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HAVING traced the history of the principal cities and parliamentary and municipal boroughs of Yorkshire, including the capital city of York, the great manufacturing towns, and the seaports and watering places of the county, we proceed to give a general sketch of each of the three Ridings, of the parliamentary divisions, and of the wapentakes or hundreds, out of which they are formed.

Cities, Towns, and Urban Districts of Yorkshire.- Much the larger portion of the county of York is now divided, for the purposes of local government, either into municipal boroughs or into local board districts. The following table, taken from the Census returns for the year 1871, shows the population both of the municipal boroughs and of the local board districts of each of the three Ridings, as ascertained at that time. This census formed the eighth national enumeration of the people made in the present century; the first having been made in the year 1801.


Doncaster, M.B., 18,768
Ripon, M.B., 6,806
Leeds, M.B., 259,212
North Bierley, L.B., 14,433
Cleckheaton, L.B., 6,583
Sheffield, M.B., 239,946
Shipley, L.B., 11,757
Todmorden,part of, L.B., 6,547
Bradford, M.B., 145,830
Morley, L.B., 9,607
Elland, L .B., 6,432
Huddersfield,M.B., 70,253
Ossett-with-Gawthorpe, L.B., 9,190
Brighouse, L.B., 6,370
Halifax, M.B., 65,510
Castleford, L.B., 6,268
York, M.B., 43,796
Bingley, L.B., 9,062
Idle, L.B., 6,253
Wakefield, M.B., 28,069
Heckmondwike, L B., 8,300
Selby, L.B., 6,193
Rotherham, M.B., 25,892
Goole, Town, 7,680
Sowerby, L.B., 6,079
Dewsbury, M.B., 24,764
Ovenden, L.B., 7,371
Birstal, L.B., 6,044
Barnsley, M.B.,. 23,021
Sowerby Bridge, L.B., 7,041
Skipton, L.B., 6,042
Batley, M.B., 20,871
Rawmarsh, L.B., 6,869
Golcar, L.B., 6,033
Keighley, L;B., 19,775
Harrogate, L.B., 6,843
Queensbury, L.B., 6,012
Rastrick, L.B., 5,896
Ravensthorpe, L.B., 2,910
Hoyland Swaine, L.B., 706
Otley, L.B., 5,855
Allerton, LB., 2,906
Marsden in-Huddersfield, L.B., 692
Windhill, L.B., 5,783
Haworth, L.B., 2,884
Oakworth, L.B., 5,683
Birkenshaw, L.B, 2,833
Farnley Tyas, L B., 601
Thornton, L.B., 5,674
Slaithwaite, L.B., 2,781
Askern, L.B., 457
Eccleshill, L.B., 5,622
Dodworth, L.B., 2,747
Gunthwaite and Ingbirchworth, L.B., 386
Pontefract, M.B., 5,350
Silsden, L.B., 2,714
Thornhill, L.B., 5,285
Kirkheaton, L.B., 2,646
Bilborough, L.B., 207
Yeadon, LB., 5,246
Thurlstone, L.B., 2,639
Crowle, part of, L.B; 25
Knaresborough & Tentergate, Impt. D., 5,205
Thorne, Town, 2,618
Ilkley, L.B., 2,511
Darton, L. B., 5,197
Tadcaster, Town . 2,443
Kingston-upon-Hull, M.B., 121,892
Linthwaite, L.B., 5,047
Upperthong, L.B., 2,419
Wombwell, L.B., 5,009
Oxenhope, L.B., 2,328
Beverley, M.B., 10,218
Nether Soothill, L.B., 4,927
Burley, L B., 2,271
Bridlington L.B.,. 6,203
Honley, L.B., 4,906
Wath-upon-Dearne,L.B. 2,142
GreatDriffield, Town 5,067
Baildon, L.B., 4,784
Hipperholme, L.B 2,130
Cottingham, L.B., 4,010
Wooldale, L.B. 4,454
Marsden-in-Almondbury, L. B., 2,119
Malton,part of;L.B; 3,170
Drighlington, L.B. 4,388
Pocklington, Town, 2,622
Mexborough, L.B., 4,316
Monk Bretton, L.B, 2,090
Howden, Town, 2,315
Meltham, L.B., 4,223
Barkisland, L.B., 2,056
Filey, part of,L.B 2,257
Greetland, L B., 4,114
Fulstone, L.B., 2,052
Hornsea, L.B., 1,685
Clayton, L.B., 4,074
Cartworth, L.B., 1,930
Hedon, M.B., 996
Longwood, L.B., 4,055
Heaton, L.B., 1,929
Walligfen, L.B., 317
Knottingley, Town, 4,039
Tickhill, L B., 1,844
Horbury, L.B., 3,977
Shelley, L.B., 1,751
Middlesborough,M.B; 39,563
Hebden Bridge,L.B; 3,894
Denby, L.B., 1,637
Scarborough, M.B., 24,259
Farsley, L.B., 3,829
Penistone, L.B., 1,549
Whitby, L.B., 12,460
Tong Street, L.B., 3,740
Austonley, L.B., 1,535
South Stockton,L.B. 6,764
North Owram, L.B., 3,725
West Clayton, L B.,. 1,531
Guisborough, L.B., 5,202
Upper Soothill,L.B 3,469
Shepley, L.B., 1,507
Malton,part of,L.B. 4,998
Denholme Gate,L.B; 3,469
Cumberworth & Cumberworth-Half, L.B., 1,461
Richmond, M.B., 4,443
Ormesby, L.B., 4,080
Mossley, part of, L.B., 3,462
Kirkburton, L.B., 3,442
Emley, L.B., 1,275
Pickering, LB., 3,689
Quickmere, L.B., 3,358
Bolton, L.B., 1,271
Normanby, L.B., 3,556
Whitwood, L.B., 3,342
Upper Mill, L.B., 1,235
Thirsk, Town, 3,040
Warley, L.B., 3,341
Rishworth, L.B., 1,143
Northallerton,L.B., 2,663
Soyland, L.B., 3,264
Flocton, L.B., 1,116
Hinderwell, L.B.,. 2,599
Calverley, L.B., 3,195
Hepworth, L. B., 1,111
Skelton-in-Cleveland, L. B., 2,561
Guiseley,L.B., 3,185
Cornholme,part of,L.B 1,105
Wilsden, L.B., 3,127
Netherthong, LB., 1,092
Masham, L.B., 2,209
Shelf, L.B., 3,091
Thurstonland, L.B.,. 1,001
Redcar, L.B., 1,943
South Owram, L.B; 3,091
Scholes, L.B., 995
Baldersby, L.B., 296
Midgley, L.B., 3,065
Upper Whitly, L.B., 882
Kirklington-cum-Upsland, L. B., 292
Luddenden Foot.L.B. 2,968
Scammonden, L.B., 803
Skelmanthorpe,L.B. 2,953
Holme, L.B., 724
Filey, part of, L.B. 10

The Population of the West Riding.- The population of the West Riding in 1871 amounted to 1,874,611 persons, of whom 924,175 were males, and 950,436 females. The average number of persons to each acre of land in the West Riding was then 1.06; the average amount of land to each person was less than one acre, amounting to not more than 0.94. The number of inhabited houses in the West Riding was 391,949; of uninhabited houses, 21,831; and of houses building, 4804. The following figures show the amount of the population at each Census taken between the years 1801 and 1871. In 1801 the population of the West Riding amounted to not more than 589,014 persons; in 1811, to 681,974; in 1821, to 831,074. In 1831 the population had just passed one million, having risen to 1,010,869; in 1841, to 1,192,422; in 1851, to 1,361,798; in 1861, to 1,548,229; and at the Census of 1871 to not less than 1,874,611. Thus the actual increase of the population in the first ten years of the present century was 92,960; in the second, 149,100; in the third, 179,795; in the fourth, 181,553; in the fifth, 169,376; in the sixth, 186,431; and in 1871, the previously unparalleled number of 326,382. The Parliamentary Divisions, Wapentakes, Cities, and Boroughs of the West Riding.- Yorkshire has from an early period been divided into three Ridings (trithings, tridings, or third parts), each of which has a lord lieutenant. Each Riding has a commission of the peace, and a separate court of quarter sessions. The West Riding comprises nine wapentakes, the city of Ripon, the municipal boroughs of Bradford, Doncaster, Halifax, Leeds, Pontefract, Sheffield, and Wakefield, and also the boroughs of Dewsbury, incorporated in 1862; Batley and Huddersfield, both incorporated in 1868; Barnsley, incorporated in 1869; and Rotherham, incorporated in 1871. The West Riding is divided into twenty-five petty sessional divisions. The city of York (a county of itself), the boroughs of Doncaster, Leeds, and Pontefract, and the liberty of Ripon (including the city), have commissions of the peace and separate courts of quarter sessions; and the boroughs of Batley, Bradford, Dewsbury, Halifax, Huddersfield, Sheffield, and Wakefield have also commissions of the peace. The West Riding contains thirteen lieutenancy subdivisions, which with some exceptions noticed are generally identical with the wapentakes. For parliamentary purposes it is divided into three divisions: the Eastern division, including the city of Ripon and the boroughs of Knaresborough, Leeds, and Pontefract; the Northern division, including the boroughs of Bradford and Halifax; and the Southern division, including the boroughs of Dewsbury, Huddersfield, Sheffield, and Wakefield. The liberty and the borough of Ripon are not included in the West Riding for the purposes of the county rate, but are rated separately. For police purposes the West Riding is divided into twenty-one divisions. The cities of Ripon and York, and all the municipal boroughs of the West Riding, with the exception of Barnsley, Batley, and Rotherham, have their own police. The county contains twenty highway districts, sixteen of which are in the North Riding and four in the West. The West Riding contains 121 local board districts, and the boroughs of Huddersfield and Pontefract, as also the towns of Bingley and Knaresborough-with-Tentergate have improvement commissions. The ancient parishes of Yorkshire are large, and are divided into townships. The West Riding contains 724 civil parishes, townships, or places, and parts-of six other townships, namely, Lower Dunsforth, Upper Dunsforth, Humberton, and Milby, which extend into the North Riding; part of the township of Crowle, which extends into Lincolnshire; and part of the township of Aukley which extends into Nottinghamshire. The registration county of York comprises 58 superintendent registrars' districts, beginning with Sedbergh and ending with Richmond, and 242 registrars' sub-districts. There are 33 of the former and 151 of the latter in the West Riding. The superintendent registrars' districts are almost identical with the Poor Law Unions, except that of Bradford, which comprises the Union of Bradford and North Bierley, and the district of Wortley comprises the unions of Penistone and Wortley.

The Parliamentary Divisions of the West Riding.- The West Riding now returns six county members to Parliament, namely, two for each of the three divisions. The divisions are as follows:-

                                 Area in Acres. Population in 1871.
Barkston Ash (wapentake),              91,362       27,887
Claro (wapentake),                    266,737       49,827
Leeds (borough),                       21,572      259,212
Morley, part of (wapentake),           24,254       83,587
Osgoldcross (wapentake),              111,970       43,100
Pontefract (borough),                   1,881        5,350
Ripon (city),                           1,580        6,806
Skyrack (wapentake),                   94,725       70,842


                                Area in Acres. Population in 1871.
Staincliffe and Ewcross (wapentakes),  456,072      86,185
Morley, part of (wapentake),           108,430     182,429
Halifax (borough),                       3,704      65,510
Bradford (borough),                      6,508     145,830


Agbrigg (wapentake),                   145,927     188,004
Barnsley (borough),                      2,386      23,021
Batley (borough),                        2,039      20,871
Dewsbury (borough),                      1,468      24,764
Doncaster (borough),.                    1,691      18,768
Huddersfield (borough),                 10,498      70,253
Rotherham (borough),                     5,031      25,087
Sheffield (borough),                    19,651     239,946
Staincross (wapentake)                  82,576      44,965
Strafforth and Tickhill (wapentakes),  254,810     111,058
Wakefield (borough),                     1,517      28,069

The Lieutenancy Subdivisions.-The West Riding was thus divided for lieutenancy purposes in 1871, that is, for purposes of national defence and for financial administration:-

                         Area in Acres. Population in 1871.
Agbrigg, Lower,                 72,458     174,372
Agbrigg, Upper,                 88,991     157,589
Barkston Ash,                   91,362      27,887
Claro,                         268,317      56,633
Morley,                        142,896     477,356
Osgoldcross,                   113,851      48,450
Skyrack and borough of Leeds,  116,297     330,054
Staincliffe, East,             168,090      60,067
Staincliffe, West and Ewcross, 287,982      26,118
Staincross,                     84,962      67,986
Strafforth and Tickhill, Lower,120,150      46,887
Strafforth and Tickhill, Upper,161,033     347,972
York City and Ainsty,           53,970      53,240

Municipal Boroughs, Area, and Population in 1861 and 1871.- The following were the areas and population of the municipal boroughs of the West Riding, including those which do not return members to Parliament:-

                                Population  Population
                Area in Acres.  in 1861.    in 1871.
Barnsley,            2,386       17,890       23,021
Batley,              2,039       14,173       20,871
Bradford,            6,508      106,218      145,830
Dewsbury,            1,468       18,148       24,764
Doncaster,           1,691       16,406       18,768
Halifax,             3,704       37,014       65,510
Huddersfield,       10,498       34,877       70,253
Leeds,              21,572      207,165      259,212
Pontefract,          1,881        5,346        5,350
Ripon, city,         1,580        6,172        6,806
Rotherham,           5,031       19,000       25,087
Sheffield,          19,651      185,172      239,946
Wakefield,           1,517       23,350       28,069
York, city,          1,979       40,433      43,796


The present divisions of the West Riding, though so recent as the Reform Act of 1868, are founded on the ancient wapentakes, or military districts, which are so old that no one knows when they first commenced, though the probability is that it was at least a thousand years ago. We first, as most convenient, describe the Northern Parliamentary Division of the West Riding, and shall take the others in succession.

The Wapentake or Hundred of Ewcross an the West Riding.- We commence at the north-western point of the West Riding, amongst the mountains of the Pennine chain, and proceed east and southward towards the valley of the Ouse and the estuary of the Humber. At the extreme north-western point of the West Riding, amongst the lofty heights forming the Backbone of England, is the Yorkshire wapentake, or hundred, of Ewcross, a district evidently named by the Angles or Anglo-Saxons in very remote ages, and apparently so called from some tradition respecting a ewe and a cross, the origin of which is now forgotten. This district contains three of the highest mountains in England, and everywhere presents a mountainous aspect, except in a few narrow valleys. The rivers of Ewcross generally join either the Lune or the Ribble, and flow into that great gulf of the Atlantic Ocean, known as the Irish Sea. A sketch of the source and of the progress of the beautiful river Ribble, which flows through the Ewcross and Staincliffe wapentakes, and of its valuable and interesting salmon fishery, will be found in our account of the rivers of Yorkshire, vol. i. p. 251. A sweet short herbage, fit for the grazing of sheep is the principal product of this district, and the occupations of the people chiefly relate to sheep and cattle. Down to the commencement of the present century there were few roads or means of access or conveyance, either for travellers or goods, in this remote district; but the modern spirit of railway enterprise in England has now extended to it fully, and a great line of railway is in course of construction through the district, which will place it on a new and central line of railway communication, extending from Settle to Carlisle and Scotland northward, and southward, through Yorkshire and Lancashire, to London and all parts of England.

Area of the Wapentake of Ewcross and its Parishes.- According to the Ordnance Survey and Index, the wapentake of Ewcross extends over an area of 129,480 statute acres, and contains only five parishes. The parishes are:-

                      Area in Acres.
Bentham,                  26,219
Clapham,                  25,298
Sedbergh,                 52,665
Thornton-Lonsdale-Dale     9,040
Horton-in-Ribblesdale,    17,256
           Total         129,480

It will be seen that these parishes are of unusual magnitude. They were probably formed soon after the introduction of Christianity into this part of England in the seventh or eighth century, when this mountainous region was so wild and inaccessible that an ancient Anglian missionary, mentioned by the Venerable Bede, who ascended the valley of the Wharfe to the borders of Craven, reported that he had been unable to proceed any further westward, but that he had learnt that there were small tribes of Anglian Christians even among the mountains, although no bishop had been able to make a visitation among them for a long course of years.

Ingleborough belongs to the Ewcross wapentake. The mountain limestone, here forming part of the western boundary of Yorkshire, rises in large masses, and reaches on Ingleborough to a height of 2361 feet above the level of the sea, while on Whernside it rises 2384 feet. Ewcross contains the highest elevation of land in Yorkshire, excepting that of Micklefell in the North Riding, which rises to the height of 2581 feet. The elevated dales known as Kingsdale, Chapel-le-Dale, and part of Dent Dale, are in or near this district. Ingleborough, the great object of the landscape, is a mass of mountain limestone, and when seen from Ingleton, on its western slope, rises grandly, crowned with a battlement of millstone-grit. Its summit is a level of considerable area, and shows the remains of what is believed to have been a hill fortress or camp of the Britons. In its inclosed area are seen "nineteen horse-shoe-shaped low wall foundations, about thirty feet in diameter, each having only one opening, which is always on the side looking toward the south-east;" perhaps because the strongest winds blow commonly here from the north-west, or possibly because the south-east was the point most likely to be attacked by their Anglian or Teutonic enemies, who were fighting their way to the north-west, after having conquered the more level parts of the kingdom of Northumbria, which then included our present Yorkshire. The view from this summit is confined on the east by Penyghent and by high fells on the north, but is extensive on the west, where it looks over the winding shores of Morecambe Bay. Whernside has not such a well-marked or striking outline as Ingleborough or Penyghent. It frowns over Dent Dale, where black marble is quarried, and where Adam Sedgwick, the geologist, was born.

