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YORKSHIRE, PAST AND PRESENT:

A HISTORY AND A DESCRIPTION OF THE THREE RIDINGS OF THE GREAT COUNTY OF YORK,
FROM THE EARLIEST AGES TO THE YEAR 1870;
WITH AN ACCOUNT OF ITS MANUFACTURES, COMMERCE, AND CIVIL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.

BY THOMAS BAINES,
AUTHOR OF "LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE, PAST AND PRESENT," ETC.
INCLUDING
AN ACCOUNT OF THE WOOLLEN TRADE OF YORKSHIRE, BY EDWARD BAINES, M.P.,
AUTHOR OF "THE HISTORY OF THE COTTON MANUFACTURE," ETC, ETC. VOL. 11.


YORKSHIRE PAST AND PRESENT.

CHAPTER X.

HISTORY OF THE BOROUGH AND WATERING PLACE OF SCARBOROUGH.

THE beautiful and popular watering-place of Scarborough stands in the bosom of a fine bay, on the steep and rocky shores of the German Ocean, and in a position on the Yorkshire coast nearly central between Flamborough Head and Whitby. The ledges of the Oolitic rock on which the town is built rise from the shore in the form of an amphitheatre, ledge towering over ledge; and the concave slope of its semicircular bay gives the town and neighbourhood a very picturesque appearance. The situation, is thus described by the correct and elegant historian of Scarborough. "To the north-east of the town stand the ruins of the ancient castle of Scarborough, whose venerable walls adorn the summit of a lofty promontory. To the south is a vast expanse of ocean, a scene of the highest magnificence, where fleets of ships are frequently passing. The receding of the tide leaves a spacious area upon the sands, equally convenient for exercise and sea-bathing. The refreshing gales of the ocean, and the shade of the neighbouring hills, give an agreeable temperature to the air during the sultry heats of summer, and produce a grateful serenity."*

Scarborough has thus risen to its present high position among the watering places of England from the beauty of its situation, from its health-giving mineral waters, and its smooth and extensive sands. It stands on one of the few points on the coast of England, at which the sandy rocks of the Oolitic formation are laid bare by the working of the tides of the sea. The only other point in the British islands at which this formation is thus beaten upon and exposed, is at Weymouth and the adjoining Isle of Portland, in Dorsetshire, which also possesses a remarkable amount of natural beauty, and even grandeur. Scarborough was already a flourishing watering-place at the time when it was visited by Daniel Defoe, in the reign of George 1., though at that time it was extremely difficult of access from the interior, across the hills and wolds of the North and East Ridings. Even at the beginning of the present century the communication with this part of the coast was kept up with difficulty, by the royal mail and a few stage coaches from York, Hull, and Leeds, which, however, were remarkably well filled during the summer months. But since the introduction of railways Scarborough has become easily accessible from every part of the kingdom, and it is now one of the most frequented, as well as one of the most beautiful, watering places on the British coast. New works of various kinds, calculated to develop the beauties of nature, have been introduced on the most liberal scale; and in addition to a resident population, which amounted to 24,259 persons in 1871, Scarborough is now frequented in the summer months by thousands and even tens of thousands of visitors from every part of the kingdom. Before describing the modern town of Scarborough, it will be well to give an account of the early history not only of the town, but of its strong and magnificent castle, which was for many ages the bulwark, as it is still the ornament, of this part of the coast of Yorkshire.

Ancient History of the Borough of Scarborough.- Scarborough, the burgh or fortress on the cliffs, was a town and seaport of some strength and importance previous to the Norman conquest. As we have already mentioned in our account of the early history of Yorkshire, Scarborough was taken and burnt by Herald Harder, king of Norway, in 1066, the same year in which the battle of Hastings was fought and won by the Norman conqueror. In that year Harald Hardrada, then the most formidable of the Norwegian sea-kings, landed on the coast of Cleveland in Yorkshire, from a powerful feet, and with a large Norwegian army, to support Tosti, earl of Northumberland, the brother of the last Anglo-Saxon king, Harold, who had been expelled from his extensive earldom of Northumberland, by an insurrection of his own people. This invasion ended in the defeat and death of Harald of Norway and of Earl Tosti, both of whom fell in a great battle fought at Stamford Bridge, near York, in the year 1066. But previous to that battle, the invaders overran the greater part of the North and East Ridings, obtaining considerable successes. Amongst these was the capture of Scarborough. We have no precise account of the fortifications of the town at that early age; but even then they were so strong that the place was only taken by making great fires of brushwood on the cliffs outside the town, the embers of which spread to the wooden buildings within it, and thus compelled the garrison and the inhabitants to surrender themselves, and what remained of the place, to the invaders.* As we are told, the Norwegian king led his army to the top of a hill that overlooks the town, and made a great pile of fagots there. This he set on fire, and when the fire was burning fiercely, his men took large forks and pitched the burning wood into the town, setting it on fire in many places, and compelling the inhabitants to surrender. "There the Northmen killed many people, and took all the booty they could lay their hands on."

