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YORKSHIRE, PAST AND PRESENT:

A HISTORY AND A DESCRIPTION OF THE THREE RIDINGS OF THE GREAT COUNTY OF YORK,
FROM THE EARLIEST AGES TO THE YEAR 1870;
WITH AN ACCOUNT OF ITS MANUFACTURES, COMMERCE, AND CIVIL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.

BY THOMAS BAINES,
AUTHOR OF "LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE, PAST AND PRESENT," ETC.
INCLUDING
AN ACCOUNT OF THE WOOLLEN TRADE OF YORKSHIRE, BY EDWARD BAINES, M.P.,
AUTHOR OF "THE HISTORY OF THE COTTON MANUFACTURE," ETC, ETC. VOL. 11.


YORKSHIRE PAST AND PRESENT.

CHAPTER I.
HISTORY OF THE PRINCIPAL CITIES AND TOWNS OF YORKSHIRE.

HAVING in the first volume of this work given a general description and history of the county of York, we now proceed to supply a more detailed account of its principal cities, boroughs, seaports, and
towns. This we shall follow, in a subsequent division, by a history and description of the wapentakes, parishes, and townships of Yorkshire, thus completing our account of this extensive county. We commence our second volume with a history of the ancient and celebrated city of York, which was for so many ages the capital of Roman Britain, and is still one of the most interesting cities in the British dominions. We shall afterwards trace the history of the populous and flourishing manufacturing towns of Leeds, Bradford, Halifax, Huddersfield, Wakefield, and Dewsbury, the principal seats of the woollen manufacture, which has for so many ages formed the chief industry of Yorkshire. We shall also give an account of Sheffield and the populous Hallamshire district, which have so long held the first rank in the manufacture of cutlery, and at the present day have united to their ancient industries many great branches of business unknown in former times. In this portion of the work we shall likewise trace the history of the port and commerce of Hull, the great outlet of the commerce of Yorkshire, from early times to the present day; and also that of the other seaports of the county, including Scarborough, Whitby, Bridlington, and Middlesborough, the last of which has sprung into importance in the present generation, under the influence of a sudden and great development of mining industry and wealth. We commence with an account of the ancient city of York.

THE HISTORY OF THE CITY OF YORK. Eboracum, or York, as the Capital of the Roman Province of Britain. - York, the Eboracum of the Romans, is one of the oldest cities in Britain, having a history, supported by written or printed evidences, extending over a period of upwards of 1700 years. Eboracum is first mentioned by name by Claudius Ptolemy, the Greek geographer of Alexandria, in his account of the geography of the ancient world, supposed to have been written between A.D. 138 and A.D. 161; but it is believed that the British Aberach or Everach was founded by the Britons previous to the Roman invasion, and that it was occupied and fortified as a stationary camp by Julius Agricola, about the year 79 of the Christian era. Ptolemy speaks of Eboracum as being in his time a Roman station, and the headquarters of one of the three or four legions, which held Britain in subjection to the Roman empire. The legion thus spoken of, and which was permanently established at Eboracum, or York, was the Sixth Victorious Legion. This was sent into Britain by Hadrian, A.D. 117, and its headquarters appear to have been chiefly at York for nearly 300 years, namely, from the reign of that emperor to the final retirement of the Roman armies from Britain, about the year 420 of the Christian era. But during a considerable portion of this time the Romans had another legion at York, namely, the Ninth, or Spanish legion, Legio Nona Hispanica; and for a small part of it also the Second Augustan Legion. This concentration of troops is accounted for by the military necessities of the Roman dominion in Britain; for not only was Eboracum, or York, the capital of the Roman province of Britain, and the seat of the imperial government, but it was also situated near the border of what was then the most exposed frontier of the empire. The position of the Sixth Legion at York was much more liable to attack than that of the Twentieth Victorious Legion, whose headquarters were at Deva, the present Chester, on the borders of what we now call North Wales; or than that of the Second Augustan Legion, whose headquarters were long at Isca Silurum, afterwards known as Caer Leon, near the present Newport, on the borders of South Wales, districts which were soon thoroughly subdued by the Romans. Eboracum is supposed to have been selected as the military capital of Britain by Julius Agricola, at the close of his second campaign in Britain, when many cities and states submitted to the Roman authority; and it was, probably, of this amongst other military positions chosen by Agricola in Britain, that Tacitus the historian, and the son-in-law of that great commander, stated that they were selected with so much judgment and attention that none of the newly explored parts of Britain were left unguarded. For more than 1500 years Eboracum, or York, under various names, was the military bulwark of this part of Britain. There is no inscription which establishes the date at which the Roman walls of Eboracum were erected, but it is probable that they were built at the time when that city became the headquarters of the Sixth Legion, in the reign of the Emperor Hadrian. This is rendered likely, not only by the fact of Hadrian's visit to Britain, but by the circumstance of that emperor having been the builder of many other great works, in the northern parts of Britain, including the Roman wall extending from sea to sea, and some of the principal military roads. The Roman walls of Eboracum included a quadrangular space of about 650 yards from east to west, and 550 yards from north to south, and the camp contained an area of nearly seventy acres. The Roman fortification stood in an angle of land formed by the junction of the river Fosse with the river Ouse, in a position of considerable natural strength, and was easily defended, reinforced, and supplied with munitions of war, both by land and by water. The name of Eboracum is supposed to be a Romanized form either of the British word Aberach, which is said to mean the "mound by the confluence," namely, that of the river Ouse with the Fosse; or of Everach, which means "the mound by the Ure," and implies that in former times the name of the Ure was given to what we now call the Ouse, at least as far down the stream as Eboracum, or York. But we are told by Ptolemy that the ancient name of the Humber was the Abus, a name evidently derived from the circumstance of its being the great receptacle of the almost innumerable streams which flow into it, and discharge their waters through its mouth into the sea. We have no means of knowing how far up the stream the Abus bore the name mentioned by Ptolemy; but it may perhaps have been almost as far as the estuaries and rivers of the Thames and Severn, which seem to have been always known by the same name from the springs of the main stream, down to the point at which their collected waters fall into the sea. It is not improbable that this may also have been the case with the Abus, or at all events that the name may have extended up the stream, at least as far as the tideway reaches, which is to the immediate neighbourhood of the ancient Eboracum, the present city of York, if not to the junction of the Ure and the Swale, above that city. Supposing that to have been the case, the name of the ancient Aberach of the Britons, the Eboracum of the Romans, may have been derived from the Abus, and Aberach may have been the mound or fortification by the Abus. This seems to be at least as probable as that the name was derived from the junction of so small a stream as the Fosse with the river Ouse. The meaning of the latter word, Ouse, is supposed to be merely "the water," and to be derived from the British word Uisge, meaning "water;" and that is also the meaning of the word Eure, derived from a more ancient language than that of the Celts. There seems, however, to be no doubt that the name of Eboracum was derived from the confluence of two or more of the streams of this well-watered district, though whether it was from the Abus, the stream into which all the rivers of Yorkshire, and most of those of the midland district, flow; from the river Eure, which joins the Ouse several miles above the city of York; or from the junction of the river Fosse with the Ouse at York-must remain somewhat doubtful. The Fosse clearly bears a Roman name, and owes that name to the circumstance of its having formed part of the fosse or trench around the city, at the when Eboracum was a Roman fortress; but we have no means of knowing what was the Celtic name of the Fosse.

But leaving these ancient names, it may be useful to mention the advantages, for the purpose of inland navigation, of the streams, which, under various appellations, discharge their waters into the Abus, or Humber, either flowing under the walls of York or joining the same stream further down, with the lengths of their respective courses. The most important of these streams are the Ouse, which has a course of fifty-nine miles in length, and which above the city of York receives the Swale, seventy-one miles in length, the Eure, sixty-one miles, the Nidd, fifty-five miles, and the Wiske, twenty-five miles. Immediately opposite to York it receives the Fosse, seventeen miles in length. Below that city the Ouse receives the Wharfe, seventy-five miles in length; the Aire, eighty-seven miles; the Calder, forty-seven miles; the Don or Dun, sixty-eight miles; and the Derwent, seventy-two miles. In addition to these Yorkshire streams-all of which may have been used at certain seasons of the year, when moderately full of water, for the purpose of floating down the produce of the surrounding country, either to York, or into the tideway of the Humber and the Ouse, which has an easy communication at all times and seasons with York-that city also possessed, by means of the Ouse and the Humber, a regular and easy line of inland communication, by means of the great river Trent and its tributaries, as far as the present Lincoln, Nottingham, Derby, and even Leicester. The Romans, who dreaded the open sea, and especially the tides of the Atlantic, availed themselves eagerly of the safe, easy, and cheap resources of inland navigation; and the streams which we have mentioned afforded them the means of inland navigation between Eboracum and the central parts of Britain. Nearly the whole of the Roman commerce across Gaul was carried on by means of navigable rivers, extending from the Mediterranean to the British Channel, with only occasional portages from one stream to another; and there is no doubt that so sensible and practical a people as the Romans employed the inland navigation of Britain for similar purposes. Whether they were the original constructors of the short canal, only eight miles in length, which connected the city of Lincoln with the river Trent, and thus formed a line of water communication between the two great Roman stations of Eboracum and Lindum (York and Lincoln), as well as an uninterrupted line of inland navigation from Eboracum to what is now known as the southern part of the coast of Lincolnshire, is a matter of some uncertainty. But the name of the Fosse of Lincolnshire, like that of the Fosse of Yorkshire, is Roman, and the canal which bears that name, and seems to have given it to the adjoining Roman road, is so short as to be quite insignificant ill comparison with canals that were formed by the Romans in Italy and in the north of Europe.

We are told by Tacitus that one of the Roman commanders formed a scheme for uniting one of the tributaries of the Rhone with one of those of the Rhine, and of thus connecting the Mediterranean with the German Ocean, by an uninterrupted line of inland navigation; and we are also informed by the same writer that another of the Roman generals, Drusus, formed a canal (fossa Drusi) from the river Rhine into the Flevus, the present Zuyder Zee, through which the Roman fleet forced its way into the North Sea.

The river Ouse was exactly such a stream as the Romans preferred in the choice of their seaports. The tides nearly exhaust themselves in reaching that part of the river Ouse on which Eboracum was built, seldom rising there to a greater height than five or six feet above the ordinary level of the fresh water. In this respect the position of Eboracum would be regarded by the Romans as much more favourable than that of Hull; the rise of the average tides at Naburn Lock on the Ouse, a few miles below the city of York, being about six feet four inches, whilst at Hull the average is sixteen feet three inches, and that of the highest tides twenty six feet four inches. Such tides as those that prevailed at the mouth of the Humber were quite unmanageable by the Romans, who were accustomed to run their vessels on shore in the winter months, and to load and discharge them on the beaches of rivers; and hence they built their seaports at points at which the tides had nearly exhausted their strength, as at London, Chester, York, and Gloucester. It has been said that a river is a moving road; but a tidal river is a road with the motive power applied both ways, first up and then down the stream, at intervals of a few hours. This circumstance long gave Eboracum an immense advantage, as a place of trade, over all the other towns in the interior, none of which possessed either navigable rivers or the strong motive power of the tides of the ocean, to bring vessels up the stream, or the advantage of great and durable lines of road extending in every direction.

Below the city of Eboracum the Romans had encampments, at Acaster Malbis and Acaster Selby, to protect the navigation of the Ouse. Eboracum was made the seat of a Roman colony, though it is not known by which of the emperors. The forming of a colony implied the settlement of a considerable number of Roman citizens, who received one-third of the land, at the place where the colony was established. This was, no doubt, the case at Eboracum. The vale of York, in the middle of which the ancient Eboracum was built, contains a large portion of the best land in Yorkshire, and was particularly well suited to become the seat of a flourishing agricultural colony. The rivers were full of fish; and the climate was, as it still is, amongst the healthiest in Britain. The country districts around the city were no doubt peopled by Roman colonists, and all the arts of life are very likely to have been as fully developed at York as in other provincial capitals. Alcuin speaks of Eboracum as a second Rome, the Palatium and Praetorium, that is, the seat of justice and of dominion, in Britain. He also describes it as a great emporium, and place of trade, by sea and land. For many ages it was the principal, if not the only place of trade in the north of Britain, and it was to this circumstance that it owed its early greatness, quite as much as to its military strength and importance. No port in Britain, except London, was better situated than Eboracum for the trade in copper, lead, corn, wool, hides, cattle, and slaves, the chief articles of export sought by the Romans. There were also manufactories of earthenware and probably of glass in the neighbourhood of York, and perhaps furnaces for the smelting of iron. A great forest, known as the Forest of Galtres, "the dwelling of the Gael or Celts," extended from the immediate neighbourhood of Eboracum northward, furnishing abundant supplies of fuel, and also game and skins, the products of the chase.

Amongst the Roman emperors who are known to have visited the city of York were Hadrian, who reigned from A.D. 117 to 138; Septimius Severus, A.D. 193 to 211; Caracalla, A.D. 211 to 217; Constantius, A.D. 305 to 306; and Constantine the Great, A.D. 306 to 337. The last of these was proclaimed emperor at Eboracum. At the time of Hadrian's visit the Roman dominion in Britain had been considerably shaken by insurrections amongst the Brigantes, the Caledonians, and other powerful British tribes. In order to maintain the Roman authority, Hadrian constructed a very extensive system of fortresses and of military roads, extending through the greater part of Britain, especially through the northern provinces. Several of these roads, or branches connected with them, were united at the city of Eboracum, from which point they formed a safe and easy communication with the eastern and western shores of Britain, at the mouths of the Abus or Humber, and of the Ribble and the Dee; with both the extremities of that great military wall which Hadrian constructed across the northern part of the island, from the mouth of the river Tyne to the Solway Frith; and southward to London, the coast of Kent, Caul, and Rome.

In the reign of Antoninus Pius, A.D. 138 to 161, the Brigantes again rose in insurrection, being supported by the Caledonians north of the Wall. The Brigantine insurgents were suppressed, after numerous battles, by Lollius Urbicus, who ultimately succeeded in restoring tranquillity in Britain, and fortified the upper isthmus from the Forth to the Clyde. But that position was not long retained by the Romans. Not many years later the state of affairs in Britain had again become so dangerous, that the Emperor Septimius Severus found it necessary to cross over into Britain, A.D. 204, with his two sons Caracalla and Geta, for the purpose of re-establishing the shaken authority of Rome. He remained at Eboracum for a considerable time, and there collected a large Roman army, at the head of which he advanced into Caledonia, overrunning the more open and level portions of the country, on the southern and eastern coasts of Scotland, and compelling the Caledonians to retire into the rugged mountain ranges, forming the north-western angle of Britain. For a while the emperor, having overcome the enemy in the open field, supposed that all effectual resistance was vanquished, and at the end of the campaign he returned to Eboracum in triumph. But scarcely had he marched southward when the Caledonians issued from their concealments in the moors, glens, and forests, and soon after the arrival of Severus at York, he had the mortification to learn that the people of the whole of North Britain were again in arms. The emperor's health had suffered severely in this northern campaign, in which the Roman army sustained, as well as inflicted, enormous losses. His illness increased rapidly, and he died soon after at Eboracum, partly from the mortification of defeat, partly from disease, and breathing out murderous threats against the Caledonians, on whom he urged his two sons to wage a war of extermination. His sons almost immediately removed from Eboracum to Rome, to plot for the favour of the army, and to plan each other's destruction; and there it was that Geta, the better of the two, was murdered by the guards of Caracalla, his brother, almost in the presence of his mother. According to Spartian, the Emperor Severus, after his first campaign in Caledonia, greatly strengthened the rampart from sea to sea, originally erected by the Emperor Hadrian; but it has been shown by the Rev. Mr. Hodgson, the historian of Northumberland, and by one of the most learned of the many able writers whom York has produced-the Rev. Charles Wellbeloved - that the most important parts of the Roman wall, if not the whole, were erected by the Emperor Hadrian, and that there is little authority for believing that Septimius Severus did anything to it, beyond repairing the injuries sustained after the departure of Hadrian from Britain. A natural hill in the immediate neighbourhood of York still bears the name of Severs Ho, or the hill of Severus; and there was a tradition that the body of Septimius Severus was there consumed on the funeral pile. The ashes of the emperor are said to have been conveyed to Rome, in a porphyry or an alabaster vase, for interment, in an imperial sepulchre, by the Appian Way. The Emperor Constantius Chlorus also died at York in A.D. 306. He had come over into Britain to suppress the insurrection of Carausius and Alectus, the former a naval chief of Menapian origin, the latter his minister, and afterwards his assassin. Constantius was succeeded by his much more celebrated son, Constantine the Great, A.D. 306 to 337, who first publicly proclaimed himself a believer in the Christian religion, and made Christianity the established religion of the Roman empire. It was long contended that Constantine was born at Eboracum, and that he was thus a native of Britain; and it was also asserted that his mother, the Empress Helena, was the daughter of a British chief or king; but modern investigations have destroyed the belief in both these traditions. There is no doubt that the Roman army first saluted Constantine as emperor at York, on the death of Constantius. About this time the Roman empire was divided into four praefectures, namely, those of Italy, Gaul, Illyria, and the East. Britain was included in the praefecture of Gaul, and was subdivided into three parts or principalities - namely, Britannia Prima, or the country in the south of Britain, the chief town being Londinum, or London; Britannia Secunda or the country of the west, of which Isca Colonia, or Silurum, afterwards known to the Britons as Caer Leon, was the capital; and Maxima, or Flavia Caesariensis, the Roman dominion in the north of Britain, the capital of which, and of the whole province of Britain, was Eboracum or York.

Constantine the Great died ill the year 337, and though the Romans continued to hold sway in Britain for about seventy years after that event, their writers make few and scanty references to this island. The Sixth Legion remained in its old quarters at Eboracum until the final abandonment of Britain by the Roman armies. The Ninth Legion was also stationed at York, but it is supposed to have been early dissolved as a separate force, and incorporated with the sixth. The Second Legion, long transferred from Eboracum to Isca Silurum, had by this time been removed to Rutupiae, or Richborough, in Kent, to guard the passage of the channel.

The Roman coins found and preserved at York extend over a period of about 400 years, and form historical evidence of the presence of the Romans at Eboracum during the greater part of that period. The coins commence a few years previous to the invasion of Britain by the Romans, and continue to within a few years of their final retirement from this island. The first coins of the series are those of the Emperor Augustus, which we may date about thirty years previous to the Christian era, as that was the time when he was rendered secure in the possession of the imperial power, by his great victory over Antonius in the battle of Actium; and the coins found at York come down to the reign of the Emperor Gratianus, A.D. 383. The coins discovered at York show very few gaps in this long period of time, and they would no doubt have been quite complete, if anything like the care now given to the preservation of Roman coins and antiquities found at York had been bestowed in former times. The following are the coins of Roman emperors given in the list furnished in Wellbeloved's "Eburacum,"' which include most of those in the collection made by Mr. Longwith of York, between the years 1700 and 1727, for his son, the Rev. Dr. Longwith of Petworth, Sussex.

The series commences with coins of Augustus, who was born B.C. 61, and who became unopposed emperor, B.C. 31. Next are the coins of the Emperor Tiberius, his successor, A.D. 14 to 37. These are succeeded by those of Caligula, A.D. 37-41, and by the coins of Claudius, A.D. 41-54, in which reign Britain was invaded by the Roman armies and partially conquered. Then come those of Nero, A.D. 54-68, in whose reign Britain was nearly lost to the Romans by the insurrection of Boadicea. Next come those of Galba, A.D. 68-9, and of Otho and Vitellius, both of whom reigned for a few months, A.D. 69. These are followed by Vespasian, A.D. 70-79, and it was in the last year of this emperor's reign that the Brigantes, the ancient inhabitants of Yorkshire, were conquered by Agricola, and that their capital city, Aberach or Eboracum, was captured by that commander, and made the capital of the Roman province of Britain. Coins have also been found at York of the Emperors Titus, 79-81; Domitian, 81-96; Nerva, 96-98; Trajan, 98-117; and of Hadrian, 117-134. The Sixth Legion was brought over into Britain in the first year of this emperor's reign, and it is probable that the Roman walls of Eboracum were built about this time. In the following reign, namely, that of Antoninus Pius, A.D. 138- 161, there was a great insurrection of the Brigantes against the Romans, which, however, failed, as is shown, amongst other evidence, by the coins that and many succeeding emperors found at York, including those of his immediate successor; Marcus Aurelius, A.D. 161-180; of Commodus, in whose reign the Roman legions in Britain were in full revolt against their commanders, A.D. 180-192; and of Septimius Severus, A.D. 193- 211. This emperor resided at Eboracum for three or four years, and there died. His coins, and those of a long series of his successors, have also been discovered at York, including those of his son Caracalla, A.D. 211- 217, and his younger son Geta, who was murdered by his brother, A.D. 212; Elagabalus, A.D. 218-222; Alexander Severus, A.D. 222-235; Maximinus, A.D. 235-238; Gordianus III., A.D. 238-244; Philippus, 244- 249, whose name is found on some of the Roman mile-stones in this part of Britain; Decius, A.D. 249-252; Gallus, A.D. 251-253; Valerianus, A.D. 253-260; Gallienus, A.D. 260-268; Postumius, A.D. 267; Tetricus, A.D. 267-274; Diocletian, A.D. 287-305; Maximianus, A.D. 286-305; Carausius, A.D. 288; and Alectus, A.D. 304. The two latter were altogether usurpers, being in open revolt against the recognized Roman emperors. They were vanquished and succeeded by Constantius Chlorus, who came over to Britain, and died at Eboracum, A.D. 305-306. Coins have also been found of the Emperor Constantine the Great, A.D. 306- 337, whose name is inseparably connected with Eboracum, and of the Emperors Constans, A.D. 337-350; Magnentius, 353; Julian the Apostate, A.D. 361-363 ; Valentinianus, A.D. 364-365; and Gratianus, A.D. 367-383. A fine coin of Honorius, the last Roman emperor who claimed to rule in Britain (A.D. 395-423), was also found in the neighbourhood of York, and was long used on the signet ring of the abbots of Selby. Coins have also been found of several of the Roman empresses, including the Empress Helena, the wife of the Emperor Constantius, and mother of Constantine the Great, who though not of British birth was long believed to be so, and whose name is still preserved in the city of York and the neighbourhood, in the names of churches and fords of rivers, over which she was supposed to have a safety-giving influence.

The construction of the Roman walls of York was well described nearly 200 years ago by Dr. Martin Lister (one of the earliest members of the Royal Society, and a man equally distinguished by his classical learning and his love for science), in a paper addressed by him to that society. Speaking of the antiquities of this ancient city, in which he then resided, he says:-" Carefully viewing the antiquities of York, the dwelling of at least two of the Roman emperors, Severus and Constantius, I found a part of a wall yet standing which is undoubtedly of that time. It is the south wall of the Mint Yard, and consists of a multangular tower, which did lead to Bootham Bar, and part of a wall which ran the length of Coning, King Street, as he who shall attentively view it on both sides may discern.

