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YORKSHIRE, PAST AND PRESENT:

A HISTORY AND A DESCRIPTION OF THE THREE RIDINGS OF THE GREAT COUNTY OF YORK,
FROM THE EARLIEST AGES TO THE YEAR 1870;
WITH AN ACCOUNT OF ITS MANUFACTURES, COMMERCE, AND CIVIL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.

BY THOMAS BAINES,
AUTHOR OF "LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE, PAST AND PRESENT," ETC.
INCLUDING
AN ACCOUNT OF THE WOOLLEN TRADE OF YORKSHIRE, BY EDWARD BAINES, M.P.,
AUTHOR OF "THE HISTORY OF THE COTTON MANUFACTURE," ETC, ETC. VOL. 11.


YORKSHIRE PAST AND PRESENT.

CHAPTER XIV.

THE NORTH RIDING OF YORKSHIRE, WITH ITS PARLIAMENTARY ARRANGEMENTS, AND WAPENTAKES, OR HUNDREDS.

THE North Riding of Yorkshire comprises eleven wapentakes, the two liberties of Langbarugh and Whitby Strand, and the municipal boroughs of Middlesborough, Richmond, and Scarborough. It is divided into nineteen petty sessional divisions: the boroughs of Richmond and Scarborough have commissions of the peace and separate courts of quarter sessions; and the borough of Middlesborough has a commission of the peace. The nineteen lieutenancy subdivisions of this riding are identical with the petty sessional divisions, except that the Gilling West subdivision includes the borough of Richmond, the Langbarugh north subdivision includes the borough of Middlesborough, and the Pickering Lythe east subdivision includes the borough of Scarborough. For police purposes the North Riding is arranged in nine divisions. It contains sixteen highway districts; also fifteen local board districts; and the town of Whitby has an improvement commission. Except part of the parish of Sockburn, it is in the dioceses of York and Ripon. It contains 554 civil parishes, townships, or places, and parts of five other townships, viz., Lower Dunsforth, Upper Dunsforth, Humberton, and Milby, which extend into the West Riding, and part of Filey, which extends into the East Riding. The portion of the registration county of York in the North Riding contains fifteen superintendent registrars' districts, and forty-nine subdistricts. The district of Helmsley comprises the unions of Helmsley and Kirkby Moorside. The registration North Riding contains 496 parishes, townships, or other places. The North Riding, which includes the boroughs of Middlesborough, Northallerton, Richmond, Scarborough, Thirsk, and Whitby, part of the city of York, and parts of the boroughs of Malton and Stockton, is also a division for parliamentary purposes.

Area and Population of the North Riding.- The area of the North Riding, is 1,361,664 statute acres; the number of houses in the same riding was in 1871, 58,898 inhabited, 3934 uninhabited, and 478 building. The population of the North Riding in 1871 was 293,278 persons, of whom 148,771 were males and 144,507 females. The average number of persons to an acre in this riding was 0.22; the number of acres to a person was 4.64. At each decennial period of the present century the population of the North Riding has shown an increase, and was as follows:-At the Census of 1801 it was 158,927; at that of 1811, 170,127; at that of 1821, 188,178; at the Census of 1831, 192,206; at that of 1841, 204,701; at the Census of 1851, 215,214; at that of 1861, 245,154; and at the last Census, namely, that of 1871, it was 293,278. The increase of the population of the North Riding, in the ten years from 1801 to 1811, was 11,200; from 1811 to 1821, 18,051; from 1821 to 1831, 4028; from 1831 to 1841, 12,495; from 1841 to 1851, 10,513; from 1851 to 1861, 29,940; and from 1861 to 1871, 48,124.