Scarborough and the surrounding country belonged to Earl Tosti in the reign of Edward the Confessor. It was then included in the manor or lordship of Walsgrave, or perhaps Falsgrave (which may mean the lordship of the fells or cliffs). This extended over great part of the adjoining district, and probably formed a military government intrusted with the defence of that important part of the coast and its harbour. The lordship included no less than eighty-four carucates (of 180 to 200 acres each) of taxable land, and the population consisted of 107 socmen, or tenants of the soke or lordship, who held forty-six carucates. But after the destructive wars which preceded or followed the Norman conquest, there only remained, at the time of the Domesday Survey, made about twenty years after the Norman invasion, seven socmen, together with fifteen villeins, and fourteen bordars or cottagers; and not more than seven and a half carucates of land were in actual cultivation at that time, the rest lying waste.

The Castle of Scarborough.- The ancient and stupendous castle of Scarborough, built on a lofty promontory rising from the sea to a height of more than 300 feet, and in a position which was almost impregnable previous to the invention of gunpowder, was erected about-eighty years after the Norman conquest, in the reign of King Stephen, the nephew of William the Conqueror, and between the years 1135- 54, by William le Gros, earl of Albermarle and Holderness, who commanded the English army in the great battle of the Standard, fought in that reign at Northallerton, against the invading armies of Scotland, and who was one of the ablest and most successful commanders in that turbulent age. The object in constructing the castle was to form an impregnable bulwark against attacks, both by sea and by land, on that part of the Yorkshire coast; and such the castle of Scarborough proved to be for many ages. During the Barons' wars, it was one of the fortresses placed in the hands of the barons by Henry III., and was held by them in spite of the threats of the king and the excommunication of the pope, who backed Henry against the barons in the contest. In the first war between King Edward II. and the earl of Lancaster, originating chiefly in the former's blind partiality for Piers de Gaveston, the royal favourite took refuge in the castle of Scarborough, where, however, he was obliged to surrender from want of supplies. In the same reign the army of Robert Bruce overran this district of Yorkshire, and destroyed the greater part of the town, but without being able to capture the castle, which was proof against anything except surprise or a long blockade. In the insurrection entitled the Pilgrimage of Grace, in the year 1536, Robert Aske, leader of the insurgents, took the town and made an unsuccessful attack upon the castle. In a subsequent insurrection, at the time of Wyatt's rebellion against Queen Mary, in the year 1553, the castle was surprised by a number of soldiers, who obtained entrance, disguised as peasants coming to market. This achievement was performed by Thomas, the second son of Lord Stafford; but his success was very brief, for three days afterwards the castle was retaken by Nevill, earl of Westmoreland, and Stafford and the other leaders were sent to London, and were there executed for high treason. Scarborough Castle was twice besieged, or rather blockaded, in the great civil war between Charles I. and his Parliament. The first siege was by the parliamentary army, under the command of Sir John Meldrum, who was killed in the course of the attack, though the fortress was ultimately taken by his successor, Sir Matthew Boynton, to whom Sir Hugh Cholmely, the royalist governor, was compelled to surrender it, in July, 1645. At a subsequent period, when the Scottish Presbyterian army advanced into England to restore the deposed king, Colonel Boynton, the governor, declared for Charles, and the castle once more fell into the hands of the royalists. But the garrison growing mutinous, after the defeat of the Scots, he was obliged to surrender, on the 19th December, 1648, and the castle was again occupied by a parliamentary force, under the command of Colonel Bethel. This was the close of the numerous sieges of Scarborough Castle, the works being then, partially at least, destroyed by order of the Long Parliament; but it was still a place of great natural strength, and in the Jacobite insurrection of 1745 works were erected, and three batteries were formed, for the protection of the town and harbour, two of them at the south, and one on the north side of the castle yard.