Of all the natural features of this mountainous district its caverns, in the mountain limestone rock, are the most remarkable. At Ingleton, we are in the neighbourhood of Ingleborough and Chapel-le-Dale, leading to Weathercote Cave. Amongst the caverns of Ewcross, Clapham Cave, on the east side of Ingleborough, is the largest hitherto discovered, and- thanks to the care of Mr. Farrar of Ingleborough Hall, who is lord of the manor there- the fine stalactites and stalagmites with which the cave abounds have been carefully preserved. This cave is nearly half a mile long. That part known as the New Cave, discovered in 1837, is very beautiful, especially in the Pillar Hall and the Giant's Hall.

The Minerals of the Ewcross Wapenetake.- This mountainous district contains immense quantities of minerals of the older formations, with large beds of mountain limestone inclosing a few veins of lead and copper. There are also two places in which coal, the grand promoter of modern industry, has been discovered in this district. It is stated in the official return of the Mineral Statistics of the United Kingdom (page 222), published in October, 1874, that there are two coal mines at work here; one the Greta Main at Burton-in-Lonsdale, owned by Mr. Levi Towler, and the other at Ingleton, owned by Mr. W. Bracewell. Should this in- valuable mineral be found on a larger scale, it would produce an immense influence both on the industry and the population of the district.

Progress of Population in the Ewcross District.- We have shown at the commencement of this chapter how rapid has been the increase of population in the West Riding as a whole, during the present century. But the rate of increase has varied greatly in every district in the Riding, having been always dependent on the amount of profitable employment for capital and industry furnished by the resources of the particular district. In the mountainous and pastoral region of Sedbergh, which includes a considerable part of the Ewcross wapentake, the population at the census made at the beginning of the present century, in 1801, amounted to 3983, whilst at the census made in the year 1871 it amounted to 4990. During the last ten years, that is, from 1861 to 1871, the population increased from 4391 persons to 4990, giving an increase in that ten years of 599 persons. The Sedbergh registrar's district is divided into three sub-districts, namely:-

               Area      Population Population
               in Acres  in 1861.   in 1871.
1. Sedbergh,    19,603     2,346    1,983
2. Garsdale,    12,172       618      911
3. Dent,        20,890     1,427    2,096

The commissioners for taking the census, in some cases, but not in all, give reasons, no doubt ascertained on the spot, for the increase or decrease of population in particular sub-districts or parishes. Thus, they state in this case that the decrease of population in the township of Sedbergh during the last ten years is attributed to the departure of labourers, who in 1861 were employed in constructing a railway since finished. The increase of population in the townships of Garsdale and Dent is attributed to the presence of a number of labourers employed in the construction of a railway from Settle to Carlisle.

The Towns of the District.- The towns of this district are of course small and few. Sedbergh is a market town, situate one mile from the Sedbergh station on the Lancaster and Carlisle Railway, and ten miles east of Kendal. Its boundaries lie at the extreme north of the West Riding. The church is dedicated to St. Andrew, and is a stone structure of considerable age, in the Norman style. Dent is a township and chapelry, situate in Dent Dale, entirely surrounded by high mountains. Thornton-in-Lonsdale is at the head of the river Greta.

The Wapentake of Staincliffe.- The wapentake or hundred of Staincliffe, generally known as the district of Craven, is of great extent, and is no doubt named Staincliffe from the lofty cliffs which are found at 80 many points amongst the mountain limestone formation. The origin of the name of Craven, which was used before the Norman Conquest, is rather uncertain; but we believe that it is derived from the old Saxon word "scraven," meaning a cave or caves- the caves of Craven and Ewcross forming the most remarkable of the many natural beauties of this interesting district. Its chief wealth is derived from its rich and beautiful pastures, which feed large flocks of sheep and cattle, almost as light and beautiful as the deer and wild cattle that grazed amongst them down to very recent times.

The Rivers of Craven.- Three fine rivers, the Wharfe, the Aire, and the Ribble, either rise in the district of Craven or flow through its fertile valleys. We have already described these rivers in the first volume of this work, and it is only necessary here to say that the motive force supplied by these streams, which rise at a height of about 1000 feet above the sea, and flow down to it with a winding course through the manufacturing districts of Yorkshire and North Lancashire, has been amongst the principal causes of the prosperity of those districts.

Area of the Wapentake of Staincliffe and its Parishes.- The area of this wapentake is stated in the Ordnance Survey to be 326,591 acres. The wapentake contains the following parishes:-

Addingham, part of, 3,197 acres
Kirkby-Malhamdale, 23,777
Arncliffe, 34,078
Linton, 13,234
Barnoldswick, 6,306
Long Preston, 13,557
Bolton-by-Bowland, 5,941
Marton in Craven, 2,804
Bracewell, 2,024
Mitton, 13,331
Broughton, 4,148
Sawley, ex. par., 2,103
Browsholme, ex. par., 1,751
Skipton, part of, 24,789
Burnsal, 30,615
Slaidburn, 40,000
Carlton, 5,257
Slaidburn Flatts, ex. par., 32
Gargrave, 11,667
St. John of Jerusalem's Hill,Ex. par., 2 roods
Giggleswick, 18,498
Thornton in Craven, 5,434
Gisburn, 18,129
Tosside, ex. par., 1,112
Keighley, 10,132
Whalley, 3,713
Kettlewell, 8,412
Kildwick, 22,536
Total, 326,591

The Craven Fault of the Geologists.- Of the "scars" or "scaurs," as escarpments of rock on the side of hills are here called, the great "Craven Fault" (or displacement of strata) from east to west, presents the most remarkable examples in Malham Cove, where the river Aire takes its rise, and in Giggleswick Scar-the former almost 300 feet high and hollowed out like a segment of a vast amphitheatre; the latter forming part of a stupendous wall of limestone rocks, extending over the whole district. Of Malham Cove the poet Gray, who was one of the first tourists able to appreciate the scenery of Craven, says: "I stayed there, not without shuddering, a quarter of an hour, and thought my trouble richly repaid, for the impression will last for life." The "chasm" is the termination of a narrow glen, known as Gordale, through which a stream flows from the east of Malham Tarn. At the chasm the water has burst through a ridge of limestone, and comes down into Malhamdale in two falls, with a short rapid between them. The overhanging walls of limestone are more than 300 feet high. In times of flood, when the fall is heavy and loud-roaring, or in winter's moonlight, when the cascade is frozen, Gordale Scar is a most impressive place. About the middle of the fine range of Giggleswick Scar, which skirts the road for nearly two miles from Giggleswick to Clapham, and close to the roadside, is situate the celebrated well, whose waters frequently ebb and flow, although at thirty miles' distance from the sea. The times of ebbing and flowing vary, being considerably influenced by the wetness or dryness of the season. A curved or siphon-like subterranean passage and variable pressure on the water are sufficient, it is thought, to account for this phenomenon, from which Giggleswick has probably derived its name, for "gugglian" in the Anglo-Saxon means to bubble forth; others derive the name from "geiselwick," meaning the camp of the spring, in the Anglian language.

The Boy of Egremond.- At the Norman Conquest thirty manors in Craven were given by the Conqueror to Ernest de Berun, the ancestor of the Byron family; but these were soon lost by the invasion of a Scottish army, from the earldom of Cumberland, which earldom then came up to the borders of this part of Yorkshire, and frequently involved it in border warfare. As Dr. T. D. Whitaker says, in his history of Craven, "In the twelfth century William Fitz-Duncan" (earl of Cumberland) "laid waste the valleys of Craven with fire and sword; and was afterwards established there by his uncle David, king of Scotland. He" (William) "was the last of the race; his son, commonly called the Boy of Egremond, perishing before him in the narrow and irresistible torrent of the river Wharfe, known as the Strid; when a priory was removed from Embsay to Bolton, that it might be as near as possible to the place where the accident happened. The mother's answer, as given in the first stanza, is to this day often repeated in Wharfedale." This sad event has been the subject of more than one fine poem, of which the following, by Rogers, is perhaps the best:-

"Say what remains when hope has fled ?'  | The hound hung back, and back he drew
She answered, 'Endless weeping!'         | The master and the merlin too.
For in the herdsman's eye she read       | That narrow place of noise and strife
Who in his shroud lay sleeping.          | Received their little all of Life!
At Emsay rung the matin-bell,            | There now the matin-bell is rung;
The stag was raised on Barden-fell       | The 'Miserere' duly sung;
The mingled sounds were swelling,dying,  | And holy men in cowl and hood
And down the Wharfe a hern was flying:   | Are wandering up and down the wood.
When near the cabin in the wood,         | But what avail they? Ruthless lord,
In tartan Clad and forest green,         | Thou didst not shudder when the sword.
With hound in leash, and hawk in hood,   | Here on the young its fury spent
The boy of Egremond was seen.            | The helpless and the innocent.
Blithe was his song, a song of yore;     | Sit now and answer groan for groan,
But where the rock is rent in two,       | The child before thee is thy own
And the river rushes through,            | And she who wildly wanders there,
His voice was heard no more!             | The mother in her long despair,
'Twas but a step! the gulf he passed;    | Shall oft remind thee, waking, sleeping
But that step-it was his last!           | Of those who by the Wharfe were weeping,
As through the mist he winged his way,   | Of those who could not be consoled
(A cloud that hovers night and day),     | When red with blood the river rolled."

A sketch of Bolton Priory (generally named Bolton Abbey), chiefly from the graceful pen of Dr. T. D. Whitaker, will be found in the account of the river Wharfe and its scenery, already given.

Skipton (or Skipton in Craven).- This old town, of which the most striking features are the long street of weather-stained houses (mostly built of millstone grit), the castle, and the church, has always been regarded as "the capital of Craven." It was the residence of the Cliffords, who so long ruled as lords of this fine district, and passed by marriage to the Tuftons, earls of Thanet, as Bolton Priory and Barden Tower did to the great house of Cavendish, dukes of Devonshire. The town has now a station on the Midland Railway from Leeds to Lancaster and Carlisle, with a branch to Colne in Lancashire. The castle is of great antiquity, and belongs to two periods-the first dating from the reign of Edward II., and the second from that of Henry VIII.

The Town of Settle.- The situation of Settle is picturesque and striking. Castleberg, a conical limestone rock 210 feet high, backed by rugged crags, rises above the town. The projecting top of the hill once formed the gnomon of a rude but magnificent sun-dial, the shadow of which passing over some grey stones upon its side marked the progress of time. The summit of this hill affords a fine prospect. Pendle-hill on the south, Penyghent on the north, and Ingleborough towards the north-west, rear their lofty heads above the neighbouring hills. Cattle fairs are held in the town. The church of the Holy Ascension was built in 1838, in the early English style. The living is a perpetual curacy, value the interest of £1242 11s. 11d at 3¼ per cent. in the Funds, and of £400 in Queen Anne's bounty, with a glebe house. Here are a mechanics' institute, a music hall, and a news room. There are several old houses in the town, built in the seventeenth century. The Wesleyans, the Independents, the Society of Friends, the Primitive Methodists, and the Roman Catholics, have chapels here.

HISTORY OF KEIGHLEY. Keighley, which has belonged to the noble family of Cavendish for two hundred and fifty years, is an ancient town, and is rapidly advancing in population, wealth, and intelligence. It is a station on the just mentioned branch of the Midland Railway, and the Leeds and Liverpool Canal passes near the town. At the Census of 1871 Keighley contained a population of 19,775 persons. It is distant eight and three-quarter miles from Skipton; is the centre of a polling district, for the election of county members; is the capital of a poor law union, a county court district, a petty sessional division of the West Riding, and has a board of health. The extensive market place was opened in 1833. Ancient fairs are held on the 8th and 9th of May, and the 7th, 5th, and 9th of November. The rapidly increasing population is chiefly employed in worsted and cotton spinning, and in the manufacture of machinery. Sir Richard Arkwright built the first cotton factory here, in 1780, no doubt, seeing the advantages which Keighley would possess from steam and water-power, and from a communication to Hull and Liverpool by the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, and the Aire and Calder Navigation then in course of construction, and running near to Keighley and Bingley. The district also contains paper and extensive corn mills.

The situation of Keighley at the opening to two valleys, and near the heights of Airedale, is healthy and agreeable. The town has recently received many improvements in its buildings. Rows of old houses have been taken down, and ranges of new buildings constructed of stone. There are several places of worship in this populous township, including five episcopal, and thirteen others. Here is also a grammar school, founded and endowed by John Drake in 1733, to which is annexed a preparatory free school, endowed by Jonas Tonson, in the year 1716; but these educational endowments have recently been reformed by the Schools' Endowment Commissioners, and a trade school and girls' school have been added. At Keighley there are extensive national schools, built at a cost of £1750 in 1835.

The Agricultural Society meets at Keighley in the autumn. The magistrates hold their meetings at the sessions-house every Friday. The county court meets once a month in the court-house. The savings' bank was established in 1819. Of the newspapers published here the principal are the Visitor and the Keighley Mercury. The Mechanics' Institute in North Street was founded in 1826, and a hall built in 1834; but in 1871 a much more spacious and commodious hall, one of the most complete and beautiful in the kingdom, was opened, in which now meet the classes of the institute in extraordinary numbers and efficiency, and where there is also a school of art and of science. The working classes have a working men's hall. The Odd Fellows have a handsome building in Market Street, called Britannia Hall, built at a cost of £1300. The working men have also various other philanthropic institutions.

The duke of Devonshire, one of whose ancestors married the heiress of the ancient family of Keighley, is lord of the manor and chief landowner. So rapidly has the population increased in the neighbourhood of Keighley that the road from the town up to Haworth, once a lonely hillside, is now more like a street. At Haworth we find the parsonage house, the home of the Bronte family. Charlotte, the eldest, and the authoress of "Jane Eyre," was born here in 1816, and died in 1855. Emily, the writer of "Wuthering Heights," died in 1848. Anne, who wrote the "Tenant of Wildfell Hall," died at Scarborough in 1849. The writings of these sisters, full of beauty and of interest, reflect something of the wildness of the moorlands amid which they passed their lonely youth, and many tourists of literary taste make a pilgrimage up to the bleak, gray village of Haworth, to see the place where they dwelt.

Other Places in Craven.- The following are a few amongst the many interesting places in Craven, not already mentioned:-

Barnoldswick, or Gill, is a township, parish, and village, in the eastern division of the wapentake, eight miles west from Skipton. The Leeds and Liverpool Canal passes in the vicinity. Mr. Bracewell's cotton- spinning mills here employ about 1000 hands. The Rev. D. R. Roundell, M.A., and the heirs of the late W. Bagshawe, Esq., are the chief landowners. Barnoldswick was the site of an ancient monastery, founded by unjustly suppressing the prior rights of an old church here. The monks gained their object, but did not prosper; for the Scots, who then made great depredations in Craven, ravaged the lands of Barnoldswick. Its abbot, Alexander, while on a tour in Airedale was charmed with the pleasant site of Kirkstall, where some hermits had chosen their retreat. The abbot persuaded these lonely men to submit to his authority, and soon afterwards by the aid of his patron, Henry de Laci, moved all the brotherhood of monks from the bleak land of Barnoldswick to Kirkstall, near Leeds. There he built the beautiful abbey, of which the ruins testify to his skill and good taste.

Gisburn.-This township, parish, and market town, is situate near the river Ribble, eleven miles south of Settle. The town lies amid fertile pasture land, close to the eastern bank of the river and near the borders of Lancashire. The church, dedicated to St. Mary, is an ancient stone building in the Gothic style, and has a low square tower, nave, aisles, chancel, transept, porch, and stained glass windows at the east end. The Independents and Methodists have chapels. There is a day school, which is also used as a Sunday school. Fairs are held here on Mondays fortnightly. Gisburn Park is the seat of Lord Ribblesdale. A herd of the ancient British wild cattle existed at Gisburn to the year 1858. The ruins of Sawley abbey are now insignificant, but its original ground-plan has been well made out. Lady Cowper is lady of the manor and chief landowner.

Earlby, a township about two miles from Thornton parish church. The cotton-spinning mills of the Messrs. Bracewell have long given employment to many persons. The land of the parish is mostly used for pasturage. There are large stone quarries near the village.

Broughton Hall, the ancient seat of the Tempests of Broughton, was built in 1597, just behind the former house, called Gillot's Place from a knightly family of that name, the heiress of which married Roger Tempest. The portraits in this house are not numerous: but two deserve to be noticed, one of Stephen Tempest, author of "Religio Laici;" the other of Francis Tempest, abbot of Lambspring, a venerable old man in the Benedictine habit, with a gold cross.