"The outside to the river (Ouse) is faced with a very small squared stone of about four inches thick, and laid in levels like our modern brickwork. The length of the stones is not observed, but they are as they fell out in hewing. From the foundation twenty courses of these small squared stones are laid, and over them five courses of Roman brick. These bricks are placed, some length-ways, some endways, in the wall, and were called lateres diatoni; after these five courses of brick, other twenty-two courses of small square stones, as before described, are laid, which raise the wall some feet higher; and then five more courses of the same Roman bricks, beyond which the wall is imperfect and capped with modern building. In all this height there is not any casemate or loophole, but one entire and uniform wall, from which we may infer that this wall was built some courses higher, after the same order. The bricks were to be as " thoroughs," or, as it were, so many new foundations to that which was to be superstructed, and to bind the two sides firmly together, for the wall itself is only faced with small square stone, and the middle thereof filled with mortar and pebble.

"These bricks are about seventeen inches long, of our measure, about eleven inches broad, and two and a half thick. This, having caused several to be carefully measured, I give in round numbers, and we find them to agree very well with the Roman foot, which the learned antiquary Graves has left us, namely, of its being about half an inch less than ours. They seem to have shrunk in the baking more in the breadth than in the length, which is but reasonable, because of their easier yielding that way; and so, for the same reason, more in thickness, for we suppose them to have been designed in the mould of three Roman inches. This demonstrates Pliny's measure to be true. And indeed, all I have yet seen with us in England are of Pliny's measure, as at Leicester, in the Roman ruin there called the Jews' wall; and at Saint Alban's, as I remember; as well as with us at York.

"I shall only add this remark, that proportion and uniformity, even in the minutest parts of building, are to be plainly perceived, as this ruin of Roman workmanship shows. In our Gothic buildings there is a total neglect of measure and proportion of the courses, as though that was not very material to the beauty of the whole; whereas, indeed, in nature's works it is from the symmetry of the very grain whence arises much of the beauty."

Since Dr. Martin Lister drew the attention of the public to these ancient walls, nearly 200 years ago, their course has been carefully traced, notwithstanding the immense masses of comparatively modern buildings with which they have been covered in many centuries. The walls have been very clearly traced on three sides, and are thus described in Wellbeloved's "Eburacum.:"-"From the remains of three of the walls of Eburacum which have been discovered, we seem warranted in concluding that the Roman city was of a rectangular form of about 650 yards by about 550, inclosed by a wall and rampart mound of earth on the inner side of the wall, and perhaps a fosse without the wall, on the south-west side, extending from the multangular tower nearly to Jubbergate. The south-east wall crossing Feasegate, the new Market Street, Patrick Pool, then proceeding north-west of St. Andrew Gate, and terminating in or near Aldwark" (which means an ancient fortification in the Norse language); "the wall on the north-west extending from the multangular tower, by Bootham Bar, probably to the angle of the present city wall in the Deanery Garden. Of a fourth wall no remains are recorded to have been discovered, but it is highly probable that some exist in the rampart of the present city wall on the north-east, or that it was very nearly in the line of that wall. And if the interesting portion of the north-west wall discovered between the multangular tower and Bootham Bar, which has been so particularly described, may be considered as a specimen of the construction of the rest, we may conclude that there were four principal entrances corresponding with the four gates of a Polybian camp, four principal angular towers, and a series of minor towers or turrets, from twenty-four to thirty perhaps in number. "In addition to the Roman walls of York, and to a long series of Roman coins, extending over a period of about 400 years, the presence of these ancient lords of the world at Eboracum is shown by the remains of temples, altars, public baths, private houses, and an almost endless variety of objects connected with their public and private lives. Amongst objects connected with the religion of the Romans are the following:-An altar with an inscription, "To Jupiter, the best and greatest, and to all the friendly Household Gods and Goddesses, by Publius AElius Marcianus, Praefect of a Cohort, on account of the preservation of the health of himself and his family ; "an inscription on a large tablet, now deposited among the Roman remains in the museum of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society, from a temple dedicated to the holy god Serapis, erected from the foundation, most probably near the site where the tablet was discovered, by Claudius Hieronymianus, legate of the Sixth Victorious Legion; a group representing the rites performed in the worship of Mythras, an Eastern god, supposed to be identical with the sun, and connected with the worship of that glorious object; an altar to the Mother Goddesses, erected by a soldier of the Sixth Victorious Legion, in performance of a vow under which he had come; an altar dedicated to the Goddess Fortune, by Sosia Junonia, the daughter of Quintus Antonius Isauricus, of the Augustine Legion; another altar, supposed to have been erected at the time of the visit of Severus, with three figures upon it, which may perhaps represent the Emperor Severus and his two sons, Caracalla and Geta, associated with him in the empire. On one side of this altar three persons are represented sitting in a recess; on another side are two in a standing position; on the third side is one person in the same position; on the fourth side, which has been much injured, there are traces of an altar, and of a victim prepared for sacrifice. Another pedestal has been found inscribed to the Genius of Britain, and erected by Publius Nicomedes, a freedman of the Augusti, probably of Severus and his son Caracalla. Another votive tablet, to the Genius probably of Eboracum, is indefinitely dedicated to the genius of the place. There is also historical evidence of the existence at Eboracum, in the time of Septimius Severus, of a temple to Bellona-Spartian, in his life of that emperor, mentioning that he, on coming to the city after his campaign in Caledonia, desiring to offer sacrifice, was conducted first by a rustic soothsayer to the temple of Bellona, the goddess of war and was considered unfortunate in going to the palace followed by black victims. The position of the Praetorium, or imperial residence, is supposed to have been near the site of the present Bootham Bar, and the gate, lately discovered on the site of the present Bootham Bar, to have been the Praetorian gate. A large set of baths, extending over a very extensive area, has also been discovered near the river Ouse, outside of the walls of the Roman fortification. In these baths many of the tiles bear the inscription of the Sixth Victorious Legion, and others that of the Ninth or Spanish Legion, both of which were so long stationed in the ancient Eboracum. In addition to these remains of public buildings, some beautiful tesselated pavements, the remains of the floors of large public or private buildings, have also been discovered at York, together with immense quantities of ancient pottery, some articles of glass, and many personal ornaments. Amongst the most striking objects connected with the Roman garrison at York are some funereal monuments and inscriptions, recording the death and interment of officers, soldiers, and male and female attendants of the army. It was the custom of the Romans to bury their dead in tombs erected along the sides of their chief high roads. The road leading from Eboracum, first to Calcaria or Tadcaster, but ultimately to Mancunium and Deva in one direction, and to London, Gaul, and Rome, in another, would naturally be regarded as the principal road; and so numerous have been the sepulchral remains in that direction, that we are told it might not inappropriately be called the Street of the Tombs. But there were other places of burial along the other great lines of Roman road leading out of Eboracum. Among the funereal inscriptions discovered on the sides of these roads some are of great interest. Amongst these is one on a sort of theca or chest, which was prepared for himself, while living, by Marcus Verecundus Diogenes, of Biturix Cubus (supposed to be the present Bourges in France), who had emigrated to Britain, and had become sexumvir of the colony of Eboracum, where he died. Another funereal inscription was erected to the memory of Aurelius Superius, centurion of the Sixth Legion, who lived thirty-eight years, four months, and thirteen days, and to whom Aurelia Censorina, his wife, set up this inscription, dedicated to the gods of the Shades. Another inscription is to Lucius Duccius Rufinus, son of Lucius, of the Voltinian tribe of Vienne, standard-bearer of the Ninth Legion, aged twenty-eight, who is said to be buried here. There is also a touching inscription to Simplicia Florentina, "a most innocent being," who lived ten months, and to whom Felicius Simplex, her father, of the Sixth Victorious Legion, dedicated this inscription. Another imperfect inscription bears the name of Minne or Minna, as that of the person to whom the monument had been erected, and the letters D.M. show that she also had passed to what was supposed to be the dominion of the Manes, the gods of the Shades. With this notice of the funereal inscriptions, and of the declining empire of Rome, we pass away from the curious and interesting history of Eboracum, or York, during the Roman period.

Eoforwic, or York, as the Capital of the Anglian Kings of Northumbria. We next hear of York under the Anglian name of Eoforwic, as the capital of the Anglian kingdom of Northumbria, which extended from the banks of the Humber, as far north as the swords of the Angles and Saxons could cut a passage, into the ranks of the Celtic tribes. In the time of Bede, Northumbria is spoken of as extending to Abercorn on the river Forth; but this seems to have been an extreme, and probably a temporary northern limit, of the Anglian kingdom. The Anglian name of Eoforwic either means the "Camp of Eofor"-a corruption of Ebor; or it means the "Camp of the Wild Boar," Wic being the Anglian name for a camp, and Eofor that of a wild boar. This fierce animal was honoured by the Angles, as sacred to their god of war.

The Anglian history of York commences with Eadwine or Edwin, the first Christian king, for although we have the names of Ida, Ethelfrith, and one or two others of his pagan predecessors, we know nothing of them, in connection with the city of York, except that they conquered that city about fifty years after the retirement of the Romans from Britain, and that under their influence the Roman name of Eboracum, or possibly the British name of Aberach, which is mentioned by Nennius, a very early British writer, as still in use, was changed to Eoforwic, and sometimes to Eoforwic-Castre, a curious mixture of Anglian and corrupted Latin.

It appears from an inscription on a coin of King Eadwine, that he was crowned at Eboracum, or Eoforwic, probably about the year 617, ten years previous to the arrival of Paulinus in Northumbria. The inscription on this coin is "Eadwin Rex A.;" or Eadwin king of the Angles. On the reverse there is the name of the moneyer by whom the coin was struck, and the place at which it was minted. The name of the moneyer is Seeval, and the name of the place is On Eofor, from the city of Eoforwic, which already was the name given to Eboracum. The mint, which already existed at York, continued in existence for many hundred years, as is shown by a long succession of coins; and it was only in the reign of King William III. that the mint of York ceased to exist, being swallowed up by that of London, after having struck many hundred thousand coins, during many centuries.

We have no information as to the condition of the fortifications of York, either at the time when the Romans retired from Britain, about the year 420, or as to their state when the Celtic Britons were driven out of York by their Anglian conquerors, about 100 years later. There is no reason to believe that the more important military works erected by the Romans at York had then been destroyed, for they built with extreme solidity, and portions of their works are still in existence, after the lapse of 1500 to 1700 years. It was very difficult to destroy works so strong and solid as those of the Romans, in an age when the blasting power of gunpowder, or any stronger disintegrator than the pick-axe, was unknown; and in cases where there was no strong motive for destroying great lines of fortifications, they continued almost uninjured, for much longer periods of time than the 400 years which elapsed between the building of the Roman walls at York, and the conquest of that city by the Angles. The Roman walls at Chester, built in the same age, and of a less solid stone than that of the walls of York, are still in existence, and parts of the Roman work can be traced; and the original line of the Roman fortifications of Eboracum can still be ascertained. Extensive walls and fortifications were afterwards constructed by the Angles, the Danes, and the Normans, and even so late as the great civil war, when new fortifications were formed at York, in advance of the ancient walls. Most of the names of the bars and gates of York are of Anglian, Danish, or Norman origin, though that of Walmgate is supposed to be derived from the Latin word Valum.

The Anglian Minster, or Cathedral Church of York. The greatest work effected in the city of York by the Anglian kings was the building of the minster The Angles were not indeed the builders of the minster in its present form, which justly ranks amongst the noblest structures in the north of Europe; but they were the planners and builders of successive churches, some of wood, and others of stone, which stood on the ground covered by the present fabric. Eoforwic, or York, was the See of the great Northumbrian archbishopric, which extended from the Humber almost to the Forth, and even over the Sodor or southern islands of the western seas, of which the Isle of Man forms the chief. Whatever amount of architectural skill and royal liberality could be brought to bear upon the ecclesiastical buildings at York in this age, were certainly applied to them. Here also was formed a noble library, containing the works of Aristotle, Cicero, Virgil, Pliny, and of the Greek, Latin, and Anglican fathers of the church. These, indeed, were subsequently destroyed in internal wars amongst the Angles themselves, or in the desperate efforts made in resisting the invading Danes and Normans. But York was for several centuries the intellectual as well as the military capital of Britain. We know that it was visited by the Venerable Bede, whose works, dedicated to King Coelwolf, were copied and published there, and that it was the birth-place, and for many years the home of Alcuin, the tutor and librarian of the Emperor Charlemagne, as well as of Archbishops Egbert and Albert, the founders of the library of York, which was the first great library formed in Britain. There is very little historical evidence as to the condition of the Christian church at Eboracum or Aberach (as the Britons called it), in the ages which elapsed between the establishment of Christianity in Britain, and the other provinces of the Roman empire, by Constantine the Great, and the conquest of this part of Britain by the pagan Angles, the worshippers of Thor and Woden, about the year 500 of the Christian era. Three British bishops are mentioned whose names and sees were-
Eborius, bishop of Eboracum, Restitutus, bishop of London, and Adelfius, bishop of Isca (Silurum), or Caer Leon. It is the opinion of Lappenberg, that there was an archbishopric of York in those ages, and that the last British archbishop of York was expelled by the pagan Angles about the year 500, and took refuge in Gaul, amongst the Christian inhabitants of Brittany.

Nearly one hundred years after the conquest of this part of Britain by the pagan Angles and Saxons, Christianity was again introduced by Augustine the monk, who was sent into Britain for that purpose by Pope Gregory I. At that time there were only two well established kingdoms in Britain, under the dominion of the Angles and the Saxons. The first was the kingdom of Kent, governed by the Saxon king Ethelbert, and the second the kingdom of Northumbria, governed by Eadwine, one of the descendants of Ina, the first Anglian conqueror of the country extending from the Humber to the Tweed. Under the teaching of Augustine, Christianity was adopted by Ethelbert and the greater part of his subjects, the inhabitants of the Saxon kingdom of Kent; and a few years after, on the marriage of Ethelburga, the daughter of Ethelbert, to Eadwine, king of Northumbria, Augustine, seeing a favourable opportunity for the introduction of Christianity into that country, sent Paulinus, one of the most learned and devoted of his bishops, into Northumbria, in the train of Ethelburga, in order that he might introduce Christianity among the Anglian population of that kingdom. Canterbury, the capital city of the kingdom of Kent, became the seat and residence of Augustine, the first archbishop of Canterbury and of Kent; and York, or Eboracum, became the residence of Paulinus, the first archbishop of Northumbria. Kent and Northumbria were at that time independent kingdoms, and Pope Gregory made their dioceses equal in dignity.

Eadwine, the first Christian king of Northumbria, was baptized at York on Easter Day, April the 12th, A.D. 627, by Paulinus, in a small oratory or chapel built of timber, and standing on part of the ground on which the minster of York now stands. Eadwine soon afterwards began to build a large church, or minster, constructed of stone, in the immediate neighbourhood of the original church of wood, which he intended to inclose within the walls of the enlarged church. But Eadwine did not live to see the completion of this second minster; for scarcely were the walls raised when his kingdom was invaded by Penda, the pagan chief of Mercia, by whom his army was defeated, in a great battle fought at Hatfield, near Doncaster, in the year 633. After that battle, in which Eadwine himself was slain, the city of York was captured by the pagan Mercians, supported by an auxiliary force of Christian Britons, whom the arrogant claims of Augustine had induced to become the allies of the pagan people of Mercia, rather than of the Christians of Northumbria. York was taken by the united forces of the pagans and Britons; the minster was in a great measure destroyed; and Paulinus was compelled to take to flight, and to seek refuge in the Christian kingdom of Kent, taking with him Ethelburga, the daughter of the king of Kent, and the widow of Eadwine. He was there received with great kindness, and appointed bishop of Rochester, which dignity he held until the time of his death, about fourteen years afterwards. A few of the Christian inhabitants of York appear to have kept together, under the instruction of James the deacon, one of the followers of Paulinus, and the head of King Eadwine was afterwards recovered and buried within the walls of the minster of York, of which he was the founder.

About the year 635 the Christians were again triumphant in Northumbria, under the command of Oswald, king and martyr, the son of Ethelfrith. He succeeded in expelling both the Mercians and the Britons. Oswald is numbered amongst the founders of the minster of York, and no doubt was so in intention, if not in fact; but he was slain soon after in another great battle with the pagan armies of Penda. Although something may have been done towards the restoration or the completion of the minster of York by him, and probably also by his brother and successor, Oswy, who finally expelled the pagans from Northumbria, and who founded twelve churches, or minsters, in different parts of Northumbria, the cathedral of York still remained in a very unfinished and, indeed, ruinous condition. About this time extensive lands were settled on the Cathedral Church of York by Ulphus, a Christian sub-regulus of Deira, the southern part of Northumbria. The horn of Ulphus, given with the lands, is still amongst the curiosities of the minster.

The dilapidated condition in which the minster at York was found by Archbishop Wilfrid, so late as the year 669, is minutely described by an ancient chronicler, who states that the timbers of the roof were rotten, the walls decayed, and the windows without glass; that the interior of the building was exposed to the injuries of the weather, and that the birds of the air were the undisturbed inhabitants of the ruined edifice. No sooner, however, had Archbishop Wilfrid obtained the control, than he commenced an effectual repair of the minster. He strengthened the walls, renewed the woodwork of the roof, covered it with lead, protected the windows with glass, whitewashed the walls, and rendered the minster in every respect fit for the services of religion.

The founders of the minster of York, in Anglian times, are mentioned in an inscription drawn up by that accomplished scholar, the Rev. T. Gale, dean of York, which is affixed in the minster. Four persons of Anglian race are dignified with the name of founders of this magnificent building; the first, the date of whose movement in favour of that object is fixed A.D. 627, is Eadwine, king of Northumbria, the first founder; next, in the year 632, is Oswald, king of Northumbria, the second founder; third, in the year 669, is Wilfrid, archbishop of York or Northumbria, the third founder; and fourth, in the year 762, is Albert, archbishop of York, the fourth founder of the minster, and the first builder of the library, which was connected with the minster in Anglian times.

In the introduction to the "Fabric Rolls of York Minster," published by the Surtees Society, in the year 1858, the learned editor of that work states "that the annals of the minster may be said to date from the year 627, when Eadwine, the Saxon king of Northumbria, was baptized in that city by Paulinus. That ceremony took place in a church of wood, which, at the suggestion of Paulinus, the monarch ordered to be surrounded with a basilica of stone, of a square form. Fifty years, however, had not elapsed before the new church began to stand in need of repair. It had been constructed, in all probability, in a hasty and imperfect manner; and when Wilfrid ascended the chair of Paulinus in 669, he found the windows unprotected, and the roof unable to keep out the rain. To remedy these defects was his chief endeavour: the windows, which had formerly been filled with linen or boards, pierced with holes, he now glazed; he covered the roof with lead, and purified and furnished anew the interior of the church.

The first minster of York, of which Kings Eadwine and Oswald and Archbishop Wilfrid were the founders, was built under extras ordinary difficulties. Both these kings were killed in sanguinary battles with the pagans, from the country south of the Humber, within a few years after their commencement of this great work; and in the interval between the reigns of Eadwine and Oswald the pagans had possession of York, and raged with extraordinary fury against the Christian adherents of those kings. After the death of Eadwine every thing that was valuable and movable was removed from the minster, and conveyed by Paulinus, and the widow of King Eadwine, to Canterbury, where they both took refuge, and where Paulinus accepted the bishopric of Rochester from the king of Kent; which position he held to the time of his death. The progress of the building of the minster at York must have been very slow under these circumstances, even if the works were not destroyed by the pagan invaders. Now would it be very rapid under Archbishop Wilfrid, who very soon became involved in a violent contest for supremacy with King Egfrid, which ended in the expulsion of the archbishop from his diocese. Still, in the midst of all these wars and commotions, the first minster was ultimately finished, and the two kings, Eadwine and Oswald, and Archbishop Wilfrid, divide amongst them the honour of having been the first, second, and third founders of York minster.

Little mention is made of the cathedral or minster of York from the time when Egbert's library was presented to it, to the year 741, in which year it suffered severely from fire. Archbishops Egbert and Albert, the latter a learned native of York, who was promoted to the see in the year 767, took the minster down entirely, in consequence of the damage done to it by the fire. The latter prelate, with Enabled, who succeeded him, and the learned Alcuin, rebuilt the cathedral in the finest style of Saxon architecture. Archbishop Albert lived to finish the restored building, but died ten days after its consecration, on the 8th of November, 781. This structure is described by Alcuin as being of considerable height, supported by columns and arches covered by a vaulted roof, and provided with large windows. It had porticoes and galleries, and thirty altars adorned with various ornaments. The library which Eghert had founded was greatly augmented by Archbishop Albert, who added to it a valuable collection of books (MSS.) which he had purchased during his travels abroad in his younger days. With regard to the second Anglian minster built at York, the learned editor of the "Fabric Rolls of York Minster" observes:- "In the year 741, according to Roger Hoveden, there was a fire at York in which a monasterium was destroyed. Now, as the cathedral was in old times frequently called the monasterium or minster, I cannot but think that the chronicler intended to refer to that building. He was probably a Yorkshireman by birth, and he therefore applies to the cathedral the name which was usually assigned to it. Hoveden is in general an accurate historian, and I see no reason in this instance to question his authority. Now if this disastrous fire actually occurred, we must expect to find some record of the restoration of the temple which it destroyed. Accordingly we have a statement made by Alcuin, who was an eye-witness and aider of the work, that Archbishop Albert, who came to the see in 767, did actually erect a most magnificent basilica. Professor Willis is of opinion this basilica is not the minster, but some other church either in York or in the diocese. From this opinion, however, I must be permitted to dissent. If the monasterium destroyed was actually the minster, as I believe it to be, it is hardly conceivable that its restoration should be unrecorded, or that the archbishop should erect another splendid edifice while his cathedral was in ruins. Again, there is no church beyond the walls of the city of York which can possibly be identified with the basilica described by Alcuin; and within the city itself, which was then small, it is scarcely possible that there should exist at that early period, and at the same time, a cathedral church and a gorgeous basilica, in which there were no less than thirty altars. But there is a statement on the table of the benefactors to (founders of) the minster, which goes far to prove that these two buildings were identical; Albert is there placed among the five founders or builders of the cathedral. Would his name stand there if the basilica which he undoubtedly erected were, not the minster, but some other church, either in York or elsewhere in the diocese? It is my impression, therefore, that Archbishop Albert was actually the builder of that church, which was in existence at the Norman conquest. Of its shape and extent there is nothing now known. Among the fragments of early masonry which have been disclosed in the crypt, there are one or two which have in all probability belonged to Albert's church; but there is nothing whatever in the fabric of the present minster to connect it with the Saxon times, except, perhaps, a mutilated image of the Virgin, which is imbedded in the eastern wall of the presbytery."