The noble and still extensive ruins of the castle of Scarborough rise to a height of more than 300 feet on the southern, and 330 feet on the northern side. The western front is a high, steep, and rocky slope, commanding the town and bay. The level area of the castle covers nineteen acres of ground, and there was a large reservoir of water called "Our Lady's Well." "It is said that the engineer who superintended the building of the barracks and other military works, about the year 1746, ordered the workmen to dig a circular trench round the reservoir, in order to trace the source of the water; and that they discovered subterraneous drains or channels, which appeared to have been made for the purpose of catching the rainfall of the castle-hill," which was found to be sufficient in amount to supply the wants of a considerable garrison.

The Parliamentary and Municipal Borough of Scarborough.- Scarborough is a parliamentary borough, sending two members to Parliament, and has been so from the time when the representative system was first introduced into England in the reign of King Edward I. It was incorporated by charter in the reign of Henry II.; and its customs, liberties, &c., were confirmed by King John and by Henry III. It ranks among the most ancient boroughs that send members to Parliament. The earliest grant for murage or tolls for inclosing and fortifying the town, occurs in the 5th year of Henry III. (1224-25). The oldest pavage grant is of the 28th of Edward III. (1354-55), although the Dominican monks had paved a street in Scarborough in the reign of Edward I. "In the Parliament that was held in the year 1282, and which was nearly the first Parliament in England, being held in the eleventh year of Edward I., Scarborough was the only city or borough in Yorkshire, except the city of York, that was summoned to send representatives to that assembly. The arms of the borough bear the marks of considerable antiquity. A ship of the rudest form, a watch tower, and a star, appear on the common seal. Its registry in the Herald's College is without date, and it is there classed amongst the most ancient. The bailiff's seal of office is a ship only, of very antique form, with two towers on the deck, and a smaller one at the top of the mast."

The Port and Harbour of Scarborough.- Scarborough is one of the best among the few harbours on this rock-bound coast; and according to the authority of Leland, it obtained considerable privileges so early as the reign of King Henry I. In the year 1252 Henry III. granted letters patent for making a new pier at Scardebourg, (as the name was then spelt); and in one of the charters of that king, recited and confirmed by King Edward III. in the year 1356, mention is repeatedly made of the new town in contrast with the old. Leland gives the following description of Scarborough, in the reign of King Henry VIII.:-"Scardebourg town, though it be privileged, yet seemeth to be in Pickering Lithe district, for the castle of Scardebourg is counted of the jurisdiction of Pickering, and the shore to the very point at Filey Brig by the sea, about six miles from Scardebourg, towards Bridlington, is of Pickering Lithe jurisdiction. Scardebourg, where it is not defended by the rocks and the sea, is walled a little with stone, but mostly protected with ditches and walls of earth. In the town, to enter by land, be two gates, Newburgh gate (meately [moderately] good), and Aldeburgh gate (very base). The town standeth wholly on a stately cliff, and showeth very fair to the sea-side. There is but one parish church in the town, that of Our Lady, joining almost to the castle; it is very fair and aisled, on the sides and cross-aisle, and has three ancient towers for bells, with pyramids (or spires) on them, whereof two towers be at the west end of the church, and one in the middle of the cross-aisle. There is a great chapel by the sea, by Newburgh gate, and there were in the town three houses of friars-grey, black, and white."

Scarborough as a Harbour of Refuge.- Although Scarborough was a place of some trade in early times, and was frequented by German, or as they were then called, Easterling merchants, who attended great fairs held on the sea-shore; and although the herring fishery was carried on both by the native fishermen and by the then more enterprising fishermen of Holland, who frequented this part of the coast in the reign of Queen Elizabeth-the trade in those times was not sufficient to enable the merchants of Scarborough to construct a large artificial harbour at their own expense, chiefly owing to the want of a navigable river giving water carriage to the interior. But about the beginning of the reign of George II. the necessity for forming a harbour of refuge on this coast, into which vessels might run in stormy weather, became so urgent that an Act was passed authorizing the imposition of passing tolls on the colliers of Newcastle and other vessels, for the purpose of making and maintaining a safe and convenient harbour at Scarborough. In the year 1731-32, the 5th George II., an Act was passed for enlarging the pier and harbour at a cost of £12,000. By this Act, which was called the New Pier Act, a duty or passing toll of a halfpenny per chaldron was imposed on all coals laden in any ship or vessel clearing out from Newcastle-on-Tyne, or the ports belonging to it, and passing Scarborough, together with other duties on imports, exports, and shipping, payable at Scarborough. Under the powers of this Act the pier was lengthened to 1200 feet, and widened to an extreme breadth of forty-two feet. But the commissioners ultimately judged it better to build a new pier, sweeping into the sea, and forming a large part of a circle. The foundation of this pier was from sixty to sixty-three feet in breadth, the width at the top forty- two feet, and the elevation of the pier forty feet. The stone used in building it was taken from a quarry at the White Nab, two miles distant. It is of a close texture, and almost impenetrable to the tool, from its extreme hardness. The depth of the water at the extremity of this pier, at full spring tides, was from twenty to twenty- four feet; at low water, only two or three feet. It is but within the last twenty years that passing tolls have been abolished, and that the harbours of Scarborough, Whitby, and Bridlington, have been left to be sustained by local resources. Even at the present time there is a great want of a good harbour of refuge on this part of the Yorkshire coast, and much valuable property and many still more valuable lives are lost from the absence of such a harbour.