Rylstone, a township and village in this parish, has the old family chapel of the Nortons, whom Wordsworth has made memorable by his tale of "The White Doe of Rylstone;" and on the highest point of Rylstone Fell stands a square tower with some mounds near it, which are supposed to have served as butts for archers. This township, parish, and village, is situated on the river Aire and the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, five miles north-west from Skipton. The Midland Railway (sometimes called in this part "the little North-western") has a station at Gargrave, which is also a postal town. A number of the inhabitants are employed in cotton-spinning. A large worsted and cotton mill here is on the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, near the village. Eshton Hall, the beautiful seat of Sir Matthew Wilson, Bart., M.P., is near Gargrave.

Progress of Population in Staincliffe or Craven.-In taking the census of this extensive wapentake it is divided into three registrars' districts, namely, those of Settle, Skipton-in-Craven, and Keighley. Their industry varies with the natural circumstances, and depends chiefly upon their comparative facility for obtaining coal, and carriage by land and water for the transport of their produce. There are now two coal mines at work in the Skipton district; one the Bradley Colliery, belonging to L. Horner & Co., and the other the Threshfield Colliery, owned by Mr. W. Lambert. There are four coal mines in the Bingley district, and fifty-one in the district of Bradford, with every facility for communication by canal and railway.* During the last seventy years the population of the Settle district has increased from 11,248 to 15,134; that of Skipton, which has greater industrial advantages, from 18,084 to 32,398; and that of Keighley, which has still greater advantages, from 16,498 to 52,141. The increase of population in each of those districts during the last ten years, and some of the causes on which increase or decrease has been dependent, will be seen from the following figures and notes, taken from the Registrars' returns for the Census of 1871:-

The Settle Registrar's District (483).- This district is very extensive and hilly, rising at many places into mountains, and stretching over an area of 151,942 acres. At the Census of 1801 it contained a population of 11,248 persons, and at that of 1861 of 12,528, which number had increased to 15,134 at the Census of 1871. Registrars Sub-districts.- Settle is divided into five sub-districts:-

                 Area       Population   Population
                 in Acres.  in 1861.     in 1871.
1. Bentham,       46,296     5,436        6,554
2. Settle,        49,018     4,503        5,982
3. Long Preston,  16,297     1,368        1,372
4. Kirkby Malham, 22,328       826          878
5. Arncliffe,     18,003       405          348

The Skipton Registrar's District (484) includes a large portion of the beautiful hill pastures of Craven and the ancient town of Skipton-in-Craven, and extends over a wide area of 159,191 acres. It contained, at the Census of 1801, 18,084 inhabitants, and at that of 1861, 31,343 inhabitants, which number had increased to 32,398 in 1871. Registrars' Sub-districts.-Skipton is divided into seven sub-districts:-

                  Area       Population   Population
                  in Acres.  in 1861.     in 1871.
1. Kettlewell,    33,135     1,141        1,017
2. Gargrave,      17,753     1,852        2,030
3. Barnoldswick,  16,570     5,986        6,224
4. Kildwick,      18,123     7,853        8,362
5. Skipton,       25,483     8,590        9,504
6. Addingham,     20,755     2,969        2,910
7. Grassington,   27,372     2,764        2,351

The increase of population in Skipton township is ascribed by the commissioners to the general prosperity of the cotton and worsted manufactures. The decrease in the parish of Kettlewell, and in Grassington and Addingham, is said to be owing to a diminution of the productiveness of the lead mines.

The Keighley Registrar's District (491) stands in one of the widest parts of the valley of the Aire, rises into lofty hills, and covers an area of 36,769 acres, containing many sources of wealth. At the Census of 1801 Bingley and Keighley contained 16,498 inhabitants, and in 1861, 43,122, which number had increased to 52,141 at that of 1871. Registrars' Sub-districts.-Keighley is divided into three sub-districts:-

                                    Area      Population   Population
                                   in  Acres. in 1861.     in 1871.
1. Bingley,.(in Skyrackwapentake), 14,109     15,367        18,116
2. Keighley,                       14,546     21,859        28,059
3. Haworth,                         8,114     5,896          5,966

The increase of population at Bingley is attributed by the commissioners to the erection of a number of new worsted factories. In the parish of Keighley, to the extension of works connected with the iron, worsted, and other trades.

The Wapentake of Morley.- The populous wapentake of Morley is joined with the more thinly-peopled wapentakes of Ewcross and Staincliffe, to form the north-western division of the West Riding of Yorkshire. We have already, in the present volume, written the history of all the great manufacturing towns of the Morley, Agbrigg, and Skyrack wapentakes, namely, Leeds, Bradford, Halifax, Huddersfield, Dewsbury, and Wakefield, containing among them upwards of 600,000 inhabitants; and before proceeding to describe the detached portions of those wapentakes, we shall give an account of the agricultural and rural districts of the eastern division of the West Riding, commencing with that of Claro, which forms the north-western part of the division.


This division includes the wapentakes of Claro, Barkston Ash, Osgoldcross, and Skyrack, and the borough of Leeds.

The Wapentake of Claro.- The wapentake or hundred of Claro, probably so named by the Normans from the clearness and beauty of its numerous rivers and brooks, is chiefly a pastoral district on the west, where the country rises into extensive moors and lofty heights, resting on the millstone grit, but becomes a fine agricultural country, as it extends eastward towards the New Red Sandstone formation, and the vale of York. This district has also a very considerable number of lead mines. It is remarkable for the beauty of its scenery, and for the number and admirable preservation of its abbeys and other monastic houses, of its churches and its beautiful cathedral of Ripon, and of its fine castles and numerous mansions. Generally speaking, the soil improves much in fertility on the eastern side, and the least productive parts of the division lie towards the west; though here the lower districts are watered by many streams and afford good pasturage. The very extensive parish of Fewston, which includes the elevated tract stretching between Harrogate and Bolton Priory, and forming part of the ancient forest of Knaresborough, is the only portion of the wapentake that is naturally barren. The occupations of the people are mostly pastoral and agricultural, and the chief crops of the arable land are wheat, barley, oats, turnips, and potatoes. That the soil and climate of this part of the county can produce good fruit is proved by the Ribstone pippin, an apple that has been propagated from a tree planted at Great Ribstone, near Hunsingore, and from the Winsour plum, produced almost exclusively in this and the adjoining wapentakes. That it can also produce magnificent oaks is proved by the Cowthorpe oak, once the largest in England, but now only a ruin. In the notes to White's "Natural History of Selborne " we are told that the Cowthorpe oak, a hundred years ago, was the largest oak tree in England, and was then standing at the extremity of the village of Cowthorpe, near Wetherby, in the county of York. The late Dr. Hunter of Sheffield (not the antiquary), while describing an oak of extraordinary size which then adorned the park of Sheffield, noticed the Cowthorpe oak, in his edition of Evelyn's "Sylva," in the following terms:-"Neither this, nor any of the oaks mentioned by Evelyn, bears any proportion to the one now growing at Cowthorpe. The dimensions are almost incredible. Within three feet of the ground it measures sixteen yards in girth, and close to the ground twenty-six yards. Its height, in its present ruinous state (1776), is about eighty-five feet, and its principal limb extends sixteen yards from the bole. Throughout the whole tree the foliage is extremely thin, so that the anatomy of the ancient branches may be distinctly seen in the height of summer. When compared to this, all other trees are but children of the forest." Another hundred years has nearly swept away all that then remained of this monarch of the forest. But the existence of such trees as the Cowthorpe oak above described; the Skyrack oak at Headingley, near Leeds, which we well remember covered with leaves and green branches; and the grand oaks that formerly existed in Sheffield Park- show how well suited the soil of the West Riding is to the production of this noblest of all forest trees.

Claro contains a considerable number of lead mines, and forms part of an extensive mineral district. "Lead ore," says Mrs. Somerville, in her delightful "Physical Geography," "is very often combined with silver, and is then called argentiferous galena. It is one of the principal productions of the British mines, especially in the northern mining district, which occupies 400 square miles, at the junction of Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmoreland, Durham, and Yorkshire. It comprises Alston Moor, the mountain ridge of Crossfell, and the dales of Derwent, East and West Allen, and Wear and Tees" (besides the upper part of Swaledale, Wensleydale, Wharfedale, Nidderdale, and part of Airedale in Yorkshire). It appears from the "Mineral Statistics," published October, 1874, p. 45, that there were in Yorkshire in 1873 thirty-three lead mines, and that they yielded 4986 tons of lead ore, producing 3704 tons of lead and 1500 ounces of silver. Of these mines ten were in Wharfedale, two in Airedale, three in Nidderdale, thirteen in Swaledale and Arkendale, one in Wensleydale, and four in the forest of Bowland, which is part of Ribblesdale. The names and positions of the lead mines are given in the first volume of this work, p. 19. The only copper mine in Yorkshire at work at the present time is that of Merrybent in the Swaledale and Arkendale district, which in 1873-74 yielded seventy-two tons of ore, of the value of £882.

The Area of the Wapentake of Claro and of its Parishes.- The area of the wapentake of Claro extends over 268,248 statute acres. The following are the names of its parishes, with their areas in acres, as ascertained by the Ordnance Survey:-

Addingham (part of), 317
Aldborough (part of), 7,783
Allerton Mauleverer, 2,460
Burton Leonard, 1,795
Copgrove, 860
Cowthorpe, 1,370
Farnham, 2,534
Fewston, 17,644
Goldsborough, 2,894
Great Ouseburn (part of), 1,707
Hampsthwaite, 11,903
Harewood (part of), 2,843
Haverah Park (ex. pal), 2,245
Hunsingore, 4,215
Ilkley (part of), 4,582
Kirk Deighton, 3,868
Kirk Hammerton (part of), 1,008
Kirklington (part of), 118
Kirkby Malzeard, 55,414
Kirkby Overblow, 11,543
Knaresborough, 12,489
Leathley, 2,088
Little Ouseburn, 4,296
Marton-with-Grafton, 2,164
Nidd, 1,045
Nun-Monkton (part of), 1,706
Otley (part of), 9,022
Pannal, 4,897
Ripley, 7,385
Ripon, 55,022
Skipton (part of), 5,330
South Stainley, 2,131
Spofforth, 13,062
Staveley, 1,425
Weston, 4,902
Whixley, 4,082
Total, 268,248

The Rivers of Claro.- These are numerous and beautiful, including the river Ure, which bounds this wapentake and the West Riding of York in part of its course, on the north; the river Wharfe, which bounds the wapentake on the south; and the river Nidd, which rises at a great elevation among the mountains on the west, and flows through the whole of the wapentake of Claro into the river Ouse. We have already described these fine streams in our account of the rivers of Yorkshire (vol. i. pp. 222-237).

The City of Ripon and Towns of Claro.- This wapentake contains the city of Ripon, several ancient towns, and the fashionable watering place of Harrogate.


The city of Ripon stands in a most pleasant position, on the banks of the river Ure, a few miles above the point at which that river enters the vale of York, and where it receives two smaller rivers, the Laver and the Skell. It is one of the oldest of the Anglian cities of Yorkshire, and dates the commencement of its history from the time when Christianity was introduced amongst the Angles and the Saxons by Paulinus, the apostle of Northumbria, and Wilfrid, afterwards archbishop of York. Ripon was the seat of a great monastic house, and for a short time of a bishopric, in the time of the Christian kings of Northumbria. It acquired a high reputation by the energy and ability of St. Wilfrid. After having received many honours and privileges from King Athelstane, the grandson of Alfred the Great, and having held a high position for many ages, owing to the splendour of its cathedral, and the beauty of the neighbouring Abbey of Fountains, Ripon has within the present century been again raised to the dignity of a bishopric, and has become the seat of the bishop of Ripon, whose palace and cathedral are situated here, and who presides over a large portion of the West Riding of Yorkshire, with a diocese containing a rapidly increasing population already amounting to several hundred thousands of persons. We have already given an account of the bishopric of Ripon (vol. i. p. 401). At the Census of 1871, the population of this diocese had increased to 1,357,053 persons.

Ripon was a favourite residence of the Norman archbishops of York until the time when Archbishop Walter Gray, 1215-1255, built Bishopthorpe. The town was much injured by the Scots in 1319, when they paid a return visit to the English army, remained here three days, and made the inhabitants pay a ransom of 1000 marks, equal to £10,000 of present money. During the "Rising of the North" in 1569, Percy, earl of Northumberland, and Nevile, earl of Westmoreland, mustered their forces, and made their proclamations here. Old Norton displayed his famous banner at Ripon, and mass was sung in the cathedral. In the following January the rebel constables and serving-men of the West Riding, and the townsmen of Ripon who had joined the two earls, were executed here. In 1640 a conference was held at Ripon between the Scottish lords and the English commissioners. Parliamentary troops, under Sir Thomas Mauleverer, were at Ripon in 1643, when they sacked the minster; and in 1646, King Charles, then a prisoner, passed two nights at Ripon, on his way to Holmby.

Ripon was once famous for its woollen manufactures, and only ceased to be so during the time of the Tudors. Leland when at Ripon, temp. Henry VIII., observed that "idelnes was sore encresed in the town, and clothe makyng almost decayed." Ripon has now a manufacture of iron agricultural implements. It has always been famous for its market for horses. It was also noted for its spurs. "A gilte bowle and a pair of Rippon spurres" were presented to King James I. on his visit in 1617. An ancient custom here, still observed, is the sounding of the mayor's horn. Three blasts are sounded nightly before the mayor's door, at nine o'clock, and one afterwards at the market cross. The horn itself is decorated with silver badges, and with insignia of trading companies belonging to the town.

Ripon Cathedral.- On the occasion of the meeting of the Yorkshire Union of Mechanics' Institutes at Ripon, in 1873, nearly three hundred of the members visited the cathedral of that ancient city, where both the original architecture of the building and the modern restoration excited much interest. The following is an abridgment of an interesting description of this noble building given on that occasion by the Rev. W. C. Lukis, rector of Wath, who stated that beneath the lantern tower, where the visitors were then standing, was the most comprehensive view of the principal architectural features of the cathedral. In those transepts they saw the work of Roger, archbishop of York, who in the first half of the twelfth century erected, upon the site of a former great church, a noble edifice in a style chiefly Norman, but slightly blended with the incoming pointed or early English style. The church which Archbishop Roger erected consisted of a choir, probably co-extensive with that now existing, with aisles; of a nave without aisles, of the same dimensions as the present one; of two western towers, which added width and dignity to the west front; of transepts, with eastern aisles; and of the lantern tower already adverted to. The only portions of Archbishop Roger's church, which still existed, were the comparatively small fragments at the east and west end. These show it to have been a noble structure. An alteration of the Norman front was effected by Walter Gray, archbishop of York, in the early part of the thirteenth century. The Rev. gentleman next directed attention to the elegant decorative work in the two extreme eastern bays on each side, and to the great east window, in the first half of the fourteenth century, and to the renovated portion of the three western bays on the south side, in the style of the middle of the fifteenth century. The oak canopied stalls, he said, were inscribed with the dates of their commencement (1494) and completion (1497). These stalls were injured when the timbers and lead spire were blown down in a violent tempest, in 1660, but had recently been most carefully restored by Sir Gilbert G. Scott. The Rev. gentleman said that before quitting this spot attention must be directed to one of the most interesting relics of Pre-Norman times to be seen in any part of England. There was every reason to believe that the small and remarkable building buried beneath this pavement, and known by the name of St. Wilfrid's Needle, was an ancient chapel of the seventh century. The dimensions of this diminutive building were 11 feet 3 inches long, by 7 feet 9 inches wide. The cathedral on the south side of the choir belonged to an earlier date than the transepts. It was in a Norman style anterior to the introduction of the pointed arch, and was most probably a fragment of a church of considerable proportions, erected by Thomas, archbishop of York, in the twelfth century. The church of Ripon received the equivocal advantage of being made a sanctuary for criminals from King Athelstane, the grandson of Alfred the Great, in the tenth century. The limits within which a criminal refugee might find himself safe under the protection of the church, were formerly marked by eight crosses. A portion of only one of these still exists near Sharrow, about a mile from the Cathedral; but the positions of two more have been ascertained.

Studley Royal and Fountains Abbey.- Studley Royal, a park laid out under the direction of John Aislabie, Esq., is now the property and residence of the marquis of Ripon. The entrance to the park is about two miles from Ripon, on the road to Pateley Bridge. The pleasure grounds are in some parts laid out in the formal Dutch style introduced by King William III., but are here associated with views of a most picturesque character. At a small arbour in a wood, called "Anne Boleyn's seat," folding doors are suddenly thrown open by the guide, and disclose a full view of Fountains Dale, with the extensive monastic ruins surrounded by the richest setting that a finely-wooded valley can afford. These ruins, the most extensive remaining, in England, were anciently held by a brotherhood whose estates extended from Penyghent Hill to Ripon, over a space of more than thirty miles. Their lands in Craven alone, says Whitaker, contained in a ring fence a hundred square miles. The sites of the choir, chapel of the nine altars, chapter-house, refectory, great cloister, infirmary, kitchens, prisons, cellar, and abbot's house, have all been well made out; and no place can be compared with Fountains Abbey, for bringing vividly before the imagination the whole plan of life led by the monks of the olden time.

Fountains Hall, a fine old mansion of the time of James I., is near the abbey. Grantley Hall, the residence of Lord Grantley, the representative of the old family of the Nortons, stands three miles north-west from Fountains. Markenfield Hall, two miles west of Ripon, is an interesting old mansion, formerly the residence of Thomas Markenfield, who took an active part in "the Rising of the North." This house also now belongs to Lord Grantley.