Wapentakes and Boroughs of the North Riding:- The following are the names, the areas, and the population in 1871 of the wapentakes and boroughs of the North Riding, including the Ainsty of York, which is joined to it for parliamentary purposes:-

                             Area in Acres.  Population.
Allertonshire, (wapentake),.    51,690         9,545
Ainsty, (wapentake),            51,991         9,444
Birdforth, (wapentake),         97,563        13,908
Bulmer, (wapentake),           125,521        25,032
Gilling, East (wapentake),      57,737         7,222
Gilling, West (wapentake),     206,764        15,349
Hallikeld (wapentake),          39,805         6,094
Hang, East (wapentake),         68,831         9,690
Hang, West (wapentake),        165,735        13,715
Langbarugh, East Division,     127,429        42,981
Langbarugh, West Division,      83,037        24,212
Middlesborough, (borough),       2,178        39,563
Pickering Lythe, (wapentake),  153,967        19,647
Richmond, (borough),             2,520         4,443
Ryedale, (wapentake),          132,648        20,077
Scarborough, (borough),          2,348        24,269
Whitby Strand, (liberty),       43,891        17,541
York (city),                     1,979        43,796
 

The houses and population of the municipal and parliamentary boroughs of the North Riding in 1871 were:-

                              Houses. Population.
Malton,                         1,702  8,168
Middlesborough (municipal),     6,842 39,563
Middlesborough (parliamentary), 8,041 46,621
Northallerton,                  1,084  4,961
Richmond,                       1,103  5,358
Scarborough,                    5,161 24,259
Thirsk,                         1,298  5,734
Whitby,                         2,843 13,094
 

Those of the municipal boroughs were:-

                       Area     Population   Population
                      in Acres.  in 1861      in 1871.
Middlesborough,         2,178     18,992       39,563
Richmond,               2,520      4,290        4,443
Scarborough,            2,348     18,377       24,259

Local Board Districts of the North Riding.- The population of boroughs, of local board districts, and of towns with improvement commissions, was as follows:-Baldersby, 296 persons; Guisbrough, 5202; Hinderwell, 2599; Kirklington-cum-Upsland, 292; Malton (part of), 8,168; Masham, 2209; Middlesborough, 39,563; Normanby, 3556; Northallerton, 2663; Ormesby, 4080; Pickering, 3689; Redcar, 1943; Scarborough, 24,259; Skelton in Cleveland, 2561; Stockton (South), 6764; Whitby, 12,460.

The North Riding and the Ainsty of York as a Parliamentary Division.- The North Riding is not divided, as we have shown the West Riding to be, into more than one division for parliamentary purposes. It constitutes one such division, and to it has been added as part of the division, for parliamentary purposes, the Ainsty of York, which for other purposes is connected with the West or the East Ridings.

There is thus no official or political division of the North Riding; but as it is of very great extent, and contains great varieties of soil, of climate, of elevation, and of natural products, we arrange it for convenience of description in three parts. The first of these includes that portion of the North Riding which formerly belonged to the ancient honour of Richmondshire, consisting of the beautiful dales watered by the Tees, the Swale, and the Ure, with many other smaller streams; forming the north-western portion of the County and Riding, and including the five wapentakes of Gilling West, Gilling East, Hang West, Hang East, and Hallikeld. The second consists of the generally level country (occasionally rising into gentle hills) forming the vales of York, Mowbray, and of the upper course of the river Derwent, to the point where it passes through the range of hills at Malton. This includes the wapentakes of Allertonshire, Ryedale, Birdforth, and Bulmer. The third consists of the hilly region of Cleveland, and the sea-coast, including the wapentakes of Langbarugh, Whitby Strand, and Pickering Lythe. Having already given a general account of Richmondshire, we proceed with its wapentakes.

The Wapentake of Gilling West.- We commence at the extreme north-western point of the North Riding, and at an elevation of nearly 2000 feet above the level of the sea, with the wapentake or hundred of Gilling West, so named probably from the ancient Anglian tribe of the Gillings, whose name is met with in many places in the north of England, as well as in the neighbourhood of Richmond. This wapentake includes a large portion of the country between the rivers Tees and Swale. It is in this district that Micklefell, the loftiest mountain in Yorkshire, rises to the height of 2581 feet. Remains can still be traced through the whole of this mountainous region of one of the great roads formed by the Romans from Eboracum, or York, to the western extremity of the Roman wall, near Carlisle. This work, stupendous as it is, does not surpass in boldness the railway that has been run through the district in modern times.