Little is known of the history of the Anglian city of Eoforwic, or York, from the time when the minster was rebuilt by Archbishop Albert, to the time when the city was taken by the Danes in the year 867, which ended in the destruction of the Anglian kingdom of Northumbria, of which that city was the capital. A few extracts from the "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle," and from the "History" of Symeon of Durham, contain all that is recorded of the city of York in that dark and disturbed period of the history of the Anglian race. The following passages, in which York is mentioned, show how little there was of peace and order in that age.

Symeon of Durham's "History of the Kings of the Angles and Danes" commences with the year 732, and it is to him that we are indebted for the chief part of the little information that we possess as to this period.

A.D. 741. This year the monastery (or minster) in the city of York was burnt.
A.D. 758. Oswolf was slain by his servants at Machil Wagntone (supposed to be Market Weighton between York and Beverley).
A.D. 774. Alrid, king of Northumbria, was driven from his kingdom at York.
A.D. 790. Ethelred, having returned from exile, was again seized by Osrid and taken to the city of York, where he was made a monk.
A.D. 791. Elfwald was carried off from the city of York, and afterwards killed.
A.D. 795. Eanbald I., archbishop of York, consecrated Eadwulf, king of Northumbria.
A.D. 796. Eanbald II., archbishop of York, received the Pallium.
A.D. 796. Eardulf, recalled from exile, was made king, and was consecrated at York in the church of St. Peter at the altar of the blessed Apostle Paul, where the Anglian race first received the grace of baptism.
A.D. 867. In this year, the nineteenth year of (the life of) Alfred (the Great), the army of the pagan Danes marched from the country of the East Angles to the city of York, which is situated on the north bank of the river Humber. In that year a violent discord raged among the Northumbrians, so that all who loved contention and strife found it in those days. Osbryght, the lawful king of Northumbria, had been expelled, and a certain tyrant AElla had been made king; but the pagan invaders entering the kingdom, by divine counsel on the best part of the people, that discord was appeased. Therefore, the Kings Obryght and AElla having united their forces, with their joint armies marched to the city of York. On their approach the multitude from the Danish fleet took flight, whose fear being seen by the Christians rendered them more resolute. The battle was fought very fiercely on both sides, and both the Anglian kings were killed. Those who escaped made peace with the Danes.

In other words, the Angles of Northumbria were completely vanquished; their rival kings were both slain; and those who escaped or survived submitted to the authority of the Danes, who from that time became kings and rulers over the ancient city of Eoforwic, and over the Anglian kingdom of Northumbria.

Jorvic, or York, under the Danish Kings and Earls of Northumbria. The Danes who stormed and conquered York in the year 867, changed the name of the city from Eoforwic to Jorvic. Vic in the Norse language means "a port," or harbour, and Jor is either the Danish name for the river Ure, or Yore, or it is a corruption of the first part of Eoforwic, the Anglian name. Under the Danes York became the military capital of the Danelagh, or the portion of England subject to the Danish law and dominion, which extended over Northumbria and East Anglia.

We are informed by Symeon of Durham that, after the overthrow of the two Anglian kings Osbert and AElla, the Danes established their authority over York, super Eboracum, but that an interregnum or, in plain English, anarchy, prevailed in that city and the surrounding country, from the year 867 to the year 875. In that year, as we are told on the same authority, the Danes, under their chief Halfdene, overran the kingdom of Northumbria, and established themselves as rulers there, dividing and cultivating the soil. The reign of Halfdene, the first Danish king, commenced in the year 875, and ended in the year 882. He was succeeded by Guthrum, the Danish king conquered by Alfred the Great, and with whom Alfred divided the kingdom of England.

This Guthrum consented to be baptized, as one of the conditions of peace, and King Alfred acted as his sponsor at the font, giving him the fine name of Athelstane, or Ethelstane, meaning the noble stone or rock. Guthrum, or Athelstane, reigned at York from 882 to 896. One of the ancient gates of the city, known to the present time as Goodram Gate, was probably named after this celebrated Danish king. There has also been found a coin struck in the reign of this king, at York, and bearing the name which he received at his baptism from King Alfred. This coin, which was formerly in the museum of Ralph Thoresby, at Leeds, bore the following inscription:- On the obverse were the words "AEthelstan Rex," and on the reverse the name of the moneyer who struck the coin, which name was Abertee, and the place of coinage, which was On Eo.; that is, at Eoforwic, or York.

Under this king his new capital of Yorvic, or York, enjoyed a few years of peace, for we are informed that Guthrum, or Athelstane, maintained peace with Alfred to the time of his own death, which took place, according to Symeon of Durham, in the year 890. In the events of that year Symeon mentions that Guthrum, king of the Northumbrians, died. He, as above stated, was baptized; King Alfred acting as his sponsor, and giving him the name of Ethelstane.

After the death of Guthrum the Northumbrian Danes again plunged into war with Alfred the Great, and from that time to the Norman conquest the city of York, as well as the kingdom of Northumbria, was the scene of many furious conflicts between the rival races of the Angles, the Anglo-Saxons (as the followers of the victorious West Saxon kings-called themselves), and the Danes. Thus we are told that in the year 919 the Danish King Ingold conquered York. In 927, as we are informed by the "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle," Guthfrith (not Guthrum), king of Northumbria, was expelled by king Athelstane, the grandson of Alfred the Great. This King Athelstane, in the year 937, captured York from the Danes, and overran the whole of the north of England, defeating Olaf, king of the Danes, and Constantine, king of Scotland, in a great battle fought at Brumanburh. After this victory Athelstane took the title of king of the whole of Britain, as appears, among other evidence, from coins of that king struck at York soon after this great victory. These coins, one of which was formerly in Thoresby's Museum at Leeds, had on the obverse this inscription:-" Ethelstan Rex to. Brit. (totius Britanniae.)" On the reverse the inscription was " Regnald Mo. Eoforwic-Regnald, the moneyer, York." There were other coins of the same king, on most of which he was described as king of the whole of Britain, struck at the mints of Leicester, Chester, Derby and Winchester, as well as in London and at York.

But after the death of Athelstane and the murder of his successor, the Danes recovered possession of the city of York. Symeon of Durham, in his account of the events of the year 939, says " Ethelstan the king died: in this year Onlaf (a Danish chief) first came to York, which he took. Peace was afterwards made, and the boundary of each kingdom was fixed at Watlinga Street (Watling Street, the line of the old Roman road running across England, from the neighbourhood of London, either to Chester or Manchester). Edmund, the son of Althelstane, had the southern side; Onlaf; the northern.* Butt in the year 952 there were no longer any kings of Northumbria, for from that time the province was administered by earls," some of Danish and others of Anglian race. In the year 1013 the Danes again landed in great strength under King Sweyn, and subdued the greater part of England. He died at York:-"Suanus the Tyrant, suffering great torments, ended his life by a miserable death, and was buried at York." He was succeeded by his son Canute the Great.

The last great series of events witnessed at York previous to the Norman conquest, which reduced Dane, Angle, and Saxon to equal subjection, was that of the desperate battles between King Harold of England and King Harald of Norway, the latter aided by Earl Tostig, at Fulford, on one side of York, and Stamford Bridge on the other. A full account of these battles will be found in the first volume of this work. All that it is necessary to add here is, that the ancient city of Jorvic or Yorwic, to which we may henceforth give its more familiar name of York, was almost ruined, either by the battles, or in the repeated sieges to which they led. Previous to those events York was a city containing about 1600 burgage houses, and a population of at least 10,000 inhabitants; which was a greater population than then existed in any other English city, with the exception of London. In the course of these battles and sieges, and in the still more desperate sieges of York by the Normans under William the Conqueror, which followed the battle of Hastings, the city was pretty nearly reduced to a heap of ruins; and in one of the sieges, in which an attempt was made to expel the Normans, it was set on fire by the Norman garrison, to prevent an attack on their position, and the Anglian minster was burnt to the ground, along with the library and many hundred houses, churches, and other buildings.

York at the time of the Domesday Survey. The Record of the Domesday Survey gives us the first full and detailed account of the city of York, and shows its condition, both as it had been previous to the Norman conquest, A.D. 1066, in the reign of Edward the Confessor, and as it was twenty years subsequent to the battle of Hastings, A.D. 1084-86. It appears from this account that previous to the Norman conquest, York was a city containing 1418 inhabited houses belonging to the king, and 189 belonging to the archbishop. According to the usual proportion between houses and their inhabitants, which is about five persons to each house, this would give a population of at least 10,000 persons, exclusive of the Norman garrison in the towers and castles, and of the multitudes of strangers who attended the markets and fairs, at which nearly all the business of the country was in those ages carried on. At that time there was no other city or borough in England, except London, and possibly Winchester, Gloucester, and Lincoln, that contained anything like so large a population as York. The other towns of Yorkshire, if there were then any places in that county that deserved the name of towns, were all of them very small; Leeds, the largest of them, did not contain more than from 200 to 300 inhabitants, and we have no account of Hull. At that time a population of 10,000 persons formed a first-rate city, and such was the position of York for some hundred years preceding the Norman conquest, and for at least 400 years after. During the latter period it advanced considerably in population and wealth, increasing to at least 20,000 inhabitants; and, until the commencement of the eighteenth century, it was not merely the capital and bulwark in war, but also the largest commercial and trading city, in the north of England.

The immediate result of the Norman conquest, and of the long and numerous battles and disastrous sieges by which it was both preceded and followed, appears to have been to cause the destruction or flight of a large portion of the Anglian and Danish inhabitants of the city of York. This was followed by the transfer of the principal mansions of the city, and of most of the burgages, to Norman barons, knights, and military followers of the Conqueror, who formed a permanent garrison there. Immediately after the Norman conquest, two great castles were built by the Conqueror on opposite sides of the Ouse, so placed as to command the navigation of the river, and so constructed as to give the Norman residents and garrisons two strong citadels, within which they might retire, if assailed by an insurrection within the city, or by an enemy from without. The latter was a matter of great importance at a time when the Danes and Norwegians had the command of the sea, as well as of the great estuary of the Humber, and when their attacks were made, not only by land, but by water, up to the walls of the city of York.

The following is the account given of the city of York (civitas Eboracum) in the Domesday Records:-

"In the city of York (Eboraco civitate) in the time of King Edward the Confessor, besides the ward of the archbishop, there were six wards [seyre], one of which was destroyed when the [Norman] castles were built. In five wards there were 1418 inhabited mansions. The archbishop of York has yet a third part of one of these wards. In these wards no one but a burgess was entitled to any customs, except Merlesuain,* in one house, which is below the castle; except the canons of York wherever they reside; and except four judges, to whom the king granted this privilege by his writ, and that for their lives. But the archbishop was entitled to all customary payments in his ward. Of all the above mentioned mansions there are now [at the time of the Domesday Survey] in the king's possession [William the Conqueror], 391 inhabited houses, great and small, paying custom or rent; 400 uninhabited houses which do not yield customary payments, but some only 1d rent; 540 mansions so uninhabitable that they pay nothing at all. Frenchmen or Normans, Francigenae, hold 145 houses-making altogether,1476.

" Saint Cuthbert [that is, the church of Durham], has one mansion, which he always had, as many say, quit of custom; but the burgesses say that it was not quit in the time of King Edward, unless as to one of the burgages, and for this he had his own toll and that of the canons. Besides this the bishop of Durham has from the king's gift the church of All Saints and what belonged to it, and all the land of Uctred [earl of Northumberland], and the land of Ernuin, which Hugo the sheriff quit claimed to Walcherus, bishop of Durham, by the king's writ. And the burgesses who rent it say that they hold it under the king.

"THE EARL OF MORTON [one of the most powerful of the Norman followers of William the Conqueror], has there [at York] fourteen mansions, and two stalls in the butchery, and the church of Saint Crux. Osbern, the son of Baso, had these and whatever belonged to them granted to him; they had been the mansions of Conulfus the priest, one; Morulfus, one; Sterrus, one, Esnarrus, one; Gamel, with four drenghs [a Danish name for military followers or soldiers], one; Archil, five; Levingus, the priest, two; Turfin, one; Ligulfus, one.

"Nigel de Moneville has one house of a certain monier. Nigel Frossart has two houses of Modera, and holds them under the king; Waldin usurped two houses of Ketel the priest for one house of Sterre. Hamelin has one house in the City Ditch; and Waldin one house of Eanifulus, and another of Alwin. Richard de Surdetal has two houses of Turchil and Ranechil. Nigel Frossart usurped two houses, but said that he had restored them to the bishop of Constance [the chief justiciary of England].

"William de Percy has fourteen mansions of these men, Bernulphus, Gamelbar, Sort, Egbert, Selecolf, Algrim, Norman, Dunstan, Odolphus, Weleret, Ulchel, Godolant, Sonnate, Osbert, and the church of Saint Mary. Of Earl Hugh the same William [de Percy] has two mansions, of two bailiffs of Earl Harold [King Harold]. But the burgesses say one of them had not been the earl's, but the other had been forfeited to him. The church of Saint Cuthbert the same William also claims of Earl Hugo, and seven small houses, extending fifty feet in width, besides one house of a certain person, named Uctred. The burgesses declare that William de Percy included one house within the castle, after he had returned from Scotland. William himself denies that he had the land of this Uctred; but he affirms that the house was laid to the castle by Hugo the sheriff, the first year after its destruction (Anno 1070).

"Hugo, son of Baldric, has four houses of Adulphus, Hedned, Torchil, and Gospatric, and twenty-nine small mansions, and the church of St. Andrew, which he bought.

"Robert Malet (son of William Malet, the high-sheriff of Yorkshire) has nine houses of these men, namely, Tumme, Grim, Grinchetel, Erune, Elsi, and another Erune, Glunier, Halden, Ravenchel. Ernise de Buron [Byron] has four houses of Grim, Alwin, Gospatric, and the church of St. Martin; two of these mansions pay 14s.

"Gilbert Maminot has three houses of Meurdoc. Beranger de Todenai has two houses of Gamel [Carle] and Alwin, and eight houses at rent; a moiety of these are in the city Ditch.

"Osbert de Archis has two houses of Brun the priest, and his mother, and twelve houses at a rent, and two houses of the bishop of Constance.

"Odo Balistarius [the slinger, or cross-bowman] has three houses of Forne and Orme, and one of Elaf at a rent, and one church.

"Richard, son of Erfast, has three houses of Alchmont and Gospatric and Bernulf, and the church of Holy Trinity. Hubert de Montcanisi has one house of Bundus.

"Landric, the carpenter, has ten houses and a half, which the sheriff made over to him.

"In the time of King Edward the value of the city of York to the king was £53 a year [equal to £795 of modern money]; now it is £100 [£1500 of modern money] by weight [in weighed money].

"In the time of King Edward there were in the archbishop's ward 189 inhabited houses paying rent. At present there are 100 inhabited, great and small, besides the archbishop's palace and the canons' houses. The archbishop has as much [that is, the same rights] in his ward, as the king in his wards (seyris).

"Within the guild of the city there are four score and four carucates of land, and every one of them taxed as one house of the city, and they, with the citizens, did the three works for the king [Burgbote, Brigbote, and Expeditio: performed the three duties, together called Trinoda Necessitas].

"Of these the archbishop has six carucates, which three ploughs may till. These compose the farm belonging to his palace. This was not improved and let for rent in the time of King Edward, but here and there cultivated by the burgesses; it is the same now. On this land the King's pool destroyed two mills of the value of 20s., and overflowed one carucate of arable, meadow, and garden ground. Valued in King Edward's time, at 16s.; now, 3s.

"In Osboldvic there are six carucates of land belonging to the canons of York, where there may be three ploughs. The canons have now there two plough lands and a half, and six villeins, and three bordars, or peasants, having two carucates and a half; likewise, in Morton, the canons have four carucates of land, where there may he two ploughs, but it is waste; these two vills are one mile in breadth, and one in length. In Stockton there are six carucates, where there may be three ploughs; they are waste. Of these, three belong to the canons, and three to Earl Alan [the earl of Richmond]. These are half a mile in length, and half a mile in breadth. In these neither meadow nor wood.

"In Sabura there are three carucates, where there may be one plough and a half, but waste. Radolphus Pagenel holds it. The canons say that they had it in the time of King Edward.

"In Hewarde, Orme had one manor of six carucates of land, where there may be three ploughs. Hugo, son of Baldrie, has now one vassal and one plough, value in King Edward's time, 10s.; now, 5s. In the same ville Waltheof had one manor of three carucates of land; Richard now has it of the earl of Morton; value in King Edward's time 10s.; now, 10s. 8d. This vill is one mile long and half a mile broad.

"In Fulford, Morear [Earl] had one manor of ten carucates of land; Earl Alan now has it; there may be five ploughs. There are now in the demesne two ploughs, and six villeins have two ploughs there. It is in length one mile, and in breadth half a mile; value in King Edward's time 20s., now 10s. In the circuit of the city Torfin had one carucate of land, and Torchil two carucates; these two ploughs may till. In Clifton there are eighteen carucates of land subject to the tax, or geld; these nine ploughs may till; it is now waste; value in King Edward's time, 20s. Of these, Morcar [Earl] had nine carucates of land and a half to be taxed, which five ploughs may till. Earl Alan has now there two ploughs, and two villeins, and four bordars, with one plough. In it are fifty acres of meadow; of these, twenty-nine belong to St. Peter, and the rest to the earl. Besides these the archbishop has eight acres of meadow. This manor in King Edward's time was worth 20s.; the same now. The canons have eight carucates and a half; they are waste.

"In Rawcliffe there are three carucates of land to be taxed, which two ploughs may till; of these Saxford, the deacon, had two carucates with a hall (now Saint Peter and the value 10s.), and Torbar had (now the king) one carucate with a hall, and the value 5s.; now both are waste. There are three acres of meadow there. In the whole, half a mile long and as much broad.

"In Overton there are to be taxed five carucates of land, which two ploughs and a half may till; Morcar had a hall there. Earl Alan has now there one plough and five villeins, and three bordars with three ploughs, and thirty acres of meadow and wood pasture, one mile long and two furlongs broad. In the whole, one mile in length and half a mile in breadth; value in King Edward's time, and now, 20s.

"In Skelton there are nine carucates of land to be taxed, which four ploughs may till of these Saint Peter had three carucates in King Edward's time, of the value of 6s.; it is now waste. Torbar held two carucates of this land, with a hall and six oxgangs. Now one farmer (unus censorius) has it under the king; there are two ploughs and six villeins; value in King Edward's time 6s., now 8s.

"Two carucates and six oxgangs of the same land, belonging to Overton. Earl Alan has there one vassal with one plough. In the whole, half a mile in length and half a mile in breadth.

"In Morton there are to be taxed three carucates of land, which one plough may till. Archil held this land, and the value was 10s.; it is now waste.

"In Wichitun there is to be taxed one carucate of land, which one plough may till. Saxford the deacon held it, now Saint Peter has it; it was and is waste. There is a copse wood there; the whole length half a mile, and the breadth the same.

"These [persons] had sac, soc, toll, theam, and all customs, in the time of King Edward the Confessor, Earl Harold, Merlesuan, Vifenise, Turgod [the Lageman, Lawyer, or Judge], Tochi, son of Outi; Edwin and Morear [earls], upon the land of Ingold only; Gamel, son of Osbert, upon Cottingham only; Copoi upon Coxwold only; and Cnut, or Canute. Of those, whoever forfeited made satisfaction to no one but to the king and the earl.

"The earl had no right whatever in the church manors, neither the king in the manors of the earl; except what relates to spiritualities, which belonged to the archbishop in all the land of Saint Peter at York, Saint John (of Beverley), Saint Wilfrid (of Ripon), and Saint Cuthbert (of Durham), and the Holy Trinity. The king likewise hath not had any custom there, neither the earl, nor any other.

"The King has three ways by land [high roads] and a fourth way by water. On these all forfeitures for offences committed (such as assault or highway robbery), belong to the king and the earl, which soever way they go; either through the land of the king, or of the archbishop, or of the earl. "The king's peace, given under his hand and seal, if it shall have been broken, satisfaction is to be made to the king only, by twelve hundreds; every hundred, £8.

"Peace given by the earl, by whomsoever broken, satisfaction is to be made by six hundreds; every hundred, £8.

"If any one shall have been exiled according to law, no one but the king shall pardon him. But if an earl or sheriff shall have exiled any one from the county, they themselves may recall him and pardon him, if they will. Those thanes, who shall have more than six manors, pay relief of lands to the king only. The relief is £8.

"But if any thane shall have had only six manors, or fewer, three marks of silver shall be paid to the sheriff for the relief.

"But the burgesses, citizens of York, do not pay any relief."

Such was the city of York, the capital of Yorkshire and of the North, at the time when the Domesday Survey was made; that is, in the years 1084-86 twenty years after the Norman conquest. It is clear that it had passed through many and great changes. In the long and obstinate sieges to which it had been exposed, in which a large portion of the inhabitants had either been destroyed or driven from the city, the Anglian and Danish inhabitants, at least of the upper class, seem to have been superseded by chosen warriors of Norman blood. The result of this had been to bring together, within or around the city of York, a large and powerful class of noblemen and gentlemen of the conquering race, who along with the archbishop (who was an accomplished Norman gentleman and scholar), the canons of the cathedral, and the representatives of the great churches of Beverley, Ripon, and Durham, formed the aristocracy of the city and neighbourhood. For many subsequent ages the principal no and gentlemen of the county had mansions in the city of York, or in the immediate neighbourhood; and as the country became more settled, York became, in the north of England, what London was in the south; that is, the favourite resort of the nobility, the gentry, and clergy of the surrounding country. The Anglian and Danish inhabitants, though for some years depressed by the Norman ascendancy, gradually recovered by industry and commerce what their forefathers had lost in war. York, like all other cities in England, having once been subdued by the Normans, was freed, by their complete military and naval organization, from all danger of being successfully attacked by any foreign enemy. Subsequent to its complete conquest by the Normans that was a misfortune that never happened to the city of York; for though frequently assailed, in the numerous civil wars during the period which followed the Norman conquest, it was never successfully attacked by any foreign force, and never even seriously threatened, except, on one occasion, by the victorious armies of Robert Bruce.

