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YORKSHIRE, PAST AND PRESENT:

A HISTORY AND A DESCRIPTION OF THE THREE RIDINGS OF THE GREAT COUNTY OF YORK,
FROM THE EARLIEST AGES TO THE YEAR 1870;
WITH AN ACCOUNT OF ITS MANUFACTURES, COMMERCE, AND CIVIL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.

BY THOMAS BAINES,
AUTHOR OF "LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE, PAST AND PRESENT," ETC.
INCLUDING
AN ACCOUNT OF THE WOOLLEN TRADE OF YORKSHIRE, BY EDWARD BAINES, M.P.,
AUTHOR OF "THE HISTORY OF THE COTTON MANUFACTURE," ETC, ETC. VOL. 11.


YORKSHIRE PAST AND PRESENT.

CHAPTER XII.

HISTORY OF THE BOROUGH AND SEAPORT OF MIDDLESBOROUGH.

HAVING traced the history of the port of Hull, and the histories of the ports or watering places of Scarborough and Whitby, we now proceed to give an account of the rapidly-rising seaport and town of Middlesborough, the capital of the iron district of Cleveland and of that of the North Riding of Yorkshire. Middlesborough, on the right bank of the estuary of the Tees, is now the chief port of the North Riding, and owes its prosperity to its position near the entrance to that river, and to its proximity to the great iron district of Cleveland. It stands on a level winding coast, but at the foot of lofty hills, with a sufficient depth of water in its river to permit large vessels to enter its commodious dock and harbour. It possesses also railways, communicating with the iron- fields of Cleveland, the coal-fields of South Durham, and with the manufacturing districts in the interior of the country, as well as all the conveniences required by modern trade and commerce. At the time when the first part of this work was published the number of the inhabitants of Middlesborough was estimated at from 20,000 to 30,000; but so rapid has been its increase that the population of the municipal borough, at the Census of 1871, had risen to 39,563, and that of the parliamentary borough to 46,621. Every year adds some thousands to the population of Middlesborough. Nor is this increase of numbers at all to be wondered at, when we consider the rapid increase of industry and wealth that has taken and is taking place in the great iron district of which Middlesborough is the port and centre; for in 1868 the official returns of the Board of Trade gave the quantity of iron ore produced in the Cleveland district as amounting to 2,785,307 tons, of the value of £701,833, whilst the official accounts for the year 1873, published in October, 1874, return the total product of iron ore in this district at 5,617,013 tons, or 1,156,431 tons of pig iron of the estimated value of £1,688,099.

