Onion-and-pepper sandwiches,
salad,
Open peach pie,
sandwiches,
Orange filling,
ice,
icing,
jelly,
pie,
salad, Apple-date-and-,
sauce,
sponge cake,
Ornamental icing,
icing for cup cakes,

P

Packing a frozen dessert,
Pans, Layer-cake,
Loaf-cake,
Preparation of cake,
Parfait, Café,
Canton,
Maple,
Strawberry angel,
Parfaits, Definition of,
Molding,
Paste, Baking puff,
Economy,
Procedure in making puff,
Puff,
Quality,
Pastries and pies,
and pies, Requirements for,
Pastry,
Baking plain,
Definition of,
Easy,
Flour for,
for pies,
ingredients, Proportion of,
Ingredients used for,
Liquid for,
making, Utensils for,
Methods of mixing,
Plain,
Procedure in making plain,
Serving,
Shortening for,
Sour-cream,
Utilizing left-over,
Peach-and-cream-cheese salad,
pie,
pie, Open,
Peaches, Junket ice cream with,
Peanut-butter sandwiches,
salad, Banana-and-,
Pear-and-cheese salad,
sherbet,
Pearl tapioca,
Peas-and-celery salad,
Pecan macaroons,
Philadelphia ice cream,
Pie a la mode,
Apple,
Berry,
Boston cream,
Butterscotch,
Cherry,
Chocolate,
Coconut,
Cranberry,
Cream,
Custard,
Date cream,
Lemon,
Mince,
Mock cherry,
Mock mince,
Open peach,
Orange,
Peach,
Pineapple,
Pumpkin,
Raisin,
Rhubarb,
Squash,
Strawberry,
Sweet-potato,
Pierrot pudding,
Pies and pastries,
and pastries, Requirements for,
Double-crust,
Dried-fruit,
Meringue for one-crust,
One-crust,
Pastry for,
Pineapple-and-nut salad,
cream fluff,
pie,
sauce,
Plain blanc mange,
frozen custard,
gelatine,
icing,
layer cake,
pastry,
pastry, Baking,
pastry, Procedure in making,
sponge cake,
Pocono pudding,
Poinsettia salad,
Poor man's pudding,
Potato-and-barley doughnuts,
-flour sponge cake,
flour, Sponge cake with,
salad,
salad, Old-fashioned,
Pound cake,
Preparation of butter cake,
of cake icings,
of cake ingredients,
of cake pans,
of sandwiches,
of small cakes,
of sponge cakes,
Salad dressings and their,
Varieties of salads and their,
Preparing fruits for salads
nuts for salads,
Principles of dessert making,
 of frozen-dessert making,
of making gelatine desserts,
of salad making,
of sandwich making,
Procedure in cake making,
in freezing desserts,
in making butter cakes,
in making cookies,
in making puff paste,
in making sponge cake,
Proportion of pastry ingredients,
Protein in desserts,
in salads,
Pudding, Bread,
Chocolate,
Chocolate bread,
Christmas,
Cottage,
Fresh-fruit,
Indian,
Maize,
mixtures in the diet, Cake and,
Pierrot,
Pocono,
Poor man's,
sauces,
Snow,
Steamed fig,
Steamed ginger,
Suet-fruit,
Puddings and pudding sauces,
Cakes, cookies, and,
Nature of,
Preparation of,
Puff paste,
paste, Baking,
paste, Procedure in making,
paste, Recipe for,
paste, Uses of,
Raisin,
Pumpkin pie,
Punch, Frozen spice,
Mint,
Purposes of salads in the diet,

Q

Quality of cake ingredients,
paste,

R

Raisin-and-nut filling,
pie,
puff,
spice cake,
Raisins and currants in cake,
Raspberry sherbet,
Relation of salads to meals,
Removing sponge cake from pans,
Rhubarb pie,
Ribbon sandwiches,
Rice custard,
Ring, Swedish tea,
Ripening the frozen mixture,
Roll, Jelly,
Rolled celery sandwiches,
Round sandwiches,
Roxbury cakes,
Royal éclairs,
Rye-bread-and-cheese sandwiches,