Although little is known in detail of the progress of York during the two hundred years that followed the Norman conquest, that progress appears to have been very considerable. No better proof of this can be adduced than the fact that the Jews, who were at that time the only great capitalists of Europe, sought and obtained permission to settle there. It was only in large and flourishing cities that these enterprising capitalists settled; and the picture drawn by Sir Walter Scott of the wealth and the intelligence of "Isaac of York " is probably no exaggeration, either of their wealth or of their mental superiority. They were in communication with the Jews in every part of Europe, and were able to bring together abundance of capital, according to the wants of the time, wherever it could be employed with advantage. According to the custom of that, and of long succeeding ages, they had a Jewry, or a separate quarter of their own, where they lived, and kept themselves and the Christians free from the pollution which, at that time, was supposed to attend on the friendly social intercourse of Jews and Christians. The street in York still known as Jubbergate is supposed to have been the Jew Burg, or residence of the original Jews of York. Unfortunately, their wealth excited envy, and they became the victims of intense and cruel persecution, which did not cease to rage against them until they had been driven not only from York, but from London and all other English cities, and from England itself, first by popular fury and fanaticism, and afterwards by an unjust and impolitic law of the reign of King Edward I. The circumstances which preceded and attended the expulsion of the Jews from York form a painful chapter in the history of religious persecution. Their wealth excited envy; and the debts owing to them by many of the Christian population, to whom the Jews had lent money at rates of interest proportioned to the badness of the security, caused them to have many enemies. In addition to this, the ordinary fanaticism of that age was aggravated by the excitement produced by the Crusades. Under these circumstances it was easy to arouse the popular fury, and a hermit noted for his fanatical zeal led the attack, which commenced on the 16th March, 1190, by an assault on the house of Benet, the chief Jew of York, whose house was plundered and his wife and children slain. After this commencement of the massacre, the Jews, 500 in number, and including many women and children, fled to the castle, and succeeded in obtaining refuge in that strong fortress, where after many days' resistance they were overpowered, and the greater part of them murdered by the fanatical populace. Their debtors effectually cleared off their obligations, by burning all the documents given in security for their debts, in the nave of the cathedral. King Richard I., who was at that time abroad, commanded that the most signal punishments should be inflicted on the murderers of the Jews, and a court of inquiry was held in the city of York. Too many, however, were implicated in the crime for any to be convicted, and though heavy fines were inflicted on the richer citizens, none of the murderers were punished in proportion to their guilt. This destruction of the richest capitalists of the city must have had a very mischievous effect on the trade and commerce of York, of which they were the mainspring. For a time the Jews were permitted to return, but few would be disposed to avail themselves of that dangerous privilege, and a few years later the whole of the Jews were banished from England by King Edward I., to the great injury of the trade of the country, which at that time stood greatly in need both of their capital and of their commercial intelligence.

The Early Municipal and Mercantile Charters of York. The municipal and commercial charters granted to the citizens of York by the Norman kings, commence with the reign of King Henry I., the youngest son of William the Conqueror. These charters are probably merely confirmations of much older charters, granted by the Danish and Anglian kings of York, and possibly even of rights enjoyed under the Roman emperors. Every Roman city of any rank or dignity possessed important civic rights, and a good many of the privileges enjoyed by the most ancient cities of Europe may be traced to the Romans. Most, however, of the rights existing in the older English cities were known by Anglian, Saxon, or Danish titles, and originated in those times. We have no copy either of the charters granted by Henry I. Or Henry II., or of that of Richard I., to the citizens of York; but these charters are very distinctly referred to in the charters of King John, and of his son Henry III., and they probably included the greater part, if not the whole, of the valuable rights and franchises contained in the two latter charters. The charter of King John is entitled a confirmation of the charters of the citizens of York, and is as follows in substance:-
"John, by the grace of God, king of England, &c. Know that we have conceded [or confirmed] to our citizens of York, all their liberties, laws, and customs, and that more particularly we have confirmed to them their Guild Merchant, and their Hanses in England and Normandy, with freedom from lastage [or tonnage] through the coasts of the seas, as fully, or more so, than they ever enjoyed them in the time of King Henry, the ancestor of our father. And we will and firmly command that they shall have and hold the same liberties and customs, with all liberties pertaining to their said Guild Merchant and Hanse, as well and peacefully, as fully and quietly, and if possible, more fully and more quietly, than they had and held them in the time of the aforesaid King Henry our father, as is reasonably shown by the charter of our aforesaid father, and by the charter of our brother, King Richard I. Also, Know that we have conceded, and by our present charter confirmed to all our citizens of York, freedom from toll, lastage, wreck, pontage, passage, and trespass, and from all customs, throughout the whole of England, Normandy, Aquitaine, Anjou, Picton, and through all the ports and coasts of the sea of England, Normandy, Aquitaine, Anjou, and Picton. Wherefore we will and firmly ordain that they shall hence be quit from these charges, and we forbid that any one should disturb them in these matters, under a forfeiture of £10 [£150], as is shown and commanded in the charter of our above brother, King Richard: the Witnesses being Galfridus Plantagenet, archbishop of York, Gaufridus the son of Peter, earl of Essex, and others. Given by the hand of S. Welles, archdeacon, and of John de Gray, at York, on the 25th March, in the first year of our reign" (1199-1200).

It must not be supposed that King John granted all these freedoms and exemptions to his citizens of York, without obtaining a handsome equivalent. In return for this charter they agreed to pay to the king, yearly, the sum of £160 of the money of that time, which was equal in value, in the money of the present time, to somewhat more than £2000 a year, or fifteen times as much as the nominal value of money in the reign of King John. This arrangement continued in force for nearly two hundred years; that is, until the reign of King Richard II., who not only confirmed this and all other charters, but also agreed that the sum of £100, equal to £1500 a year, out of the rent above stated, should be applied by the lord mayor and citizens, to the repairing and the maintaining of the bridges within the city of York. All the rights which King John had confirmed to the citizens of York, were again confirmed to them by his son and successor, King Henry III., in more numerous words, and with some additions to the rights conceded. A curious and characteristic addition to the rights granted to the citizens of York in Henry III.'s charter, was that it provided that their dogs should no longer be subject to the disagreeable operation of expeditation, or the cutting off of the front claw or joint. This was done under the old Forest laws, lest the dogs should hunt and pull down the king's deer, and other royal animals of chase. As the limits of the ancient forest of Galtrees, which must have been full of game of all sorts, came within one mile of the walls of York, it would no doubt be a great advantage, both to the citizens and to their dogs, to be free from this disagreeable process. This same charter also granted to the citizens a much more important privilege; namely, that no vicecomes, or high sheriff, and no bailiff except their own, should intermit or interfere with any citizen of York, within the liberties of that city, in any matter connected with their former rights. The witnesses of this agreement were Guydo de Lezingnan, and William de Velentia, who are described as the brothers of the king (being his brothers-in-law); John Maunsell, praepositus of Beverley, and the king's favourite secretary; Master William de Kilkenny, the archdeacon of the convent; Bertram de Criol, Gilbert de Segrave, Roger de Thurkelby, Edward de Weston, Bartholomew Pethey, Johan Suband, Nicholas Mauro, Ranulf de Bukepuz, Johan de Geres, and others. This de St. charter was signed at Westminster, on the 26th February. Amongst other rights it gave the citizens the right of seizing their debtors, and of defending themselves by appeal to the oaths of thirty-six of their fellow citizens, except in cases of pleas of the crown.

Subsequent to the reign of Henry III., the citizens of York obtained many other charters from the crown, of which the following are amongst the most important-Charters, 5th Edward II., 1311-12; 10th Edward II., 1316-17; 1st Edward III., 1327-28; 2nd Richard II., 1378-79; 15th Richard II., 1391-92; 19th Richard II., 1395-96; 1st Henry IV., 1400; 2nd Henry V., 1414-15; with many other charters, coming almost to modern times, and relating to all manner of subjects. The general effect of these charters was to confer on the citizens of York all the municipal and commercial rights enjoyed by the citizens of any other city in England, and even to give them certain rights, with regard to foreigners (as all non-citizens were called), which were neither for their own advantage, nor for that of the community at large. Thus, for instance, they obtained the power of passing such bye-laws as the following: "That no person or persons who are common sellers of woollen cloth, or linen cloth, or of any other manner of wares, at that time after this present proclamation, shall put to sale any of their cloth or wares to any stranger or strangers within this city (which is commonly called foreign bought and foreign sold); against the ancient grants, statutes, and ordinances of this city, except in the Thursday market of the said city, when they may put up their said cloth for sale without any penalty or contradiction in that behalf."

Notwithstanding occasional mistakes, like the above, as to the best method of obtaining the greatest amount of trade from the non-citizens of York (which included all the rest of the world), York continued to be by far the most flourishing place of trade in the north of England, at least down to the time of the Tudor kings. The first severe competition to which the ancient capital of the north was exposed, was that which it experienced from the enterprising merchants and shipowners of Hull. This competition began to be considerable, even before the reign of King John. This is clearly shown by comparing the amounts paid by Hull and York to a tax of one fifteenth, called a quinzieme, raised in the 6th year of King John, 1205. It was chiefly a tax on goods and merchandise, and to that the citizens of York paid only £175, whilst the burgesses of Hull paid £344. At the same time a considerable trade had sprung up at Grimsby, Hedon, Ravenspurn, Barton, Selby, and other places, on the Humber. This began to withdraw from York a portion of the trade and commerce which it possessed exclusively in earlier times, Hull taking the lion's share.

The Norman and the English Restorations and Reconstructions of York Minster. We hear little of the minster of York from the Anglian times until the wars and sieges of the Norman conquest. In the year 1069 the Northumbrians or Angles, aided by the Danes, attempted to overthrow the power of the Norman conqueror, and to seize upon York. The garrison, in defending their position, set fire to several houses in the city, and a brisk wind blowing towards these houses, carried the flames to the cathedral, which, together with its valuable library, was burnt to the ground. William the Conqueror soon afterwards made Thomas, a canon of Bayeux: in Normandy who was his chaplain and treasurer, archbishop of York, and to him restored the revenues of the see, in the year 1070. This Norman archbishop was one of the most accomplished men of his time, having travelled through Germany and Spain, and being acquainted not only with classical literature, but with the literature of the Saracens or Moors, who were at that time far in advance of the Christians in every branch of learning. By the exertions of Archbishop Thomas the ruined cathedral soon rose again, larger and more beautiful than before.

The learned editor of the "Fabric Rolls of York Minster" says that "Archbishop Thomas' church is supposed to have consisted of nave, aisles, and transepts, the aisles and transepts ending probably in apses. There was a central tower of magnificent proportions, and probably there were two towers at the west end of the church. The choir erected by Archbishop Thomas, judging from the remains of it in the crypt, must have been of a very substantial character."* It is on account of this entire rebuilding of the minster, and of his having come forward at a period of extraordinary depression and desolation to save this ancient and noble fabric from utter ruin, that Thomas, the first of the Norman archbishops of York, has obtained the title of one of the founders of the minster. He is one of the five to whom that honourable title is given in Dean Gale's inscription, the five being, Kings Eadwine and Oswald, Archbishops Wilfrid and Albert, in the Anglian period; and last, but by no means least, Thomas, the first Norman archbishop of York.

No alteration was made in Archbishop Thomas' church till the year 1172, when Archbishop Roger began to build a new choir. This is said to have been rendered necessary by a fire which occurred in 1137; but the editor of the "Fabric Rolls" says that there are some grave reasons for doubting the fact, and that it is quite enough to suppose that Archbishop Roger, a new and active prelate, found the old choir to be inconveniently small, and on that account began to reconstruct it. "The cathedral was now a complete specimen of the Norman style of architecture; but a new style came into favour with the new century, and soon extended to the Norman minster of York. The innovator was that munificent prelate, Archbishop Walter Grey. To him the church at York was indebted for the south transept, with its noble and graceful proportions. This work was probably completed by the year 1240, and its erection was immediately followed by the building of the north transept, which, according to Stubbs, was reared at the sole expense of John Romanus, the treasurer of the minster. That officer is also said to have rebuilt the southern tower; as, however, there are still traces in it of Norman masonry, it is probable that Romanus merely refaced it, putting in at the same time new windows, to make it harmonize with the recently erected transepts.

"The credit of commencing that glorious work, the rebuilding of the nave, is given to another John the Roman, who was archbishop of York. He was the son of the treasurer who had done so much to renovate the church, and he inherited the taste and energy of his sire. The first stone of the new nave was laid by the archbishop in the year 1291. The erecting of a building so vast and so magnificent as the present nave, was no ordinary undertaking. The chapter of York, however, were resolved to complete what they had begun, and they were most generously assisted by others. In 1296 they imposed upon their prebends and dignitaries a tax of two-sevenths; in 1298 the chapter sent their sub-chanter, Roger de Mar, to the court at Rome, and he was there directed to secure the permission of the pope for the imposition of a tenth and a third upon the non- resident members of the chapter. The archbishop, John Romanus, laid the foundation stone of the nave, and in all probability contribute largely to the fabric fund. Archbishop Corbridge granted an indulgence of forty days on behalf of the same work. His successor, William Greenfield, made a similar concession, and gave, amongst other donations, the munificent sum of 500 marks, equal to £5000 of modern money, to the church. Archbishop Melton, who succeeded Greenfield, was a most generous benefactor to the minster. He issued more than one brief on behalf of the fabric, and gave 500 marks to further the progress of the works. In 1338 they were far enough advanced to allow several of the windows to be glazed, and in that year the great west window was filled with glass, at the expense of Archbishop Melton, who gave 100 marks for that purpose. In the year 1346 the stonework of the nave was complete, but that of a ceiling of wood was still wanting. This defect was not supplied till the year 1355, when the munificence of Archbishop Thoresby enabled the chapter to complete their magnificent nave.

"Simultaneous with the nave proceeded the building of the chapter-house. As it is built in the flowing decorated style of architecture, it could scarcely have been completed before the middle of the fourteenth century. On the parapet of that building appear several bears, which it may fairly be presumed are the device of Francis Fitz-Urse, who became treasurer of the minster in 1337. It may therefore be inferred that Fitz-Urse took a considerable part in the erection of the chapter-house.

"The restoration and reconstruction of the choir was undertaken by Archbishop Thoresby, to whom we are indebted for the conception and the commencement of that glorious work. The foundation stone was laid in 1361, but at least thirty years elapsed before the whole was completed. From this archbishop the chapter received the most munificent aid. He gave up to them his manor house at Sherburn, and his purse was always open for that object. It was Thoresby who roofed the new nave, and he was, so to speak, the builder of the choir. His successors, Scrope and Bowet, nobly followed his example, and numberless other instances might be given, in which the archbishops of York have evinced their care for their metropolitan church.

"There were also many other benefactors, less noted indeed in position, but hardly less distinguished in their liberality. The famous bishop, Walter Skirlaw, was a large contributor towards the renovation of the lantern; Haxey may be called the builder of the library; and to Dean Andrew the church was indebted, amongst other things, for the battlements of the choir. Indeed, so widely diffused was the spirit of sacrifice and the wish to decorate one of the noblest of God's temples, that there were few wills in which there was no bequest to the fabric. The canons, especially, were lavish in their testamentary gifts. To the family of Scrope the minster was under the greatest obligations. Nor must we forget two other houses, Percy and Vavasor, which strove with each other in their endeavours to beautify God's house." The restoration and renovation of York minster was perfected and completed during the reigns of the Plantagenet kings, and forms one of the most glorious works of that age.

Parliaments and Political Negotiations at York. York was the scene of all manner of public events connected with the political relations of England and Scotland during the times of the Plantagenet, the Tudor, and the Stuart kings. In the year 1160, Kings Henry II. of England and Malcolm of Scotland met at York, to arrange the terms of peace between the two countries. In the year 1174 Henry II. also held a meeting at York, with King William of Scotland, after the latter had been taken prisoner in an incursion into England, and had been ransomed on very severe conditions. In the year 1200 King John had a meeting with William of Scotland at York, at which it was arranged that Richard and Henry, the sons of King John, should in the space of nine years marry Margaret and Isabel, the daughters of William of Scotland. In the reign of Henry III., in the year 1220, Alexander the king of the Scots agreed to marry Johanna, a sister of King Henry III., and the marriage was afterwards celebrated at York.

The wars between England and Scotland, during the reigns of the three Edwards, induced them to make York their capital, sometimes for long periods of time, and frequently to hold their courts and Parliaments there. In the year 1298, King Edward l. summoned one of the earliest Parliaments to meet at York, in which the commons of the realm were represented, and in which the king, besides confirming Magna Charta and the great Charter of the Forests, engaged not to raise taxes without the consent of the representatives of the freeholders and burgesses of the kingdom. Another Parliament was held at York by Edward I., in the year 1299, and from that time to the close of his reign he spent much of his time in this northern capital of England, from which he could carry on his schemes of conquest against Scotland more successfully. For three or four years the courts of King's Bench and Exchequer met at York, and not in London, in order that they might be nearer to the king's person; and it was not until the year 1306 that they were removed back to London, it being then supposed that Scotland was effectually conquered. In the following year all Scotland was again in arms, and Edward I. died at Burgh-upon-Sands leading his last attack against that country.

In the next reign, King Edward II. fled to York after the defeat of his army at Bannockburn, and there he called together a great council and Parliament to consult as to what should be done to restore the shattered fortunes of the kingdom. In the same year the national records and the judges of the King's Bench were again removed from London to York, when they had a very narrow escape of being captured by Randolph, earl of Murray, one of Robert Bruce's ablest commanders, who advanced to the very gates of York, and was very near taking them, along with Queen Isabel, in that city. The archbishop of York of that day, hoping to rival the great deeds of Archbishop Thurstan, whose high spirit and skilful management had greatly contributed to the success of the English army at the battle of the Standard, fought in the reign of King Stephen, succeeded in bringing together an army at Myton-upon-Swale, about eleven miles from York, in the year 1320. There a great battle was fought, in which Nicholas Fleming, the lord mayor of York, who had headed the citizens, was slain with many of the citizens, and with so many of his clerical supporters, as to give to the battle the names of the White Battle, and of the Chapter of Myton.

In the following year, Thomas, earl of Lancaster, rose in insurrection against King Edward II. in the neighbourhood of York, but was defeated at Boroughbridge. Some of his principal supporters, including Lord Neville, Lord Clifford, and Lord Mowbray, were executed at York, while the earl of Lancaster himself was beheaded at his own castle of Pontefract. In the following year another powerful Scottish army marched into Yorkshire, and surprised Edward II. at Byland Abbey, about fourteen miles from York. John, earl of Richmond, was taken prisoner, and the king himself narrowly escaped, the swiftness of his horse enabling him to reach the city of York.

After the death of Edward II. his youthful, but most warlike son, Edward III., assembled the whole military force of his kingdom at the city of York, supported by a formidable body of mercenaries from Hainault and Brabant. These foreign forces were excessively turbulent and licentious, and conducted themselves with so much violence towards the citizens of York, that they were compelled to give them battle. This they did with so much spirit as to restore peace within the city, and to enable the youthful king to lead his army against the Scots. It was some time, however, before he could find the enemy; and fearing that the Scots might surprise the city in his absence, he addressed a strong precept to the lord mayor and bailiffs of the city of York, commanding them to restore and strengthen the walls, ditches, and towers, and to put the city in a state of complete defence. The following is the order:-

TO THE MAYOR AND BAILIFFS OF YORK.
"The King to his well beloved the mayor and bailiff's of his city of York, greeting. Since the Scots, our enemies and rebels, have thought fit to enter our kingdom in hostile manner near Carlisle, with all their power, as we are certainly informed; and to kill, burn, destroy, and inflict other mischiefs so far as they are able; we have drawn out our army, in order, by God's assistance, to restrain their malice, and to that end turn our steps towards that country and those enemies.
" We-considering that our aforesaid city of York, especially whilst Isabel, queen of England, our most dear mother, and our brother and sisters abide in the same, ought to be more safely kept and guarded, lest any sudden danger from the enemy's approach should happen to the said city, or fear or danger to our mother, brother, and sisters, which God avert, for want of sufficient munitions and guard-we strictly command and charge you, upon your faith and allegiance, and on [pain of] the forfeiture of everything that you can forfeit to us, immediately, on sight of these presents, without excuse or delay to inspect and overlook all your walls, ditches, and towers, and the ammunition proper for the defence of the said city, taking with you such of our faithful servants as shall be chosen for this purpose, and taking such order for its defence that no danger may happen to the city, by neglect of such safeguards.
"And we by these presents give you full power and authority to distrain and compel all and singular owners of houses, or fees, in the said city, or merchants or strangers inhabiting the same, by the seizure of their bodies or goods, to be aiding towards the security of the walls, bulwarks, or towers, and as you in your discretion shall think fit, to ordain for the making other useful and necessary works about it, punishing all those that are found to contradict or rebel against this order, by imprisonment or what other methods you think fit. Study therefore to use such diligence in the execution of the premises, that we may find it in the effect of your works, and that we may have no occasion from your negligence, should danger happen, to take severe notice of you."
" By the King.
"Dated at Durham, July 15th, A.D. 1327."

The danger thus feared soon passed away, and in a short time the armies of Edward III. became too formidable to be successfully attacked by Robert Bruce's feeble successor. But Edward and his court remained at York, and there the youthful king was married on the 24th January, 1328, to the beautiful Princess Philippa, the youngest daughter of William, count of Hainault and Holland, and of his wife, Jane de Valois, of the royal house of France. The marriage was celebrated in York Minster, Archbishop Melton, and Hotham, bishop of Ely, performing the ceremony. Never was there a happier marriage, and on this occasion "there was nothing," says Froissart, "but jousts and tournaments in the daytime, maskings, revels, interludes, with songs and dances, in the evenings, along with continual feasting for three weeks together."

Nearly twenty years later Queen Philippa, who had first appeared as a bride at York, came in a very different capacity to that city. In the year 1347 her husband, Edward III., and her son the Black Prince, being engaged in a great war in France, David Bruce, king of Scotland, led a formidable army into England, with which he endeavoured to advance to the walls of York. Philippa was then in York, and in the absence of her husband and son, collected all the forces of the northern counties, which advanced to Neville's Cross, near Durham, where they encountered, defeated, and captured the greater part of the Scottish army, including David Bruce, the Scottish king. In that warlike age the archbishop of York, William de la Zouche, commanded the second corps of the English army at the battle of Neville's Cross, and behaved very gallantly in the fight. "After the battle," says Drake, "the victorious queen returned to York with great joy and triumph, where soon after King David was delivered to her, by Sir John Copeland who took him prisoner; with much ceremony. The queen stayed at York till she had seen it strongly fortified, and then leaving the Lords Percy and Neville to the governance of the north, she returned to London, carrying her royal prisoner along with her, to present him to the king."

In the year 1389, the youthful King Richard II., the son of the Black Prince, who had many excellent qualities, in spite of his sad misfortunes and miserable end, visited the city of York. According to Knighton, the object of his visit was to accommodate some differences which had arisen betwixt the archbishop, the dean and chapter, and the mayor and commonalty of the city. The affair was settled to the great satisfaction of the citizens, and it was on this occasion that King Richard II. took his sword from his side, and gave it to be borne before William de Selby, as the first lord mayor of York.