The Roman and British Isurium, or Aldborough.- In modern times the river Ure has been made navigable from Ripon to the city of York, on the river Ouse. At the point where the rivers Ure and Swale join their waters and become the Ouse is Aldborough, the ancient British city known in the Roman times, and perhaps much earlier, by the British name of Isurium, which is generally supposed to mean "the town upon the rivers, or waters;" but to which the Romans gave the name of Isur-Brigantum, or the "city of the Brigantes," from the great British tribe which then inhabited the present county of York and a large part of the adjoining counties. Aldborough as well as Boroughbridge, both of them in the same parish, returned members to Parliament previous to Earl Grey's Reform Bill, in 1832. Numerous relics of Roman civilization have been brought to light by excavations in this neighbourhood, and are preserved in the "Museum Isurianum" at the manor house, the residence of Andrew Lawson, Esq., the lord of the manor of Aldborough and the owner of the greater part of the town.

Pateley-Bridge and Ripley.- On the rapid stream of the river Nidd are the towns of Pateley-Bridge (which may be considered the chief place in the lead-mining district of the West Riding) and of Ripley, with a fine castle belonging to the family of the Ingilbys, who are amongst the most ancient baronets of England. Amongst the curiosities shown at Ripley Castle is a pig of British lead with a Latin inscription, showing that it was cast in the country of the Brigantes, and in the reign of the Emperor Domitian (A.D. 81-96), which proves that these mines have been worked, at all events at intervals, for very nearly 1800 years. A great many charming mansions and fine parks exist along the course of the river Nidd, where the scenery is remarkably beautiful, bold, and varied. Most of these have been mentioned in our account of the Yorkshire rivers (vol. i. pp. 204-270).


The interesting and ancient borough of Knaresborough also belongs to this wapentake. It is the chief town on the river Nidd, and the capital of an extensive district called Niddale, or Nidderdale, a district rich, as we have seen, in lead mines and abounding in objects of natural beauty. Soon after the Norman conquest a castle was built here by Serlo de Burgh (probably on the remains of an old Anglian castle, from which the town takes its name, and which either means the "fortress on the rock" or the "fortress of the tribe"). He accompanied the Conqueror to England, and received Knaresborough and several other lordships as the reward of his military services. He was succeeded by his brother John, whose eldest son, Eustace Fitzjohn, succeeded him in the lordship of Knaresborough, and was present at the battle of the Standard at Northallerton, A.D. 1138, and afterwards in a great battle with the Welsh, in which he was killed, in the year 1158. Robert, the son of Eustace Fitzjohn, was one of five English knights who with a small body of cavalry surprised and captured William, king of Scotland, at Alnwick, in the year 1174. The most celebrated member of this family was Hubert de Burgh, earl of Kent, who was one of the regents of the kingdom during the long minority of King Henry III. He was a resolute asserter of the rights of the barons and of the people against King John. His son Hubert also joined the standard of Simon de Montfort, in the Barons' wars, and was present at the battle of Evesham, in the year 1265. There he shared in the defeat of the barons, and his estates, including the manor of Knaresborough, were granted by King Henry III. to Richard, earl of Cornwall, the brother of the king. Richard dying without issue, in the year 1300, the earldom of Cornwall, and with it the manor of Knaresborough, reverted to the crown. In the reign of King Edward II. the castle was held by his unworthy favourite, Piers de Gaveston; but after his downfall and death it again returned to the crown, and in the year 1371 both the manor and castle were given by Edward III. to his fourth son, the famous John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster. During the next hundred years Knaresborough was generally held as part of the duchy of Lancaster, and it is said to have been one of the places in which King Richard II. was imprisoned for a short time, after being dethroned by Henry of Bolingbroke. On the overthrow of Richard III., and the complete triumph of the house of Lancaster, the castle of Knaresborough again returned to the crown, and in the year 1616 this castle and lordship were granted by James I. to his son Charles, and were held by him at the commencement of the Civil War. After the battle of Marston Moor and the reduction of the city of York, in the year 1644, Knaresborough was besieged by Lord Fairfax, who took the town by assault in the month of November in that year, and on the 20th December following the castle was surrendered on honourable terms. In the Scottish invasion of 1648, Oliver Cromwell assembled his army for the defence of the country at the castle of Knaresborough, and marched thence, up Wharfedale and down Ribblesdale, to attack the Scottish army in the neighbourhood of Preston. After this war, but in the same year (1648), the castle of Knaresborough was rendered untenable by order of Parliament. From that time it has ceased to be a fortress; but many remains of its former strength and magnificence still exist. The castle covered two acres and a half of ground within its walls, and was flanked with eleven towers. Part of the principal tower is still remaining, and appears to have been erected about the time of King Edward III.

Knaresborough was a place of considerable trade in early times, being the chief town in the valley of the Nidd, and well supplied with water-power by the impetuous stream of that river, and with wool from the sheep on the immense moors which extend some thirty or forty miles from Knaresborough, to the north-west. But no coal has yet been found in the immediate neighbourhood of the town, though there are traces of that formation within a few miles. From want of a supply of fuel on the spot, the great motive power of modern manufactures does not exist here, and hence Knaresborough, though it has a small linen manufacture, has not shared to any considerable extent in the manufacturing prosperity of the West Riding. But the town and neighbourhood of Knaresborough are full of objects of interest, including curious and beautiful caves and the dropping well, which has the property of encrusting all objects thrown into it with carbonate of lime so as to preserve the most delicate details of their original formation. Scriven, in this neighbourhood, meaning a cavern, is said to have been originally the same word as Craven, which also means a cave or cavern. A beautiful watering place has sprung up at Harrogate (of which we shall give a separate description), on what was at one time one of the wildest parts of the great forest of Knaresborough. That forest formerly extended twenty miles in length from east to west, and about eight miles in breadth. It was then divided into eleven constabularies, namely, Bilton-with-Harrogate, Killinghall, Clint, Hampsthwaite, Fellescliffe, Birstwith, Merwith-with-Darley, Thruscross, Timble, Clifton, and Pannal.

Knaresborough returned members to Parliament almost from the commencement of the parliamentary system, and now returns one member. At the Census of 1871 the borough contained 1271 inhabited houses, and a population of 5205 persons. Knaresborough was the birth-place of a very remarkable man, known as "Blind Jack of Knaresborough." His true name was John Metcalf. At six years of age he became totally blind; yet he excelled in occupations for which the gift of sight is usually thought to be indispensable, and was most successful in road-making and bridge-building. He directed the works which he could never behold with the external eye, and proved that undertakings requiring accurate measurements of lines and angles might be accomplished by one who had never seen, since early childhood, a book or a map. He died in 1810, aged ninety-three, at Spofforth.

The health-giving and delightful watering place of Harrogate derives its name from the Norse words haro and gata, "the heroes' road," and probably stood on one of those lines of road which the Danish chiefs of York used in their expeditions up the western dales of Yorkshire. Bilton, with High Harrogate and a part of Low Harrogate, was formerly a chapelry in the parish of Knaresborough, but is now an independent ecclesiastical parish. The remainder of Low Harrogate is a district in the parish of Pannal. The first of the famous springs of Harrogate was discovered about the year 1596, by Mr. Slingsby, one of the neighbouring landowners. The town of Harrogate is divided into two parts, High and Low; but the site of both has an elevation of some hundred feet above the level of the sea. The pure breezes, no doubt, add to the healthiness of Harrogate, and the views from its extensive walks and the Stray extend over many miles. There are no less than twenty-five springs of mineral water; and of seventeen of them, which rise very near one another, it is said that each has a distinct character, derived from different modifications in the working of Nature's laboratory. One chief difference is between the waters containing sulphur and those containing-iron. Medical advice, which is abundant and good in Harrogate, is said to be requisite in many cases for a safe and curative use of the waters. Their outward application is rendered easy and agreeable by the Pump-room, the new Proprietary Baths, the Montpellier Baths, the Bath Hospital, and the baths at Starbeck and Harlow Car. The other chief public buildings of Harrogate are the Royal Cheltenham Pump-room (in Low Harrogate), the New Market, and the Observatory on Harlow Hill, about a mile from the town. Harrogate has also several fine hotels. The street architecture has been much improved of late years, and the detached and semi-detached villas in the neighbourhood are very picturesque.

The season continues from the middle of summer to late in the autumn. Balls are occasionally given at the principal hotels, and a series of concerts. But many of the visitors to Harrogate are invalids, who come really to drink the water or bathe in it, and for them the regular morning visit to the Pump-room or the bath, varied with short walks or drives in the neighbourhood, supplies sufficient recreation. The favourite walks are to Birk Crag, Harlow Car and Harlow Tower, Great Almes Cliff and Little Almes Cliff, Plumpton Park, Starbeck, and Knaresborough; and the railway has now made Otley, Ilkley, Ripley, Brimham Rocks, Ripon, Fountains Abbey, and even the city of York, with all its objects of interest, easily accessible from Harrogate.

St. John's Church (Bilton) is a new church, built from the designs of Sir G. G. Scott, in the early English style. Christ Church, in High Harrogate, was erected in 1831, and has since been enlarged at a considerable cost. St. Mary's Church, in Low Harrogate, was built in 1824, and contains 800 sittings, of which 500 are free. There are chapels of the Independents, the Wesleyan Methodists, the Wesleyan Reformers, the Primitive Methodists, and the Society of Friends. The educational institutions of Harrogate include national schools, a free school for girls, an endowed school (at Bilton), and a literary institution. Four newspapers are published here:-The Harrogate Advertiser, the Harrogate Herald, the Knaresbro' Post, and the Weekly Visitor.

In 1861 the population of Bilton with Harrogate township was 3832, and that of the part of Low Harrogate lying in Pannal parish was 905, making a total for the whole town of 4737. In 1871 it had greatly increased and amounted to 6843 persons.

Progress of Population in the Claro Wapentake.- At the commencement of the present century, at the Census of 1801, the Pateley-Bridge district contained a population of 5920, and in 1861, of 9534, which had decreased at the Census of 1871 to 8686. In the Ripon district the numbers had advanced in the same period from 13,145 to 15,967, and those of Knaresborough had decreased from 19,403 to 19,088. The Great Ouseburn district has been recently formed, and did not exactly correspond seventy years ago with any of the existing registrars' districts. The following returns show the progress or decline of population in the whole of the districts of the wapentake of Claro during the last ten years.

The Ripon Registrar's District (486).- A rich district, intersected by numerous fine rivers, and full of natural beauty and of the remains of ancient greatness. It extends over an area of 73,220 acres, and contained in the year 1861 a population of 15,742, which number had increased in 1871 to 15,967. Registrars' Sub-districts.-Ripon is divided into four sub-districts:-

                     Area       Population  Population
                     in Acres.  in 1861.    in 1871.
1. Ripon,             23,228     8,979      9,917
2. Kirkby Malzeard,   25,797     3,269      2,892
3. Wath,              13,323     1,700      1,492
4. Dishforth,         10,872     1,794      1,666

Pateley-Bridge Registrar's District (485).-This district covers a considerable portion of the moors of the West Riding, and a valuable part of the lead mines which they contain, and extends over an area of 75,063 acres. In 1861 it contained a population of 9534; but in 1871 the number had decreased to 8686. Registrars' Sub-districts.-Pateley-Bridge is divided into four sub-districts:-

                      Area      Population  Population
                     in Acres.  in 1861.    in 1871.
1. Ramsgill,          31,765     1,189      1,026
2. Pateley Bridge     11,776     3,349      3,304
3. Thornthwaite,      14,670     1,925      1,719
4. Dacre Banks,       16,852     3,071      2,637

The decrease of population is said to be owing to migration to the manufacturing districts in search of employment, to the closing of a factory, and to the removal of labourers, who in 1861 were engaged in the construction of a railway.

Great Ouseburn Registrar's District (487).- A rich and fertile district, situate near the point at which the river Ouse receives the Ouseburn, and the much larger streams of the Swale, the Ure, and the Wiske. It extends over an area of 60,627 acres. At the Census of 1861 it contained a population of 12,111, which number had decreased to 11,697 in 1871. Registrars' Sub-districts.-Great Ouseburn is divided into three sub-districts:-

                       Area     Population  Population
                      in Acres. in 1861.    in 1871.
1. Boroughbridge,       23,817    5,061     4,912
2. Whixley,             22,881    4,308     4,112
3. Poppleton,           13,929    2,742     2,673

The decrease of population is said to be owing to a diminished demand for labour, and to many of the labouring class having consequently left for the manufacturing districts.

Knaresborough Registrar's District (488), extends over an area of 41,236 acres. At the Census of 1861 it contained a population of 17,176, which at the Census of 1871 had increased to 19,088. Registrars' Sub-districts.-Knaresborough is divided into two sub-districts:-

                       Area     Population  Population
                      in Acres.   in 1861.   in 1871.
1. Knaresborough,       19,193     8,571     8,249
2. Harrogate,           22,043     8,605    10,839

The decrease of population in the township of Brearton, included in Knaresborough district, is owing to migration to the manufacturing districts. The increase of population in the township of Bilton with Harrogate is owing to the growing importance of the town as a watering place and fashionable resort. The population of the township of Ripley is said to have decreased in consequence of the removal of a number of labourers, who in 1861 were employed in constructing a railway.

Wetherby Registrar's District (489) on the line of the old Northern road, and at one of the principal bridges across the river Wharfe, stands in a fertile district, though one that has been somewhat deserted by trade and communication since the making of railways. It extends over an area of 65,940 acres. At the Census of 1861 it contained a population of 15,471, which number had decreased to 14,874 at that of 1871. Registrars' Sub-districts.-Wetherby is divided into two sub-districts:-

                Area       Population   Population
                in Acres.   in 1861.    in 1871.
1. Wetherby,      40,383     7,743       7,116
2. Boston,        25,557     7,728       7,759

The decrease of population in four or five townships is attributed to the migration of labourers with their families to districts where there is a greater demand for labour; and at Brambam to migration occasioned by depression of trade at the flax mills.

The Wapentake of Barkston Ash.- Most of the parishes and townships included in this wapentake lie at no great distance right and left of the old Roman road, from which was formed the chief part of the Great Northern Road of modern times, running from south to north, from London to the borders of Scotland, and near the points where the Nidd, and Wharfe, flow into the river Ouse. The subsoil of the Barkston Ash wapentake is new red sandstone and limestone, very favourable to cultivation under the four course system of agriculture. The magnesian limestone near Sutton has supplied from early times superior materials for building, and the limestone in the neighbourhood of Brotherton, like that of Knottingley, is very valuable for agricultural and other purposes. There is little coal found here. The occupations of the people are still chiefly agricultural, and numerous farms and old homesteads bear evidences of the early date of culture in this fertile district. The Barkston Ash wapentake extends over an area of 91,358 statute acres.

The Parishes of Barkston Ash.- The following are the parishes, with their areas in acres, of the Barkston Ash wapentake:-

Birkin, 5,903
Bolton Percy (part of),. 33
Bramham, 5,680
Brayton, 11,665
Brotherton, 2,388
Cawood, 2,890
Church Fenton, 3,477
Collingham (part of), 714
Drax, 6,969
Hazelwood (ex. par.), 2,191
Kippax (part of), 271
Kirkby Wharfe, 3,411
Ledsham, 5,111
Monk Fryston, 4,253
Newton Kyme, 1,371
Ryther, 3,779
Saxton, 3,698
Selby, 3,643
Sherburn 13,268
Snaith (part of), 4,217
Tadcaster (part of), 2,100
Wistow, 4,316
Total,. 91,358

History of Selby.-Selby is a port and harbour on the river Ouse, from which trading vessels sail to various parts of the world without touching at Hull, and foreign ships are permitted to enter Selby and discharge their freights; this place having a branch custom-house. The first passenger railway formed in Yorkshire was from Selby to Leeds. Selby commands direct communication with York, Hull, Leeds, and the entire country. The magistrates hold their sittings at the court-house on alternate Mondays. The county court is held monthly on Thursday. The union-house was built in 1841 at an outlay of £5650, and will admit 189 inmates. The local board of health was formed in 1856.

The town is supplied with water obtained from an Artesian well, and pumped, from a depth of 330 feet below the surface of the ground, into a tank capable of holding 150,000 gallons.

If we could believe a monkish legend, Selby Abbey grew up out of a hut raised to inclose a saint's finger. Benedict, a foreign monk, came to the site, it is said, soon after the Conquest, when he was the only monk in Yorkshire, bringing with him the finger of Saint Germanus. The monk's hut was visited by the sheriff of Yorkshire, who left there a tent to afford a better shelter to "the glorious finger." A grant of land on the bank of the Ouse having been obtained through the aid of the same sheriff, wooden cells for other monks sprang up about the tent of Benedict, who was now made abbot, and ruled here twenty-seven years over the brotherhood dwelling in wooden huts. His successor, Hugh, built a church and a convent of stone further from the river. Several English kings enriched Selby Abbey, and Pope Alexander II. made it a mitred abbey, in importance second only to Fountains and St. Mary's, York. At the dissolution the site and all the property were granted to Sir Ralph Sadler. In 1618 James I. made the Abbey Church the parish church of Selby, as it still remains.