The Storms on the Yorkshire Coast.- The fishermen of Scarborough, who amounted in numbers to 551 at the Census of 1871, are among the boldest in the British seas, and are always ready to render their assistance in the gales and storms which are so prevalent there in the winter months. The storms along this part of the coast are frequently of dreadful violence. For instance, on the 2nd November, 1861, "a hurricane prevailed in the neighbourhood of Scarborough, where the new life- boat was brought into use for the rescue of those in peril. We are told that the route from the life-boat station to the Spa Saloon was along the line of shore where the sea broke furiously; in fact, at times over the Saloon tower. The gallant seamen who manned the boat pulled through the surf until they arrived opposite the Spa, and within a few yards of a stranded vessel (the schooner Coupland, of Shields), when the rebound of the water from the sea wall of the Spa caused the boat to pitch in an alarming and fatal manner. Two of the crew were washed out and drowned, and the rest were more than ever at the mercy of the waves. Ropes were thrown from the Spa, the boat was hauled up, and after getting out of her, a fearful roll of the sea washed the crew from the landing place, and four more of the men perished. Lord Charles Beauclerk (brother of the duke of St. Albans) and Mr. W. Tindall (son of a banker at Scarborough), lost their lives in generously and nobly attempting to save the imperilled life-boat crew. Every street of the town bore evidence of the violence of the storm. Houses were unroofed, photographic galleries were completely smashed, and some new houses were blown down."

The Mineral Waters of Scarborough.- The reputation of Scarborough as a watering place originated with its mineral waters; but the pleasures and advantages of sea-bathing now form its greatest attraction. Writing at the beginning of the present century, Hutton says:-"Perhaps Scarborough formerly was more in fashion for its mineral waters than for its bathing. Drinking the waters is an ancient custom; bathing is a modern but growing fashion." The mineral waters were discovered more than 200 years ago, under the following circumstances:-Mrs. Farrow, a sensible and intelligent lady who lived at Scarborough about the year 1620, sometimes walked along the shore, and observing the stones over which the waters passed to have received a russet colour, and finding the water to have an acid taste, different from the common springs, and to receive a purple tincture from galls, thought it probable that it might have a medicinal property. Having, therefore, tried it herself, and persuaded others to do the same, it was found to be efficacious in some complaints, and became the usual medicine of the inhabitants. It was afterwards in great reputation with the citizens of York and the gentry of the country, and at length was so generally recommended that many persons came from a great distance to drink it, preferring the waters of this Spa before all the others they had formerly frequented, even the Italian, French, and German.* Of Scarborough and its mineral waters, Defoe, writing in the reign of George I., says:-"Scarborough next presents itself, a place formerly famous for a strong castle, situate on a rock, as it were hanging over the sea, but now demolished, being ruined in the last wars. The town is well built, populous, and pleasant, and we found a great deal of good company here drinking the waters, who came not only from all the north of England, but even from Scotland." He says: "It is hard to describe the taste of the waters; they are apparently tinged with a collection of mineral salts, as of vitriol, alum, iron, and perhaps sulphur, and taste evidently of the alum. Here is such a plenty of all sorts of fish that I have hardly seen the like; and in particular, here we saw turbots of three quarters of a hundredweight, and yet they eat exceeding fine when taken new."

A few years subsequent to Defoe's visit to Scarborough a great land slip, almost deserving the name of an earthquake, threatened to swallow up and bury the springs by which the Spa is fed. This movement of the ground, and its effects on the springs, are thus described:-
"The Spa-house is situate on the sea-shore, at the foot of the cliff, a little to the south of the town. In the year 1698 a cistern was built for collecting the waters. In the month of December, 1737, the staith (or buildings and foundations) of the Spa, composed of a large body of stone bound by timber, as a fence against the sea for the security of the Spa-house, gave way in a most extraordinary manner. A great mass of the cliff, containing nearly an acre of pasture land, with the cattle grazing on it, sunk perpendicularly several yards. As the ground sank, the earth or sand under the cliff rose on the north and south sides of the staith and forced it out of its original position about a hundred yards in length, and in some places six, and in others seven yards above its former level. The Spa-wells ascended with the earth or sand; but so soon as the latter began to rise the water ceased running into the wells, and for a time seemed to be lost. The ground thus raised was twenty-six yards broad; and the staith, notwithstanding its immense weight (computed at 2463 tons), rose twelve entire feet higher than its former position, and was forced about twenty yards forward to the sea. The springs of the mineral waters were by diligent search recovered, and the staith being repaired, the Spa continued in great reputation."