The Progress of the Trade and Commerce of York under the Plantagenet Kings. Speaking of the city of York in the ages immediately following the Norman conquest, William of Malmesbury describes it as a large and metropolitan city, still bearing marks of Roman elegance, divided into two parts by the river Ouse, which receives on its bosom the ships of Germany and Hibernia. At that time the principal ports of Ireland were in the hands of the Northmen, who carried on an extensive trade, not only with Norway, but as far west as Iceland and Greenland, at the same time that the Germans traded with every part of the Baltic. We learn from the charter of King John that the citizens of York had a Hanse in that age, and no doubt traded with all the ports of the Hanse towns, which then held in their hands the greater part of the trade of northern Europe. The Merchants' Hall at York, "a fine old spacious building," says Drake, "stands near the point at which the Ouse and the Foss unite. The company of merchants trading there was long known as the Old Hanse Company. In the reign of Edward III., the great staple or monopoly in the trade of wool was established at York, from which port the chief trade in that article was carried on with the manufacturing districts of Flanders and Brabant. In that reign also, successful attempts were made by the king to induce many of the Flemish manufacturers to settle in England, and we have the names of the Flemings who established themselves at York, and who no doubt gave a strong impulse to a great branch of manufacture for which this part of England was so well adapted. They were William and Hanikin, or little John, weavers of Brabant. York, Beverley, and Ripon, seem to have been the places in which the woollen manufacture first flourished in the time of the Plantagenet kings; but about the time of the accession of the House of Tudor, the woollen manufacture began to flourish in all parts of the West Riding, and by the close of the seventeenth century the immense advantages afforded by a boundless supply of water-power and of coal, gradually transferred the woollen manufacture from the central and eastern divisions of Yorkshire, to the rising towns and villages of the West Riding."

The trade flourished in York down to the time of the Tudor kings and queens. In order to promote the prosperity of the city of Calais, which was then an English fortress, Edward III. established the staple or monopoly of importing English wool into that place, and gave to a few seaport towns and cities of England the exclusive right of exporting English wool to that great depot, from which it was afterwards sent to the manufacturing towns of Flanders and the Low Countries. The merchants of York had a considerable share in this staple, and were many of them members of this corporation. Thus in the year 1442, John Thrush, a great merchant who dwelt in Hungate, York, is styled "mayor of the staple of Calais," and also treasurer. In the year 1449, William Holbeck, mayor of York, is spoken of as a merchant of that staple. And in the year 1460 Sir Richard York, who was sheriff of the city for that year, and was one of the guests at Archbishop Neville's great feast, is called "mayor of the staple of Calais," though he was sheriff of the city of York at the same time. That the woollen manufacture also existed extensively at York in the same ages, appears from the fact that the weavers of York paid a very considerable yearly rent for their farm or privileges. The weavers and dyers of York are mentioned in the Close Rolls as early as the 2nd Henry III., 1217, and in the reign of Edward III. a number of Flemish weavers, as we have seen, were encouraged by the king to settle at York. This manufacture continued to flourish in that city, at least down to the reign of King Henry VIII., at which time the city of York is mentioned in the preamble of an Act of Parliament in the following terms:-"Whereas the city of York, being one of the ancientest and greatest cities within the realm of England, before this time hath been maintained and upholden by divers and sundry handicrafts then used, and most principally by making and weaving of coverlets and coverings for beds, and thereby a great number of the inhabitants and people of the said city and suburbs thereof, and other places within the county of York, have been daily set on work, in spinning, dyeing, carding, and weaving of the said coverlets." The Act then proceeded to give the citizens of York full power for the sole making and vending of the said articles. But there are some things too strong even for an Act of Parliament, and trading competition is one of these. Drake, writing in 1736, observes, "This Act continues still in force." He adds, "But though this branch of trade must have been, and would be still, very beneficial, I do not believe that there is one coverlet wrought in the city of York in a twelvemonth, at this day." *

The City of York during the Wars of York and Lancaster. Few English cities passed through more numerous and violent changes of fortune during the wars of York and Lancaster, than the ancient city of York. The citizens, as we have seen, had received the strongest marks of favour from King Richard II., whose deposition by Henry Bolingbroke, afterwards King Henry IV., was the first of a series of sanguinary revolutions, which lasted, with a few short intervals of uncertain repose, from the commencement to the close of the fifteenth century. From the beginning of these commotions the citizens of York were involved in them, partly owing to the great influence of the noble houses of Neville, Percy, and Scrope, with whom they were closely connected, and still more from the circumstance that the archbishopric of York was then held by Richard Scrope, a man of the highest talents and character, who returned the many favours which he and his family had received from the elder branches of the Plantagenet family, the descendants of the Black Prince, and of the houses of Clarence and York, by unbounded zeal and devotion. As we have seen, even his high rank in the church could not save Archbishop Scrope from being tried, convicted, and executed, for his known devotion to the house of Mortimer; and almost all the other members of the Scrope family shared the same fate, being put to death, on one pretence or another, by the triumphant house of Lancaster. We have already mentioned the circumstances under which Archbishop Scrope was convicted and beheaded, and it will be seen from the following royal order that the citizens of York, for a time at least, forfeited their municipal rights, for the same offence which cost the archbishop of York his life:-

TO SIR JOHN STANLEY, KNIGHT, AND ROGER LEECHE.
"The king to his chosen and faithful servants, John Stanley and Roger Leeche, greeting.
"Know ye that for certain special causes, intimately concerning us and the state of our kingdom of England, we do assign you, together or separately, our city of York, together with all and singular liberties, franchises, and privileges, to the citizens of the said city, by our progenitors or predecessors, sometimes kings of England, or ourself before this time, granted and confirmed, to take and seize into your hands; and the said city thus taken and seized, till further orders from us in our name, to keep and govern.
"Witness the king, at his castle of Pountefreyte, the 3rd day of June, A.D. 1405, in the sixth year of his reign."

In a short time, however, the rights of the citizens were restored, though the city continued strongly opposed to the house of Lancaster.

In the year 1408, Percy, earl of Northumberland, the father of Harry Hotspur and the friend of Archbishop Scrope, collected an army at Bramham Moor, near York, which force was defeated by Sir Thomas Rokesby, the high sheriff of Yorkshire. After that battle King Henry IV. came to York, where "what he had left undone before was now completed, in the executions and confiscations of the property of such citizens as were supposed to be hostile to his claims." In the next reign, and in the year 1412, King Henry V. having determined to lead an army into France, in order to strike terror into the enemies of the house of Lancaster, seized, condemned, and executed for high treason, on very slight grounds, Thomas, Lord Scrope of Masham, the lord treasurer of England, who was a well known adherent of the houses of York and Mortimer. Lord Scrope was executed at Southampton, but his head was struck off and was sent to York, with a royal order that it should be placed on the top of Micklegate Bar. At the same time the lord mayor of York received a mandate from King Henry V., ordering him to seize and confiscate the estate and effects of Lord Scrope. The earl of Cambridge, Richard Plantagenet (the son of one duke of York, and the father of another), who had married the heiress of the house of Mortimer, was beheaded at the same time with Lord Scrope.

For a time these acts of cruelty terrified the adherents of the house of York into submission; but, in the year 1460, Henry VI. having become imbecile, Richard, duke of York, caused himself to be declared lawful heir to the crown. He never, however, succeeded in wearing the crown, having been defeated by the army of Margaret of Anjou at the battle of Wakefield, and his head having been cut off and sent to York, where it was crowned with paper, and placed on the top of Micklegate Bar, with its face to the city, that, as Shakspeare makes the haughty Queen Margaret say, "York may overlook the town of York." Short, however, was the triumph of the house of Lancaster; for in a few weeks after the Lancastrian army was totally defeated by Edward IV., the son and heir of the above Richard, duke of York; and after that battle the head of Richard was taken down, and the heads of Courtney, earl of Devon, and several other Lancastrian chiefs, were exposed in its place. From that time the house of York retained the crown until the death of Richard III. on Bosworth-field, and the citizens of York received numerous marks of confidence and affection from that branch of the royal house. In the month of September, 1478, King Edward IV. made a progress into the north, accompanied by the whole of the nobility, gentry, and authorities of the northern counties. Amongst others he was met by John Farriby, then lord mayor of York, who rode out, accompanied by many of the richest citizens, as far as Went Bridge, almost on the southern border of the county, to meet the king, and escorted him to Pontefract. In a week after Edward visited the city of York, where he was received with great rejoicings, and presented with a handsome sum of money by the citizens.

Richard, duke of Gloucester, and brother of King Edward IV., was at York when the king died, in April, 1483, and there he had a solemn funeral requiem performed in the minster, for the repose of his brother's soul. There also he commenced those dark intrigues, which ended in the murder of his nephews in the Tower, and in the ultimate usurpation of the crown by himself. Believing himself to be much stronger in the north than in the south, he removed from London to York, after he had usurped the crown, and there he went through the ceremony of a public coronation. In the hope of gaining the favour of the citizens and clergy of York, Richard III. had determined to make splendid endowments in York minster.

The editor of the Fabric Rolls, in recording the events of the year 1485, says:-
"In the beginning of his reign, Richard Ill. gave orders for the establishment of a college of a hundred chaplains in the church at York. It seems to have been his object to found a grand college at York on a large scale. Policy, as well as affection, would induce Richard to win the regard of that people. He was at York in great state in 1483, going to the minster in all the pomp of royalty. At a solemn banquet in the city, which took place shortly afterwards, the king's youthful son was created Prince of Wales. It was probably on one of these occasions that the college of the hundred chaplains was ordered to be established."
The editor of the Fabric Rolls adds, speaking of Richard III.,
"that he also gave to the minster a very precious cross, and that to the vicars choral he was a benefactor and a patron, prevailing on the chapter to advance them to their original number."
He further says, "that the piety of Richard III. won the favour of the clergy, and that it was a dark day for the north when its sun set upon the field of Bosworth."
We conclude from this passage that the writer does not believe that Richard III. Was the murderer of his brother's children and the usurper of their throne, but in this he differs from most of the historians of England.

Testamenta Eboracensia. A flood of light is thrown on the ownership of property and the occupations of men of all classes of society in the Plantagenet and Tudor times-from the greatest noblemen and church dignitaries of the county, to the smaller landowners, the merchants, the tradesmen, and even the artizans in the city of York, the port of Hull, and the various towns and boroughs of Yorkshire-by the wills registered at York, of which several volumes have been published by the Surtees Society.

In introducing the will of Richard Russell, citizen and merchant of the city of York, the editor very justly observes that "the will of this great merchant, made in the year 1435 (during the time of the Plantagenets), gives us a fair and at the same time a very favourable picture of the wealth of York, the metropolitan city of the north at that time."
He further observes "that commerce, which has since enriched the towns of Leeds, Bradford, Halifax, and Sheffield, at that time of comparatively little importance, was then seated at York, Beverley, and Hull; and at no place perhaps was it in a more thriving state than in York. Few ancient cities could at this time show a larger number of companies and guilds for the advancement of trade, and in few cities was there a closer union between commerce and religion. York in the olden days was rich beyond description in churches and in religious and charitable institutions, for which she was principally indebted to the piety and munificence of her merchants. The testator (Richard Russell), citizen and merchant, who appears to have taken a high place among the merchant princes of the city, was brought up in his youth in the monastery at Durham, and the legacy which he leaves to it in his will shows that he still remembered the place of his nativity. From one or two notices in his will, we may infer that his wealth was derived from the sale of wool, and he was probably connected with that great company of merchants who formed the staple at Calais, and who were so intimately connected with the city of York. In 1412 he was one of the sheriffs for the city, and in the years 1421 and 1430 he was elected to the office of mayor. He lived in Hungate, and was buried in the church of Saint John in that street."

In the wills executed at York we find those of men of every rank and occupation. Amongst them are those of archbishops, bishops, treasurers of the minster, clergymen of the numerous churches of the city, citizens of York of every occupation, including merchants, mercers, drapers, grocers, advocates, goldsmiths, valets, tailors, shipowners, painters, coopers, bakers, fishermen, buckler-makers, parchment-makers, engravers, bowers, potters, barbers, anchor-smiths, proctors, domestic servants, scholars, builders, tapestry- makers, masons, scheremen, saucemakers, woollen, coverlet-makers, and many others; armigers, or gentlemen entitled to bear arms, being younger sons of county families living at York as a pleasant residence. Several ladies, also, are mentioned.

Most of the clerical and legal wills, and also most of the wills drawn up at York, where members of the learned professions always abounded, are written in the Latin language. Most of the wills of the great nobles and county families are still written in Norman French; and a good many, drawn up at Hull, Leeds, and other country towns, and some in York and in the country districts, are in very fair English, and show that the language had begun to take its present form.

York under the House of Tudor. The city of York was greatly disturbed at the beginning of the reign of Henry VII. The first disturbance arose from the pretended claims to the throne of Lambert Simnel, who passed himself off as the earl of Warwick and the son of George Plantagenet, duke of Clarence, the brother of Edward IV. and Richard III. This impostor, who was supported by the earl of Lincoln, the earl of Kildare, Lord Lovel, and an army of Burgundians supplied by the duchess of Burgundy, the sister of Edward IV., landed on the coast of Lancashire, and marched across Yorkshire into Lincolnshire, where he was finally encountered and defeated by the army of Henry VII. at Stoke-on-Trent, near Newark. After this insurrection several of the principal insurgents were taken prisoners, and were gibbeted in the city of York. Another insurrection of a more local kind took place in the year 1489, arising out of an attempt of Henry VII. to impose an obnoxious tax, to carry on an unpopular war with Brittany. In this insurrection the earl of Northumberland was attacked, and slain with many of his servants. The insurgents were afterwards headed by Sir John Egremond, whom Lord Bacon calls a factious person, and by John a'Chambre, who is described as a fellow of means extraction. Their forces, however, were soon defeated by Thomas Howard, earl of Surrey, who took the leaders prisoners, and had them executed at York, Chambre being hung on a gallows of more than usual height. After peace had been restored, Henry VII. visited the city of York. Its tranquillity was not seriously disturbed during the rest of his reign, so that on the occasion of the marriage of the Princess Margaret, Henry's eldest daughter, to James IV. king of Scotland, she was received with great rejoicings at York, on her journey northward, making her entrance into the city with 500 lords, ladies, and gentlemen.

The Battle of Flodden. The marriage of the Princess Margaret, the sister of Henry VIII., with James IV. of Scotland, did not insure peace between the two countries. In the year 1513, King Henry having led his forces into France, James IV. seized the opportunity of marching into England at the head of a numerous and well-appointed army. This was encountered by an English army equally numerous and well-appointed, and more skilfully commanded by the earl of Surrey, in the memorable battle of Flodden Field. On that occasion the citizens of York raised 500 men, whom they sent to battle under the command of Sir John Mandeville. The old ballad of Flodden Field, in describing the gathering of the English army says:-
"Next went Sir Ninian Markinfil, In armour coat of cunning work; And next went Sir John Mandeville, With him the citizens of York."
In this battle, James IV., king of Scotland, Henry's brother-in-law-law, was slain. His body was conveyed to York, and there exposed to public view till Henry's return from France, when it was presented to him at Richmond, near London.

The Walls of York under the Tudors. We have a good account of the walls of York, as they existed in the time of the Tudor sovereigns, in Leland's "Itinerary," published in the reign of King Henry VIII. In describing the city of York he says that it "standeth on the west and east banks of the river Ouse," running through it, but that the part that lies on the east side of the river is twice as great, in building, as the other. The course of the wall from the Ouse, on the east part of the city of York, was as follows at that time:-
First, there was a great tower, with a chain of iron to cast over the Ouse, and stop the navigation in time of war. Then there was another tower, and so the wall ran on to Bootham Gate. From Bootham Gate to Goodram Gate, of Bar, there were ten towers. Thence there were four towers to Laythorpe, a postern gate, and so by the space of a two flight shotts (arrow shots), "the blind and deep water of Fosse coming out of the forest of Galtres, defendeth this part of the city without walls." Then to Walmgate were three towers; and thence to Fisher Gate, "stopped up since the commons of York burnt it, in the reign of King Henry VII." Thence to the bank of Fosse there were three towers, and in the three a postern; and thence over Fosse, by a bridge, to the castle.

The west part of the city Leland describes as being thus inclosed. First a turret, and so the wall running over the side of the dungeon of the castle, on the west side of Ouse, right against the opposite castle, on the east bank. The plait of that castle, he says, "is now called Old Baile, and the area and ditches of it do manifestly appear." Betwixt the beginning of the first part of this west wall and Micklegate, were nine towers; and betwixt Micklegate and the bank of the river Ouse, eleven towers. At the eleventh tower was a postern gate, and the tower was right against the east tower (at the castle), to draw over the chain on the river Ouse, betwixt them.

Such was the state of the walls of York in the year 1538, when Leland's "Itinerary " was written by command of Henry VIII. The walls were then quite complete, except at Fisher Gate, where some injury had been done by the populace, in a riot that took place in the reign of Henry VII. There were four principal gates or bars for entrance into the city, and five posterns or smaller gates. The four gates or bars were Micklegate Bar on the south-west, Bootham Bar on the north-west, Monk Bar on the north-east, and Walmgate Bar on the south-east. The five posterns were those of the North Street, the Skelder-gate, the Castle-gate, the Fisher-gate, and the Laythorpe posterns. To these were afterwards added the Lendal Postern, and long after, in Drake's time, the postern leading to the Long Walk.

The connection between the streets of the city and the suburbs, as well as between the different parts of the fortifications, was kept up by means of five bridges, which were as follows, down to the beginning of the present century:-Ouse Bridge, five arches, one of seventy feet; Foss Bridge, two; Laythorpe Bridge, five arches; Monk Bridge, three arches; and Castle Bridge, one arch. The whole circumference of the walls of York was two miles and nearly three quarters, the distances between the different works being, from the Red Tower to Walmgate Bar, sixty perches; thence to Fisher-gate Postern, ninety-nine perches; thence to castle-gate Postern, fifty-eight; thence to skelder-gate Postern, thirty-four; thence to Micklegate Bar, 136 perches; thence to North Street Postern, 140 perches; thence to Bootham Bar, eighty-six; thence to Monk Bar, 116; thence to Laythorpe Postern, sixty-six; and thence back to the Red Tower, eighty perches; making a total of 875 perches, or two miles, four furlongs, and ninety-six yards.

Influence of the Reformation on the City of York. Looking merely at the material interests of the city of York, it cannot be doubted that it lost many sources of prosperity by the Reformation. York was the ecclesiastical capital of the north of England, the see of a wealthy and powerful archbishopric possessing almost regal power, the seat of numerous wealthy religious houses, the head of upwards of forty parish churches, and the scene of almost innumerable charities and religious endowments. At the time when the Reformation took place there were upwards of forty chantries in York minster, all of which had their endowments, as well as numerous monasteries, hospitals, and other chantries. They were all either given away by the king, too often to undeserving favourites, or were frittered away on objects of no public importance. There were at that time the means of forming a university in the city, which might have taken rank even with the universities of Cambridge and Oxford. No doubt the church had become far too rich in that age; but there were objects connected with learning and charity, on which its excessive resources might have been expended with great national and local advantage.

At this time, according to a list of parishes given in Drake's Eboracum, York contained, besides the stately minster with its numerous chantries (every one of which had an endowment sufficient to maintain one or two, if not more priests, to perform masses for the dead), forty-one parish churches, seventeen chapels, sixteen hospitals, and nine religious houses, including the magnificent abbey of Saint Mary with-out Bootham Bar. "It cannot be denied," says Drake, "that after the dissolution of the religious houses by King Henry VIII., with the chantries, chapels, hospitals, and other houses for the sustenance of the poor, this famous and then flourishing city received a terrible shock, by the tearing up of those foundations. No sooner was the mandate given here, but down fell the monasteries, the hospitals, chapels, and priories in this city, the materials and revenues of all being converted to secular uses."

The following were the churches and religious houses of York previous to the Reformation, with their value when it can be ascertained. This value was originally fifteen times as great as that of money of the present time; it afterwards fell to about ten times that value, owing to depreciation of the coinage. In the reign of Henry VIII., about forty years after the commencement of the influx of gold and silver caused by the discovery of America, it was still at least five times as much as it is at present. At that time, as Leland tells us, "a right honest or very respectable" man could dine (at Wakefield) for 2d; a quarter of wheat was sold for 10s. or 12s., and wages were about 6d. a day.

CHAPELS BEFORE THE DISSOLUTION, TEMP. HENRY VIII., IN THE CITY AND SUBURBS OF YORK.

1. St. Anne's, at Foss Bridge;
2. St. Anne's, at Horse Fair;
3. St. Trinity in the Bedern;
4. St. Christopher;
5. St. Christopher, at the Guildhall;
6. St. Catherine's, in Haverlane;
7. Bishop's Chapel, in the Fields, near Clementhorpe;
8. St. George's Chapel, betwixt Foss and Ouse;
9. St. James', without Micklegate;
10. St. Mary's Chapel, in St. Mary's Abbey;
11. St. Mary's Chapel, at the Whitefriars;
12. St Mary's Chapel, in St. Mary's Gate;
13. St. Mary Magdalene, near Burton Stone;
14. St. Stephen, in the Minster;
15. St. Sepulchre, near the Minster;
16. St. Trinity's Chapel, at the Merchant's Hall;
17. St. William's Chapel, on Ouse Bridge.
"These chapels," says Drake, "being all chantry chapels, fell at the Reformation, and are all extinct, except two; one belonging to the Vicars Choral, in the Bedern, and the chapel at Merchant's Hall, still kept up by that company."

HOSPITALS AT YORK BEFORE THE REFORMATION.
1. The hospital of Our Lady, Horse Fair;
2. The hospital of St. John and Our Lady, in Fossgate;
3. The hospital of St. Leonard, now the Mint Yard, says Drake;
4. The hospital of St. Anthony, in Peaseholm;
5. The hospital of St. Nicholas, without Walmgate;
6. The hospital of St. Thomas, without Micklegate Bar;
7. The hospital belonging to the Merchant's Hall;
8. The hospital of St. Catherine, beside St. Nicholas Church;
9. The hospital, or Maison Dieu, of the Shoemakers, near Walmgate Bar;
10. The hospital, or Maison Dieu, on Ouse Bridge;
11. The hospital, or Maison Dieu, at the Tailors' Bridge;
12. The Spital of St. Loy, at Monkbridge End;
13. The Spital of St. Catherine, without Micklegate Bar;
14. The Spital of in Fishergate, beside St. Helen's;
15. The house of St. Anthony, in Peaseholm;
16. The house of St. Anthony, in Gelygate.

According to Roger Dodsworth there were forty-four chantries in the Cathedral church at York; but Torre mentions the names of more than sixty chantries, besides forty-six obits, "though probably some of their stipends may have failed previous to the Reformation." It appears by a catalogue of all the chantries within this cathedral, as they were certified into the Court of Augmentations in the 37th year of Henry VIII., that there were above forty altars erected in different parts of it.

A GENERAL LIST OF ALL THE PARISH CHURCHES IN THE CITY AND SUBURBS OF YORK, IN THE TIME OF KING HENRY V., WITH THEIR YEARLY VALUE.