As it now stands Selby Church is a very noble building. The nave appears to be the most ancient part; the choir is a later erection. The whole length of the structure is 267 feet, the breadth fifty, and the length of the transept 100 feet; the east and west ends being of equal distance from the pillars supporting the steeple. This steeple or tower fell down on Sunday the 30th of March, 1670, about six o'clock in the morning, and by its fall destroyed a part of the church, particularly the south end of the transept. The present tower, probably rebuilt about 1702, is in a style by no means corresponding with its original. The internal architecture of the nave is very magnificent, and the ornaments are the most elaborate and beautiful. "But the object which attracts more particular attention is the east window: the proportions of all its parts, the beauty of its tracery, and the slender lofty mullions, unsupported by transoms, cannot be exceeded."

Selby contains several Sunday and day schools, charity schools, and almshouses. The Independents, Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists, Quakers, Unitarians, and Roman Catholics, have chapels.

Many of the inhabitants are employed chiefly in sail-making, rope-making, boat and barge building, brewing, tanning, and iron-founding. A market is held every Monday, and fairs on Easter Tuesday and the Wednesday after June 22nd, and October 11th, for horses and cattle; and for wool and flax the four following weeks, beginning on the last Friday in May. Lord Londesborough is lord of the manor, and the principal landowners are the representatives of Lady Moore, and William Paver, Esq.

The Town of Tadcaster.- The glories of Tadcaster, like those of Ferrybridge, belong to the past. Tadcaster, the first station after leaving Church Fenton, on the Harrogate branch, is believed to have been the Calcaria of the Romans, and many Roman coins have been dug up here. The perpendicular church of St. Mary is large, but heavy in the interior. A new Roman Catholic chapel, of no great pretensions as to the exterior, was recently opened here. There are also chapels for the Wesleyans, the Wesleyan Reformers, and the Primitive Methodists. An endowed grammar school was founded in 1558 by Bishop Oglethorpe. Here are also a national school for boys, and a preparatory school for girls, supported by Dawson's Charity, and there are Church and Wesleyan Sunday schools. In the neighbourhood are quarries of magnesian limestone. The soil is clay and limestone, and the chief crops grown are wheat, barley, oats, and turnips. John Fielden, Esq., M.P., of Grimston Hall, is lord of the manor, by purchase from Lord Londesborough in 1872. Charles Shann, Esq., the Rev. E. Brooksbank, of Healaugh Hall, and R. B. Allenby, Esq., are amongst the chief landowners.

Selby Registrar's District (513) covers an area of 56,984 acres. In 1801 it contained a population of 10,252 persons; in 1861, of 15,675; and in 1871 of 16,380. Registrars' Sub-distracts.-Selby is divided into three sub-districts:-

               Area      Population  Population
              in Acres.   in 1861.    in 1871.
1. Carlton,   13,741        2,423      2,366
2. Selby,     26,213        9,765     10,523
3. Riccall,   18,030        3,487      3,491

Tadcaster Registrar's District (514) covers an area of 72,865 acres. In 1801 it contained a population of 14,523 persons; in 1861, of 20,150 persons; and in 1871 of 21,080. Registrars Sub-districts.-Tadcaster is divided into three sub-districts:-

                         Area        Population   Population
                        in Aces.      in 1861.     in 1871.
1. Aberford,           29,859         10,182       11,484
2. Tadcaster,          17,968          4,548        4,242
3. Appleton-Roebuck,   25,038          5,420        5,354

The Wapentake of Osgoldcross.- The name of the wapentake of Osgoldcross is either derived from some gold cross which was supposed to have belonged to Oswald, or Oswy, one of the ancient kings of the Anglian race, who ruled in the kingdom of Northumbria, which then extended from the Humber to the present borders of Scotland; or from St. Oswald, the patriotic Christian king and martyr, who was slain in a great battle fought at Heathfield, near Doncaster. The soil of this district is rich, as shown in our account of its agriculture (vol. i. p. 77). The area of the wapentake of Osgoldcross is 113,830 statute acres.

The Parishes of Osgoldcross, with their Areas.- The following are the parishes of Osgoldcross, with their areas:-

Ackworth, 2,643
Adlingfleet, 5,615
Badsworth, 3,970
Burghwallis, 1,607
Campsall, 9,716
Castleford, 1,643
Castle Precincts (ex. par.), 8
Darrington, 5,587
Featherstone (part of), 2,401
Ferry Fryston, 3,065
Huntwick (ex. par.), 255
Kellington, 7,490
Kirk Bramwith, 2,110
Kirk Smeaton, 1,700
Monk Hill (ex. par.), 4
Nostel (ex. par.), 829
Owston, 3,039
Pontefract, 5,387
Pontefract Park (ex. par.), 1,394
Snaith (part of), 29,925
South Kirby (part of), 7,048
Whitgift, 9,941
Womersley, 7,013
Wragby (part of,) 1,430

The ancient town and castle of Pontefract, situated a few miles north- west of the chief passage of the Aire, near Ferrybridge, and to some extent commanding the approach to York from the south, by the Great Northern Road which formerly intersected the whole county, was a place of great military strength, even in the Anglian times. After the battle of Hastings it was fortified with an immense castle by Ilbert de Laci, and remained the chief stronghold of the Norman power, in the south-eastern part of the West Riding, for some hundreds of years. It was the scene of frequent contests, and of many tragical events in the wars between the rival houses of York and Lancaster; and in the great Civil War the defence of Pontefract Castle by the royalists, was one of the most brilliant events of that memorable conflict. These events have been fully described in the first volume of this work.

Pontefract has returned two members to Parliament ever since the parliamentary system was introduced. It also received a charter from Roger de Laci, one of the early lords of the honour of Pontefract, which was the model of the charters of Leeds and of other places. The country around Pontefract is extremely fertile; and minerals of great value, including building-stone of the finest quality, are also found at Knottingley, which is within the limits of the modern borough of Pontefract. The coal formation also extends to Normanton in this neighbourhood; and in the month of May, 1874, a rich and valuable bed of coal more than four feet thick was discovered on the estates of Lord Houghton. This and similar discoveries may possibly restore the ancient prosperity which Pontefract possessed at the time when it was a great market, the chief feudal castle in the south-west of Yorkshire, and both a parliamentary and a municipal borough. At the Census of 1871 the parliamentary borough of Pontefract contained 2704 inhabited houses, and a population of 11,653 persons.

Pontefract is situated three miles from Castleford Railway station, near the confluence of the rivers Aire and Calder, and is also on the Wakefield and Goole Railway line. It is a clean, airy, and well-built town. Below the remains of Pontefract Castle stands the old church of All Saints, itself almost a ruin. Its walls fell before the cannon of the parliamentary generals after a resistance of nearly three years, in part of which both Cromwell and Fairfax were present. A priory and convent then annexed to it were totally destroyed. In 1837 the central tower and transepts were repaired and fitted for divine worship, and in 1866 a considerable sum was expended in restoring the same, and strengthening and supporting the ruins. The church appears to have been early decorated with perpendicular insertions. The tower contains a double geometrical staircase, worthy of notice. A singular inscription on a tomb in the churchyard attracts the attention of those curious in such matters. It runs as follows:-
"Eye findeth, heart chooseth; Love bindeth, death looseth:"
the four nouns being represented by symbols. By an Act of the 29th George III., the church of St. Giles superseded that of All Saints as the parish church. This ancient structure is in the Norman style, and has been frequently repaired. The Wesleyans, Primitive Methodists, Independents, Roman Catholics, and the Society of Friends, are all well represented by chapels and schools. There are also endowed free grammar schools. The mayor, four aldermen, and twelve councillors, constitute the corporation of the town. The quarter sessions are held the first whole week in April. The town hall is a good building. The market hall, open every Saturday for the sale of meat, poultry, eggs, and vegetables, was erected in 1859 at the cost of £11,000. Malting is largely carried on by several firms; iron foundries, breweries, tanneries, sack and hearth-rug making, machinery, and corn mills, supply the inhabitants with occupation. Pontefract is also celebrated for its liquorice, made into "Pomfret cakes." Two newspapers are published here; the Pontefract Telegraph, established in 1857, and the Pontefract Advertiser.

The history of Pontefract, as we have stated, belongs mainly to its castle. Here lived and suffered Thomas Plantagenet, nephew of Edward I.; here resided John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster; and in his early youth, Henry of Bolingbroke. Hither came as prisoner the unfortunate Richard II., and within these walls was murdered. The dukes of Bourbon and of Orleans, taken prisoners at Agincourt, were sent to Pontefract Castle, where they remained for many years, with an illustrious companion who afterwards joined them, the young king of Scotland, James I. After the battle of Wakefield the old walls received other prisoners; Nevile, earl of Salisbury, Sir Ralph Stanley, and other gallant Yorkists were here beheaded. Here also Earl Rivers, Sir Thomas Vaughan, and Sir Richard Gray, murdered by Richard III., filled up the sanguinary catalogue of noble sufferers. Shakspeare makes one of them exclaim:-
"Oh Pomfret, Pomfret ! O thou bloody prison, Fatal and ominous to noble peers ! Within the guilty closure of thy walls, Richard the Second here was hacked to death: And, for more slander to thy dismal seat, We give thee up our guiltless blood to drink."

Pontefract Castle previous to the siege in the Great Civil War.- We have an account of Pontefract Castle while it was still in its glory and its strength. About ten years before the Great Civil War and the siege, which commenced in the year 1644, some travellers from Norwich passed through the town, and have left the following account of the castle as it then appeared:-"This town of Pomfret is an ancient corporation, consisting of a mayor, twelve aldermen, and a recorder, and hath two churches therein; there we lighted at the Star, and took a fair repast, to enable us the better to scale that high and stately, famous and princely, impregnable castle and citadel, built by a Norman upon a rock; which, for the situation, strength and largeness, may compare with any in this kingdom.

"In the circuit of this castle there are seven famous towers, of that amplitude and receipt as may entertain as many princes as sometimes have commanded this island. The highest of them is called the Round Tower, in which that unfortunate prince (Richard II.) was enforced to flee round a post, till his barbarous butchers inhumanly deprived him of life. Upon that post the cruel hackings and fierce blows still remain. We viewed the spacious hall, which the giants kept, the large fair kitchen, which is long, with many chimnies in it. Then went we up and saw the Chamber of Presence, the Kings' and Queens' Chambers, the Chapel, and many other rooms, all fit and suitable for princes. As we walked on the leads which cover that famous castle, we took a large and fair prospect of the country twenty miles about. York we there easily saw and plainly discovered, to which place (after we had pleased the she-keeper, our guide) we thought fit to hasten, for the day was so far spent, and the weather such as brought us both late and wet into that other metropolitan city of our famous island. In our way as we travelled hither, we passed over two large rivers by two well-built and fair-arched bridges of stone, and had a cursory view in transit of some gentlemen's seats of note."

Knottingley.- Knottingley, formerly a chapelry of Pontefract, but now an ecclesiastical parish and part of that borough, is situated three miles east-north-east from the town, and is a railway station and a junction of considerable importance on the Great Northern Railway; it is also on the line of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway from Wakefield to Goole. It may be regarded as the centre of the district of magnesian limestone and has great facilities for transit to all parts, by rail and canal. Its occupations and its population have greatly increased during late years. Lime-burning, glassworks, potteries, roperies, and yards for ship- building, have augmented the trade of the place. Though far inland, Knottingley has easy access to the Humber by the Aire and Calder Canal to Goole, and sea-faring men have long formed a considerable part of the population. The old church of St. Botolph has been found too small, and Christ Church, in another part of the town, has lately been erected, partly by aid from the Church Building Society. Wesleyans, Primitive Methodists, and Independents have chapels here, with schools attached to them; and a Mechanics' Institute and library efficiently aid the education and progress of the people. At the Census of 1871 the population was 4039.

Castleford.- Castleford, a very ancient town which has increased rapidly during late years, stands at the junction of the Aire and the Calder, and on the site of the Roman station of Lagecium. Numerous Roman antiquities have been dug up in the neighbourhood. Situated on the edge of a coal-field and on a bed of clay, Castleford has recently made rapid progress, especially in its manufacture of bottles and earthenware. Considerable improvements have lately been made under the local Board of Health. Alluding to the confluence of the two rivers here, an old rhyme says:-

"Castleford maidens must needs be fair, Because they wash both in Calder and Aire :" but the fairness shown by the maidens of Castleford must now be ascribed to other causes; for the nymphs, Aire and Calder, themselves sadly need washing. The church of All Saints is a new structure. Wesleyans, Primitive Methodists, the United Methodist Free Church, and Independents, have chapels here, with schools attached to them. The population in 1861 was 4305, and in 1871, 7149.

Glass-Houghton is a manufacturing place situated on a bed of fine sand used for iron-founding and the glass manufacture. The population in 1861 was 489, and in 1871, 881.

Goole was formerly a township of the parish of Snaith, but is now a town and port, and an ecclesiastical parish in the lower division of Osgoldeross, rural deanery of Pontefract, and diocese of Ripon. The town and port of Goole have increased very rapidly. Owing chiefly to the enterprise of the Aire and Calder Navigation trustees, the insignificant village of half a century ago has grown into a port with bonding warehouses, trading with Holland, France, Germany, and Russia; exporting coal, woollen cloth, iron and cutlery, and importing corn, wool, and timber. This large trade has called forth the enterprise of several shipping and packet companies. The harbour consists of a basin 250 feet long and 200 feet wide, situate near the confluence of the artificial channel called the Dutch River with the Ouse. Two large docks communicate with the Ouse by locks, and capacious warehouses and a timber-pond adjoin. The heavy lock-gates are opened by hydraulic power, and a hoist here moved by the same power is capable of lifting at once a weight of seventy-five tons. The sum expended on the works connected with the navigation of Goole has exceeded £1,000,000. There is railway communication with Leeds, Wakefield, Hull, and Doncaster. The town of Goole, consisting of wide, regular, and level streets, is neat, clean, and well paved. Among the chief public buildings may be named the modern church in the perpendicular style (St. John), for which the Aire and Calder Navigation Company gave the site and great part of the building materials; the court house; and the Goole Union house. The Wesleyans and the several bodies of the Methodists, the Independents, and the Roman Catholics, have places of worship here. The whole district, of which Goole forms a part, includes the land bounded on the west by a line from Thorne to Snaith, and on the east by the river Trent. This may be regarded as fertile soil won from the water, and forms a striking contrast with the sea-coast of Holderness, where for unnumbered centuries the sea has been wearing away the rich soil. Old Goole extends southward along the Ouse and is separated from the new town by the Dutch River, which is here crossed by a wooden bridge.

Goole Registrar's District (512), a seaport town and extensive agricultural district, covers an area of 43,443 acres. In 1801 it contained a population of 6700 persons, in 1861 of 15,153, and in 1871 of 17,270. Registrars' Sub-districts.-Goole is divided into three sub-districts:-

                  Area     Population  Population
                 in Acres. in 1861.    in 1871.
1. Swinefleet,    19,237    4,042      4,320
2. Goole,         10,546    6,994      8,754
3. Snaith,        13,660    4,117      4,196

Pontefract Registrar's District is chiefly agricultural, though on the eastern edge of the Yorkshire coal-field, and extending over an area of 54,037 acres. In 1801 it contained a population of 17,967 persons, and in 1861 of 28,238 persons, which number had increased in 1871 to 34,498. Registrars' Sub-districts.-Pontefract is divided into four sub-districts:-

                  Area     Population  Population
                 in Acres.  in 1861.   in 1871.
1. Knottingley,   18,128     9,126     8,460
2. Whitley,       16,958     2,439     2,495
3. Pontefract,    12,734     8,113     9,775
4. Castleford,     6,217     8,560    13,768

In this district the increase of population in the townships of Snydale, Featherstone, and Purston Jaglin, as well as in Glass-Houghton and Methley, is attributed to the opening of new collieries, and the establishing of new glass-works in Castleford township. The lime and shipping trades of Knottingley had been for some time depressed, but soon revived, and there was an increase of population in Cridling Stubbs, caused by the increase of the lime trade.

Hemsworth Registrar's District (504), a beautiful agricultural district to the south of Pontefract, extends over an area of 34,831 acres. In 1801 it contained a population of 6198, and in 1861 of 7793, which number had increased in 1871 to 8144. Registrar's Sub-district.- Hemsworth forms only one sub-district:-

                Area      Population  Population
                in Acres. in 1861.    in 1871.
1. Hemsworth,    34,831    7,793       8,114

The Wapentake of Skyrack.- The wapentake, or hundred of Skyrack (the old Anglian mode of pronouncing the word "Shire-oak"), extends along the south bank of the river Wharfe and north bank of the river Aire, both which rivers are adorned with numerous parks and mansions, of which Harewood House, the chief residence of the earls of Harewood, and Temple Newsham, the residence of the Meynells and the Ingrams, are the most conspicuous; whilst the ruins of the beautiful abbey of Kirkstall, and other monastic houses, greatly enhance the interest of the scenery. The older part of Leeds is built on the northern bank of the Aire, and is in this wapentake. Though the northern side of that river is not so rich in minerals as the southern, it contains extensive beds of stone, iron, and coal, and of late years these have been fully developed. With this exception the river Aire had previously been regarded as the northern boundary line of the coal district, which extends from that river southward through Wakefield, Barnsley, Sheffield, Rotherham, and through Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire to the river Trent, and at some points far beyond it. The area of the wapentake, or hundred of Skyrack, is 106,362 statute acres.