S

Salad accompaniments,
Apple-and-celery,
Asparagus,
Banana-and-peanut,
Beet-and-bean,
Cabbage,
Cabbage and celery,
California,
Cauliflower,
Cauliflower-and-tomato,
Celery,
Chicken,
Combination,
Combination fruit,
Crab,
Cucumber,
Cucumber-and-tomato,
Daisy,
Date-and-English-walnut,
dressing, Boiled,
dressings and their preparation,
dressings, Nature of,
Easter,
Filbert-and-cherry,
filling for sandwiches, Chicken-,
forks,
garnishes,
Grapefruit-and-celery,
Green-pepper-and-cheese,
Green-vegetable,
greens, Care of,
Humpty Dumpty,
ingredients, Cleaning and freshening,
ingredients, Condition of,
ingredients, Marinating,
ingredients, Variety in,
Lobster or crab,
Salad making, Principles of,
Onion,
Peach-and-cream-cheese,
Pear-and-cheese,
Peas-and-celery,
Pineapple-and-nut,
Poinsettia,
Potato,
Salmon,
sandwiches, Chicken-,
Shrimp,
Sliced cucumber-and-onion,
String-bean,
Stuffed-tomato,
Summer combination,
Tomato,
Tomato-and-string-bean,
Tuna-fish,
Waldorf,
Water-lily,
Winter,
Salads and sandwiches,
and their preparation, Varieties of,
Carbohydrates in,
Cellulose in,
Definition of,
Fat in,
Fruit,
High-protein,
in the diet,
in the diet, Purposes of,
ingredients,
Mineral salts in,
Preparing nuts for,
Protein in,
Selection of,
Serving,
to meals, Relation of,
Vegetable,
Salmon salad,
Salts in salads, Mineral,
Sand tarts,
Sandwich making, Principles of,
making, Utensils for,
Sandwiches,
after making, Care of,
Apricot,
Bread-and-butter,
Bread for,
Checkerboard,
Cheese,
Cheese-and-nut,
Cheese filling for,
Chicken,
Chicken-salad,
Chicken-salad filling for,
Club,
Cucumber,
Date,
Sandwiches, Fruit,
Fruit filling for,
Jelly-and-cream-cheese,
Jelly and marmalade,
Ham-and-egg,
Hard-cooked-egg,
Hot,
Hot fried-egg,
Hot-meat,
Lettuce,
Making,
Meat,
Nature of,
Onion-and-pepper,
Open,
Peanut-butter,
Ribbon,
Rolled celery,
Round,
Salads and,
Tomato,
Variety in,
Sauce, Apricot,
Chocolate,
Coconut,
Custard,
Fruit,
Jelly,
Hard,
Lemon,
Maraschino,
Orange,
Pineapple,
Sterling,
Vanilla,
Sauces and whipped cream, Dessert,
Pudding,
Selection of salads,
Serving frozen desserts,
pastry,
salads,
Sherbet, Grape,
Milk,
Pear,
Raspberry,
Strawberry,
Sherbets,
Shortening for pastry,
Shredded lettuce,
Shrimp salad,
Sliced cucumber-and-onion salad,
Small cakes,
pies,
Snow pudding,
Soft custard,
Sour-cream cookies,
-cream dressing,
-cream pastry,
-milk chocolate cake,
-milk doughnuts,
Sour-milk drop cakes,
Spanish cream,
Spice cake, Nut,
cake, Raisin,
Spices in cake,
Sponge cake,
cake, Baking,
cake, Cold-water,
cake from pans, Removing,
cake, Hot-water,
-cake ingredients, Combining the,
cake, Nature of,
cake, Orange,
-cake pans,
cake, Plain,
cake, Potato-flour,
cake, Procedure in making,
cake with potato flour,
cakes, Preparation of,
drops, Ladyfingers and,
Squash pie,
Steamed fig pudding,
ginger pudding,
Sterling sauce,
Strawberry angel parfait,
cream fluff,
pie,
sherbet,
Straws, Cheese,
String-bean salad,
bean salad, Tomato-and-,
Stuffed celery,
-tomato salad,
Suet-fruit pudding,
Summer combination salad,
Sunshine cake,
Swedish tea ring,
Sweet-potato pie,
Sweetening for cakes,