1. Allhallows, in the Pavement, £9;
2. Allhallows, near Fisher Gate, £1;
3. Allhallows, in North Street, £8;
4. Allhallows, in Peaseholm or Peaceholm, £3;
5. St. Andrews, £3 6s. 8d.;
6. St. Clement's, in Fossgate, £1;
7. St. Cuthbert's, in Peaseholm, £2;
8. St. Crux, or Holy Cross, £9;
9. Christ Church, or St. Trinity, £8;
10. St. Dyonis, £7;
11. St. Helens, on the Wall, £2;
12. St. Helens, out of Fishergate, £1;
13. St. Helens, in Stonegate, £6;
14. St. Edward, £1 6s. 8d.;
15. St. Gregory's, £2;
16. St. Giles,-;
17. St. George, at Bean-hills, £4;
18. St. George, in Fishergate,-;
19. St. John de la Pyke, £4;
20. St. John, in Hungate, £1;
21. St. John Evangelist, at Ousebridge End, £8;
22. St. Lawrence, £9;
23. St. Mary, without Laythorp Postern, £2;
24. St. Mary, Bishop Hill, £10,
25. St. Mary, Bishop Hill, junior, £6;
26. St. Mary, in Castle Gate, £6;
27. St. Margaret's, £7;
28. St. Martin, in Micklegate, £6;
29. St. Martin, in Conyng Street, £10;
30. St. Maurice, £2;
31. St. Michael de Belfrey, £12;
32. St. Michael, in Spurrier Gate, £10;
33. St. Nicholas, by Micklegate Bar, £6;
34. St. Nicholas, without Walm Gate, £5;
34. St. Olave, in Mary Gate, £24;
36. St. Peter, in the Willows, £ 1;
37. St. Peter, the Little, £7;
38. St. Saviour, £8;
39. St. Sampson, £8;
40. St. Trinity, Gothram Gate, £4 13s. 4d.;
41. St. Wilfred's, Blake Street, £5.

To these parish churches Drake adds the Church of St. Benedict, in Patrick Pool; St. Stephen, a church mentioned in Dugdale's " Monasticon," vol. i. p. 385; St. Bridget, mentioned in the " Monasticon," vol. i. p. 564, and said to be in " Mucclegata ;" and St. Michael extra Walmgate, mentioned by Mr. Torre.

These parish churches were not abolished, indeed most of them still exist; but several of the smaller and poorer were consolidated with others in the reign of Queen Elizabeth.

RELICS FORMERLY PRESERVED AT THE MINSTER AT YORK.
We find in the Fabric Rolls of York Minster a list of the relics preserved there previous to the Reformation. The list occurs on a fly- leaf of the MS. copy of the Gospels in the office of the dean and chapter; and in the opinion of the editor of the Fabric Rolls the handwriting is that of the middle of the thirteenth century. The list shows that Archbishop Roger was the donor of many of the relics, and that he arranged and dedicated others. It also appears that Archbishop Roger brought many of the relics from Rome- de domo domini Papoe. Others were collected by St. William, archbishop of York, Archbishop Thurstan, and others.

"The list commences very solemnly, with the words, In nomine Domini, Amen, and then proceeds to state that these are the relics preserved in the church of Saint Peter at York, stating very particularly where they were placed. Some of them were within a great cross which stood beyond the pulpit at the entrance to the choir, which cross Roger, the archbishop, had caused to be prepared, and had afterwards dedicated. Others were in another cross which stood behind the great altar, which the same Roger, archbishop of York, had caused to be prepared, and had afterwards dedicated. Others were in a great bier behind the high altar, some in a white pix, others in a green pix, and others in a red pix. Others were in a bier behind the altar in a cross made of the gold which Roger the archbishop gave for the redemption of the king [Richard I.], from the treasures of the church, and which was afterwards redeemed by the chapter. Others were in another bier covered with gold plates. One of these relies was shown as a bone of Saint Peter the apostle, which the venerable Roger, archbishop of York, had brought de domo domini. In another case, covered with gold leaf, were a number of relics which were described as having been brought by Archbishop Roger, de domo domini Papae.

The relics thus carefully preserved amounted to some hundreds in number, of which the following were the most remarkable:-Relics of the holy apostles Peter, Paul, and Matthew; of Saint Luke the Evangelist; a joint of the finger of Saint John the Baptist; a stone from the sepulchre of our Lord; a tooth of Saint Stephen the protomartyr; a tooth of Saint Bridget the virgin; a stone from the rock on which St. John the Baptist sat; a portion of the manna which rained down from heaven on the people of Israel; a stone from the sepulchre of our Lord Jesus Christ; an arm of Saint Sebastian; part of the robes of the holy apostles Simon and Jude; two teeth of Saint Paulinus, archbishop of York, and other bones of the same; a stone on which the Lord Jesus sat when he fasted in the wilderness; the stone on which the angel sat; relics of Saint Dunstan the archbishop, and of Saint Cedda the archbishop; more of the manna which was rained from heaven; relics of Saint Cuthbert the bishop; others from the sepulchre of Saint Oswald, king of Northumbria; part of the cross of our Lord; the vest of Saint Mary the virgin; the angelic clothing of Saint Agnes the virgin; one of the bones of the apostle Peter, which the venerable Roger, archbishop of York, brought from the home of his master; also relics brought by Saint William (of York), and Archbishops Henry and Thurstan, of the bones of the apostles Simon and Jude; some of the blood of St. Stephen the protomartyr; a finger of Saint Dionisius; the cross on which Saint Andrew was crucified; bones of Saint Lazarus and his sister Martha; bones of Saint Matthew the apostle; part of the rock of the sepulchre of our Lord; bones of Saint John the Baptist; one of the bones of Saint Paul the apostle, in quadam ampulla cristolina; vestments of the apostles Peter and Paul; the chin and rib of a certain saint, whose name could not be known on account of the antiquity of the writing; one of the sandals of Saint Peter the apostle, which Archbishop Roger brought de domo domini Papae; the rod of Aaron; relics from Mount Sinai; from the sepulchre of our Lord; from the sepulchre of Lazarus; a stone from the River Jordan; part of the cross of our Lord; and relies from the body of Saint Helena. There were a multitude of other relics preserved and shown in the Minster, but these will probably be considered quite sufficient.

The Pilgrimage of Grace. The insurrection in Yorkshire and the northern counties, called the Pilgrimage of Grace, only brought destruction on its leaders, and on all who were engaged in it; although the city of York and the fortress of Hull, the two strongest places in the north of England, fell into the hands of Robert Aske of Aughton, Lord D'Arcy, Sir Robert Constable, and other leaders of the 40,000 men who joined in the pilgrimage, before any effectual steps could be taken to stop their progress southward. This, however, was at last done by the floods of the river Don, aided by a small army of 5000 men, under the command of the duke of Norfolk. Having no military leaders of any skill, and no support from the rest of the kingdom, the insurgents were at length induced to lay down their arms by promises of mercy, which were very badly kept. Aske, the leader of the insurrection, was hung, and suspended from a tower, probably Clifford's, at York; the abbots of Fountains, Jervaux, and Rivaulx, and the prior of Bridlington, were executed at Tyburn; Sir Robert Constable was hanged in chains over Beverley Gate at Hull; Lord D'Arcy was beheaded at Tower Hill; and many persons of inferior rank were hung in different places. After all resistance had been completely subdued, Henry VIII. visited the city of York and other places in the north of England, and was everywhere received with homage and liberal presents. On his entry into Yorkshire he was welcomed by 200 gentlemen, attended by 4000 yeomen and servants, who, through Sir Robert Bowes, made their humble submission, and presented the king with a sum of £900, equal in value to at least £5000 of modern money. On Barnsdale the king was met by Dr. Lee, the archbishop of York, who had been a prisoner in the hands of the insurgents, and by upwards of 300 of his clergy, who joined in making another present of £600 to the king. Thence he proceeded to the city of York, where he was received with great state by the lord mayor, who presented him with £100. The mayors of Newcastle and Hull came to meet the king, and made him presents of similar sums.

The Council of the North established at York. The Council of the North was established at York by King Henry VIII., on this visit to the northern part of his dominions. This council became a sort of northern parliament, and continued in existence down to the breaking out of the great civil war in the reign of Charles I., when that monarch destroyed the council, by bringing it into direct conflict with a large portion of his own people, and with the Parliament of England, sitting at Westminster. While it lasted the Council of the North was a body of considerable importance, being always presided over by a nobleman of the highest standing; having a powerful control in the northern counties; and an able body of lawyers to advise it in its proceedings. The first president was Thomas Howard, duke of Norfolk. It had the power to hear and determine all causes on the north side of the Trent. In the year in which this formidable court was founded, Sir John Neville, knight, and ten other persons, were taken in rebellion or resistance to the will of the king, and were executed at York.

The Rising of the North. The city of York had the good fortune to escape any serious danger in the second great rising of the Roman Catholics of Yorkshire, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, known as the "Rising of the North." At that time York was garrisoned by 5000 of the queen's soldiers, under the command of the earl of Sussex. The objects of the insurrection, which was headed by the two great northern earls, Thomas Percy, earl of Northumberland, and Charles Neville, earl of Westmoreland, were to restore the Roman Catholic religion, to dethrone Queen Elizabeth, and to place Mary Queen of Scots on the throne of England. The insurrection broke out in the neighbourhood of Barnard Castle, and the insurgents advanced to the neighbourhood of York; but finding that they could make no impression on that city, they retired northward, the two leaders escaping into Scotland, and a great slaughter being made among their followers. Amongst the persons executed at York were Simon Digby of Askrew, John Fulthorp of Iselbeck, Robert Pennyman of Stokesby, and Thomas Bishop, jun., of Pocklington, who were hung, beheaded, and quartered on Knavesmire, near York, and their heads set up on the four principal gates of the city. Three years later Thomas, earl of Northumberland, who had returned from the Continent to Scotland, was given up by the earl of Morton, regent of Scotland, to Lord Hunsdon, governor of Berwick. He was speedily conducted as a prisoner to York, and beheaded on a scaffold erected for that purpose on the Pavement of that city. It is said that as many as 800 persons were put to death for their share in this insurrection, which was the last attempt to restore the Roman Catholic religion by force in this kingdom.

Camden's Description of York. The best description of the city of York in Tudor times is contained in Camden's " Britannia." That great topographer visited York in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and wrote an admirable account, both of its antiquities and of its state and condition at the time of his visit. We have already given the substance of the information collected by Camden, as to the antiquities of York. With regard to the city in his own times, he says that "York is the second city in England, the first in this part of the island, and is a great strength and ornament to the north. It is," he says, "pleasant, large, and strong, adorned with fine buildings, both public and private; populous, rich, &c. The river Ure, which now takes the name of the Ouse, runs gently from north to south quite through the city, and divides it into two parts, which are joined by a noble stone bridge. The west part of the city is no less populous, lies in a square form, inclosed partly by stately walls and partly by the river, and has but one way to it, namely, by Micklegate Bar. The east part is larger, where the buildings stand thick and the streets are narrow, is shaped like a lentil, and strongly walled. On the south-east it is defended by the Fosse or ditch, very deep and muddy, which runs by covered ways into the very heart of the city, and, gliding close by the castle walls, a little further down falls into the Ouse."

The Corporation of York. The city of York was governed for many ages by a corporation, which in many respects greatly resembled the corporation of London. The ancient municipal government of the city of York, like the government of the kingdom of Great Britain, had its three estates; namely, the lord mayor as sovereign, the aldermen and body of twenty-four as a house of Lords, and the common council, which was a representative body, corresponding in some degree to the House of Commons. This was the original constitution of the municipal governments of London and York, and of most of the old cities of the kingdom; and if the Stewart kings had not very unwisely destroyed the popular element by establishing town councils appointed by the Crown and self-elected in all future times, this form of local government would probably have continued to exist in the older cities and boroughs of the kingdom, and the corporations of the newer boroughs would have been formed on a somewhat similar principle. The general form of the local government of the city of York down to the Municipal Reform Bill was as follows- a lord mayor, a recorder, two city counsel, a number of aldermen, generally amounting to ten or twelve, from whom the lord mayor was elected; two sheriffs for the city of York, a town clerk, the gentlemen who had served the office of sheriff for the city, six chamberlains, and a numerous body of common councilmen elected by the citizens in the four wards of Walmgate Ward, Monk Ward, Bootham Ward, and Micklegate Ward. There were also coroners for the city and ainsty, and for the liberty of St. Peter's, a jurisdiction specially connected with the archbishopric.

The residence of the lord mayor of York in more modern times was the mansion-house, a stately edifice built in the year 1756, and standing at the north end of Coney, more correctly, Conyng Street, on the site of the ancient chapel of the guild of St. Christopher.

The guild-hall is situated behind the mansion-house, and was built in the year 1446. In this fine Gothic hall, ninety-six feet in length by forty-three feet in width, the assizes for the city of York are held. The elections for members of Parliament were also held here. Here also the lord mayor, and at least one other city magistrate, held daily sittings for the administration of justice.

The council chamber of the city formerly stood on Ouse Bridge, and when the old bridge was taken down in 1810 new council chambers were built. The inner room and the lower house, namely, the common council, held their deliberations in one of them, while the upper house, consisting of the lord mayor, the recorder, the city council, the aldermen, the sheriffs, and the gentlemen of the twenty-four, assembled in the upper chamber.

Trades at York in the Time of James I. We find about this time an account of the several trades carried on in the city of York in the year 1623, with the statement of what sum every trade paid yearly to the city, for the repair of their Moot-hall, or place of public meeting, called St. Anthony's Guild. The payments are small, but the number of trades is still considerable, though at this time both the commerce and the manufactures of York are spoken of in public documents as being in a declining state, chiefly owing to the bad state of the navigation of the river Ouse. To this must also be added the rapid increase of commerce at Hull, and of manufactures in the rising towns of the West Riding. The following is a list of the trades of York of this time, with an account of their yearly payments to the upholding of their place of meeting:-

Merchants and mercers, 5s.;
drapers, 4s.;
goldsmiths, 2s.;
dyers, 1s.;
haberdashers, 1s.;
vintners, 2s.;
saddlers, 2s.;
bakers, 3s.;
butchers, 4s.;
wax chandlers, 8d.;
mariners, 8d.;
brasiers, 1s.;
barbers, 8d.;
embroiderers, 4d.;
girdlers, 1s. 4d.;
blacksmiths, 8d.;
pannier-men, 1s. 4d.;
bricklayers, 1s. 4d.;
parchment makers, 2s.;
linen weavers, 1s. 2d.;
pinners, 6d.;
curriers, 8d.;
cobblers, 1s.;
silk weavers, 1s. 4d.;
tallow chandlers, 8d.;
tanners, 4s.;
cordwainers, 2s.;
carpenters, 1s.;
bladesmiths, 2s.;
pewterers, 1s. 8d.;
glovers, 1s. 6d.;
armourers, 1s.;
inn-holders, 4s.;
millers, 3s. 4d.;
coopers, 1s. 4d.;
skinners, 1s. 6d.;
glaziers, 1s.;
shearmen, 6d.;
spurriers, 6d.;
locksmiths, 4s.;
cooks, 1s.;
painters, 8d;
founders, 1s.;
coverlet weavers, 1s. 8d.;
ropers, 1s.;
porters, 1s.;
labourers, 8d.;
musicians 1s.

Such were the trades of York about the time when the Stewarts began to reign.

The Siege and Blockade of York in the Great Civil War. The last great military event in the history of York was the defence of that city by William Cavendish, marquis of Newcastle, the commander of the royal armies of Yorkshire and the north of England, in the great civil war in the year 1644; and the siege and blockade of the city by the united armies of Fairfax, Cromwell, and their Scotch auxiliaries. So great was the importance attached to the possession of the city of York by Charles I., that he sent an army of upwards of 10,000 men to its relief, under the command of his nephew Prince Rupert, with written instructions to fight a great battle, if it should be necessary, rather than allow York to be taken by the parliamentary army. Although Prince Rupert was accused of having exceeded his orders by fighting a battle without any necessity on Marston Moor, after he had compelled the parliamentary generals to raise the siege of York, it cannot be doubted that his instruction were not merely to occupy, but to hold the city of York permanently, and that he was justified by them in fighting a battle for that object, if he was of opinion that he could not hold the city without doing so. But his military judgment, was weak; and he was in no respect qualified to decide so important and difficult a question.

Until the advance of the Scottish army into Yorkshire, in the month of April, 1644, the royalist party had no difficulty in holding the city of York, which was still the strongest fortress in England, and was secure against everything except famine, caused by a long blockade. The city was already occupied by a royalist garrison, strong in numbers, though incapable of keeping the field against the three great armies that were assembling around the city. The marquis of Newcastle arrived at York, April 19, 1644, bringing with him an army of about 6000 men. He was supported by two able officers, General King, soon afterwards made a peer, by the title of Lord Eythin, and Sir Thomas Glenham. The poet laureate, Sir William Davenant, was also there, to command the Ordnance, and to celebrate Newcastle's victories.

A few days after the arrival of the marquis of Newcastle at York, he found himself surrounded by three parliamentary armies. The first of these was the Scottish army of about 20,000 men, under the slow but veteran soldier, the earl of Leven, supported by a gallant body of officers and soldiers, many of them trained in the wars of the great Gustavus. The Scottish part of the line of blockade of York extended round Micklegate Ward, from the Ouse below Poppleton, to the same river above Bishopthorpe, each wing resting on a bridge of boats, by which communication was kept up with the other besieging corps.

The army of the Associated Counties, commanded by the earl of Manchester, with Oliver Cromwell as his commander of the horse, extended from the Ouse along the Manor House wall and St. Mary's Tower, to Bootham Bar, and thence by Monk Bar to the Fosse. The Yorkshire forces, under the Fairfaxes, took the line from the Ouse by Fishergate Postern and Walmgate Bar to the Red Tower, while their horse watched the two bridges over the Fosse.

But though the city and fortress were thus completely inclosed, the strength of the works was so great, and the advantage which the royalists had, in being able to move their troops from one point to another by inner lines and well protected bridges, was so important, that very little impression was made on the works, which had been much strengthened by the king's generals before the war began. Heavy guns had been planted round the walls, and on the bars or gates, and two out-lying forts had been constructed, one beyond Micklegate Bar, and the other in Bishop's Fields, which were garrisoned and armed. Clifford's Tower had been in ruins since 1642, but the earl of Cumberland had caused it to be repaired, and a deep moat was dug round it, with a drawbridge, and a platform was fixed upon it for guns. Two demi-culverins and a saker were placed on this platform, and Clifford's Tower was well defended by Sir Francis Cobbe.

The siege operations commenced June 3, and a heavy fire was opened on the besiegers from Clifford's Tower, and from the walls, before they could get their guns into position. On the 5th June, Lord Fairfax completed a battery on a hill by the side of the road to Heslington, on which he planted five guns, which fired all the afternoon on Walmgate Bar. The Scots assaulted and took the forts outside Micklegate Bar, and Manchester's troops captured the houses outside Bootham Bar, thus occupying the greater part of the suburbs. Seeing this, the garrison sallied out, and set the whole of the suburbs on fire, on the evening of the 6th of June; thus depriving the besiegers of all cover, but at the same time inflicting great injury on the inhabitants.

On the 8th of June the marquis of Newcastle received news that Prince Rupert was advancing to his assistance through Lancashire; but this news did not stop the operations of the besieging army, though it gave greatly increased confidence to the besieged. The most important operation of the besiegers was the blowing up of St. Mary's Tower, on the 16th June. This was done by General Crawford, a headstrong Scottish officer, without any orders or any proper arrangement of supports, on Trinity Sunday. In this attack the parliamentary forces were repulsed with the loss of many men killed, sixty wounded, and upwards of 200 prisoners. What was even worse, St. Mary's Tower was entirely destroyed, with the precious stores of historical and antiquarian information of which it had long been the receptacle. Happily, the antiquary Roger Dodsworth had been employed for many years by Sir Thomas Fairfax in making copies of these records, and the laborious task was just completed before the siege of York commenced. These copies are still preserved, and may be consulted in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. We are informed by the author of the "Life of the Great Lord Fairfax," that he also offered rewards to any soldier who rescued a document from amongst the rubbish, and that in that way a great number were saved, which his uncle, Charles Fairfax, took charge of a few months afterwards. Charles Fairfax and Roger Dodsworth themselves searched diligently for other documents, and amongst the ruins they recovered the Rhyming Charter of King Athelstan to St. John of Beverley. A Mr. Thompson, of whom nothing else is known, but whose name deserves to be preserved, also collected thirty bundles of papers from amongst the rubbish.

But these operations and the negotiations commenced to gain time, were effectually put an end to on the 30th June, by the news that Prince Rupert was marching with 20,000 men to raise the siege of York, and that he was that night at Boroughbridge, only twelve miles distant. On hearing this important news the parliamentary generals immediately raised the siege, and retired to Marston Moor, the nearest open ground available for fighting a great battle. Prince Rupert entered York, July 1, with about 9000 horse and 8000 foot, and at once took the command of the whole of the royal forces, thus superseding the marquis of Newcastle, who had commanded the northern army from the commencement of the war, and who was allowed to be a good general, "for an amateur."

We have already described the leading events, and mentioned the well-known result of the battle of Marston Moor - the last and the most decisive of many battles fought for the possession of the city of York. After the complete overthrow of the royal army, it fled to York the same night in utter confusion; and there it was effectually dissolved, by a violent and irreparable quarrel between the marquis of Newcastle and Prince Rupert. The result of this quarrel was that the marquis of Newcastle set out for Scarborough, early on the morning of the 3rd July, where he embarked for Hamburg, accompanied by several of the leading royalists of the north; while Prince Rupert, having entirely ruined the king's affairs in the north, left the city of York to its fate, and marched into Lancashire, afterwards conducting his defeated army to the headquarters of the king, in the midland counties.

On the day after the battle, the gallant Sir Thomas Glenham, though deserted by both Rupert and Newcastle, got together about 1000 men, with whom he made some show of resistance. But real resistance had become hopeless, and a few days afterwards Sir Thomas Glenham offered to capitulate. The commissioners appointed to arrange the articles of surrender were Sir Adam Hepburn on the part of the Scots, Sir William Constable for the Fairfaxes, and Colonel Montague for Lord Manchester. Sir Thomas Glenham, as he deserved, obtained most honourable terms. He was to deliver up the city with the forts, Clifford's Tower, and all munitions of war, on the 15th; he and his garrison were to march out with all the honours of war, and to be safely conveyed to the nearest royalist garrison; no officer or soldier was to be stopped or plundered on the march; the citizens were to retain all their privileges, and no soldiers were to be quartered within the walls. On Thursday, July 16, Sir Thomas Glenham, with Sir Henry Slingsby and about 1000 men, marched out of York. The besiegers were drawn up in line on both sides of the road, extending for a mile from Micklegate Bar. As soon as the royalists were clear of the city, the three allied generals went to the minster, where a psalm was sung, and thanksgiving offered by Lord Leven's chaplain. No cathedral in England suffered less from the civil war than York minster, and the immunity was due to the unceasing watchfulness of Sir Thomas Fairfax, to whom Yorkshire owes a debt of gratitude for his thoughtful care of her proudest monument.