The Parishes of Skyrack, with their Areas.- The following are the parishes of Skyrack, with their areas:-

Aberford, 4,227
Adel, 7,155 Bardsey, 4,106
Barwick-in-Elmet, 8,447
Bingley, 14,108
Collingham (part of), 1,880
Garforth, 1,752
Guiseley, 8,925
Harewood (part of), 8,795
Ilkley (part of), 3,822
Kippax (part of), 3,614
Leeds (part of), 11,637
Otley (part of), 14,736
Swillington, 2,627
Thorner, 4,888
Whitkirk, 5,637
Total, 106,362

We have already described the ancient borough of Leeds, the largest town in Yorkshire, the population of which within our own recollection has increased from less than 60,000 to upwards of 270,000 inhabitants.

As a popular watering place the origin of Ilkley, in Skyrack wapentake, is of recent date. Its development as such covers little more than a quarter of a century, and within, at most, a single generation it has passed from the condition of a small village of thatched houses to that of a town laid out with regularity, and possessing many handsome streets and buildings. This was the site of the Olicana of the Roman Itinerary, and inscribed stones and other remains attest the presence in former times of the once dominant race. On the heather-covered hills above the town, which, under the name of Rumbald's Moor, skirt the southern bank of the river Wharfe for many miles, there are traces of still earlier occupation in the shape of cairns, hut circles, and other relics of pre-historic life. From the time when the Roman Itinerary was written until the latter half of the eleventh century, there is no mention in history of this secluded village in Wharfedale. In the Domesday Survey Illicleia is described as waste, and as belonging to William de Percy, as the successor of the dispossessed Saxon, Gamel. From the family of Percy the manor passed to that of Kyme, and thence to that of Middleton, a member of which is now the owner; his residence being Middleton Lodge, a Tudoresque building on the northern acclivity of the valley.

With the exception of the church, the ancient building on Castle Hill, and about a dozen thatched or grey-slated humble tenements, the Ilkley of today is modern. It owes its development in a great measure to the delicious coldness of its springs, to hydropathy, and to the railway facilities which placed it within less than an hour's journey of Leeds and Bradford. The slopes of Rumbald's Moor are now dotted with the elegant residences of merchants of those towns, and near them are handsome streets in which visitors during the "season" are lodged. The attention of hydropathists-earliest amongst the number being, we believe, the late Mr. Hamer Stansfeld-was first drawn to this locality by the existence on the hillside of a copious spring of pure water, which even in the heats of summer is very cold. As early as 1699, however, a small bath-house was built in which this water was used. Of the present hydropathic establishments, Ben Rhydding, an extensive structure in the Scottish baronial style, claims precedence of origin, having been opened in May, 1844; the premises, it may be remarked, being then of very limited extent as compared with their present dimensions. In May, 1856, Ilkley Wells House, a palatial building in the Italian style, was opened. The sites of both these great establishments are very fine, and the buildings are prominent objects in the scenery of this charming valley. There are in the town two smaller hydropathic establishments, Craiglands and Troutbeck. In visiting this spot for the improvement of health or for rest, the wealthy have not been neglectful of the needs of their poorer fellow creatures. The Ilkley Charity Hospital, and the Ilkley Hospital, both supported by subscriptions, aid yearly in the restoration to health of many poor persons, who, but for such succour, must have returned to work with diminished physical powers. By the liberality of Mr. C. Semon, a Bradford merchant, a Convalescent Hospital will shortly be added to the benevolent institutions of the town.

As Ilkley has grown, places of worship have increased. The most ancient of these is the parish church (All Saints), the architecture of which is a by no means unpicturesque blending of early styles. In the interior are brasses in memory of members of the Heber and Watkinson families. The well-known Bishop Heber was a member of the first-named family, the residence of which was at Hollin Hall, now a farm-house, the principal portion of which seems to date from the time of the Tudors. The family name is preserved in Heber's Gill, a charming ravine near the hall. In the churchyard, beneath the shadow of some fine trees, are the remains of three crosses, said to be Saxon, and curiously ornamented with figures and scrolls. Adjoining the churchyard is the old mansion known as the castle, which is supposed to stand on the site of the Roman station; but the remains of masonry said to be Roman are probably the relics of a castellated residence of feudal times. To relieve the parish church, which is often inconveniently crowded, it has been decided to erect another church, and this project is likely soon to be carried out. The Wesleyan Methodists built a chapel here as early as 1834, capable of seating 300 persons. This body, a few years ago, erected a second and larger place of worship, a very handsome edifice. About the same time the Congregationalists raised a beautiful chapel here. The Society of Friends have also a place of worship in the town; and the Roman Catholics one at Middleton Lodge. There is a free grammar school, and several excellent private schools it the town.

Ilkley owes its reputation as a health resort to the purity and bracing quality of the air, the beauty and charming variety of its walks and scenery, the excellence of its water supply, and its proximity to so many interesting places; chief amongst them being Bolton Abbey, with its woods and lovely vistas, to which the visitor has access by permission of the duke of Devonshire. Below Ilkley, and on the north side of the Wharfe, is Denton Hall, which is interesting from its association with the Fairfax family.

The township business of Ilkley is managed by a local board, whose duties are by no means light in regulating the growth, and caring for the health of the community, which has been so rapidly developed.

Lower down the valley of the Wharfe is the pleasant country town of Otley, erected in the midst of beautiful parks and mansions and facing the lofty height of Otley Chiven, a name derived from the Celtic, Kevn.

Bingley, four miles from Keighley and six from Bradford, had in 1871 a population of 9062 persons. The market is held on Tuesday, and fairs on January 25, August 25, and two following days, for horned cattle. This is one of the thirty-two lordships which the Conqueror gave to Erneis de Berun. How long he held it does not appear; but about the year 1120 it was the property of William Paganel, founder of the priory of Drax. His successors were the Gaunts; and William de Gaunt had a charter for a market here in the twelfth year of King John. The family of the Cantilupes afterwards became possessed of it; and in later times we find it, in the hands, by purchase in 1668, of Robert Bensons father of the first Lord Bingley. In the time of Dodsworth, who visited this place in 1621, "there was a park at Bingley and a castle near the church, on a hill called Bailey Hill," of which little more than the name and tradition now remain. The benefice, a vicarage, is valued in the parliamentary return at £138. The church, dedicated to All Saints, a plain and decent structure, was restored in the early part of the reign of Henry VIII. Here is a free grammar school, founded in the twentieth year of Henry VIII.

Besides the parish church there are in Bingley three Methodist chapels, one Baptist chapel, and an Independent chapel. The worsted manufacture is carried on in this town and neighbourhood to a considerable extent; and there are several large spinning mills, both of worsted and cotton.

About a hundred years ago was discovered at Morton, near Bingley, one of the most valuable deposits of Roman coins ever met with in Britain. It consisted of a very large quantity of denarii in excellent preservation, for the most part of Septimius Severus, Caracalla, and Geta, contained in the remains of a brass chest, which had probably been the military chest of a Roman legion, and had been deposited upon some sudden alarm in a situation which it had quietly occupied during a period of almost sixteen centuries.

Wharfedale Registrar's District (490) includes the upper part of this beautiful valley, with a considerable portion of the adjoining hills, and extends over an area of 71,019 acres. In 1861 it contained a population of 39,693 inhabitants, which had increased to 39,142 at the Census of 1871. Registrars' Sub- districts.-Wharfedale is divided into four sub-districts:-

               Area      Population  Population
               in Acres  in 1861.    in 1871.
1. Horsforth,  12,158      9,110     9,688
2. Fewston,    25,361      2,870     3,309
3. Otley,      23,176      9,195    12,103
4. Yeadon,     10,324     11,518    14,042

The increase of population in the township of Ilkley (as already mentioned) is attributed to the opening of a line of railway to that delightful watering place from Leeds and Bradford, and also to its becoming the place of residence of many Leeds and Bradford merchants; at Adel-cum-Eccup to the establishment of a convalescent hospital (at Cookridge) for one hundred patients and their attendants; in Weston to the presence of workpeople with their families engaged in the construction of waterworks; in the townships of Otley and Menston to the extension of printing, worsted, and other trades; and in Guiseley, Yeadon, and Baildon, mainly to the extension of the woollen and worsted trades.

The Wapentakes of Agbrigg and Morley.- The wapentakes of Agbrigg and Morley, so named, apparently, from an ancient oak bridge and a moorish field, which in very ancient times seem to have formed the most remarkable objects in the district, extends from the borders of Lancashire along the whole course of the Calder and the greater part of the river Aire, to Normanton and the eastern extremity of the Yorkshire coal-field. It is one of the richest mineral and manufacturing districts of England, supplying nearly eight million tons of coal yearly at the present time, which forms the chief part of the fuel used in the manufacturing towns and the numerous and populous villages of the woollen district, as in former times the numerous streams of the district supplied the greater part of the water-power. The population of this district, including both the town and the country, amounted to upwards of 454,020 at the Census of 1871; and at the present time (1875), the industry of the great population of the woollen district of Agbrigg and Morley gives employment to about the third part of all the spindles, power-looms, and the other machines which are employed in carrying on the textile manufactures of the United Kingdom.

The Area of the Wapentakes of Agbrigg and Morley and their Parishes.- The area of the wapentake or hundred, or combined wapentakes or hundreds of Agbrigg and Morley, which are given together in the Ordnance Survey, is 314,279 statute acres. The following are the parishes of these wapentakes, some of which it will be seen are of gigantic size:-

Almondbury, 30,583
Batley, 6,285
Birstal, 13,976
Bradford, 32,929
Calverley, 8,900
Crofton, 1,519
Dewsbury, 10,101
East Ardsley, 1,818
Emley, 4,187
Featherstone (part of), 2,050
Halifax, 82,539
Huddersfield, 16,230
Kirkburton, 15,818
Kirkheaton, 6,930
Leeds (part of), 9,934
Methley, 3,492
Mirfield, 3,764
Newland (ex. par., 310
Normanton, 4,124
Rochdale, 18,796
Rothwell, 9,009
Sandal Magna, 7,693
Thornhill, 8,120
Wakefield, 10,056
Warmfield, 2,778
West Ardsley, or Woodkirk, 2,326
Total, 314,279

Aspect of the Agbrigg and Morley District in the Reign of George II.-When Daniel Defoe, in the course of his travels through Great Britain, visited this part of Yorkshire at the beginning of the reign of George II., about the year 1727, he described it as already one great hive of industry from the borders of Lancashire to beyond the town of Leeds, although at that time the population was not much more than a tenth part of what it is at present. He then said that the "whole country, however mountainous, was yet infinitely full of people. Those people are full of business, not a beggar nor an idle person to be seen, except here and there an almshouse, where people, ancient, decrepid, and past labour, might perhaps be found; for it is observable," he adds, "that the people here, however laborious, generally live to a great age-a certain testimony to the goodness and wholesomeness of the country, which is without doubt as healthy as any part of England. Nor is the health of the people lessened, but helped and established by their being constantly employed, and as we call it, 'their working hard;' so that they find a double advantage by their being always in business. Their business is the clothing trade, for the convenience of which the houses are scattered and spread upon the sides of the hills, even from the bottom to the top. The reason of their being thus placed is this: such has been the bounty of nature that two things essential to the business, as to the ease of the people, are found here, and that in a situation that I never saw the like of in any part of England; and I believe the like is not to be seen so contrived in any part of the world; I mean coals and running water on the tops of the highest hills. This seems to have been directed by the wise hand of Providence for the very purpose which is now served by it, namely, the manufactures which otherwise could not be carried on; neither, indeed, could one-fifth part of the inhabitants be supported without them, for the land could not maintain them."

With regard to the parish of Halifax, Defoe states that there were in it at that time (1727), besides the parish church, twelve or thirteen chapels of ease, in addition to about sixteen dissenting chapels. The population of the whole parish of Halifax, he says, was then estimated to be 100,000; but there was no enumeration of the people at that time, and those numbers were too high. At Halifax it was wonderful to see the multitude of people who thronged thither, as well to sell their manufactures as to buy provisions. Of the country between Halifax and Leeds, passing through Bradford, he says, "Every way to the right hand and to the left the country appears busy, diligent, and even in a hurry of work." Birstall he speaks of as already a little town, and the surrounding villages as large, full of houses, and those houses thronged with people, "for the whole country," he says, "is infinitely populous." This animated description of Defoe is just as applicable to present times as it was to those in which he wrote; the only difference being that the clothing district of Yorkshire, and more especially the wapentakes of Agbrigg and Morley, with their great towns of Leeds, Bradford, Halifax, Huddersfield, Dewsbury, Wakefield, and some thirty or forty large places, which would be called towns anywhere else, scattered over the surface of the whole district, now contain a thousand persons where he found a hundred at the time when the present royal family ascended the throne of England.

The Machinery of the Manufacturing District.- In addition to the multitudes of men, women, and children, all intent on the purposes of industry, who crowd this busy district, it gives employment to a greater number of machines for augmenting the power of human labour than any other part of England, with the exception perhaps of the country on the opposite side of the hills in South Lancashire.

Pretty nearly the whole of the factories employed in the woollen and worsted manufactures are in the West Riding of Yorkshire, and most of them in the wapentakes of Agbrigg and Morley, or immediately adjoining. A large proportion of the flax, hemp, jute, and shoddy manufactures are also in the same district, and a considerable number of cotton mills. We should be disposed to take the proportion of the factories and machinery of Yorkshire at something between a fourth and a third part of those of the United Kingdom.

The Coal Mines of Agbrigg and Morley.- An immense supply of fuel is of course requisite to keep in work this vast multitude of machines; and it is a great satisfaction to know that the supply of coal furnished by the coal-fields of the West Riding is larger at present than it ever was at any previous time.

Progress of Population from 1801 to 1871.- The wapentakes of Agbrigg and Morley are divided, in taking the census, into the districts of Todmorden, Saddleworth, Huddersfield, Halifax, Bradford, Leeds, Hunslet, Holbeck, Bramley, Dewsbury, and Wakefield. The following extracts from the censuses of 1801, 1861, and 1871 will show what has been the progress of each of those districts in population between the first and last of those periods. We begin at the extreme west, and amongst the hills at Todmorden.

Todmorden Registrar's District (492) stands at the point where the river Calder flows down into Yorkshire, and on the eastern edge of the coal- field of Lancashire. It contains an area of 35,752 acres, chiefly of mountain land, but is intersected by numerous fine streams. In the year 1801 it contained a population of 15,550 inhabitants, and in 1861 of 31,113, which number had increased in 1871 to 32,323. Registrars' Sub-districts.-Todmorden is divided into two sub-districts:-

                   Area         Population  Population
                   in Acres.    in 1861.    in 1871.
1. Hebden Bridge, (      )       10,826      11,193
2. Todmorden,     (35,752)       20,287      21,130

Saddleworth Registrar's Districts (493), which includes the highest parts of the western hills of Yorkshire, and is intersected by the river Tame flowing into the Mersey, extends over an area of 18,797 acres, and contained in 1801 a population of 10,665 persons, in 1861 of 18,631, and in 1871 of 19,923. Registrars' Sub-districts.-Saddleworth is divided into two sub-districts:-

                     Area        Population  Population
                    in Acres.      in 1861.     in 1871.
1. Delph,            6,479           9,754     9,966
2. Upper Mill,      12,318           8,877     9,957

Huddersfield Registrar's District (494) extends over an area of 71,586 acres. We have already traced the history of the borough of Huddersfield (vol. ii. pp. 419-443). At the census of 1801 this district contained 47,079 inhabitants, and in 1861, 131,336, which number had increased in 1871 to 140,151. Registrars' Sub- districts.-Huddersfield is divided into eleven sub-districts:-

                     Area      Population  Population
                    in Acres.   in 1861.   in 1871.
1. Slaithwaite,      13,135     7,971      8,159
2. Meltham,           6,526     6,840      7,092
3. Honley,            3,230     5,723      5,998
4. Holmfirth,         8,250    10,845      9,446
5. Newmill,           9,057     6,322      5,774
6. Kirkburton,        8,784    12,501     12,115
7. Almondbury,        4,421    11,063     12,270
8. Kirkheaton,        6,931    11,923     12,687
9. Huddersfield,      4,055    34,877     38,654
10. Lockwood,           970     9,488     11,575
11. Golcar,           6,227    13,783     16,381

The commissioners for taking the census state that the increase of population in Golcar, Longwood, and Lindley is attributed to the introduction of power-loom weaving, and to the erection of mills for the manufacture of cloth; in Lockwood to its favourable position with respect to railway and canal communication, or the erection of new mills, &c.