T

Table showing details of freezing,
Tapioca, Apple,
Caramel,
cream,
custard,
Minute,
Pearl,
Tarts,
Tea ring, Swedish,
Theory of freezing,
Thickened juicy fruit for pies,

Thousand Island dressing,
Time-saving icing,
Tomato-and-string-bean salad,
salad,
salad, Stuffed-,
sandwiches,
Tortoni, Biscuit,
True custard,
Tuna-fish salad,
Tutti-frutti frozen custard,

U

Uncooked icings,
Use of dessert ingredients, Economical,
Using a vacuum freezer,
Utensils for pastry making,
for sandwich making,
Utilizing left-over pastry,

V

Vacuum freezer, Using a,
Value of desserts, Composition and food,
Vanilla cream,
sauce,
wafers,
Varieties of salads and their preparation,
of small cakes,
Variety in salad ingredients,
in sandwiches,
Vegetable salad, Green-,
salads,
salads, Combination fruit-and-,
sandwiches,

W

Wafers, Vanilla
Waldorf salad,
War cake,
Water icing, Chocolate,
-lily salad,
Wedding cake,
Whip, Marshmallow,
Whipped cream,
cream, Dessert sauces and,
White cake,
fruit cake,
icing,
Winter salad,





End of the Project Gutenberg EBook of Woman's Institute Library of Cookery,
Vol. 4, by Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences

*** END OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK W.I. LIBRARY OF COOKERY, VOL 4 ***

***** This file should be named 9938-h.htm or 9938-h.zip *****
This and all associated files of various formats will be found in:
        http://www.gutenberg.org/9/9/3/9938/

Produced by Charles Aldarondo, Keren Vergon, Steve Schulze
and PG Distributed Proofreaders


Updated editions will replace the previous one--the old editions
will be renamed.

Creating the works from public domain print editions means that no
one owns a United States copyright in these works, so the Foundation
(and you!) can copy and distribute it in the United States without
permission and without paying copyright royalties.  Special rules,
set forth in the General Terms of Use part of this license, apply to
copying and distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works to
protect the PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm concept and trademark.  Project
Gutenberg is a registered trademark, and may not be used if you
charge for the eBooks, unless you receive specific permission.  If you
do not charge anything for copies of this eBook, complying with the
rules is very easy.  You may use this eBook for nearly any purpose
such as creation of derivative works, reports, performances and
research.  They may be modified and printed and given away--you may do
practically ANYTHING with public domain eBooks.  Redistribution is
subject to the trademark license, especially commercial
redistribution.



*** START: FULL LICENSE ***

THE FULL PROJECT GUTENBERG LICENSE
PLEASE READ THIS BEFORE YOU DISTRIBUTE OR USE THIS WORK

To protect the Project Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting the free
distribution of electronic works, by using or distributing this work
(or any other work associated in any way with the phrase "Project
Gutenberg"), you agree to comply with all the terms of the Full Project
Gutenberg-tm License (available with this file or online at
http://gutenberg.net/license).


Section 1.  General Terms of Use and Redistributing Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic works

1.A.  By reading or using any part of this Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work, you indicate that you have read, understand, agree to
and accept all the terms of this license and intellectual property
(trademark/copyright) agreement.  If you do not agree to abide by all
the terms of this agreement, you must cease using and return or destroy
all copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in your possession.
If you paid a fee for obtaining a copy of or access to a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work and you do not agree to be bound by the
terms of this agreement, you may obtain a refund from the person or
entity to whom you paid the fee as set forth in paragraph 1.E.8.

1.B.  "Project Gutenberg" is a registered trademark.  It may only be
used on or associated in any way with an electronic work by people who
agree to be bound by the terms of this agreement.  There are a few
things that you can do with most Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works
even without complying with the full terms of this agreement.  See
paragraph 1.C below.  There are a lot of things you can do with Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works if you follow the terms of this agreement
and help preserve free future access to Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works.  See paragraph 1.E below.