Progress of the Town of Middlesborough.- The progress of the town of Middlesborough is very distinctly shown by the following events, recorded by the local annalists of that flourishing town. In 1829 Messrs. Joseph Pease, Edward Pease, Thomas Richardson, Henry Birbeck, Simon Martin, Thomas Martin, and Francis Gibson, purchased 500 acres of land from Mr. William Chilton, and commenced the building of the town of Middlesborough, under the style or title of the Middlesborough Owners. In the following year the Stockton and Darlington Railway was extended from Stockton to Middlesborough, and the ship Sunnyside was loaded with the first cargo of coals brought down to the port in June, 1831. The shipping staiths were at that time on the spot now occupied by the Tees-side Ironworks of Messrs. Hopkins, Gilkes, a Co.. In 1832 the Clarence Railway was extended to Samphire Batts, on the north side of the river. The town was first lighted with gas in 1834. In 1840 St. Hilda's Church, in the market place, was consecrated; and in the same year a public market was established. The year 1840 is also memorable as marking the commencement of the Cleveland iron trade by the establishment, on the banks of the Tees, of the works of Messrs. Bolckow and Vaughan. In 1841 an Act for the improvement of the town was obtained, and the first governing body for Middlesborough was established by the 4th and 5th Vic., cap. 68, and was styled the Middlesborough Improvement Commissioners. In 1842 a commodious dock was constructed, which has recently been enlarged. In 1846 a lifeboat was placed here by the National Lifeboat Institution. In 1851 the town was supplied with water from the Tees at Blackwall by a public company. In this year also ironstone was discovered by Sir. J. Vaughan in the Eston Hills, near Middlesborough. In 1853, the town was incorporated by charter dated January 21, and Sir. H. W. F. Bolckow was chosen its first mayor. The motto Erimus ("we shall be") was appropriately chosen for the borough arms. The first shipments of pig-iron were also made this year. In 1855 the town suffered from a very severe visitation of Asiatic cholera, in consequence of which the Public Health Act was applied to the borough by provisional order dated July 18, 1855, and confirmed by statute 18th and 19th Vict., c. 125. The third extension and improvement Act was obtained in 1858. In 1860 the new road to Stockton was opened, saving a circuit of nearly seven miles; and in the same year Middlesborough was separated from Stockton, and constituted a separate port. In 1861 Mr. George Marwood of Busby Hall, near Stokesley, laid the foundation-stone of the masonic hall in Marton Road. In 1862 the steam ferry to Port Clarence, on the north side of the Tees, was established. In 1866 St. John's Church, in Marton Road, was consecrated. The Middlesborough Improvement and Extension Bill, for including Linthorpe, North Acklam, and other purposes, passed through Parliament, 1866. In the same year Mr. Bolckow presented a public park- subsequently called the Albert Park-in Linthorpe Road, to the borough. The foundation-stone of the Royal Exchange was also laid in the same year. By the Reform Bill of 1867-68 Middlesborough was constituted a parliamentary borough, and returned as its first member Mr. H. W. F. Bolckow, who was elected November 15th, 1868. H.R.H. Prince Arthur visited the town in 1868, and by permission of the queen opened the Albert Park. In 1869 the North-eastern Railway Company resolved to enlarge the dock, and this work has been carried out at a cost of £150,000. In 1870 Middlesborough elected its first school board, under the Elementary Education Act, and in 1871 a free library for the town was successfully inaugurated. In 1872 St. Paul's new church was consecrated. The new National Provincial Bank was opened in 1873, and the Workmen's Social Club established.

Rapid Increase of the Population of Middlesborough.- The Registrar-general, in his report on the Census returns of England and Wales for the year 1871, noticing the wonderfully rapid rise of Middlesborough, observes:- "Villages and small places are rising up" (in the iron districts) "to the importance of large towns. Thus, Barrow-in-Furness in Lancashire, not long ago an inconsiderable village, is now a municipal borough with 18,245 inhabitants; and Middlesborough in Yorkshire, inconsiderable in 1831, with its 383 inhabitants, has now 39,563 inhabitants, under municipal government." At each decade of the present century the population of Middlesborough was as follows:-In 1801 it was 26 persons; in 1811, 35; in 1821, 40; in 1831, 383; in 1841, 5709; in 1851, 7895; in 1861, 18,273; and, as above stated, in 1871, 39,563 in the municipal borough, and 46,621 in the parliamentary._ The number of electors on the parliamentary register in 1874 was 8862.