HISTORY OF THE BOROUGH OF RICHMOND (YORKSHIRE).
Richmond, "the rich mount or hill," in Yorkshire, like Richmond in Surrey, derives its name from the beauty of the hill or mount on which it stands. In the early Norman times it was the chief place, and the feudal capital, of a most extensive district known by the name of Richmondshire. This shire extended from the vale of Mowbray, westward, to the Irish Sea, including in Yorkshire the wapentakes of Hallikeld, Gilling East, Gilling West, Hang East, and Hang West; in Lancashire the wapentakes of Lonsdale and Amounderness, together with such portions of the territory of Durham, Westmoreland, and Cumberland as are described in Domesday Book as belonging to England. It was famous for its large and magnificent castle, which was built by the Norman earls of Richmond, who were also earls or dukes of Brittany, and was erected soon after this vast territory had been given by William the Conqueror to his relative Alen, the first earl of Richmond and Brittany. The castle, of which very fine remains are still in existence, stands on the south side of the town, overlooking the river Swale, which flows in a deep valley below. It is protected by lofty rocks and precipices on all sides except the north, where it was secured by extensive works. Until the close of the feudal system the castle of Richmond was one of the strongest inland fortresses of England; and the earls of Richmond were the wealthiest and most powerful of the nobles of Yorkshire. On the accession of King Henry VII., who was himself earl of Richmond before he ascended the throne, this great earldom passed to the crown. Richmond is an ancient parliamentary borough, as well as a market town and the head of an extensive district. For many ages it returned two members to Parliament, but since the first Reform Bill (1832) only one. The great proprietor is the earl of Zetland, one of whose residences is at Aske Hall, near Richmond; and many public men of very high standing have represented this borough. At the Census of 1871 the borough of Richmond in Yorkshire extended over an area of 8931 acres, and contained a population of 5358 persons.

"At the corner of the churchyard is the Grammar School, generally known as the Tate Testimonial, it having been completed in 1850 as a memorial of the labours of the Rev. James Tate, who was master of the old grammar school for thirty-seven years, and sent forth amongst his scholars many who attained great eminence. Among them was Dr. Musgrave, archbishop of York from 1847-60. Mr. Tate became a canon of St. Paul's in 1855, and then resigned his charge. The school is one of those founded by Queen Elizabeth." In copying the above well-merited notice of one of the best scholars whom Yorkshire has produced, we may add that he possessed in an extraordinary degree the power of gaining the respect and affection of his pupils, from one of whom, the late Right Hon. Matthew Talbot Baines, chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, who finished his education at Richmond Grammar School, we have repeatedly heard the warmest expressions of regard for his old and honoured master, Mr. Tate.

The old Roman station of Cataractonium, a little further down the river Swale than Richmond, has already been described (vol. i. p. 337). The Catterick Bridge Inn, near these ancient ruins, was a famous coaching house to the time of the introduction of railways, and had a fine race-ground, at which many of the best race-horses bred in this district tried their paces. An amusing account of the breed of race-horses in the north of Yorkshire, from the graphic pen of Daniel Defoe, will be found in the first volume of this work (p. 622).

The Area of Gilling West and its Parishes.- his wapentake extends over an area of 210,360 statute acres.

Bowes stands on the site of the ancient Lavatra, at the point where the Roman road struck the great waste afterwards known by the name of Stainmoor Forest. Amongst the names in the above list are those of Wycliffe, the birthplace of John Wycliffe, one of the greatest names in English History, and Rokeby, the scene of one of Scott's charming poetical romances, and the residence of the late J. B. Morritt, one of the most distinguished Grecians of his age. Arkengarthdale, the upper part of Swaledale, is seven or eight miles in length, commencing at Dale Head, running in a south-eastern direction, and terminating at the town of Reeth, or the Ford. The inhabitants are principally lead miners, and this is the most productive part of the lead fields of Yorkshire; one mine, known as the Old Gang Mine, having produced 2625 tons of lead ore in the year 1873.

Reeth Registrar's District (538), forming the higher part of the valley of the river Swale, extends over an area of 74,484 acres. In 1801 it contained a population of 5739 inhabitants, in 1861 of 6196, and in 1871 of 5370.

Richmond Registrar's District (539), the lower part of the beautiful valley of the Swale, covers an area of 81,101 acres. In 1801 it contained a population of 11,366 persons, in 1861 of 13,457, and in 1871 of 13,555.