Halifax Registrar's District (495) extends over an area of 56,864 acres. In 1801 it contained a population of 52,027 persons and in 1861 of 128,673, which number had increased in 1871 to 153,266. We have already traced the history of the borough of Halifax (vol. ii. pp 353-415). Registrars' Sub-districts.-Halifax is divided into ten sub-districts:-

                  Area     Population  Population
                in Acres.  in 1861.    in 1871.
1. Rastrick,      2,306     4,904       6,365
2. Brighouse,     5,668     9,992      12,814
3. South Owram,.  2,546     7,245       8,210
4. Halifax,       2,329    36,437      47,270
5. Elland,        5,783    13,373      15,270
6. Ripponden,    13,239     6,620       6,463
7. Sowerby,     (14,821)   13,945      15,480
8. Luddenden,   (      }    5,850       6,511
9. Ovenden,       5,350    11,067      11,698
10. North Owram,. 4,822    19,240      23,185

The Census Commissioners observe, that the large increase in the population of Halifax, as well as of the townships of Rastrick, Hipperholme-with-Brighouse, South Owram, Warley, and North Owram, is attributed to the erection of many new mills, and to the extension of the woollen and other manufactures. It is stated that the increase of population in North Owram is mainly attributable to the extension of carpet, worsted, and cotton manufactures, and the consequent influx: of numbers of the operative classes into that township, which includes Queensbury, Catheline Slack, Ambler Thorne, and Shibden Head.

Bradford Registrar's District (496).-This district extends over an area of 41,610 acres. In 1801 it contained 42,780 inhabitants; in 1861, 196,475; and in 1871, 257,713. We have already traced the history of the borough of Bradford (vol. ii. pp. 242-347). Registrars' Sub-districts.-Bradford is divided into thirteen sub-districts:-

                       Area     Population  Population
                      in Acres. in 1861     in 1871.
1. Cleckheaton,        4,102      10,446    13,605
2. Drighlington,       3,793       7,309     8,617
3. North Bierley,      3,342      12,500    14,433
4. Bowling,            1,561      14,494    20,982
5. Bradford, East end, 1,230      28,579    41,302
6. Bradford, West end    365      20,067    23,138
7. Horton,             3,352      43,078    60,408
8. Thornton,           6,529      13,282    15,579
9. Wilsden,            4,487       4,902     6,033
10. Shipley,           2,729       8,773    13,686
11. Idle,              4,394      14,574    18,929
12. Calverley,         3,180       5,559     7,024
13. Pudsey,            2,546      12,912    13,977

The commissioners say:-" The increase of population in the townships of Bradford, Bowling, Idle, and Eccleshill, is attributed to the prosperous condition of the staple-trade of the district, viz., the manufacture of worsted stuff goods, and the consequent great demand for labour. The increase of population in the townships of Wyke and Cleckheaton is attributed to the erection of carpet and other manufactories. The increase in the population of Tong is attributed to the erection of worsted and carding mills, and the opening of new collieries."

We have already had the pleasure of tracing the history of our native town of Leeds. The following particulars will show its growth during the present century.

Hunslet Registrar's District (497).-This superintendent registrar's district, which forms part of the suburbs of the town of Leeds, extends over an area of 12,010 acres. In 1861 it contained 33,586 inhabitants, and in 1871 the number had increased to 46,274. Registrars' Sub-districts.-Hunslet is divided into three sub- districts:-

             Area            Population  Population
             in Acres        in 1861.    in 1871.
1. Hunslet,   1,152          25,763       37,289
2. Whitkirk,  5,741           3,701        4,194
3, Rothwell,  5,117           4,122        4,791

The increase of population in the township of Hunslet is attributed to the extension of the various branches of the iron trade.

Holbeck Registrar's District (498), another part of the suburbs of Leeds, has an area of 2668 acres. In 1861 it contained 19,935 inhabitants, and in 1871, 21,617. Registrars' Sub-district.-Holbeck is given in one sub- district:-

              Area      Population  Population
              in Acres.  in 1861.    in 1871.
1. Holbeck,    2,668      19,935     21,617

Bramley Registrar's District (499) is another great suburb of Leeds, and has an area of 7597 acres. In 1861 it contained a population of 33,247 persons, which number had increased in 1871 to 44,441. Registrars' Sub-districts.-Bramley is divided into three sub-districts:-

                  Area     Population  Population
                 in Acres. in 1861.    in 1871.
1. Bramley,      2,505      8,690      9,882
2. Gildersome,     993      2,701      3,448
3. Wortley,      4,099     21,856     31,111

The increase of population in Gildersome is accounted for by the extension of coal mines, and that of Wortley and Armley by the erection of several large iron and other manufactories.

Leeds Registrar's District (500), including that part of the ancient borough which lies to the north of the river Aire, covers an area of 13,755 acres. In 1801 the population was 30,669 persons; in 1861, 134,006; and the number had increased in 1871 to 162,421. Registrars' Sub-districts.-Leeds is divided into five sub- districts:-

                      Area     Population  Population
                     in Acres.  in 1861.   in 1871.
1. South-east Leeds,    853     29,196     29,124
2. North Leeds,         640     41,136     49,628
3. West,              1,243     47,234     60,610
4. Kirkstall,         3,183      9,674     13,942
5. Chapeltown,        7,836      6,766      9,117

The commissioners state that the increase in the north-west and the westward of Leeds is attributed to the erection and extension of manufactories, and to the demand for labour. In Mill-hill ward there is a decrease of population, owing to the demolition of houses for street improvements and railway extension, and to the conversion of dwelling houses into warehouses. The increase of population in the townships of Headingley-with-Burley, Potter Newton, and Chapel Allerton, is attributed to the removal of many of the inhabitants, from the more central part of the town of Leeds, to those pleasant suburban districts.

Dewsbury Registrar's District (501) extends over an area of 25,284 acres. In 1801 it contained a population of 29,730 persons, and in 1861 of 92,883, which number had increased rapidly up to 1871, when it amounted to 124,286. Registrars' Sub-districts.-Dewsbury is divided into nine sub-districts:-

                      Area    Population  Population
                   in Acres.  in 1861.    in 1871.
1. Morley,         2,765       6,840       9,607
2. Batley,         2,039      14,173      20,871
3. Gomersal,       3,264      11,230      12,880
4. Liversedge,     2,827      14,520      19,403
5. Mirfield,       3,765       9,263      12,869
6. Dewsbury,       1,468      18,148      24,764
7. Soothill,       2,459       6,238       8,396
8. Ossett,         3,105       7,950       9,190
9. Thornhill,      3,602       4,521       6,306

The commissioners state that the increase of population in the township of Dewsbury is attributed to the extension of woollen manufactures, and the consequent influx of workpeople from the surrounding country. These causes, with the extension of collieries, also account for the increased population of the neighbouring districts of Morley, Batley, Gomersal, Liversedge, Mirfield, Ossett, and Thornhill.

Wakefield Registrar's District (502), a rich mineral district extending over an area of 41,989 acres, and containing in 1801 a population of 27,617 persons; in 1861, of 53,048; and in 1871, of 68,786. Registrars' Sub-districts.-Wakefield is divided into seven sub-districts:-

                   Area    Population  Population
                 in Acres.  in 1801.   in 1871.
1. Bretton,       10,172     5,057     5,103
2. Sandal,        15,084     7,438    13,386
3. Stanley,        4,674     8,237    10,305
4. Wakefield,.       758    17,611    21,076
5. Horbury,        1,279     3,246     3,977
6. Alverthorpe,    3,345     6,645     8,135
7. Ardsley,        6,677     4,814     6,804

The commissioners say that the increase of population in the township of Wakefield is attributed to the extension of ironworks, to the establishment of rope, twine, thread, and other manufactories, and to the general prosperity of trade. In Sandal Magna it is attributed to the extension of the suburbs of the borough of Wakefield; and in the parish of Crofton, and the townships of Sharlston, Normanton, and Altofts, to the extension of iron-works and collieries. The increase in the township of Horbury is attributed to the improvement of the worsted and woollen mills, to the erection of new mills, and to the facilities for communication by railway and canal. In East Ardsley, West Ardsley, and Lofthouse, the increase is attributed to the erection of large ironworks, and the opening of new collieries and stone quarries.

The three southern wapentakes of the West Riding-Staincross, Strafforth, and Tickhill-are as remarkable for the extent of their coal and iron, as the wapentakes of Agbrigg and Morley, just described. But the mineral wealth of South Yorkshire is applied to totally different purposes, and the forms of industry and occupations of the people to which it gives rise are also entirely different, as will be seen from the following details:-

The Wapentake of Staincross.- The small, but rich and beautiful wapentake or hundred of Staincross (no doubt named-from some cross of stone, for which especial veneration was felt in ancient times) is rich in coal and iron. Defoe, writing in 1727, says, that about Barnsley he found the country covered with heath, giving a black hue or colour to the moors, "like Bagshot Heath near Windsor." The Dearne and the Don are the rivers of this district, whose prosperity dates from the time when they were made navigable, and were connected with the Calder near Wakefield and the Don near Sheffield.

Area of Staincross and its Parishes.- The area of this wapentake is 84,961 statute acres. The following are its parishes, with their areas:-

Cawthorne, 3,707
Darfield (part of), 5,038
Darton, 4,358
Felkirk, 6,069
Hemsworth, 4,161
High Hoyland, 2,525
Penistone, 22,775
Royston, 12,992
Silkstone, 13,597
Tankersley, 8,078
Wragby (part of), 1,657
Total, 81,961

The flourishing municipal borough of Barnsley is connected with the Midland Railway, by a branch from Cudworth Bridge. It has also railway communication with Wakefield, Penistone, and Manchester. Barnsley is the capital of the rich coal district of South Yorkshire. The church of St. Mary has lately undergone much alteration and improvement, and the stone-work of a nest east window has been inserted. The roof and walls of the clerestory have been well painted with a floral and leaf pattern which has a good effect, and new oak stalls have been provided. The best part of the structure is the old tower, in which are eight bells. On the southern side of the church-field new schools were built in 1867 for boys, girls, and infants. The Barnsley church registers begin in the year 1568, and are in excellent condition.

Wire-drawing was formerly the principal trade of Barnsley, but it gave place to the manufacturing of flax, bleaching of linen yarns, weaving of linen cloth, ducks, diapers, damasks, &c., which is carried on to a considerable extent. Here are also extensive iron foundries for the casting and making of steam-engines, pots, grates, &c. Great quantities of grindstones are obtained in this neighbourhood. Most productive coal mines are also wrought here; the Barnsley bed is from ten to twelve feet thick, and is the richest in Yorkshire.

Barnsley is the recognized centre of the Yorkshire coal trade, and towards the close of 1874 the Miners' Association took possession of a handsome building specially erected for it. Barnsley is well situate for trade, and in addition to its ample supply of fuel and its railways, it enjoys the advantage of canal and river navigation. There is a free grammar school here, founded and endowed by Thomas Keresforth, Gent., in the year 1665; also chapels for the Independents, Methodists, and Catholics. The town contains a statue to the eminent railway engineer, Joseph Locke, who was a large benefactor to its charities, and founded a public park for the enjoyment of the inhabitants.

Joseph Locke, the eminent civil engineer, and one of the ablest of the pupils and assistants of George Stephenson, was a native of Barnsley, and to the end of his life showed a warm regard for that place. He was the founder of the People's Park at Barnsley; and after his death his wife, an accomplished woman, added to his gifts to his native town. Just within the entrance of the park is an excellent statue of Joseph Locke, on a pedestal. The attitude is easy and agreeable, and the likeness good. The park was opened on the 10th June, 1862. The views from the park are extensive, stretching over many miles of hill and valley, including the valley of the Dove and the hills of Hoyland and Stainborough. The grounds of Wentworth House, above Elsecar, are seen; also south-west Wharncliffe woods and cliffs, over the village of Pilley, and the lofty hills beyond Sheffield. Barnsley is in the parish of Silkstone, and the population of the borough at the Census of 1871 was 23,021.* The municipal charter of Barnsley was granted, and the first town council was elected on the 7th September, 1869. The first mayor of Barnsley was chosen on the 10th of September following. From the number of its inhabitants, and of the rapidly increasing sources of its wealth, Barnsley will probably soon rise to the dignity of a parliamentary borough.

The whole country between the Calder and the Don abounds with magnificent and beautiful mansions, parks, and remains of antiquity. Amongst these are the ruins of Sandal Castle, which we have already mentioned, first as the residence of the earls of Warren, and afterwards of the dukes of York of the race of Plantagenet; Bretton Park, the seat of the Beaumonts, with the remains of the ancient priory which formerly adorned it; Woolley Park, one of the residences of the Wentworths; Cheviot Park, the residence of the Pilkingtons; Waterton Park, the curious and beautiful residence in our own times of the celebrated Charles Waterton, and of his ancestors from time immemorial; Wentworth Castle, built by a descendant of the great earl of Strafford; Wharncliffe and Wortley, the residence for many hundred years of the ancient family of Wortley; Wentworth Wood-house, the magnificent seat of Earl Fitzwilliam, the lord lieutenant of the West Riding, and the representative of a family which has been distinguished for hundreds of years for its great civic virtues as well as for its ancient descent; Conisbro', one of the ancient castles of the Anglian kings, and afterwards of the earls of Warren; further towards the south Sandbeck Park and Hall, the Yorkshire residence of the extremely ancient family of the Lumleys, earls of Scarborough, and adjoining it the small, but beautiful, ruins of Roche Abbey, and the remains of the ancient castle of Tickhill. The southern part of this district as it was in former times, and is in some degree to the present, is well described in the opening chapter of Scott's "Ivanhoe," as "that pleasant district of Merry England which is watered by the river Don, and where there extended in ancient times a large forest, covering the greater part of the beautiful hills and valleys which lie between Sheffield and the pleasant town of Doncaster. The remains of this extensive wood are still to be seen at the noble seats of Wentworth, of Whorncliffe Park, and around Rotherham. Here haunted of yore the fabulous dragon of Wantley; here were fought many of the most desperate battles during the civil wars of the Roses; and here also flourished in ancient times those bands of gallant outlaws, whose deeds have been rendered so popular in English song."

Barnsley Registrar's District (505) extends over an area of 34,843 acres. In 1801 it contained a population of 11,345 inhabitants, and in 1861 of 45,797, which had increased in 1871 to 57,212. Registrars' Sub-districts.- Barnsley is divided into four sub-districts:-

                Area    Population  Population
              in Acres.  in 1861.   in 1871.
1. Darton,      11,311    4,450      5,528
2. Barnsley,     9,219   25,468     32,031
3. Darfield,     8,815   10,028     13,158
4. Worsbrough,   5,498    5,851      6,495

The commissioners state that the increase of population in the townships of Barnsley and Dodworth is attributed to the opening of several new collieries, the extension of the iron trade, and the development of the linen and woollen trades; and in Darfield, Wombwell, and Nether Hoyland, to the extension of the coal trade.

Wortley Registrar's District (506): this beautiful district includes much of the finest scenery in the south of Yorkshire, reaching to the western mountains, and extending over an area of 93,458 acres. In 1801 it contained 18,266 inhabitants, and in 1861, 38,511, which number had increased in 1871 to 44,985. Registrars' Sub-districts.-Wortley is divided into six sub-districts:-

                   Area    Population  Population
                 in Acres.  in 1861     in 1871.
1. Cawthorne,      8,969     4,825      5,092
2. High Hoyland,   4,878     3,569      3,407
3. Penistone,     21,915     6,025      7,179
4. Wort1ey,        8,079     2,524      2,884
5. Ecclesfield,.  11,192    12,479     15,171
6. Bradfield,     38,425     9,089     11,262

The Census Commissioners state that the increase of population in Penistone township is attributed to the establishment of works for the manufacture of steel; at Tankersley, to the extension of collieries; and in Ecclesfield to the increase of coal mines and ironworks. In Bradfield it was attributed to the demand for labour, arising from the construction of reservoirs by the Sheffield Water-works Company.

Strafforth and Tickhill Wapentakes.- The first name of these two combined wapentakes is the old designation, written Straforde in Domesday, and is no doubt named from the ancient Roman road which ran through the whole district. The second is derived from the site of a great castle, which existed at Tickhill, the Anglian name probably being Teiche-hill, or the entrenched hill, situated on the southern border of Yorkshire. Throughout the district a strip of magnesian limestone divides the new red sandstone, on the east, from rich coal fields lying on the west. These formations have supplied the means for that great development of industry which has taken place in this south-west part of Yorkshire. The whole of this district may be described as a sylvan region of ancient times, now more or less invaded by collieries and ironworks. Close to the rich woodlands, that once, perhaps, supplied charcoal for smelting ore, lie beds of ironstone, and not far off the beds of coal which now supply much more abundant fuel. Thus this tract of country included in itself the causes of the destruction of its own beauties, and its natural wealth has been fatal to its sylvan glories. Yet vestiges of that beauty still remain. Here, amid gently undulating slopes, sometimes rising to bold heights, lie valleys watered by winding streams, with rocks jutting out from the midst of rich foliage; and here and there bolder heights, not shut in too closely by higher moors, command extensive views over rich basins of pasturage and foliage. Collieries and fine woodlands are still seen side by side, on the way from Barnsley to Sheffield and Silkstone, which last lies in a pleasant woodland valley. From such scenes as are found amongst the romantic woods of Wharncliffe we have only a few miles of rail to run over, and we are in Sheffield, with its immense and varied forms of industry, already described in this work. While this marvellous transformation has been in progress in the south-west, another change has taken place in the extreme north-east, or the tract of Thorne Waste and Hatfield Chase. There the ill-remunerated and unappreciated energy of an adventurous Dutchman, Cornelius Vermuyden, in the reign of Charles I., converted enormous swamps into fertile fields by an immense network of drains.