Sea-bathing, which is now the great attraction of Scarborough, did not become fashionable until after the visit of Defoe, described above; but the bathing carriages had come into use, according to Smollett's "Humphrey Clinker," in the year 1767; and it was at Scarborough that Matthew Bramble, whilst swimming from a bathing machine, was dragged on shore by the faithful Clinker, who thought that his master was drowning. Sheridan's amusing comedy of the "Trip to Scarborough" shows that the fame of this bathing place had then extended to the south of England.

Scarborough at the Commencement of the Present Century.- We have a number of particulars with regard to Scarborough as it was in the year 1803, in Hutton's "Tour" to that place, of which the following are the most worthy of notice:-
"The town," he says, "is built upon a cliff close to the sea, is very compact, the houses of a dark-coloured brick and covered with red tiles...... The unevenness of the town will appear from the following facts:- You rise ninety-four steps from the sands at the new steps to the top of Merchant's Row, perhaps thirty yards perpendicular; from thence to the churchyard twice that height; and from the churchyard to the castle about forty more. So that, in covering an horizontal space of 500 yards, you rise about 130...... The sea is an everlasting amusement. Every look from the window brings something new. Ships are always in sight, passing between the north and south, generally from ten to thirty, which have no connection with Scarborough.... In the morning of July the 4th, 1803, I saw 200 sail from Newcastle passing towards the south, a fleet which took two or three hours to pass. They were unguarded, though at war with France. In the evening I saw the Baltic fleet move towards the north; what number I cannot tell, but with a glass we counted 198 at one view. . . . We supposed that number lay in the compass of seven miles. They were convoyed by three vessels; one led the van, another was in the centre, the third brought up the rear, and each gave us a salute at passing by.... I believe the piers were raised, and are supported against the ravages of that powerful element the sea, by a tax upon coals from Newcastle, which supply the place. It is scarcely in the power of art to barricade against it. Nothing but native rock can stand its fury. Every contrivance to strengthen the piers is adopted, and yet they give way."

"The south side of the bay is secured by the high land, which runs towards the east to Filey Point, about seven miles, nay, even to Flamborough Head, more than twenty miles, which is plainly seen. Sheltered by the castle-hill and the piers, there are generally from ten to twenty vessels at anchor, and these are on the ground when the tide is out. The north side of the bay is secured by two piers, projecting from the foot of Castle-hill. They separate as they proceed, rise about eight or ten yards, are about twenty wide, and project into the sea 300 or 400. They were raised at a vast expense, and are composed of stones of all sizes, mixed with piles, and banded with timber. It is one of the best harbours on this coast, and the chief between Hull and Newcastle. From the security of the high lands on the south, the town upon a cliff on the west, the Castle-hill and piers on the north, vessels ride in the utmost safety."

The Scenery around Scarborough."The views," says Mr. Hutton in his pleasant "Trip," "in the vicinity of Scarborough are most extensive and charming. The first of these is from the churchyard, exalted at the foot of the castle, and higher than the most elevated buildings... The castle, which is much higher, commands a more extensive view; then the observer finds himself opposed to the winds. . . . But the greatest elevation is Mount Oliver, on the south of the town. The name is said, by tradition, to be derived from Oliver Cromwell having planted his cannon upon the top to batter the castle; and though it is very doubtful whether Oliver was ever personally present at the siege of Scarborough, his name had at that time become exceedingly famous, and may have been given to one of the points of, attack. The mount itself is a beautiful object. You rise a considerable height from the sands before you arrive at its broad base, where a good road winds you round to the summit, which is level, with a fine and safe ride a mile round."

Another writer of a somewhat more recent date says: "No part of the British coast affords a situation more commodious for bathing than Scarborough. The bay is spacious and open to the sea, and the water is pure and transparent. The sand is clear, smooth, and level, and the inclination of the beach towards the sea is scarcely perceptible. No considerable river dilutes the brine, nor is the beach so extensive as to be uncomfortably hot, even under a summer's sun. The sea in the month of August is many degrees cooler than at Brighton, and possibly than at Weymouth, or any place southward of the Thames; and bathing may be performed at all times of the tide, and in almost all sorts of weather, with security and ease.