Principal Public Institutions of Middlesborough.- The Albert Park is situated on the Linthorpe Road, about a mile and a quarter from the centre of the town, comprises about seventy-two acres of land tastefully laid out, and contains ground set apart for the recreations of cricket, croquet, &c. A military band plays during the summer months on Thursday evenings and Sunday afternoons; and the town's police band on Wednesday and Saturday evenings. Amongst its ornamental features are a handsome cast-iron fountain in the centre, an octagonal music stand of light ironwork, a drinking fountain, and a miniature lake, with grotesquely built banks, inter-woven with various creeping plants. The principal gate is a beautiful piece of wrought iron work. It is intended by the corporation to enlarge the park considerably, and land has been presented for the purpose by Mr. Bolckow. The Corporation Hall is situated at the foot of North Street, and is a large stone building. On the basement it contains the police court, and a large room for meetings of the several committees of the borough council and the school board. On the first floor are the council chamber and the offices of the town clerk, Mr. J. T. Belk. The entrance to the hall is in North Street. The Market Place is situated at the top of South Street. It is a large open square, surrounded by shops and public buildings. In the centre is the Town Hall, and also a small building for fish dealers and butchers. In the north-east corner are the butchers' shambles, erected a few years ago from designs by Mr. John Dunning. The market is held every Saturday, and is attended by a large number of persons from the contiguous villages. The Town Hall is in the centre of the Market Place, and will seat about 400 persons. It is used for the county court, the meetings of the committee of the guardians of the poor, public meetings, lectures, entertainments, temperance meetings, religious services, inquests, &c., and has ante-rooms attached. Here are the offices of the inspector of weights and measures, and the inspector of nuisances. Ground has been purchased in Corporation Road for a new town hall and other public buildings, which are urgently required. In connection with the Town Hall there is a public clock, and here are the gauges indicating the pressure of water in the mains of the Stockton and Darlington Water Company, which supply the town with water. The Dock is situate at the east end of Lower Commercial Street. The offices are situate on the dock head, where all steam-boat charges, dock dues, and shipping charges are paid. Recently the dock has been considerably enlarged, and a new entrance channel added, and vessels of any depth or tonnage can now enter. The enlarged dock is now open. Facilities are afforded for shipping coals, coke, and iron. Great quantities of rails, bars, rib and merchant iron, are sent to all parts of the continent, and to North and South America. A large timber trade has sprung up with the Continent quite recently, and exports of chemicals are considerably on the increase. The Dock was first opened in May, 1842. Its area, as lately enlarged, is as follows:-Length, 1250 feet; breadth, 400 feet. The new entrance is 55 feet wide, and will have a depth of 22 feet 6 inches on the sill at spring tides. Further extensions of the Dock are contemplated. The contractors for the extension are Messrs. Hodgson and Ridley. In connection with the Fire Brigade there are two engines and a hose roll for water-plugs stationed at the gasworks. The Middlesborough Owners have also a splendid steam fire engine available for fires. It is kept at their works, Ormesby Road. Fire apparatus is kept at all the police stations. The North Riding Infirmary was opened in June, 1864, with accommodation for a limited number of patients, and has since that period been gradually extended in its internal arrangements so that forty-two patients may now be received, and there is still further room to increase the patients to sixty.

The Middlesborough Free Library, the property of the corporation, was opened on the 24th July, 1871. At a meeting of the ratepayers of the town, held on the 23rd November, 1870, it was unanimously resolved to adopt the "Free Libraries Act." The committee of the Mechanics' Institute let the library committee their rooms in the Mechanics' Institute, Durham Street, in which the library is now held. The library, a well-selected one, consists of about 3000 books, but additions are constantly being made to this number. There is also a large reading room attached to the library, at which fifteen daily papers, forty-one weekly papers, four weekly periodicals, and fifteen monthly periodicals are received. In the reading room there is an excellent reference library. A branch reading room in connection with the library has been opened in Granville Terrace, Newport Road, and is well attended. On the opening of the free library, the library of the Mechanics' Institute was closed. The several classes are, however, held in connection with the institute. There is a drawing class under the superintendence of Mr. J. W. Watson, several students of which, in 1873, gained prizes and certificates at the Science and Art Department, South Kensington. There is also a chemical class under the care of Mr. Bettel, which also gained a large number of prizes.