The Area of Gilling East, and its Parishes.- he wapentake of Gilling East is more in the plain, towards the great central vale of Yorkshire. It contains 56,908 statute acres, generally of good land.

The Wapentake of Hang West.- he wapentake of Hang West, probably so named from the slope of the land from the west, includes great part of the country between the rivers Swale and Ure, containing some of the most beautiful valleys in the north of Yorkshire, and many fine feudal castles and monastic remains, which have been described in the account of the valley of the Ure given in the first volume of this work (p. 222.) This wapentake extends over an area of 164,659 statute acres.

The scenery of Aysgarth is so remarkably beautiful, that the original Danish tribes gave it a name which is derived from Aisgard, the name of the garden of the gods in the Scandinavian mythology. The cataracts near this place and the scenery which surrounds them, with the ancient bridge, which rises thirty-two feet to span a gulf of seventy-one feet, are amongst the most beautiful in this romantic valley.

At Bainbridge, which spans a small stream named the Bain, or the White, flowing from Simmer Tarn into the river Ure, is supposed to be the site of a Roman station; many remains of antiquity, including a statue of the Emperor Commodus, having been discovered here.

Bedale is a pleasant country town situated in a rich valley, about two miles to the west of the old Roman road of Leeming Lane, and surrounded by a very fertile district. There was formerly a castle here, built by Brian Fitz-Alen, earl of Arundel, in the reign of King Edward I.

Bedale Registrar's District (535), covers an area of 55,183 acres, and contains a population which in 1801 amounted to 7503 persons; in 1861, to 9115; and in 1871, to 8430.

Leyburn Registrar's District (536),* extending over a large part of Wensleydale, a rich and beautiful country covering an area of 80,268 acres, and containing a population which in 1801 amounted to 8220 persons, in 1861 to 9640, and in 1871 to 8705.

Aysgarth Registrar's District (537), extending over an area of 81,012 acres, contains a population which amounted in 1801 to 5205 persons, in 1861 to 5649, and in 1871 to 5473.

The Wapentake of Hang East.-The wapentake of Hang East, which is more in the plain or level country, and slopes from the east, contains much good land. The area of this wapentake is 60,281 statute acres.

Hornby Castle, the seat of the very distinguished family of the Osbornes, dukes of Leeds; Clifton Castle, long one of the residences of the Huttons, but now of the Pulleines; and Swinton, for ages the residence of the Danby family-are in this district.

Here also is the town of Masham, pleasantly situated on the banks of the Ure. The author of this work cannot pass it without notice, having spent several of his early years there under the tuition of the Rev. Joseph Burrill, a good master of the old school. At the end of fifty years its memory returns as "The schoolboy spot We ne'er forget, though there we are forgot."

The remains of the castle of Tanfield, those of the abbey of Jerveaux, the beautiful spring of the purest water at Well, with Hackfall, with the hanging woods chiefly of oak, from which it derives its name, are also in this neighbourhood, and add to the charms of the borderland of the North and the West Ridings.

The Wapentake of Hallikeld.- he wapentake or hundred of Hallikeld, or the Holy Spring or Well, includes a very fertile part of the North Riding, approaching the great central plain of Yorkshire. It extends over an area of 38,298 statute acres.

THE CENTRAL PORTION OF THE NORTH RIDING.
This district lies in what may be considered rather a wide valley, with a long succession of hills rising westwards at the highest point gradually to Micklefell at a height of 2581 feet, and on the east at Roseberry or Rhosburh at the height of 1022 feet.

Wapentake of Allertonshire, and its Parishes.-The wapentake or hundred of Allertonshire, of which Northallerton is the capital, lies along the line of the great northern road, and of the chief railway from York to Edinburgh. It is a fertile, well-cultivated country. Its area is 51,918 statute acres.