"Near Scarborough the country is richly diversified with hills and dales, exhibiting every variety of romantic scenery. Towards the north elevated moors of great extent raise their bleak and barren summits, forming a bold and striking contrast in the landscape to the highly cultivated country that lies to the westward. And to the south and south-west, the Wold hills in the East Riding present another grand and extensive line of boundary to the prospect. Weaponness, or Oliver's Mount, little more than a mile from the town, possesses every requisite that can render an excursion to its summit delightful. The roads are judiciously laid out, and their ascents are easy, seldom exceeding seven or eight feet in a hundred. Thus the tourist ascends without difficulty to one of the most delightful terraces in England, elevated 500 feet above the level of the sea. From this commanding eminence there is a magnificent view of the coast, the Castle-hill, the town, the harbour, the piers, and the ocean, bounded only by the horizon; and in the western prospect the moors, the wolds, and the extensive vale stretching out towards Malton and Pickering, exhibit a highly diversified scenery."*

The Modern Town of Scarborough.- The modern town of Scarborough is well built, and various circumstances concur to render it a charming summer's retreat. The principal streets in the upper town are spacious and well paved, with excellent flagged footways on each side; and the houses have, in general, a handsome appearance. The new buildings on the Cliff stand almost unrivalled in respect of situation, having in front a beautiful terrace, elevated nearly 100 feet above the level of the sands, and commanding a variety of delightful prospects. As residences these buildings are equally elegant, commodious, pleasant, and healthy, being agree ably ventilated by refreshing breezes from the sea. In different parts of the town there are many excellent lodging-houses, where visitors may be accommodated in an agreeable manner. There are gardens with public walks, which afford a pleasant and salubrious amusement; and an elegant assembly-room and a handsome theatre are alternately open in the summer evenings. The shops are well stored with various articles of utility and excellence.

One of the most important improvements in this town was the erection of the Cliff Bridge; the difficulty of access from the Cliff to the Spa had often been justly complained of by visitors, and Mr. Cattle, of York, projected the elegant edifice which now forms a delightful promenade between the Spa and the town. The first stone was laid November 29, 1826, and the Spa Bridge was opened July 19, 1827; it cost nearly £8000, which was raised in shares. There are four cast-iron arches, resting on pyramidal piers, seventy- five feet above high water mark.

"On the northern side of the bridge has been erected an elegant circular edifice with a dome, for the Museum of the Philosophical Society, from a design by Messrs. Atkinson & Sharpe. The interior has a highly interesting series of geological specimens, and other objects of natural history or local antiquity, arranged in the most pleasing manner."

On the 1st July, 1865, the Ramsdale Valley Bridge at Scarborough was opened with a procession, in which every public body in the town was represented. A bridge across the valley was originally suggested by the late Mr. Robert Williamson in 1849, when the corporation gave him permission to construct the same. Some unavoidable delays occurred to prevent the fulfilment of the company's wishes. During the progress of the work Mr. Williamson's death occurred in France, and Mr. John Haigh was appointed to succeed him in the chairmanship of the Valley Bridge Company. The bridge is now completed and is opened as a public toll- bridge. At the inauguration it appeared as though Scarborough had by universal consent turned out to do honour to the occasion.

The South and North Cliffs of Scarborough.- The best built and most fashionable part of Scarborough is the South Cliff, with the Esplanade, commanding most extensive sea views, and the walks on the Cliff and the open country. The North Cliff is a new and quieter suburb. The town on the South Cliff' continues to increase. The Cliff Bridge across the ravine between the Old Town and the South Cliff was completed in 1827, and the Spa buildings and Promenade in 1858. During the last ten years there has been an increase of more than six thousand persons in the resident population, and an almost unlimited increase in the number of visitors. Houses and terraces are springing up in all directions at the back of the Spa, towards Oliver's Mount. Those on the North Cliff, beyond the castle, are almost entirely new. The town has only been extended on this side since 1840, though the sands here are quite as fine and more extensive than those below the South Cliff.

The water of the Spa consists of two springs, differing very slightly from each other. They are rich in carbonates and sulphates of lime and magnesia, and are said to be of service in dyspeptic cases.