The Cemetery is situated on the Linthorpe Road, about a mile from the Market Place. It was opened in 1854. It contains nine acres of ground, which are tastefully laid out and properly fenced. On the western side are the chapels-fire-proof buildings, separated by a partition wall. The New Cemetery is at Old Linthorpe. It is about fourteen acres in extent, six or seven acres of which are laid out in three sections, for the Established Church, the Dissenters, and the Roman Catholics. There are two chapels built of stone. The steam-boats of Duncan Brothers and Dixon Brothers land near this point, and take passengers and goods to Billingham, Newport, and Stockton. The steam ferry boat also lands here, and takes passengers and goods to Port Clarence, where there is a station of the North Eastern Railway Company. During the summer months excursion boats to Hartlepool, Sunderland, Shields, Whitby, Scarborough, &c., receive and land their passengers here. There is also a landing at Billingham and Newport for passengers to and from Stockton and Middlesborough. A steam horse-and-cart ferry is about to be provided. The Gasworks are in Lower Commercial Street. The Lifeboat was presented to the port by the National Lifeboat Institution in 1836. It occupies a commodious brick building near the dock entrance.

Cleveland Literary and Philosophical Society.- The rooms of this society are near the railway station. It was founded in 1863, for the purpose of promoting art, science, and literature. In addition to the reading room, supplied with papers and periodicals, there are a good library and small museum. There are various sections, in connection with which papers are read by the members, and published in the Transactions of the society. The number of members is 300.

Cleveland Ironmasters' Association.- The following is a list of the members of the Cleveland Ironmasters' Association in 1873:-

WORKS, PROPRIETORS, FURNACES.
Coatham, Downey & Co., 2
Lackenby, Lackenby Iron Co., 3
Eston, Bolckow, Vaughan, & Co., Limited, 7
South Bank, Thomas Vaughan & Co., 6
Clay Lane, Thomas Vaughan & Co., 6
Cargo Fleet, Swan, Coates, & Co., 4
Normanby, Jones, Dunning, & Co., 3
Ormesby, Cochrane & Co, 4
Tees, Gilkes, Wilson, Pease, & Co., 5
Middlesborough, .Bolckow, Vaughan, & Co., Limited, 3
Tees-side, Hopkins, Gilkes, & Co., Limited, 4
Linthorpe, Lloyd & Co., 6
Acklam, Stevenson, Jaques, & Co., 4
Ayresome, Gjers, Mills, & Co., 4
Newport, B. Samuelson & Co., 8
Clarence, Bell Brothers, Limited, 8
Norton, Norton Iron Co., Limited, 3
Thornaby, W. Whitwell & Co., 5
Tees-Bridge, Tees-Bridge Iron Co., Limited, 2
Stockton, Stockton Iron Furnace Co., Limited, 3
West Hartlepool, T. Richardson & Sons, 2
Grosmont, C. & T. Bagnall, jun., 2
Glaisdale, South Cleveland Ironworks Co., Limited,3
Norton, Norwegian Titanic Iron Co., 2
Carlton, .N. of England Industrial Iron Co., Limited,3
Middleton,. G. Wythes & Co., 3
South Durham, South Durham Iron Co., Limited, 3
Witton Park, Bolckow, Vaughan, & Co., Limited, 5
Consett, Consett Iron Co., Limited, 6
Wear, Bell Brothers, Limited, 1
Jarrow, Palmer's Iron Co., Limited, 4
Ferry Hill, Rosedale & Ferry Hill Iron Co., Limited,8
Elswick, Sir W. G. Armstrong & Co., 2
Walker, Bell Brothers, Limited, 2
Towlaw, Weardale Iron Co., Limited, 2
Seaham, Watson, Kipling, & Co., 1

Iron Works and Industrial Enterprises.- The following list of some of the principal industrial enterprises now carried on at Middlesborough will give a clearer impression of the occupations of that busy place than any more lengthened description:-

Acklam Ironworks are situate on the Tees, Middlesborough, and occupy a site of forty acres. They consist of four blast furnaces and several refining fires. "Acklam, Yorkshire," is the brand of their iron. The name of the firm is Stevenson, Jaques, & Co. This firm has also the Boosbeck ironstone mines, near Skelton.