The capture of the city of York by the parliamentary forces was followed very shortly by the appointment of Sir Thomas Fairfax to the command of the newly organized army of the Parliament. Very soon after Fairfax's appointment, Oliver Cromwell was named as his lieutenant; and after the whole kingdom had been overrun, and the royalists had been everywhere subdued, there commenced those discussions between the independent and republican party, headed by Cromwell, and the monarchical and presbyterian party, headed by Sir Thomas Fairfax, which soon ended in a complete rupture between the moderate and the extreme supporters of Parliament. In this contest the general feeling of the city and county of York seems to have been with Fairfax and the presbyterian party; but Cromwell had also a considerable number of supporters both in the city and the county, and until his death this party had the upper hand. At the beginning of the year 1649 the city of York was deprived of its parliamentary garrison, with the exception of that of Clifford's Tower, of which the lord mayor of York was appointed governor. This office he held under a vote of Parliament, of 26th February, by which it was resolved that Clifford's Tower should be kept as a garrison, with three score foot in it.

In the year 1650, the Scottish Presbyterians having advanced into Lancashire with a formidable army, Cromwell was despatched to drive them back; Sir Thomas Fairfax having refused to take the command. As we are informed, "On the 5th July, 1650, Cromwell came to York, on an expedition into Scotland, at which time all the artillery of the tower (Clifford's) was discharged. The next day he dined with the lord mayor, and on the following set forward to Scotland. In compliment to Cromwell, and to show their zeal for the cause, the magistrates then thought fit to take down the king's arms at Micklegate and Bootham Bars, through both of which he must needs pass in his journey, and put up the Commonwealth's arms in their stead."

After the death of Cromwell York was the scene of most active negotiations between Lord Fairfax and General Monk, which ended in the restoration of Charles II., in the year 1660. These negotiations were in progress between Fairfax and Monk before the latter left Scotland with his army. On arriving at York he found the support of Fairfax so strong, and the position of the royal cause so good, that he was disposed to proclaim the king there. But Fairfax was altogether opposed to the taking of so important a step without the consent of Parliament, and General Monk concealed his intentions until his arrival in London. The plan was at length carried out with the assent of Parliament, and on the 11th of May, 1660, Charles II. was proclaimed with great solemnity, at York, as king of England. On that day the lord mayor, aldermen, and council, on horseback and in their richest habits, led the procession of the city and the county; next followed the chamberlains and common councilmen, on foot and in their gowns; these were attended by more than 1000 citizens under arms; and the procession was closed by a body of country gentlemen nearly 300 strong, with Lord Fairfax at their head, who rode with their swords drawn, and their hats upon the points of their swords. Charles II. was then proclaimed king at the usual places of the city; the bells rang, and the cannon in Clifford's Tower fired salutes. At night the city was brilliantly illuminated, and the proclamation of the king was everywhere received with demonstrations of joy. On the 29th of the same month of May, the restored king made his public entrance into London.

But the restoration of the house of Stewart was of very short duration, and in the year 1688, the citizens and the county of York led the way in the final expulsion of that incurable dynasty. In 1684 Charles II. and his advisers deprived the corporation of York, and those of many other towns and cities, of their charters; and, immediately after the accession of James II. to the throne, that ill-advised monarch, amongst other unpopular acts, placed a garrison of soldiers in Clifford's Tower, which commanded the city, under Sir John Reresby. Shortly before this event, in the year 1679, religious dissensions running very high, and the bill of exclusion (to deprive James, duke of York, of his right to the succession of the throne, as an avowed and zealous Roman Catholic) having been brought forward, the duke, judging it expedient to retire from court, went to Edinburgh, and in his way passed through York. The sheriffs of the city met him at Tadcaster Bridge and accompanied him into the city, but the lord mayor and aldermen neglected or refused to do so. This being represented to the king as an insult, a reprimand, signed by the secretary of State, was forwarded to the lord mayor. This reprimand was followed in January, 1684, by a writ of quo warranto, by which the members of the corporation were commanded to show how they came "to usurp to themselves" several liberties, many of which they had enjoyed from the time of the Norman kings. Their charter was also demanded for perusal, and detained by the king and his ministers. In the same year the notorious Judge Jefferies attended at York, as one of the judges of assize, and informed the lord mayor and corporation that the king expected to have the government of the city at his own disposal. He further informed the citizens that it was the pleasure of the king that they should apply for a new charter, in which he would reserve to himself the nomination and approbation of the magistrates and persons in office in the city. The death of Charles II. put an end to these arbitrary proceedings. When James II. succeeded to the throne in February, 1684, he agreed, on the petition of the citizens, to restore their charter; but the final order for the restoration does not seem to have been issued till November, 1688, when the Prince of Orange had sailed for England.

It was in the year 1684 that Clifford's Tower was set fire to, and reduced to ruins. An old manuscript diary of those times gives the following account of this event:-
"About ten o'clock on the night of Saint George's day, April 23rd, 1684, happened a most dreadful fire within the tower called Clifford's Tower, which consumed to ashes all the interior thereof, leaving standing only the outshell of the walls of the tower, without other harm to the city save one man slain by the fall of a piece of timber, blown up by the force of the flames, or rather by some powder therein. It was generally thought a wilful act, the soldiers not suffering the citizens to enter until it was too late; and what made it more suspicious was, that the gunner had got out all his goods before it was discovered."
That this tower was intentionally destroyed is very probable, not only from the escape of the soldiers, but also from the fact of the placing of a garrison within the tower being highly offensive to the citizens, who regarded it as the first step towards the establishment of military power amongst them."

Seizing of the City of York at the Revolution of 1688. The seizing of the city of York was one of the first steps taken by Thomas Osborne, then earl of Danby and afterwards duke of Leeds, and the friends of William, prince of Orange, towards the over-throw of King James II. at the Revolution of 1688. Before the landing of the Prince of Orange at Torbay, in Devonshire, a number of his friends met in the north and midland districts, to organize a rising in Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire. This meeting was held at a small country inn, on the borders of Yorkshire and Derbyshire, the three most important persons present being Thomas Osborne, then earl of Danby, William Cavendish, earl of Devonshire, and John Darcy, the heir of the earl of Holderness. There it was arranged that the earl of Danby should seize upon the city of York, with the support of the adherents of the Prince of Orange in that city and county; and that as soon as that city was in his hands, the earl of Devonshire should proclaim the prince king at Nottingham, and raise the midland counties against James II. The movement at York, which went far towards deciding the fate of the kingdom, is thus described by Sir John Reresby, the governor of the city, who refused to join the movement, but did nothing effectual to prevent it:-
"Rumours were now daily spread that William, prince of Orange, was preparing to land in this country, and, according to some of these reports, at the mouth of the Humber, with a considerable army, and as the champion of the Protestant religion. The deputy-lieutenants of the county [of York], ten in number, held a consultation, and Sir Henry Goodrick proposed a meeting of the gentry and freeholders of the county, for the purpose of preparing and signing a declaration of attachment to the king in this season of danger; and also for considering what course would be most advisable for preserving the public peace. This proposal was agreed to, and the meeting was summoned to assemble at York on Thursday, the 19th September, 1688."
The result of the meeting, however, was very different from what was expected, and served to show that James II. had not a single friend left in Yorkshire, who could be relied upon to stand by him in this desperate emergency. Sir John Reresby, the governor, thus describes the events of that day:- "Now came the day of meeting," says Sir John, "a fatal one I think. I would not go to them at the Common Hall, which was the place appointed; nor, indeed, was I very well able, by reason of some bruises I had received by my horse falling under me. But I heard that in the midst of about a hundred gentlemen who met, Sir Henry Goodrick delivered himself to this effect - That there had been great endeavours made by government of late years to bring popery into the kingdom, and by many devices to set at naught the laws of the land; that there could be no proper redress of the many grievances we laboured under but by a free Parliament; that now was the only time to prefer a petition of that sort; and that they could not imitate a better pattern than had been set before them by several lords, spiritual and temporal.

"There were those who differed with him in opinion, and would have had some expressions in the paper moderated and amended; and observed that, at the same time that they petitioned, as they designed, it would be but their duty to assure his Majesty, that they would stand firmly by him in the midst of the danger which threatened both him and his kingdom, at the hazard of their lives and fortunes; but this was overruled. When therefore the draft was completed according to the mind of Sir Henry Goodrick and his friends, though several disliked and went away, they proceeded to sign it; but before a third man could subscribe it, in came one Mr. Tankard with a useful story that the papists were risen, and that they had actually fired upon the militia troops.

"Alarmed at this the gentlemen ran out, and those that were privy to the design betook them to their horses, which were conveniently at hand for their purpose. Lord Danby, meanwhile, in his lodgings, waited for the false alarm, and mounted with his son, with Lord Lumley, Lord Horton, Lord Willoughby, and others, who together with their servants formed a body of horse consisting of 100 in number, well mounted and well accoutred.

"These rode up to the four militia troops drawn out on another account, and cried out, "A Free Parliament, the Protestant Religion, and no Popery." The captains of those troops were Lord Fairfax, Sir Thomas Gower, Captain Robinson, and Captain Tankard, who being admitted to the secret the night before, and being prompt and ready enough in their nature for any action of the kind, immediately cried out the same, and led their troops over to them.

"In the first place they went to the main-guard of the standing company, which, the number not exceeding twenty, they surprised before I [Sir John Reresby, the governor] had the least notice or even jealousy of what was even in agitation; not thinking it possible that men of such quality and such estates could give way to their discontent, however great and just it might be, to the degree of engaging themselves in an attempt so desperate, and so contrary to the laws they boasted, and the religion they professed."

The earl of Danby, and the adherents of the Prince of Orange, endeavoured to persuade Sir John Reresby to join them, urging that they were in arms for the Protestant religion and for the freedom of England, which James had nearly subverted, but which his son-in-law, the Prince of Orange, had landed to restore. But having failed to persuade the governor to join them, he and his inferior officers were taken prisoners; though he was allowed to remain on parole, on pledging his honour that he would not remove from his own house in York. The guard-house, magazine, and stores, with the whole of the fortress, were afterwards seized by the earl of Danby and the militia; who were joined on the following day by a company of foot soldiers that had been raised for the support of the king in the neighbourhood, and also by a company of grenadiers who were on their march from the north. This military force was zealously supported by the lord mayor and the citizens, the chief magistrate having called a meeting of these, and urged them to join in support of the Revolution and the Protestant religion. On the 14th December, 1688, the Prince of Orange was openly recognized as the head of the government, and in the course of the month of February following, on the 17th day of the month, William, prince of Orange, and the Princess Mary his wife, the eldest daughter of James II., were proclaimed king and queen of England in the usual manner, and at the accustomed places in that city, in the presence of many thousands of spectators. In the course of the following winter a large body of Danish soldiers in the service of England, amounting to 5000 foot and 1000 horse, were quartered in York and the adjoining villages, on their way to join the army of William III. in the north of Ireland.

The military history of York, extending from the age of the Romans to modern times, ends with the successful rising of the citizens and of the militia of Yorkshire in support of the principles of the Revolution in 1688. The last movement was not the less important for having been bloodless. It was so because it was unopposed, and it was unopposed because the English people had become all but unanimous as to the principles on which they were determined to be governed. They steadily supported those principles at the time of the Jacobite insurrections of 1715 and 1745, in which the citizens and authorities of York showed their readiness again to take arms if needful, in defence of the principles by which they had so resolutely held at the Revolution of 1688.

Defoe's Account of York in 1727. Daniel Defoe visited York many times in his frequent journeys between London and Scotland, and in the course of his extensive wanderings over every part of Yorkshire, as well as the other counties of England. His description of York was published in the year 1727, the 1st year of George II., and represents the condition of that ancient city during the greater part of the eighteenth century. Defoe made York the birthplace of his most famous hero, Robinson Crusoe, whom he describes as the son of a Hull merchant, who had made a fortune in that busy seaport, and had retired to York, to spend his latter days in peace. This was a very frequent practice; for, as Defoe says in describing York at this time, it was a pleasant and beautiful city, and not the less beautiful because the lines and fortifications constructed in the great civil war had been demolished, without, however, destroying the ancient walls which connected it with former times. The general aspect was one of peace and prosperity, and even the destruction of the fortifications had a secret pleasantness, as he says, "from the contemplation of the public tranquillity that outshines all the beauty of advanced bastions, batteries, cavaliers, and all the hard-named works of the engineers about the city." He describes York as having risen again, and seems to have been particularly struck with the bridge across the river Ouse, which, he says, was vastly strong, and consisted chiefly of one large arch seventy feet in diameter. It was at that time the largest arch in England, and only inferior amongst arches and bridges to the Rialto at Venice. At that time, he observes, there was no trade at York, except such as depended on the confluence of gentry; but there was abundance of good company, many families unconnected with trade and commerce living there for the sake of the pleasant company and the cheap living. At that time the chief articles imported into York were wines from France and Portugal, and timber from Norway. They also brought their coals from Newcastle and Sunderland, though they could have had them, by the Aire and Calder Navigation which had then been opened about twenty years, from Wakefield, Leeds, and other places on the Yorkshire coal- field. The city was full of large and handsome houses, sufficient, in Defoe's opinion, to receive the King, Lords, and Commons, as they had done when they entertained King Charles I. with his whole court, and with the assembly of peers, besides a vast confluence of gentry from all parts, and the greater part of the royal army.

Drake's Eboracum. About ten years after the publication of Defoe's account of York, in 1727, a very much fuller account of that city was published by Francis Drake, a gentleman long resident there, under the title of "Eboracum: or the History and Antiquities of York." The author had taken considerable pains to collect materials for such a work, besides having had the advantage of access to immense collections of extracts, relating to the archbishopric, the county, and the city, made by Roger Dodsworth (1644); by Sir Thomas Widdrington, one of the recorders of the city (1660); by Christopher Hildyard, recorder of Headon, and steward of St. Mary's at York; by John Torre, Esq. (1690), who spent his whole life in collecting materials relating to the city and county of York; by Roger Gale (1720), a man of great antiquarian learning; as well as in the published works of Camden, the chief of topographers, whose history of the city of York is one of the most valuable and interesting chapters in his description of England. In addition to these sources Drake had access to numerous records belonging to the Corporation of York, and to other valuable sources of information. But he seems to have been on unfriendly terms with the archbishop of his day, and with some of the clergy; and though he ultimately obtained the assistance of Dr. Longwith and some other excellent scholars, in the latter part of his work, he did not secure it until he had published, or printed off, some of the old stories of Geoffrey of Monmouth, and other writers respecting York, which are not now considered to belong to authentic history, and which, even in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, the learned Camden had passed by with a smile of contempt. Notwithstanding this defect, and an occasional want of good taste, the work of Drake contains a very extensive, though not well arranged, collection of historical materials, especially from the time of the Norman conquest to the revolution of 1688. Since that time several other works, some of great merit, have been published respecting this ancient city, its numerous antiquities, and its unrivalled minster. In Drake's own time the ancient commerce and manufactures of York had been transferred to Hull, Leeds, and other manufacturing towns, but it was still one of the pleasantest cities in England. Speaking of York in 1737, he says:-
"What has been and is the chief support of the city at present, is the resort to and residence of several country gentlemen with their families in it. These have found by experience that living at York is so much cheaper than London, that it is even less expensive than living at their own houses in the country; the great variety of provisions with which our markets abound, makes it very easy to furnish out an elegant table at a moderate rate. And it is true yet, what Fuller said of us in his time, that an ordinary at York would make a feast in London. Besides, our city is very well qualified for the education of their children, especially females, in all the necessary accomplishments belonging to that sex. The diversions which have been of late years foot, and are now briskly carried on every winter in the city, are another great inducement to bring company to it. About twenty years ago a weekly assembly was begun here, when gentlemen and ladies met every Monday night, to dance, play at cards, and amuse themselves with these and other innocent diversions of the place. It was first set up at the manor, was several years kept in Lord Irwin's house in the Minster Yard, and is now continued in the room built on purpose for it in the New Buildings. Two or three years ago a music assembly was begun in York, and is continued every Friday night, in the same room, when a set of choice hands and voices are procured to divert the company each winter. To these are added a company of stage-players, who by subscription act twice a week, and are allowed to be the best strollers in the kingdom.
"Twice in the year the assizes, or general gaol delivery for the city and county of York, are held here.

On which occasion, besides the men of business, did formerly resort a great number of our northern gentry, to partake of the diversions that were usually set up in the city for that time. Of late years this is altered; and the grand meeting of the nobility and gentry of the north and other parts of England, is now at York, in or about the month of August, drawn thither by the hopes of being agreeably entertained for a week in horse racing, balls, assemblies, &c."

Modern York. The progress of the city of York in population was slow, from the time of the accession of the House of Hanover to the throne to the commencement of the reign of King William IV., when the introduction of the railway system into this part of England gave fresh occupation to the capital and enterprise of the more wealthy and enterprising inhabitants of this ancient city, in constructing works even on a grander scale than that on which the engineers of Rome and Greece had constructed their lines of road from York to all other parts of Britain seventeen to eighteen hundred years ago. The natural lines of water communication were not merely retained, but improved, during the last century; and so far as the Ouse and the Foss, which unite at York, could be made more available for the purposes of inland trade, that was effected by rendering the river Ouse and its chief tributary the Ure navigable up to Boroughbridge and to Ripon, nearly to the entrance of Wensley Dale. The river Foss, though only seventeen miles in length, was also rendered navigable from the city of York, through the greater part of its course. A much bolder scheme for the improvement of the lower part of the navigation of the river Ouse, was proposed, near the beginning of the eighteenth century, by his grace the duke of Bolton, of the House of Paulett, whose principal residence was at Bolton Castle, in Wensley Dale. According to the description of this plan given by Drake, the duke of Bolton proposed to construct works for the improvement of the Ouse, from the point where it joins the Humber up to the city of York, by cutting a new and artificial course for the river, which was to have been less than half the length of the existing channel, but possessed of a much greater depth of water. Had the proposed work been carried out successfully, it would almost, if not altogether, have rivalled some of the earlier works constructed by Brindley and the duke of Bridgewater, in Lancashire, about the middle of the same century. But the duke of Bolton, though a man of considerable talents, was somewhat eccentric in his character and temper, and failed to induce any one to join him in this great undertaking. Hence the improvements made in the river Ouse were on a smaller scale, and did not give a greater depth of water in the neighbourhood of York than five or six feet, which is only about the fourth part of the depth of water at Hull, and not more than one-half the depth of water at Selby. Thus commerce passed away from the city of York, although the great improvements effected in the Ure, the Foss, the Derwent, the Aire, the Calder, and the Don, all of which flow into the Ouse or the Humber, gave the citizens of York greater advantages than they had ever before possessed of obtaining supplies of coal and other articles, whether produced in the county, or imported from abroad. York has thus always retained a considerable portion of inland trade, though from its distance from the coal-fields of Yorkshire, it has not been able to derive many of those advantages which the steam-engine, in its various applications, has given to the towns of the West Riding and to the port of Hull. But, as already mentioned, during the last thirty years the application of steam power to the purposes of locomotion on railways, has again had the effect of rendering the city of York a connecting point on a large scale between the north and the south, and the east and the west. The position of the city with reference to London, Edinburgh, Leeds, Manchester, Hull, and Liverpool, and the thickly peopled districts of which they are the capitals, as well as to England generally, must always make it an important place in the system of internal communications of Great Britain. The position of York was originally so well chosen in the centre of Britain, that the lapse of nearly two thousand years has failed to deprive it of many of its advantages.

Previous to this transition, York owed its chief advantages to its position and rank as the capital of the largest English county. Here it was that civil and criminal justice was administered twice a year, to all the inhabitants of the county of York, many of whom had, indeed, to travel fifty or sixty miles to the seat of justice. The archbishopric of York extended, as it still does, over a much wider district than the county, and the minster at York was the cathedral church of a province always increasing in population and wealth, and connected by many interesting ties with the whole of the north of England. In addition to this, York being situated in a fertile and healthy country, and always possessing much agreeable society, has ever been a favourite residence for families unconnected with trade, and seeking a pleasant place of abode. Coaches began to run from York to London and to Hull in the reign of Charles II., and when Drake published his "History of York," in the year 1736, there were in that city forty-two gentlemen's coaches, twenty-two hackney coaches, and twenty-two hackney chairs, or sedans, in full use."

The Yorkshire Philosophical Society, and its Grounds and Museum. During the last forty years the high reputation which the city of York acquired in ancient times, as a seat of learning and intelligence, has been well maintained. York has ever been, and never more than at present, a favourite seat of the delightful science of archaeology; in no other city has the science of geology been more actively or successfully cultivated; and the museum of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society, opened on the 2nd February, 1830, is amongst the most prosperous in the kingdom. The singularly interesting grounds in which the museum stands, occupy one half of the ancient close of the Benedictine Abbey of Saint Mary, with a small portion of the old moat of the city walls, and of the inclosure within which the hospital of St. Leonard formerly stood. In this museum are collected an immense number of remains of antiquity; and there also is a very large assemblage of geological specimens. The former owe much to the late Rev. Charles Wellbeloved, assisted by the Rev. J. Kenrick. The geological collection is equally indebted to the persevering labours and the extensive discoveries of Professor John Phillips.

Amongst the recently discovered treasures of ancient times stored in this museum, are remains of an inscription as ancient even as the reign of the Emperor Trajan, which once adorned a great building erected at Eboracum in the year A.D. 108, in the seventh consulship of that emperor. These serve to show that the antiquity of the buildings and walls of Roman York is even greater than was supposed, namely, than the time of the Emperor Hadrian's visit to Britain, about the year 120 of the Christian era.

The Ancient and Modern Libraries of York. Almost from the earliest Christian times of the Anglian monarchy of Northumbria, York was the seat of an extensive and valuable library, described in the first volume of this work. This noble collection of books, after being the delight of English scholars for several generations, seems to have been utterly destroyed, in the numerous sieges and the destructive fires to which York was exposed, in the wars with the Danes and the Normans. But when something like internal tranquillity was restored, another library was formed at York, in connection with the minster. This library has continued in existence ever since, and now contains upwards of 8000 works of reference, including many rare and valuable manuscripts. Good modern libraries were established at York at the beginning of the present century.