The charitable institutions in Scarborough are numerous and well supported. The Amicable Society was founded by R. North, Esq., in 1729, for clothing and educating the children of poor persons in this town. The Seamen's Hospital, near the last-mentioned edifice, is under the superintendence of the Trinity House, Deptford, Stroud. A sea-bathing infirmary was established here in 1811, through the persevering efforts of the late Archdeacon Wrangham.

The parish church of St. Mary, with its chapels, was given by Richard I. in 1198 to the Abbey of Citeaux, in Burgundy, for the purpose of making three days' provision for members of the Cistercian order attending the annual chapter-general there. Henry IV. seized all their property here as belonging to an alien house, and the church of Scarborough was then given to the priory of Bridlington. The existing church consists of the nave of the original building. The choir was destroyed during the siege of the castle in 1645, and the central tower was so much injured that it fell in the year 1659. It was rebuilt in 1669. An extensive restoration was completed in the year 1850. The church, which now consists of a nave, with a south aisle and chantry chapel, and two north aisles, and contains a very good organ and several monuments, was formerly a spacious and magnificent structure. The ruins of the chancel still seen in the eastern part of the churchyard, the dismembered appearance of the western end of the church, the subterraneous arches extending to the west, and the great quantity of foundation-stones discovered in the new burial ground contiguous to it, are sufficient proof's that it is, in its present state, only a small part of a vast edifice which may have formed the Cistercian Abbey and the church the time of Henry VIII. it was, as already stated, according to Leland, adorned with three ancient towers, two of which were at the west end, and the other was over the centre of the transept. This last, having been greatly shaken during the siege of the castle in the year 1644, fell in October, 1659, and considerably injured a great part of the nave. The present steeple, which now stands singularly at the east end of the church, was erected on the ruins, and occupies the place of the transept tower. The time and the cause of the demolition of the two western towers do not appear to be well ascertained.

There were formerly three other churches in Scarborough, viz., St. Nicholas, on the cliff in the front of the new buildings; St. Sepulchre, in the street of that name; and St. Thomas, in Newborough, which was destroyed by fire from the guns of the castle during the siege in 1644.

On the 20th September, 1864, the foundation-stone of a third Congregational church for Scarborough was laid by Lady Salt, the wife of Sir Titus Salt, Bart., of Methley Park and Saltaire. The cost of the edifice with site, organ, clock, and chimes, was about £16,000.

Near the gate through which the road leads into the castle is a very pretty drinking fountain, a memorial of Thomas Hinderwell, the historian of Scarborough (1798), whose labours have been the foundation of all subsequent notices of the town.

The population of Scarborough in 1861 was 18,380, and in 1871, 24,259 persons. This may be considered the resident population, the census being taken in the month of April, when there are scarcely any visitors. But during the summer and autumn months, especially in August and September, Scarborough is crowded with thousands of visitors, and the resources and means of amusement are almost unlimited.

The principal points of interest of Scarborough are, in the old town, the castle, and St. Mary's Church; and on the South Cliff, the Spa, the Promenade, St. Martin's Church, and the South Cliff Church. The view from the churchyard over the town and to the South Cliff is very fine.

Scarborough Public Buildings, &c.- By the Cliff Bridge you cross the valley and enter the grounds of the Cliff Company. The side of the cliff is laid out in terraced walks, parterres, and shrubberies, from designs furnished by Sir Joseph Paston. At the base of the cliff are the Spa Promenade and Music Hall. The latter building was opened in 1858, and is admirably adapted for the purposes intended. It is approached from the north end by a colonnade 188 feet long, and will accommodate 1400 persons. The area of the promenade has been increased 2800 superficial yards, which, together with the old promenade and the carriage road, gives a sea frontage of 1600 feet in length. A lofty tower is erected near the southern end, from which a good view is obtained of the town, and the whole of the coast line. A little further south an elevator has been constructed by a private company, by means of which visitors may ascend from the sands to the South Cliff without fatigue.

The Museum is a rotunda of the Roman Doric order, 37 feet 6 inches in its external diameter, and 50 feet high. It is connected with the Philosophical and Archaeological Society, and contains many rare specimens of geology and local antiquity.

Promenade Pier, North Bay, was designed by E. Birch, Esq., C.E., of Westminster. It is 1000 feet long, and 25 feet wide. On both sides there is seating the whole length of the pier. The seaward end is 50 feet wide, 150 feet long, and in the middle of it there is a saloon for shelter and refreshments. The steam-boats here embark and disembark passengers at any state of the tide.