Atlas Foundry, Ormesby Road.- Castings are made at this establishment up to fifteen tons each, either in loam or sand. Proprietors, M'Donald & Co.

Atlas Works.- These works are situate in Ormesby Road, and are the property of Mr. W. Bulmer, Grove Hill. Brickmaking machinery is manufactured here (most of which is patented), and any other kind of machinery required, as engines, boilers, girders, &c.

Bolckow, Vaughan, & Co. (Limited.)- This is one of the largest firms of its kind in the kingdom. Its Middlesborough Iron-works are situated in the borough, and are the oldest and most extensive works in the Cleveland district; they cover something like twenty-one acres of ground between the river Tees and Vulcan Street. Within this site, when boring for water about ten years ago, a valuable deposit of salt was discovered; to get which shafts are now being put down by the company. Besides the Middlesborough Ironworks, Messrs. Bolckow, Vaughan, & Co. have large works at Witton Park, about thirty-two miles west of Middlesborough, the Cleveland Ironworks at Eston, and the Gorton Steelworks at Gorton, near Manchester. Their Cleveland iron-stone royalties are being worked at their Eston mines, Chaloner mines, near Guisborough, and the North Skelton mines, near Saltburn-by-the-Sea.

Bowesfield Ironworks consist of mills for rolling iron plates and sheets, and occupy a site of twenty-five acres, situate on the Tees at Stockton, and adjoining the Stockton and Darlington branch of the North- eastern Railway.

Chemical Works.- These works, as well as those of the Middlesborough Chemical Company, are situate in Cargo Fleet Road. The acting partner is Mr. W. Jones, and the manager, Mr. J. Mitchell Steel. The works are large, and manufacture a variety of valuable chemical products.

Clarence Ironworks consist of twelve large blast furnaces, situate on the north side of the Tees, and are the property of the firm of Bell Brothers (Limited), who are also the owners of the Wear Furnace, near Washington; of the Walker Ironworks; of the South Brancepeth, Browney, and Tursdale collieries in Durham; and iron-stone mines at Normanby, Skelton, Cliff, Huntclitf, and Carlin How.

Crewdson, Hardy, & Co., Yorkshire Tube Works.- These works are situated at Cargo Fleet, near to the dock, and parallel with the North-eastern Railway, from which there is a siding. The buildings consist of a mill 140 feet long by 120 feet wide, covered by three span roofs, with a smiths' shop and fitting shop, each 100 feet long. Tubes are manufactured here of wrought iron for gas, steam, water, and hydraulic purposes, with all descriptions of fittings for the same. The managing partners are Mr. E. Crewdson, jun., Coatham; and Mr. W. H. Hardy, Middlesborough.

Fox, Head, & Co., Newport Rolling Mills.- These works are situated about half way between Middlesborough and Newport, between the river and the railway. They occupy about twenty-two acres, and comprise forty puddling and fourteen other furnaces. They are engaged in the manufacture of boiler, bridge, and ship plates, wire billets, and puddle bars. The manufacture of a non-conducting material for boilers and steam pipes, for which the firm holds a patent, is also carried on. The works were commenced in 1863, and now employ about 550 hands. The partners are Mr. Theodore Fox, of Pinchinthorpe House, near Guisborough; Mr. Jeremiah Head, of Coatham, Redcar; and Mr. Charles M. Newcomen, of Kirkleatham Hall, near Redcar.

Gjers, Milis, & Co., Ayresome Ironworks, Middlesborough, are makers of pig-iron. Their works are situated in the West Marsh, between Newport and Middlesborough, and comprise four blast furnaces, on a site of thirty-two acres of land, with a frontage to the river of 330 yards, convenient wharves, &c. Mr. John Gjers, of Southfield Villas, Middlesborough, is the managing partner.