Associations of this district with the events of English history belong chiefly to the castles of Tickhill, Conisborough, Sheffield, and to the ancient town of Doncaster. Of the great and flourishing borough of Sheffield, the capital of South Yorkshire, we have already written the history (vol. ii. pp. 470-507). Of monastic ruins the district has little to show, and it must be regretted by the antiquary that the scanty remains of Roche Abbey, which were almost buried in a thicket once, were considerably injured about a hundred years ago under the pretence of restoration or improvement made by the notorious "Capability Browne." Among the churches of the district are several well worthy of notice. Silkstone with its fine tower; Rotherham, one of the finest old churches in Yorkshire; Ecclesfield, well restored and preserved; and Laughton-en-le-Morthen, with its far-seen spire-must be named. Thorpe-Salvin is noted for its sculptured font and Norman portal. Tickhill contains some remarkable effigies, and the new church of Doncaster is a splendid example of the skill of Sir G. G. Scott. Of halls and mansions, both old and modern, this south-west of the county has some of the most interesting. Wortley, with the magnificent woods and rocks of Wharncliffe, is an object of unceasing admiration. Wentworth Wood-house (near Rotherham), the splendid seat of Earl Fitzwilliam (formerly of the marquis of Rockingham), and Wentworth Castle (near Barnsley), the seat of F. Vernon, Esq. (and once the residence of the great earl of Strafford), may be noticed for their fine collections of pictures, as well as for their great historical interest. The picturesque park at Thryberg is still beautiful. Tankersley Park, once famous for its yew trees of enormous age and growth, has suffered more than other sylvan retreats in the transformation of the district; for beds of coal and ironstone, and the chimneys of furnaces, are its close neighbours.

The Parishes of Strafforth and Tickhill, with their Areas.- The following are the parishes of Strafforth and Tickhill, with their areas:-

Adwick-upon-Dearne, 1,142
Adwick-le-Street, 2,938
Arksey, 5,133
Armthorpe, 2,923
Aston, 3,329
Barnbrough, 2,125
Barnby-upon-Don, 4,179
Blyth, 3,039
Bolton-upon-Dearne, 2,323
Braithwell, 2,962
Brodsworth, 3,120
Cantley, 5,590
Catch Acre (ex. par.), 3 roods
Clayton, 1,589
Conisbrough, 4,558
Crowle, 1,281
Darfield (part of), 9,047
Dinnington, 709
Doncaster, 8,843
Ecclesfield, 49,616
Edlington, 1,757
Finningley, 3,076
Fishlake, 8,190
Handsworth, 3,637
Harthill, 3,565
Hatfield, 7,423
Hickleton, 1,060
Hooton Pagnell, 2,628
Hooton Roberts, 1,056
Kirk Sandall, 1,637
Laughten-en-le-Morthen, 17,386
Maltby, 4,645
Mare, 1,820
Malton-on-the-Hill, 1,525
Mexbrough, 2,366
Ravenfield, 1,235
Rawmarsh, 2,578
Rossington, 3,051
Rotherham, 13,585
Sheffield, 19,650
South Kirkby (part of), 238
Sprotbrough, 3,966
Stainton, 2,857
Thorne, 12,408
Thryberg, 1,707
Thurnscoe, 1,672
Tickhill, 6,778
Todwick, 1,807
Treeton, 3,363
Wadworth, 3,133
Wallingwells (ex. par.) 351
Warmsworth, 1,074
Wath-upon-Dearne, 11,045
Whiston, 3,189
Wickersley, 1,273
Total, 281,204

This pleasant town is one of the oldest in Yorkshire. It takes its name from the river Don, which flows through it, and is mentioned under its Roman name of Danum both in that Roman road book, the "Itinerary " of Antoninus, where it is spoken of as a military station on the great road from Eboracum, or York, to Londinum, or London; and also in the military court calendar, named the "Notitia," in the account of the officers and commanders of the Roman troops, who still remained in Britain down to the reign of Honorius and Arcadius, the emperors in whose time the Roman armies finally departed. At the latter period Danum was occupied by a body of Roman cavalry named the Crespian horse, under the personal command of the prefect of Britain, which was no doubt intrusted with the double duty of assisting to defend the Roman wall from the Caledonians, and the shores of the Don and the Humber from the Angles and Saxons, whose ships already cruised in the German Ocean, and threatened every part of the British coast. Doncaster was again laid waste in the Danish invasion of England, the Danes entering the mouth of the river Don in sailing up the Humber and the Ouse in their expeditions to York, which city they captured about A.D. 867. After plundering they ultimately settled here, and in course of time became a Christian and a comparatively civilized people. The termination of the present name of Doncaster, originally derived from the Latin word, castrum, is said to be the Norse or Danish form of the word, which the Angles and Saxons pronounced chester or cester, as in the names of the ancient Deva, the modern Chester, and in Chesterfield. Danum, the Campodunum of the "Saxon Chronicle," was a place of note under the kings of Deira; but a dreadful fire breaking out A.D. 759, the town was reduced to ashes. The Roman road, out of which the Great Northern Road of England was formed, ran through Doncaster. Several events in history are naturally associated with this ancient town. Here Thomas Plantagenet, the second earl of Lancaster, in 1321-22, in his insurrection against his cousin, Edward II., collected the army which was finally routed at Boroughbridge. During the "Pilgrimage of Grace," or rising of the Roman Catholics of the North in the reign of Henry VIII., the king's army occupied Doncaster when the insurgents were marching thither from Pontefract; and on the north bank of the Don, near the bridge, the insurgent leaders drew up their forces and held a conference with the duke of Norfolk, the commander of the king, who promised a free pardon on condition that they would disband their forces. The town is pleasantly situated, and though now greatly changed by the railway and its extensive works, Doncaster is still remarkable for its cleanliness and quiet; always excepting, as relates to its quiet, at the time of the celebrated races. The old parish church, famed for its beautiful tower; was burnt down in 1853; but its successor is a splendid building, and is generally allowed to be one of the greatest works of the architect, Sir Gilbert G. Scott. The new organ, built by Schultze of Paulinzelle, near Erfurt, is worthy of the church, and perhaps this may be hardly sufficient praise, for while it is almost the largest church organ in England, and occupies, with its 6000 pipes, an area of 900 square feet, it is even more remarkable for the grandeur and mellow quality of its tone than for its size. The whole cost of the church and organ, the erection of which was chiefly due to the influence of the late Sir Edmund Beckett, Bart., was about £46,000. The other two churches in Doncaster-St. James', built for the persons employed by the Great Northern Railway, and Christ Church-are good examples of modern church-building. The former is partly from designs furnished by Mr. E. B. Denison, Q.C., now Sir E. Beckett, Bart., and was erected under the superintendence of Sir G. G. Scott. It is a plain and massive building of Acaster stone, and cost £5000. Christ Church, founded in 1829 by Mr. Jarratt, a retired ironmaster, is in the modern Gothic style, with an east window of stained glass by Capronniere. It contains memorials of the founder and of several members of his family. Other places of worship include the Roman Catholic Church in Princes Street, erected in 1867, and chapels for Wesleyans, Independents, Baptists, Primitive Methodists, and Unitarians, with a meeting-house for the Society of Friends. The town of Doncaster is well supplied with schools, including the Church School, founded by Dr. Vaughan, the Grammar School, St. George's national schools, a British and a Ragged school, and others attached to the several churches and chapels. A School of Industry, founded by Mrs. Vaughan for giving instruction in household management to poor girls, deserves especial notice, as an example of a class of schools not numerous, but greatly wanted in many places. Among the public buildings of the town, the mansion house, the town hall, and the market hall may be named. The Great Northern Railway Company have here the chief depot for their plant, and extensive works for the construction of engines and carriages. These works have greatly changed the aspect and increased the population of Doncaster.

The Race-course.- About a mile from the town of Doncaster, on the road to London, is its famous race-ground, with the grandstand, erected by the corporation. In 1703 the corporation voted that the mayor should subscribe four guineas a year, for seven years, towards a plate to be run for on Doncaster course. At the expiration of the seven years the vote was extended, and in 1716 the corporation voted £5 7s. 6d. towards a plate to be run for on Doncaster Moor, and to be called "the Town's Plate," "provided the neighbouring gentlemen will subscribe for a valuable plate to be run for on the same moor." In 1777 the course was much improved. In 1778 the famous St. Leger stakes were founded, the first race being won by the marquis of Rockingham's horse, "Allabaculia." The corporation has for many years given a plate annually, of the value of £50, and subscribed forty guineas towards the races. In 1803 the king's (George III.) plate of 100 guineas was removed from Burford to Doncaster, when another day was added to the three during which the races had previously been held. The Doncaster race-course is of a circular form, and very nearly flat; its length is almost two miles. The grand stand, built in 1796 as a stand for the nobility, was enlarged in 1826, and a subscription stand for members of the press in 1854. Several noblemen and gentlemen in 1859 erected another stand solely for the accommodation of ladies. The betting-rooms, near the mansion-house in the High Street, were built in 1826. Within the inclosure are telegraph offices in connection with the telegraph department of the Post-office.

At the Census of 1871 the borough of Doncaster had an area of 1681 acres, and a population of 18,768, having contained at the Census of 1861 16,406 persons. Doncaster is described by Defoe in 1727 as a "noble and spacious town, exceeding populous, standing on the Great Northern Post Road, and very full of inns."

Rotherham, a large and rapidly improving and increasing place, which was made a municipal borough in the year 1868, is an old Anglian town at the confluence of the river Rother with the Don, which was made navigable up to Rotherham and Tinsley about a hundred years ago. It stands on one of the richest portions of the Yorkshire coalfield, and owes its recent rapid rise to its abundant supplies of iron and coal, and to the skill and energy with which those two great sources of wealth have been worked and applied. Rotherham is a market town and township, and a junction station of the Midland and Sheffield and Rotherham railways. It is situated on elevated ground, on the right bank of the Don. It had working collieries in its neighbourhood, and was noted for its cutlery, in the time of Leland (1538), who says of it:-"Though betwixt Cawoode and Rotherham be good plenty of wood, yet the people burne much yerthe (earth) cole, by cause it is plentifully found ther, and sold good chepe. A mile from Rotherham be veri good pittes of cole. In Rotherham be veri good smithes, for all cutting tooles." The general aspect of a great part of Hallamshire and its surroundings, tells of the transition from rural to manufacturing life. In the midst of a country that has still many vestiges of its old woodland beauty, the fine perpendicular church of Rotherham is now seen with the smoking forges of Masborough for a foreground. Iron-works, potteries, glassworks, saw mills, breweries, and rope yards, supply the chief occupations of Rotherham and its suburb Masborough. More than a century ago the great ironmasters, the Walkers, established at Masborough a manufactory of cast-iron articles, and from this, and other large works established there, great quantities of cannon were supplied to the English navy during the American and French wars. The river Don, which is navigable as far as Sheffield, affords communication with all the great manufacturing towns of Yorkshire and Lancashire, by means of the Don Navigation and Tinsley Canal. The old bridge over the Don, connecting the suburb of Masborough, has an ancient chapel standing over the pier, which until recently was used as the town jail. There is also a viaduct, half a mile long, with thirty arches, constructed by the Midland Railway Company, and extending over the valley of the Don. The church is a fine specimen of perpendicular architecture, especially the west front and its large window. The interior has a lofty nave, and several noticeable brasses and other memorials, including a tablet by Flaxman, and a monument to the memory of fifty persons who were drowned at the launch of a boat at Masborough. There are places of worship here for Wesleyans, Independents, Baptists, Primitive Methodists, Unitarians, and Roman Catholics.

Rotherham Cemetery was opened in 1843, and is about two acres in extent. The Free Grammar School was founded in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Other schools include the Feoffee's School, built in 1775 and endowed with £100 a year; the British and Foreign schools, for 400 boys and girls; the Park Gate schools for 150, built by Earl Fitzwilliam in 1844; Scott's Charity School, endowed with £77 per annum; and Hollis's Dissenting School, for twenty-four poor children. The Independent College, for the training of not less than twenty-eight students for the ministry, is in connection with the University of London. It is being rebuilt on an elevated site, and will be alike commodious and ornamental. Rotherham Poor Law Union comprises twenty-seven parishes and townships. The fair held here on Whit-Monday and December 1, for cattle, is one of the largest in the north of England. The population of Rotherham in 1871 was 25,892.

The Town of Bawtry.- The town of Bawtry, which is at least as old as the age of the Buslis, the earliest Norman lords of this district, stands close to the old Roman road, and this is the point at which the royal mail and travellers formerly entered the county of York from the south. Bawtry also stands on the banks of the river Idle, a deep and quiet but navigable stream, which ultimately flows into the estuary of the Humber. From this cause Bawtry was the chief inland port in the south of the West Riding until about the year 1760, when the river Don was made navigable to Rotherham and Tinsley, and ultimately to Sheffield. Previous to that time, all the products of south Yorkshire and of north Derbyshire were shipped at Bawtry wharf. As Defoe says, writing about the year 1727, "by this navigation Bawtry became the centre of all the exportation from this part of the country, especially for heavy goods; such as lead, from the lead mines and smelting houses of Derbyshire; wrought iron and edge-tools of all sorts from the forges of Sheffield, and from the country called Hallamshire, where an innumerable people are employed;" also millstones and grindstones from the neighbouring hills, in very great quantities. This caused Bawtry wharf to be famous at that time all over the south part of the West Riding of Yorkshire; for it was the place where all the heavy goods were carried to be embarked and shipped to Hull. Tickhill was in the immediate neighbourhood of Bawtry, and seems to have shared its early prosperity, for it had in early times several merchants possessed of considerable wealth, who no doubt lived under the protection of the castle, and carried on the trade between Bawtry and the interior. The old Roman road is very distinctly marked to the present day, as laid down in the last Ordnance Survey; and Defoe says that from Bawtry to Doncaster there was, at the time when he visited it, a pleasant road with good ground, seldom wanting any repair. Until the introduction of railways, the mail coaches, and other conveyances from London to York and the West Riding, passed daily through Bawtry.

Ecclesall Bierlow Registrar's District (507) is the great suburb of the borough of Sheffield, and includes an area of 17,615 acres. In 1801 it contained a population of 10,259 persons, and in 1861, of 63,618, which number had increased in 1871 to 87,432. Registrars' Sub-districts.- Ecclesall Bierlow is divided into four sub-districts:-

                        Area      Population  Population
                     in Acres.       in 1861.   in 1871.
1. Nether Hallam,      1,527         17,305      27,950
2. Upper  Hallam       6,330          2,649       3,070
3. Norton,             5,110          2,440       2,878
4. Ecclesall Bierlow,  4,648         41,224      53,534

The increase of Ecclesall Bierlow is attributed by the Census commissioners to the extension of the borough of Sheffield in this direction. This is also the case with Nether Hallam.

Sheffield.- The superintendent registrar's Census district of Sheffield (508), which includes only a portion of the borough, covers an area of 10,784 acres. In 1801 it contained a population of 39,049 persons, and in 1861 of 128,951, which rapidly increased in the next decennial period, and in 1871 amounted to 162,271. Registrars' Sub- districts.-Sheffield is divided into seven sub-districts:-

                      Area      Population  Population
                     in Acres.   in 1861.   in 1871.
1. West Sheffield,     198        17,307     17,488
2. North Sheffield     160        33,994     37,804
3. South Sheffield     253        17,680     17,294
4  Sheffield Park    2,417        18,737     18,772
5. Brightside        2,821        29,818     48,556
6. Attercliffe       1,297         7,464     16,574
7. Handsworth        3,638         3,951      5,783

The Census commissioners say that the increase of population in Brightside Bierlow is mainly attributable to the rapid progress of the steel trade, and the various manufactories connected with it; that of Attercliffe, to the manufacture of iron; and that of Handsworth, to the opening of several new collieries.

Rotherham Registrar's District (509) extends over an area of 52,901 acres. In 1801 it contained 17,072 inhabitants, and in 1861, 44,350, which number had increased in 1871 to 57,396. Registrars' Sub- districts.-Rotherham is divided into five sub-districts:-

                     Area      Population  Population
                     in Acres.  in 1861.  in 1871.
1. Beighton,          11,015      3,279    4,345
2. Rotherham,         10,969     12,094   15,375
3. Kimberworth,        8,794     17,921   24,399
4. Wath,               8,976      8,468   10,829
5. Maltby,            13,147      2,588    2,448

Doncaster Registrar's District (510), a level and fertile agricultural district, extends over an area of 113,319 acres. In 1801 it contained a population of 20,757 inhabitants, and in 1861 of 39,388, which number had increased in 1871 to 45,205. Registrars' Sub-distracts.-Doncaster is divided into five sub-districts:-

                 Area     Population  Population
               in Acres.   in 1861.    in 1871.
1. Tickhill,    27,187      6,950       8,801
2. Barmbrough,  24,268      5,860       7,726
3. Doncaster,    1,691     16,406      18,768
4. Campsall,    26,715      4,649       4,543
5. Bawtry,      33,458      5,623       5,367

Thorne Registrar's District (511) covers an area of 71,101 acres. In 1801 it contained a population of 10,583 persons, in 1861 of 16,011, and in 1871 of 17,011. Registrars' Sub-districts.-Thorne is divided into three sub-districts:-

                  Area    Population  Population
                in Acres.  in 1861.   in 1871.
1. Epworth,      19,916     4,360      4,627
2. Thorne,       38,375     7,153      7,139
3. Crowle,       12,810     4,498      5,245

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