THE BOROUGH OF NORTHALLERTON.
Northallerton, "the Northern town of the Alder trees," is an ancient Anglian town, situate on the great railway line from York, to the borders, first of Durham, and ultimately of Scotland. In early times there was a strong castle here, which belonged to the lord bishops of Durham, when they were great feudal lords as well as fathers of the church. The bishops of Durham were also lords and chief bailiffs of the wapentake of Allertonshire. Northallerton is situated about twenty-five miles north of York. Allertonshire extends over a country more level than the greater part of the North Riding, and forming a portion of the rich vale of Mowbray. The market is on Wednesday, and in the month of February great horse fairs are held, for which this district is celebrated. Northallerton returns a member to Parliament, and first obtained that privilege at the commencement of the representative system, in the reign of Edward I. Since the passing of the Reform Act of 1832, it has returned only one member, instead of two. The gaol for the North Riding is at Northallerton, and the quarter sessions are held there. The great battle of the Standard was fought in the immediate neighbourhood of Northallerton, in the reign of King Stephen, and the defeat of the invading Scottish army in that battle had the effect of fixing the boundaries of England and Scotland on the Tweed, instead of on the Tees, or at some more southern point. At the Census of 1871 the borough of Northallerton extended over an area of 10,381 acres, and contained a population of 4961 persons. Northallerton is described by Defoe, as "a town on the post road, remarkable for the vast quantity of black cattle sold there." He says that there was a fair once every fortnight, for some months.

Northallerton Registrar's District (534) extends over an area of 67,000 acres. It had in 1801 a population of 9633 persons; in 1861, of 12,174; and in 1871, of 11,626.

The Wapentake of Birdforth.- The wapentake of Birdforth, which may be the Broadforth or Great Road (or possibly the Ford of the Bird), is a fertile and extensive district. It was intersected by the great road from York to Scotland, as it is by the railways that have since been formed. The area of the wapentake of Birdforth is 100,411 statute acres.

THE HISTORY OF THE BOROUGH OF THIRSK.
Thirsk, which is probably a contraction of Thors-esk or Thors-ashtree, was in former times possessed of a strong feudal castle, which formed one of the chief places of strength of the great Yorkshire house of Mowbray, who ultimately rose to the rank of earls and dukes of Norfolk. A part of the town stands on the site of the old castle, and the moat and the ramparts may still be traced, though no vestige of the building remains. Thirsk is an ancient parliamentary borough, and has sent members to Parliament from the earliest times, the members for Thirsk having sat in the Parliament of the twenty-third year of Edward 1. It is at present a considerable market town, but possesses no other resources of any great importance. Attempts have been made to find coal in this neighbourhood. Should they be successful, the whole character of the place will be changed, as it is already very near to the iron district of Cleveland, and lines of railway communicating with all parts of Yorkshire. The market is held on Monday. At the Census of 1871 the borough of Thirsk extended over an area of 11,828 acres, and contained a population of 5734 persons.

Coxwold, in the wapentake of Birdforth, nine miles south-east of Thirsk, is memorable among other things for Shandy Hall, where Lawrence Sterne resided for seven years, and wrote his "Tristram Shandy." The ancient family of the Belasyse, earls of Fauconberg, formerly had a castle at Coxwold.

Thirsk Registrar's District (528) extends over an area of 64,893 acres. In 1801 it contained a population of 9595 persons, and in 1861 of 12,299, which number had slightly decreased in 1871, when it was 12,167.

The Wapentake of Bulmer.- The wapentake of Bulmer extends over an area of 126,596 statute acres.

Crayke Castle, so named from Carig, the British word for a cliff or fell, is in the wapentake of Bulmer, two miles east of Easingwold, and here St. Cuthbert of Durham founded a monastery about the year 685. The village of Crayke is delightfully situated on a lofty detached hill, or mount, on the summit of which stand the ruins of the Castle.

Castle Howard, the seat of the ancient and illustrious family of the Howards, earls of Carlisle, is one of the most magnificent mansions and parks in England. It was built about the year 1702 by Vanbrugh for Charles, the third earl of Carlisle, by whom the park and grounds were laid out. The castle was erected on the site of the ancient castle of Henderskelfe, destroyed by fire. The pictures are of great celebrity, especially that of "The Adoration of the Kings," by Mabuse, and "The three Marys," by Annibale Carracci. In the museum is placed a testimonial which cost a thousand guineas, from the West Riding, presented to the late earl, then Lord Morpeth. At some distance is the mausoleum, in which the remains of the earls of Carlisle have been deposited since the building of Castle Howard.