The superficial area of the Marine Aquarium in course of construction is equal to that of York minster, and extends to the sands under the Cliff Bridge. The site is considered to be very superior, and its proximity to the extensive fishing grounds on the east coast most advantageous. The principal proprietors are also connected with the Brighton Aquarium, the success of which has encouraged them to enter upon this undertaking, in which will be many improvements suggested by their practical experience. The engineer is E. Birch, Esq. The contracts for the building amount to £75,000, and the whole is expected to be completed in May, 1876.

The Mechanics' Hall and Literary Institute, situated in Vernon Place, is in the Grecian style of architecture, with two fluted Doric columns in front, and above these two Ionic columns supporting the middle cornice. It contains a large lecture or music hall, a library, class-rooms, a spacious reading-room, and all the requirements of a public building of this character.

The Race-course and Grand Stand is situated about two miles from the town on Seamer-moor. The Club occupies a fine site on the Old Cliff, and is supported by private gentlemen, admission to which is by ballot.

Drinking Fountains.- There are no fewer than six fountains erected in various parts of the town, some of them of exquisite design, especially the two in the South Cliff; one, in memory of the late Robert Williamson, situated at the south end of the Valley Bridge; the other, in memory of Miss Mary Williamson, opposite the South Cliff Church.

Places of Divine Worship.- The Church of England has five; Roman Catholics, one; Congregationalists, three; Baptists, two; Wesleyans, two; Primitive Methodists, two; United Methodist Free Church, one; Society of Friends, one; also, various mission-rooms belonging to the Congregationalists, Methodists, and others.

Charitable Institutions.- The Seamen's Hospital, built in 1752, contains thirty-six separate apartments for seamen or their widows. The Trinity House was opened in 1833, and is also occupied by disabled seamen or their widows. The charity itself has existed for two or three hundred years. St. Thomas' Hospital was founded in the reign of Henry II., and contains thirteen tenements for aged and infirm poor. Taylor's Free Dwellings accommodate fourteen persons. Wilson's Mariners' Asylum is for fourteen decayed mariners. Spinsters' Hospital is occupied by thirteen aged spinsters. Wheelhouse and Buckle's Almshouses are built in the form of a square, with hall and tower at one end; each dwelling consists of a good porch, a living-room, bedroom, and scullery, besides a larder, coal closet, &c. Royal Northern Sea-bathing Infirmary was founded in 1812, and has accommodation for about eighty patients. The Dispensary and Accident Hospital was founded in 1851, and supplies gratuitous medical relief to the poor. The Cottage Hospital was founded by Mrs. Wright, who still lives to devote her entire time and means to the charity. Twenty-four patients can be received.

DATES AND NOTES RELATING TO THE BOROUGH AND WATERING PLACE OF SCARBOROUGH.
1066.-Scarborough taken by the Norwegian king, Harald Hardrada, and Earl Tosti, brother of King Harold of England.-Yorkshire: Past and Present, vol. ii. p. 548.
1084-1086.-Scarborough as described in Domesday Book.-Vol. ii. p. 549
1135-1154.-The castle of Scarborough built by the earl of Albemarle.- Vol. ii. p. 549.
1198.-The parish church of St. Mary at Scarborough.-Vol. ii. p. 560.
1224-1225. First murage grant for fortifying the town.-Vol. ii. p. 551.
1252.-Grants of Henry III. for the repair of the port and harbour of Scarborough.-Vol. ii. p. 552.
1282.-Scarborough represented in the Parliament of the 10th and 11th Edward I. Vol. ii. p. 551.
1536-1538.-Leland's account of Scarborough in the reign of Henry VII l. Vol. ii. p. 552.
1620.-Discovery of the mineral waters of Scarborough. Vol. ii. p. 554
1645-1649. Scarborough Castle besieged twice during the Great Civil War.- Vol. ii. p. 550.
1727.-Daniel Defoe's visit to Scarborough.-Vol. ii. p. 555.
1731, 1732.-Scarborough as a harbour of refuge. New pier built.- Vol. ii. p. 553.
1737.-Landslip at Scarborough.-Vol. ii. p. 555.
1767.-Smollett's "Humble Clinker" and the bathing machines of Scarborough.-Vol. ii. p. 556.
1803.-Hutton's account of Scarborough.-Vol. ii. p. 556.
1826.-The Cliff Bridge erected.-Vol. ii. p. 559.
1861.-Population of Scarborough.-Vol. ii. p 561.
1861.-The life-boats of Scarborough. Vol. ii. p. 554.
1865.-The Ramsdale Valley Bridge erected.-Vol ii. p. 559.
1871.-Fishermen of Scarborough.-Vol. ii. p. 553.
1871.-Population of Scarborough.-Vol. ii. p. 561.


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