1.C.  The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation ("the Foundation"
or PGLAF), owns a compilation copyright in the collection of Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works.  Nearly all the individual works in the
collection are in the public domain in the United States.  If an
individual work is in the public domain in the United States and you are
located in the United States, we do not claim a right to prevent you from
copying, distributing, performing, displaying or creating derivative
works based on the work as long as all references to Project Gutenberg
are removed.  Of course, we hope that you will support the Project
Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting free access to electronic works by
freely sharing Project Gutenberg-tm works in compliance with the terms of
this agreement for keeping the Project Gutenberg-tm name associated with
the work.  You can easily comply with the terms of this agreement by
keeping this work in the same format with its attached full Project
Gutenberg-tm License when you share it without charge with others.

1.D.  The copyright laws of the place where you are located also govern
what you can do with this work.  Copyright laws in most countries are in
a constant state of change.  If you are outside the United States, check
the laws of your country in addition to the terms of this agreement
before downloading, copying, displaying, performing, distributing or
creating derivative works based on this work or any other Project
Gutenberg-tm work.  The Foundation makes no representations concerning
the copyright status of any work in any country outside the United
States.

1.E.  Unless you have removed all references to Project Gutenberg:

1.E.1.  The following sentence, with active links to, or other immediate
access to, the full Project Gutenberg-tm License must appear prominently
whenever any copy of a Project Gutenberg-tm work (any work on which the
phrase "Project Gutenberg" appears, or with which the phrase "Project
Gutenberg" is associated) is accessed, displayed, performed, viewed,
copied or distributed:

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net

1.E.2.  If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is derived
from the public domain (does not contain a notice indicating that it is
posted with permission of the copyright holder), the work can be copied
and distributed to anyone in the United States without paying any fees
or charges.  If you are redistributing or providing access to a work
with the phrase "Project Gutenberg" associated with or appearing on the
work, you must comply either with the requirements of paragraphs 1.E.1
through 1.E.7 or obtain permission for the use of the work and the
Project Gutenberg-tm trademark as set forth in paragraphs 1.E.8 or
1.E.9.

1.E.3.  If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is posted
with the permission of the copyright holder, your use and distribution
must comply with both paragraphs 1.E.1 through 1.E.7 and any additional
terms imposed by the copyright holder.  Additional terms will be linked
to the Project Gutenberg-tm License for all works posted with the
permission of the copyright holder found at the beginning of this work.

1.E.4.  Do not unlink or detach or remove the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License terms from this work, or any files containing a part of this
work or any other work associated with Project Gutenberg-tm.

1.E.5.  Do not copy, display, perform, distribute or redistribute this
electronic work, or any part of this electronic work, without
prominently displaying the sentence set forth in paragraph 1.E.1 with
active links or immediate access to the full terms of the Project
Gutenberg-tm License.

1.E.6.  You may convert to and distribute this work in any binary,
compressed, marked up, nonproprietary or proprietary form, including any
word processing or hypertext form.  However, if you provide access to or
distribute copies of a Project Gutenberg-tm work in a format other than
"Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other format used in the official version
posted on the official Project Gutenberg-tm web site (www.gutenberg.net),
you must, at no additional cost, fee or expense to the user, provide a
copy, a means of exporting a copy, or a means of obtaining a copy upon
request, of the work in its original "Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other
form.  Any alternate format must include the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License as specified in paragraph 1.E.1.

1.E.7.  Do not charge a fee for access to, viewing, displaying,
performing, copying or distributing any Project Gutenberg-tm works
unless you comply with paragraph 1.E.8 or 1.E.9.

1.E.8.  You may charge a reasonable fee for copies of or providing
access to or distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works provided
that

- You pay a royalty fee of 20% of the gross profits you derive from
     the use of Project Gutenberg-tm works calculated using the method
     you already use to calculate your applicable taxes.  The fee is
     owed to the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark, but he
     has agreed to donate royalties under this paragraph to the
     Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation.  Royalty payments
     must be paid within 60 days following each date on which you
     prepare (or are legally required to prepare) your periodic tax
     returns.  Royalty payments should be clearly marked as such and
     sent to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation at the
     address specified in Section 4, "Information about donations to
     the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation."