Easingwold Registrar's District (527) covers an area of 65,015 acres. In 1801 it contained a population of 8512 persons; in 1861, of 10,148; and in 1871, of 10,026.

The Wapentake of Ryedale.- The wapentake or hundred of Ryedale, a fertile and beautiful district watered by numerous rivers and smaller streams, all of which ultimately flow into the river Derwent, is particularly rich in noble mansions and beautiful monastic remains. The area of the wapentake or hundred of Ryedale is 130,226 statute acres.

HISTORY OF THE BOROUGH OF MALTON.
The borough of Malton, though partly situated in the East Riding, also extends into the North. It stands at the point where the river Derwent, which rises and is fed by almost innumerable tributaries in Cleveland, breaks through a great line of hills running from east to west, whence it flows southward in a single large stream, through the East Riding of Yorkshire, directly into the Humber. In early and warlike times the position of Malton must have been of great military importance; and abundant evidences have been found of the existence of an extensive Roman station at this point. It is generally supposed to have been the Roman station of Derventium, taking its name from the river Derwent, which, as we have seen, flows through the town. But whatever the name may have been, there is no doubt that the site of the town was occupied by a Roman station, or of the existence there of a number of important trades, including the manufacture of jewellery and the working of the precious metals, which indicate very early progress and refinement in the arts of civilized life. A well-informed writer says:-"Numerous Roman coins, both silver and copper, of various emperors, extending over a long period, have been and are yet found here; and on the opposite side of the river Derwent entrenchments for the defence of this once important pass are also visible. Fragments of and entire urns, some containing Roman coins and fine red ashes, and also many specimens of Roman pottery, have been found here."* Discoveries similar in character, and even of a more ancient date, have been frequently made up to a very recent period.

Malton is another of the Yorkshire boroughs which have sent members to Parliament from the commencement of the parliamentary system, in the reign of King Edward I. There was a priory here, founded about the year 1150 by Eustace Fitz-John, for canons of the order of St. Gilbert. At the Reformation the revenues were valued at £197 19s. 2d. of the money of that time (equal to about £1000 a year of present money). The present church is only a small portion of the nave of the Priory Church, the choir having been taken down in 1734. In the year 1546 a free grammar school was founded here by Robert Holgate, D.D., archbishop of York. Malton returns one member to Parliament. The Fitzwilliam is the preponderating interest.

Malton Registrar's District (526) covers an area of 116,032 acres. In 1801 it contained a population of 14,837 persons; in 1861, of 23,483; and in 1871, of 22,882.

Helmsley, in the wapentake of Ryedale, at one time belonged to the famous parliamentary leader, Thomas, Lord Fairfax. By marriage with his only daughter, it passed to the notorious but most brilliant George Villiers, the second duke of Buckingham of the Villiers family, who after living in splendour at Helmsley Castle died in misery and poverty in the neighbouring town of Kirkby Moorside. Two great poets have celebrated this duke of Buckingham, but neither of them was able to say a word in his favour. Dryden lashed him during his life as the false and fickle Zimri in his "Absalom and Ahitophel;" and Pope afterwards painted his death of misery as a proper reward of a life of profligacy.

Duncombe Park, the seat of the earl of Feversham, is situated in the parish of Helmsley, and is one of the noblest mansions, with the most splendid grounds, existing in Yorkshire. The mansion was designed by Vanbrugh, and completed in the year 1718. It is of the Doric order of architecture, and is esteemed a happy specimen of the architectural skill of that builder of stately mansions. The hall is a magnificent room, sixty feet long and forty wide, surrounded by fourteen lofty Corinthian pillars, and ornamented with a number of busts of the Greek and Latin poets, with large medallions of the twelve Caesars. The saloon is eighty-eight feet by twenty- four feet, formed into three divisions by Ionic pillars, and beautifully adorned with antique statues and family pictures. The statues and paintings are amongst the finest that are to be found in England. The grounds are laid out with great taste. The garden adjoining to the house has a terrace commanding most varied prospects. Hence is seen an Ionic temple, which also commands a variety of landscapes. A beautiful valley winds at the base of a noble amphitheatre of hanging woods, and the opposite plantations, which spread over a large extent of hills, fringe the banks of the river Rye, which runs through the valley, and forms almost in its centre a charming cascade. The valley, the river, and the cascade are seen beneath; the castle, Helmsley Church, and the tower appear in the midst. The beautiful ruins of Rivaulx Abbey, only two miles distant, add to the interest of the scene; and four miles to the south-west, at the entrance to the vale of York, stand the ruins of Byland Abbey.