Hjerleid & Spence, Marsh Road Engine-works.- These works, situated between Cargo Fleet and Middlesborough, consist of foundries, fitting shops, and boiler and bridge yard. Speciality, Dank's Patent Puddling Furnace. The partners are Mr. S. Hjerleid, Redcar, and Mr. M. Spence, Coatham.

Hopkins, Gilkes, & Co. (Limited), iron manufacturers and engineers, Tees-side Ironworks, and Tees Engine-works.- These works consist of several blast furnaces, with puddling forges and rolling mills capable of producing 1200 tons per week of rails and finished iron. There are also extensive engineering works for building locomotive and other engines, bridge and girder work, and foundries for pipes and general castings. This firm was the first in England to adopt the Dank's Rotary Puddling Furnace, and at the engine-works of this establishment the Dank's furnace, engines, squeezer, and all the machinery connected with the furnace, are made for the trade.

Jackson, Gill, & Co. (Limited), Imperial Ironworks, near Middlesborough.- These works were erected in the spring of 1871, and are situate near the Eston Station, on the North-eastern Railway (Stockton and Darlington section). They comprise puddling mills, capable of making 20,000 tons of puddled bars per annum, and also finishing mills for the manufacture of general merchant iron. Managing director, Mr. Thomas Gill, of Middlesborough.

Jones Brothers & Co., Ayrton Rolling Mills, Cut Nails, and Washer Works.- These works are situate in the Marsh, Newport, and consist of puddling furnaces and mills to roll plates, sheets, bars, and wire billets, and occupy five acres of land. Here are also manufactured every description of cut nails and iron washers. Managing partner, Mr. J. A. Jones.

Jones, Dunning, & Co., Normanby Ironworks.- These works comprise three blast furnaces, and are situated near Cargo Fleet, with good river frontage and convenient wharves. One peculiar feature of these works is the adoption of the steam ram lift, for both lifting the trucks from the ground to the top of the bunkers (each truck weighing about fifteen tons), and also to the furnaces for lifting the material (about five tons each time) in barrows from the ground line to the top of the furnaces, a total height of seventy-five feet. The ram in both cases is sunk in a jacketed cylinder in the ground. From the peculiar construction of its furnaces, this firm is enabled to work with forty or fifty per cent. of raw stone instead of using calcined, which is the rule in other parts of the district.

North Yorkshire Iron Co. (Limited).- This company has works at Stockton for the manufacture of iron rails for permanent ways. Mr. Dodds, M.P., is chairman; Mr. Joseph Richardson, vice-chairman; Mr. John Stevenson, managing director of the company.

B. Samuelson & Co., Newport Ironworks.- These works are situate at Newport, near Middlesborough. They comprise eight blast furnaces, and a refinery with all needful adjuncts. Three of the furnaces have been recently erected, and are of the largest and most modern description. The site, of forty-two acres, has a frontage of three quarters of a mile to the river Tees. There is a wharf of 400 feet in length, at which steamers regularly load cargoes of 1000 and 1200 tons. The firm is Mr. B. Samuelson, M.P. for Banbury, and Mr. W. Hanson, of Middlesborough, managing partner. Offices on the works.

Swan, Coates, & Co., Cargo Fleet Ironworks, near Middlesborough.- These works consist of four blast furnaces, on a site of forty-four acres, with a foreshore of nearly forty acres, on which they have recently erected a jetty for the shipment of iron, &c. The works are situated near to Cargo Fleet station on the Stockton and Darlington Railway, about one mile from Middlesborough. They also own and work Ormesby ironstone mines and Whitecliffe ironstone mines, the latter recently purchased from the North Cleveland Ironstone Company (Limited). Managing partner, Mr. J. G. Swan.

In addition to the above, many important works are erected, or in course of erection; and the trade of Middlesborough, large as it is already, is thus only in its infancy. It is now, however, decidedly the largest of its kind in the United Kingdom. We have given the names as supplied to us, but every year makes numerous changes.

DATES OF THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS CONNECTED WITH THE HISTORY OF MIDDLESBOROUGH.