- You provide a full refund of any money paid by a user who notifies
     you in writing (or by e-mail) within 30 days of receipt that s/he
     does not agree to the terms of the full Project Gutenberg-tm
     License.  You must require such a user to return or
     destroy all copies of the works possessed in a physical medium
     and discontinue all use of and all access to other copies of
     Project Gutenberg-tm works.

- You provide, in accordance with paragraph 1.F.3, a full refund of any
     money paid for a work or a replacement copy, if a defect in the
     electronic work is discovered and reported to you within 90 days
     of receipt of the work.

- You comply with all other terms of this agreement for free
     distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm works.

1.E.9.  If you wish to charge a fee or distribute a Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work or group of works on different terms than are set
forth in this agreement, you must obtain permission in writing from
both the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation and Michael
Hart, the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark.  Contact the
Foundation as set forth in Section 3 below.

1.F.

1.F.1.  Project Gutenberg volunteers and employees expend considerable
effort to identify, do copyright research on, transcribe and proofread
public domain works in creating the Project Gutenberg-tm
collection.  Despite these efforts, Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works, and the medium on which they may be stored, may contain
"Defects," such as, but not limited to, incomplete, inaccurate or
corrupt data, transcription errors, a copyright or other intellectual
property infringement, a defective or damaged disk or other medium, a
computer virus, or computer codes that damage or cannot be read by
your equipment.

1.F.2.  LIMITED WARRANTY, DISCLAIMER OF DAMAGES - Except for the "Right
of Replacement or Refund" described in paragraph 1.F.3, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, the owner of the Project
Gutenberg-tm trademark, and any other party distributing a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work under this agreement, disclaim all
liability to you for damages, costs and expenses, including legal
fees.  YOU AGREE THAT YOU HAVE NO REMEDIES FOR NEGLIGENCE, STRICT
LIABILITY, BREACH OF WARRANTY OR BREACH OF CONTRACT EXCEPT THOSE
PROVIDED IN PARAGRAPH 1.F.3.  YOU AGREE THAT THE FOUNDATION, THE
TRADEMARK OWNER, AND ANY DISTRIBUTOR UNDER THIS AGREEMENT WILL NOT BE
LIABLE TO YOU FOR ACTUAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, CONSEQUENTIAL, PUNITIVE OR
INCIDENTAL DAMAGES EVEN IF YOU GIVE NOTICE OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
DAMAGE.

1.F.3.  LIMITED RIGHT OF REPLACEMENT OR REFUND - If you discover a
defect in this electronic work within 90 days of receiving it, you can
receive a refund of the money (if any) you paid for it by sending a
written explanation to the person you received the work from.  If you
received the work on a physical medium, you must return the medium with
your written explanation.  The person or entity that provided you with
the defective work may elect to provide a replacement copy in lieu of a
refund.  If you received the work electronically, the person or entity
providing it to you may choose to give you a second opportunity to
receive the work electronically in lieu of a refund.  If the second copy
is also defective, you may demand a refund in writing without further
opportunities to fix the problem.

1.F.4.  Except for the limited right of replacement or refund set forth
in paragraph 1.F.3, this work is provided to you 'AS-IS' WITH NO OTHER
WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTIBILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PURPOSE.

1.F.5.  Some states do not allow disclaimers of certain implied
warranties or the exclusion or limitation of certain types of damages.
If any disclaimer or limitation set forth in this agreement violates the
law of the state applicable to this agreement, the agreement shall be
interpreted to make the maximum disclaimer or limitation permitted by
the applicable state law.  The invalidity or unenforceability of any
provision of this agreement shall not void the remaining provisions.

1.F.6.  INDEMNITY - You agree to indemnify and hold the Foundation, the
trademark owner, any agent or employee of the Foundation, anyone
providing copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in accordance
with this agreement, and any volunteers associated with the production,
promotion and distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works,
harmless from all liability, costs and expenses, including legal fees,
that arise directly or indirectly from any of the following which you do
or cause to occur: (a) distribution of this or any Project Gutenberg-tm
work, (b) alteration, modification, or additions or deletions to any
Project Gutenberg-tm work, and (c) any Defect you cause.