York Minster at the Present Time. In the earlier part of this chapter we have very carefully traced the history of York minster from the time of King Eadwine of Northumbria (627), whom Dean Gale justly describes as the first founder of the minster, down to modern times; and in a subsequent summary of the principal dates of the history of York we shall show the progress of the fabric through its many stages, along with other remarkable events. No other cathedrals in England possess so many historical associations, except those of Canterbury and Westminster Abbey, the latter of which, however, only dates from the time of Edward the Confessor (1065-66); and in point of massiveness and grandeur, and of beauty combined with strength, it would be difficult to find anywhere in Europe a building producing so strong an impression as York minster. The beauty as well as the grandeur of this minster has been celebrated throughout Europe for many hundred years. AEneas Silvius, who was afterwards Pope Pius II., and who passed through York about the year 1450, even then described the church of York as worthy to be noted throughout the world for its vastness and beauty, and spoke of the chapter-house as a beautiful light chapel, whose glass walls rose between slender clustered columns. The best general exterior view of the minster is from the walls of York. One of the finest interior views, next to that seen on entering, as is usual, by the south transept, is that obtained by advancing from the west entrance about half-way up the nave, from which point the great tower arches and part of the windows of the lantern may be seen to advantage, as well as the long, high roofs of the nave and the choir, and the upper portion of the grand east window. The general impression made by the interior is that of grandeur displayed in harmonious proportions. In 1863 the vast nave was fitted for congregational purposes, with movable benches, choir seats, and an organ, and was lighted with gas. The minster thus lighted is singularly beautiful. There are many fine monuments in York minster; but in this respect it cannot compare with Westminster Abbey. Amongst the best are those of several of the most eminent archbishops of York. Some members of the Ingram family, who delighted in York as a residence, are interred here. Here also rest the remains of Charles Howard, earl of Carlisle, interred 1684; Sir Henry Belassis, 1630; and Sir George Savile, who died 1784, after having represented the county of York in Parliament for twenty-five years. The last monument was erected by public subscription, to a man well deserving the honour.

A building like York minster, constructed through so many ages, must have many styles of architecture. The inner wall of the crypt presents a specimen of the Saxon style. Some remains of Norman architecture are found at the west end of the crypt. The late Norman exists in its eastern portion; the early English in the north and south transepts; the decorated in the nave and chapter house; the early perpendicular in the lady chapel and presbyteria; the perpendicular in the choir, and the late perpendicular in the central and two western towers. The stone of which the minster is built is magnesian limestone, from quarries near Tadcaster, from the Huddleston quarries near Sherburn, and from Stapleton, near Pontefract. Considerable sums are yearly expended in maintaining and repairing the building. In the height of its roofs, which are 992 feet in the nave, and 102 feet in the choir, York minster exceeds every other English cathedral. The breadth of the nave is 104 feet, with its aisles. The breadth of the choir is ninety-nine and a half feet. The window at the eastern end contains a complete wall of beautiful coloured glass. It is one of the largest and finest windows in the world.

Modern Fires in the Minster at York. This magnificent building has suffered twice in modern times from dangerous conflagrations, one of them the act of a dangerous lunatic, Jonathan Martin, who concealed himself in the building, and set fire to the choir, on the 2nd of February, 1829. His madness was so evident, that when put upon his trial on Monday, March 31, 1829, he was found Not Guilty, though he was confined in a lunatic asylum, to the time of his death in the year 1838, to prevent further mischief. A public meeting for the restoration of the building was held at the Concert Room, York, on the 5th March, the then earl of Harewood in the chair, when it was determined that every thing should be restored as much as possible to its original form. This was done at an expense of about £65,000, and the whole completed before the year 1831. Another fire, accidental in its origin, if anything ought to be considered accidental that arises from the absence of the utmost precaution, occurred in the year 1840; did injury which it required £25,000 to repair; and again endangered a magnificent fabric, and remains of ancient genius, skill, and historical fame, which no amount of wealth could restore. While we write, the cathedral of Canterbury, almost the only building in England that can rival York minster, has narrowly escaped destruction, from what are also called accidental causes. It is only just to give the following note from the Rev. Mr. Raine's notes on the Fabric Rolls of York minster, as to the spirit in which this noble building is regarded and kept. The editor of the Fabric Rolls observes, that "in old times there were but few vacant spaces around our cathedrals. Commerce and traffic of every description were carried on at their very doors, as we may still see on the Continent. So it was at York. A range of tenements, extending from the West end of Belfrey's Church to the corner of Petergate, was removed within the last thirty years. The burial ground of the same church, which was adjacent to the minster, was frequently used for fairs and other festivities, nor was the inside of the cathedral itself free from gross neglect and profanation. There is more respect and consideration shown at the present day to our cathedrals, than was ever paid to them during the middle ages."

The Churches of York. The churches in York are cast into the shade by the minster; but many are of interesting architecture, and like the cathedral are rich in windows of stained glass. The most remarkable of these churches are All Saints (Pavement), St. Helen's (Stonegate), St. Martin's (Coney Street), St. Mary's (Castlegate), All Saints (North Street), St. Martin-cum-Gregory (Micklegate), St. Michael-le-Belfrey (near the minster), Holy Trinity (Goodram-gate), and St. Denis and St. Margaret's, both in Walmgate. There were forty-five churches in York before the Reformation; at the present time the number is still nearly thirty. York Castle is situated near the junction of the Ouse with the Fosse, on the south-east margin of the city. All that now remains of the old castle, built most probably during the reigns of the first three Edwards, is the ruin of the keep called Clifford's Tower. This marks the site of one of the original fortresses built by William the Conqueror. The other is supposed to have been on the Baile Mound, on the opposite side of the river Ouse. To write the history of this castle, and its successor the Edwardian fortress, would be to re-write a great part of the history of the city of York.

The first printer of a newspaper in York was Grace White, the widow of Mr. John White, printer, and the first weekly number was issued on Monday, February 23, 1718. It was called " The York Mercury, or a general view of the affairs of Europe, but more particularly of Great Britain, with useful observations on trade." The price of the paper was 1«d., and its dimensions seven inches by five inches and a half, small quarto, twelve pages. The papers now published in York are the York Herald, Yorkshire Gazette, Yorkshire Chronicle, and Yorkshire Telegraph, the two former published at 2d., and the two latter at ld. each.

The present Ouse Bridge, the successor of many ancient bridges across this fine river, one of which had the largest central arch in Europe, except the Rialto at Venice, was opened in the year 1820, in the second lord mayoralty of Mr. Alderman Peacock, who laid the foundation stone in 1810.

Lendal Bridge, which was erected according to a design of Mr. Page, of London, was opened in January, 1863. It crosses the river Ouse by a single Tudor arch of iron, the width of the span being 175 feet 2 inches. There is a clear height of 25 feet from the summer level of the river to the centre of the arch. The bridge has a footpath on each side 8 feet 3 inches in width, and the carriage way measures across 21 feet 4 inches, making the total internal width of the structure 37 feet 10 inches. The iron work is formed of six massive ribs let into the masonry of the abutments, and these ribs are supported to some extent by stone springers, which are carried down into the foundations. The carriage way is placed across the ribs, and consists of strong corrugated iron plates, thickly coated with asphalte to prevent corrosion. Upon these plates rests a bed of concrete, in which is fixed a paving of Mount-Sorrel granite, to make the road durable, the whole being covered with gravel. The footpaths are laid with smooth and broad flagging, obtained from the Hopton Wood quarries. The parapet on each side of the bridge is handsome. Its base has a plain surface of iron, and is surmounted by a neat coping. The beauty of the parapet lies in its central portion, which consists in a continuous series of quatrefoils, eighteen inches in diameter. In the middle of these quatrefoils are fixed shields with the arms of England, of the archiepiscopal see of York, and also of the white rose of York. No less than about 380 tons of iron were used in the building of the bridge; and the cost, including the approaches, amounted in round numbers to £35,000. The approaches to the minster from Lendal Bridge have been very much improved.

Railway. The Great Northern Railway is worthy of the cities which it connects, and from which it extends. The present station, which was erected in 1841, is situated in Tanner Row; but a new station, estimated to cost £200,000 is in course of construction (1872). It is situated outside the walls, and lies between the entrance to the present station and the bridge by which the Scarborough line crosses the river. It is to have what is called an island platform, and will be a through instead of a terminal station, like the old one. There is to be a magnificent hotel connected with it, fronting the river.

St. Mary's Abbey, York. Whilst so many noble edifices have totally disappeared, St. Mary's Abbey, for many ages one of the greatest glories of York, and still great in ruin, remains a monument of departed splendour. Happily these noble ruins have passed into the hands of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society, an association capable of appreciating their value, and certain to preserve them from every injury except the silent action of time.

The Hospitals, Asylums, and Schools of York. The city of York contains the remains of almost innumerable hospitals, founded in different ages and for different objects. Amongst these are the hospital of St. Anthony, Agar's, Barton's, the Spital or hospital of St. Catherine, Coltons, Ingram's, St. Leonard's, the Spital of St. Loy, the Maison Dieu in Whitefriars' Lane, Mason's Hospital, Middleton's, St. Thomas', Trinity, the hospital of Sir Robert Watter, the Alms Houses of the Cordwainers, Winterskelf Hospital, Lady Hewley's Charity, Wilson's Hospital, the County Hospital, the Dispensary and the Lunatic Asylum, the Free Grammar School, &c.

Conclusion of History of City of York. We conclude this account of the ancient and most interesting city of York, with the following extract as to Yorkshire and its time-honoured capital, from the Introduction to the Census of England, &c., for the year 1871.

"The country of the Brigantes was specially affected by the Romans; Agricola, it is said, founded York, which became the Altera Roma of his countrymen, and was famous once for its shipping and commerce, now deserted to points near the coast. It was Deira, the Deerland of the Saxons. Here the Northmen fought William I. and were conquered; the country was devastated, but soon recovered its station in English history. The battle of the Standard; the battle where the houses of York and Lancaster, on a Palm Sunday, fought out their great strife, and left on the fields of Towton thousands of slain; and Marston Moor, in the last English Civil War-finally attest the importance of this great battle-field of the kingdom. On the Derwent too, Harold had expended part of his forces in resisting the onslaught of the fleet of Northmen on the east side of the kingdom, while the more formidable foe arrived on the southern side, to strike the main blow at the heart of his dominions."

The population of the parliamentary city of York, according to the census of 1871, is 50,761, which is probably as large as it has been since the time of the Romans.

DATES OF THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS CONNECTED WITH THE HISTORY OF THE CITY OF YORK.

First Century of the Christian Era.
27 B.C. to A.D. 41.-Coins struck in the reigns of the Emperors Augustus, Tiberius, and Caligula, found at York, probably brought by the first Roman army.-
"Yorkshire: Past and Present," Vol. ii. p. 78.
44.-The Roman Emperor Claudius sends an army to invade Britain.-Vol. i. p. 281.
79.-The Brigantes, whose capital was Eboracum or York, conquered by Agricola.-Vol. i. p. 282.
Second Century.-
108.-Tablet found at York, in the year 1854, with inscription, stating that the work to which it belonged (probably a gateway in the walls of York), was erected by the Ninth Legion, by order of the Emperor Trajan, he being saluted Imperator the sixth time, corresponding to A.D. 108.- Vol ii. p. 78.
120.-The Emperor Hadrian in Britain and founds many great works.- Vol. i. p: 317.
130.-Eboracum the head-quarters of the Sixth Roman Legion, vol. i. p.321; and the capital of the Roman province of Britain.-Vol. i. p. 333
Third Century.-
211.-The Emperor Septimius Severus visits and dies at Eboracum.-Vol. i. p. 334-349.
Fourth Century.-
304.-The Emperor Constantius Chlorus visits and dies at Eboracum.-Vol. i. p. 335.
306.-Constantine the Great proclaimed emperor at Eboracum.-Vol. i. p. 335.
Fifth Century.-
120.-The Romans retire from Britain.-Vol. i. pp. 351-52.
Sixth Century.-
547.-Ida, the first king of the Northumbrian Angles, lands on the north-east coast of Britain, and a few years later captures Eboracum, called by the Angles and Saxons, Eoforwic.-Vol. i. pp. 354, 391.
Seventh Century.-
615 to 627.-Eadwine, the first Christian king of Northumbria, reigns, and coins money at Eoforwic, or York.-Vol. ii. p. 17.
627.-Eadwine, king of the Northumbrians, first founder of York minster.-Vol. i. p. 367. Vol. ii. p. 20.
632.-Oswald, king of Northumbria, second founder.-Vol. i. p. 370. Vol. ii. p. 20.
639.-Aldhelm, bishop of Sherburn, born this year, studied the Roman law, in the School of Law at York.
666.-Wilfrid, archbishop of York, third founder of the minster.-Vol. i. p. 377. Vol. ii. p. 21.
Eight Century.-
731.-Bede's account of the archbishopric of Northumbria or York.-Vol. i. p. 379.
762.-Albert, archbishop of York, fourth founder of York minster, and first founder of the library of York.-Vol. ii. pp. 22, 23.
766.-Athelstane, or Guthrum, Danish king of Northumbria, reigns and has a mint at York, called Jorvik by the Danes.-Vol. ii. p. 25. Ninth Century.-
804.-Aleuin describes the School of Roman Law as still existing at York.-Vol. i. p. 335.
Tenth Century.-
901.-Yorvik much frequented by Danish merchants, and said to have had 30,000 inhabitants.
939.-Athelstane the Great, the grandson of Alfred the Great, captures York, and coins money there. After his death Olaf, the Dane, recovers York. Vol. ii. p. 27.
Eleventh Century.-
1079.-York besieged by the Normans and Danes. Two castles built there by William the Conqueror.-Vol. ii. p. 28.
1068, 3rd William the Conqueror.-Thomas of Bayeux first Norman archbishop of York, rebuilder, and described by Dean Gale as fifth founder, of York Minster.-Vol. ii. p. 38.
1084 to 1086.-At Domesday Survey nearly 2000 burgages at York.-Vol. ii. p. 29.
Thirteenth Century.-
1200, 1st King John.-The king grants charters to citizens of York, and confirms previous charters of Henry I. and II.- Vol. ii. p. 34.
1200, 1st King John, to 1227, 11th Henry III.-Walter Gray, archbishop of York, commences the reconstruction of York minster.-Vol. ii. p. 39.
1216.-The register of the archbishops of York dates from this year, in the archbishopric of Walter Gray.
1250, 35th Henry III.-John Romanus, or the Roman, treasurer of York minster, builds the northern part of the choir and the bell tower, and refaces the southern tower.-Vol. ii. p. 39.
Fourteenth Century.-
1327-Walls of York rebuilt and strengthened by order of King Edward III.-Vol. ii. p. 43.
1329-King Edward III. and Philippa of Hainault, married in York minster.- Vol. ii. p. 43.
1361, 44th Edward III.-First stone of easternmost part of the minster, laid by Archbishop Thoresby.-Vol. ii. p. 40.
1370, 44th Edward III.-Walter Skirlaw, prebendary of Fenton, afterwards bishop of Durham, builds the bell tower.-Vol. ii. p. 40.
1394-King Richard II. visits York, and makes Walter de Selby, then mayor, with all his successors, lords mayor of York.-Vol. ii. p. 44.
Fifteenth Century.-
1461-Edward IV. crowned king of England at York, after battle of Towton Field, with royal cap, called Abacot.-Vol. ii. p. 48.
1466-67, 6th Edward IV.-College of S. William of York founded.
1472, 12th Edward IV.-" The interior of the minster being thoroughly finished, the minster consecrated on the 3rd of July, 1472."-Fabric Rolls.
1475, 15th Edward IV.-The central tower finished about this time.- Fabric Rolls.
1479, 19th Edward IV.-A payment made this year to John the Girdler for one zone of velvet, for the great horn of Ulphus.
1483.-Coronation of Richard III. and of his queen in York minster. Vol. ii. p. 49.
Sixteenth Century.-
1544, 35th Henry VIII.-The last Fabric Roll before the Reformation.
Seventeenth Century.-
1640-1644.-Roger Dodsworth completes his collection of documents at York.-Vol. ii; p. 65.
1642-43-Charles I. assembles Peers and an army at York, to resist the Parliament.-Vol. ii. p. 63.
1644.-The Civil War. York besieged, and taken by Fairfax, Cromwell, and Leven, after the battle of Marston Moor.-Vol. ii. p. 67.
1688.-Rising of Thomas Osborne, earl of Danby, afterwards duke of Leeds, and of the citizens and militia at York, against James II.-Vol. ii. p. 72.
1691.-Torre, the antiquary, commenced his collection at York.-Vol. ii. p. 74.
Eighteenth Century.-
1727.-Daniel Defoe visits and describes the city of York.-Vol. ii. p. 73.
1736.-Francis Drake publishes his "Eboracum, or History and Antiquities of York."-Vol. ii. p. 74.
Nineteenth Century.-
1829-Fire in the minster caused by an incendiary. Building restored, chiefly by contributions of the people of Yorkshire, at a cost of £65,000.-Vol. ii. pp. 80, 81.
1840-Fire in minster from negligence of workmen. Building restored, chiefly by the people of Yorkshire, at a cost of £25,000.-Vol. ii. p. 81.
1871.-Population of York, 1871, 50,761.-Vol. ii. p. 84.

SUCCESSION OF THE ARCHBISHOPS OF YORK.
627-633 Paulinus, retired, buried at Rochester. (See vacant above ten years.)
664-669 Chadd, abbot of Lastingham, buried at Lichfield.
669-678 Wilfrid I., retired.
678-686 Bosa, retired.
686-691 Wilfrid restored, deposed about 691, buried at Ripon.
691-705 Bosa restored, buried at York.
705-718 St. John of Beverley, bishop of Hexham, buried at Beverley.
718-732 Wilfrid II., retired.
732-766 Egbert, buried at York.
766-782 Albert, buried at York.
782-796 Eanbald I., buried at York.
796-812 Eanbald II.
812-831 Wulfsy.
837-854 Wigmund.
854-895 Wulfere.
895-928 Ethelbald.
928-930 Redewald or Lotheward.
931-956 Wulstan I., buried at Oundle.
956-972 Oskytel, bishop of Dorchester, buried at Bedford.
972 Ethelwold, resigned.
972-992 Oswald, held the see of Worcester in commendam, buried there.
992-1002 Adulph, abbot of Peterborough, buried there.
1002-1023 Wulstan II., held Worcester in commendam, buried at Ely.
1023-1050 Alfrick Puttoe, provost of Winchester, buried at Peterborough.
1050-1060 Kinsius, chaplain to Edward the Confessor, buried at Peterborough.
1060-1069 Alfred, bishop of Worcester, buried at York.
1070-1100 Thomas 1., treasurer of Bayeux, buried at York.
1101-1108 Gerard, bishop of Hereford, buried at York.
1108-1114 Thomas II., bishop-elect of London, buried at York.
1114-1140 Thurstan, canon of St. Paul's, buried at Pontefract.
1143-1147 William Fitzherbert, or St. William, treasurer of York, deposed.
1147-1153 Henry Murdoc, abbot of Fountains, buried at York.
1153-1154 St. William restored, buried at York, canonized by Nicholas III.
1154-1181 Roger de Pont l'Eveque, archdeacon of Canterbury, buried at York.
1191-1207 Geoffrey Plantagenet, bishop of Lincoln, retired in 1207. (See vacant nine years.)
1216-1255 Walter de Gray, bishop of Worcester, buried at York.
1256-1258 Sewal de Bovill, dean of York, buried at York.
1258-1265 Godfrey de Ludham, dean of York, buried at York.
1266-1279 Walter Giffard, bishop of Bath and Wells, buried at York.
1279-1285 William de Wickwaine, chancellor of York, buried at Pontigny.
1286-1297 John Romanus, the Roman, precentor of Lincoln, buried at York.
1297-1299 Henry de Newark, dean of York, buried at York.
1300-1304 Thomas de Corbridge, canon of York, buried at Southwell.
1304-1315 William de Greenfield, dean of Chichester, buried at York.
1317-1340 William de Melton, provost of Beverley, buried at York.
1342-1352 William la Zouche, dean of York, buried at York.
1352-1373 John de Thoresby, bishop of Worcester, buried at York.
1374 Alexander Neville, prebendary of York, buried at Louvaine.
1388 Thomas Arundell, bishop of Ely, translated to Canterbury.
1396 Robert Waldby, bishop of Chichester, buried in Westminster Abbey.
1398 Richard Scroope, bishop of Lichfield, buried at York.
1407 Henry Bowett, bishop of Bath and Wells, buried at York.
1426 John Kempe, bishop of London, cardinal and lord chancellor, translated to Canterbury.
1452 William Booth, bishop of Lichfield, buried at Southwell.
1464 George Neville, bishop of Exeter, lord chancellor, buried at York.
1476 Lawrence Booth, bishop of Durham, buried at Southwell.
1480 Thomas Rotherham, bishop of Lincoln, buried at York.
1501 Thomas Savage, bishop of London, buried at York.
1508 Christopher Bainbrigge, bishop of Durham, buried at Rome.
1514 Thomas Wolsey, bishop of Lincoln, cardinal, buried at Leicester.
1531 Edward Lee, prebendary of York, buried at York.
1544-1553 Robert Holgate, bishop of Llandaff, deprived, buried at Hemsworth.
1555-558 Nicholas Heath, bishop of Worcester, president of Wales, lord chancellor, deprived, buried at Cobham, Surrey.
1570 (1561, Lawton) Thomas Young, bishop of St. David's, first Protestant archbishop of York, buried at York.
1570 Edmund Grindall, bishop of London, translated to Canterbury.
1576 Edwin Sandys, bishop of London, buried at Southwell.
1589 John Piers, bishop of Salisbury, buried at York.
1595 Matthew Hutton, bishop of Durham, buried at York.
1606 Tobias Matthew, bishop of Durham, buried at York.
1628 George Mountaigne, bishop of Durham, buried at Cawood.
1629 Samuel Harsnet, bishop of Norwich, buried at Chigwell.
1632 Richard Neile, bishop of Winchester, buried at York.
1642 John Williams, bishop of Lincoln, buried at Llandeglay. (See vacant ten years.)
1660 Accepted Frewen, bishop of Lichfield, buried at York.
1664 Richard Sterne, bishop of Carlisle, buried at York.
1683 John Dolben, bishop of Rochester, buried at York.
1688 Thomas Lamplugh, bishop of Exeter, buried at York.
1691 John Sharp, dean of Canterbury, buried at York.
1714 Sir William Dawes, Bart., bishop of Chester, buried at St. Catherine's College, Cambridge.
1724 Lancellot Blackburne, bishop of Exeter, buried at St. Margaret's, Westminster.
1743 Thomas Herring, bishop of Bangor, translated to Canterbury.
1747 Matthew Hutton, bishop of Bangor, translated to Canterbury.
1757 John Gilbert, bishop of Salisbury.
1761 Hon. Robert Hay Drummond, bishop of Salisbury, buried at Bishopthorpe.
1777 William Markham, bishop of Chester, buried at Westminster Abbey.
1808 Hon. Edward Venables Vernon Harcourt, bishop of Carlisle, buried at Stanton Harcourt, county Oxford.
1848 Thomas Musgrave, bishop of Hereford, buried in Kensal Green.
1860 Charles Thomas Longley, bishop of Durham, translated to Canterbury, buried at Addington.
1863 William Thomson, bishop of Gloucester and Bristol.

Diocese of York. The county of York is divided into two dioceses. The see of Ripon, created in 1836, embraces Richmondshire, Craven, and part of the old deaneries of Pontefract and Doncaster. The diocese of York comprises the whole of the East Riding, and the eastern portion of the North and West Ridings. Its extent is 2,261,493 acres; there are 603 benefices ill it, divided into thirty rural deaneries, and three archdeaconries.


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