The history of Middlesborough as a town and borough belongs entirely to the present century, the population having amounted to not more than twenty-six persons in the year 1801, and the progress of the following decennial periods having been as under:-
1811, 35
1821, 40
1831, 383
1841, 5,709
1851, 7,895
1861, 18,273
1871 (in the municipal borough),. 39,563
1871 (in the parliamentary borough), 46,621

NOTICE OF THE BOROUGH OF STOCKTON-ON-TEES.

MUCH the larger portion of the flourishing railway centre and port of Stockton-on-Tees is situated in the county of Durham, and its history belongs to that county. Stockton was created a parliamentary borough by the Reform Act of 1867, and South Stockton was included within the boundary for parliamentary purposes. The first member was Mr. Joseph Dodds, and he was re-elected in 1874. South Stockton, which is on the Yorkshire side of the river, owes its rise, like Middlesborough, mainly to the development of the Cleveland iron trade, having direct communication with Cleveland by the Stokesley and Whitby branch of the North-eastern system. It is the seat of several extensive ironworks and shipbuilding yards, and promises to become one of the most important towns on the Tees. In 1871 South Stockton contained a population of 6764 persons, and a local board, whilst the population of the whole parliamentary borough was 37,612 persons.

Rise of the Trade of Stockton.-- It is through the Stockton and Darlington Railway that the great iron district of Cleveland in Yorkshire, producing, according to the last official return, upwards of 5,000,000 tons of iron ore and nearly 1,200.000 tons of iron, was brought into connection with the great coal-field of South Durham, which produced in 1873 the enormous quantity of 17,436,045 tons of coal. Of this immense supply a large portion furnished the fuel with which the iron ores of Cleveland were smelted and converted into pig iron. The Stockton and Darlington Railway, constructed by George Stephenson, and opened about the year 1825-26, was the commencement of that wonderful railway system out of which has grown some 16,000 miles of railway in the United Kingdom; probably ten times that amount in other countries of the world, and which is now spreading far and wide through every country possessed of a settled government, and of even moderate intelligence amongst its people, promising ultimately to become the only considerable method of carrying passengers and transporting goods by land. Well has this line realized the expectations expressed by one of the historians of Yorkshire in the year 1831, who then observed-"The new iron railway from Stockton to Darlington, and from thence to the collieries near Auckland, passes within a mile of Yarm, and a branch is completed from the main line, to bring coals, lime, &c., down nearly to the bridge, which promises great advantages." These anticipations have indeed been amply fulfilled, and one result of their fulfilment has been to raise Stockton-on-Tees to the position of a large parliamentary and municipal borough. The result has also been to establish the engine and machine making trade at Stockton to so great an extent as to give employment in 1871 to no less than 1579 skilful workmen engaged in the engine and machine manufacture, in addition to 822 workmen, equally skilful, employed as shipwrights in the building- yards of that town and port.

In our description of the river Tees and of its salmon fishery in the first volume of this work we have mentioned, that at Yarm the Tees is crossed by the North-eastern Railway running almost due north to Stockton. At Stockton, which stands on the north side of the river, the Tees is navigable for large vessels, and continues so down to its mouth, entering the sea at Middlesborough. With regard to the salmon fishery of the river Tees we have already mentioned that it is the most productive of the river fisheries of Yorkshire, and is scarcely surpassed by any other salmon river in England.

We have mentioned the above facts with regard to the origin of the Stockton and Darlington Railway and its wonderful influence-local and national-with the more interest, from having lived on terms of intimacy and friendship with George Stephenson, at the time when he had just completed it, and was engaged in carrying out the still grander work of the Manchester and Liverpool Railway; and from having also had the very great pleasure of living for upwards of four years, in almost daily communication either with him or with his son, Robert Stephenson, with Joseph Locke, or with others of that admirable school of civil engineers, of which George Stephenson was the founder.


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