Section  2.  Information about the Mission of Project Gutenberg-tm

Project Gutenberg-tm is synonymous with the free distribution of
electronic works in formats readable by the widest variety of computers
including obsolete, old, middle-aged and new computers.  It exists
because of the efforts of hundreds of volunteers and donations from
people in all walks of life.

Volunteers and financial support to provide volunteers with the
assistance they need are critical to reaching Project Gutenberg-tm's
goals and ensuring that the Project Gutenberg-tm collection will
remain freely available for generations to come.  In 2001, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation was created to provide a secure
and permanent future for Project Gutenberg-tm and future generations.
To learn more about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation
and how your efforts and donations can help, see Sections 3 and 4
and the Foundation web page at http://www.pglaf.org.


Section 3.  Information about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive
Foundation

The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation is a non profit
501(c)(3) educational corporation organized under the laws of the
state of Mississippi and granted tax exempt status by the Internal
Revenue Service.  The Foundation's EIN or federal tax identification
number is 64-6221541.  Its 501(c)(3) letter is posted at
http://pglaf.org/fundraising.  Contributions to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation are tax deductible to the full extent
permitted by U.S. federal laws and your state's laws.

The Foundation's principal office is located at 4557 Melan Dr. S.
Fairbanks, AK, 99712., but its volunteers and employees are scattered
throughout numerous locations.  Its business office is located at
809 North 1500 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84116, (801) 596-1887, email
business@pglaf.org.  Email contact links and up to date contact
information can be found at the Foundation's web site and official
page at http://pglaf.org

For additional contact information:
     Dr. Gregory B. Newby
     Chief Executive and Director
     gbnewby@pglaf.org


Section 4.  Information about Donations to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation

Project Gutenberg-tm depends upon and cannot survive without wide
spread public support and donations to carry out its mission of
increasing the number of public domain and licensed works that can be
freely distributed in machine readable form accessible by the widest
array of equipment including outdated equipment.  Many small donations
($1 to $5,000) are particularly important to maintaining tax exempt
status with the IRS.

The Foundation is committed to complying with the laws regulating
charities and charitable donations in all 50 states of the United
States.  Compliance requirements are not uniform and it takes a
considerable effort, much paperwork and many fees to meet and keep up
with these requirements.  We do not solicit donations in locations
where we have not received written confirmation of compliance.  To
SEND DONATIONS or determine the status of compliance for any
particular state visit http://pglaf.org

While we cannot and do not solicit contributions from states where we
have not met the solicitation requirements, we know of no prohibition
against accepting unsolicited donations from donors in such states who
approach us with offers to donate.

International donations are gratefully accepted, but we cannot make
any statements concerning tax treatment of donations received from
outside the United States.  U.S. laws alone swamp our small staff.

Please check the Project Gutenberg Web pages for current donation
methods and addresses.  Donations are accepted in a number of other
ways including including checks, online payments and credit card
donations.  To donate, please visit: http://pglaf.org/donate


Section 5.  General Information About Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works.

Professor Michael S. Hart is the originator of the Project Gutenberg-tm
concept of a library of electronic works that could be freely shared
with anyone.  For thirty years, he produced and distributed Project
Gutenberg-tm eBooks with only a loose network of volunteer support.


Project Gutenberg-tm eBooks are often created from several printed
editions, all of which are confirmed as Public Domain in the U.S.
unless a copyright notice is included.  Thus, we do not necessarily
keep eBooks in compliance with any particular paper edition.


Most people start at our Web site which has the main PG search facility:

     http://www.gutenberg.net

This Web site includes information about Project Gutenberg-tm,
including how to make donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary
Archive Foundation, how to help produce our new eBooks, and how to
subscribe to our email newsletter to hear about new eBooks.



JGC Logo Valid HTML5 Logo HTML5 Logo Valid CSS3 Logo JGC Logo
Copyright logo
This page (9938-h.htm) was last modified on Sunday 27/01/2013