Revaulx Abbey, in the parish of Helmsley and wapentake of Ryedale, two miles north-west of Helmsley, is a beautiful monastic ruin in a narrow valley, crowned with hanging woods, through which the river Rye flows with a continual winding course down to the Derwent, which receives all the numerous streams of this district. Within this sequestered spot is the village of Rivaulx, consisting of scattered cottages, which appear amongst natural clumps of trees, with the river winding beneath, and each presenting a landscape in itself. The abbey stands close by the village, from which it recedes towards a steep woody bank running nearly north and south. The principal remains are the church and the refectory. The former consists of the choir and part of the side aisles, with the transept and its aisles, and the commencement of the tower. This edifice ranks amongst the largest monastic churches. The choir is 144 feet in length and sixty-three feet wide, and the transept is 118 feet long and thirty-three feet wide. The probable length of the nave was 150 feet, and the whole length of the building could not have been less than 330 or 340 feet. This abbey, for monks of the Cistercian order, was founded in 1131 by Walter L'Espec, the commander at the battle of the Standard, whose only child, a son, being killed by a fall from his horse at Kirkham, the afflicted parent devoted the principal part of his large possessions to pious uses; and after erecting the abbeys of Rivaulx and Kirkham, in Yorkshire, built also the abbey of Warden, in Bedfordshire.

Byland and Byland Abbey are in the parish of Coxwold and wapentake of Birdforth. They date from the time when Roger de Mowbray dwelt in the castle of Thirsk, and there hospitably received twelve monks of Furness Abbey who had been driven from their abode by a Scottish invasion. The monastery, and a noble church adjoining it, were founded about the year 1177. Remains, supposed to be those of Roger de Mowbray, have been discovered at Byland, and some memorials of much older times, including a beautiful Roman pavement in high preservation.

Helmsley Registrar's District (529), extensive and varied, covers an area of 113,794 acres. In 1801 the population of this district was 10,539; in 1861, 11,832; and in 1871, 11,716.

The Liberty or Wapentake of Langbarugh.- The greatest and richest of the wapentakes of the North Riding is that included in the double liberty of Langbarugh, or Cleveland, a country abounding in mineral wealth, and which at the present time produces a greater quantity of iron ore and of iron than any other district in Great Britain. It comprehends the greater part of the iron district of Cleveland, with the town of Middlesborough, already fully described in this volume. The area of the Langbarugh wapentake or liberty is 212,157 statute acres.

Coatham East and West, with the adjoining Redcar at the mouth of the river Tees, have long been celebrated for their smooth sands, their pure air, and their pleasant scenery.

Guisborough, where Robert de Brus founded a rich priory in the year 1129, is pleasantly situated in a narrow but fertile vale, and during the last forty or fifty years has risen rapidly, owing to the opening of the iron- field of Cleveland. It had previously been celebrated for its mineral waters and its yield of alum.* Guisborough stands on a hilly and almost mountainous country, rich in iron ore, and extends over an area of 90,285 acres. In 1861 it contained a population of 22,128 persons, which was increasing rapidly, and in 1871 amounted to 39,016.

Stokesley Registrar's District (533), a hilly district extending over 75,884 acres, which contained in 1801 a population of 7580 inhabitants; in 1861, of 10,381; and in 1871, of 10,750

The Liberty of Whitby Strand.- The liberty of Whitby Strand includes a considerable district on the seacoast, and also in the valley of the river Esk, which flows into the sea at Whitby. Whitby and the neighbourhood have been fully described in the present volume. The area of the liberty of Whitby Strand is 44,962 statute acres. It contained a population of 17,541 at the Census of 1871.

Whitby Registrar's District (531), extends over an area of 82,237 acres. In 1801 it contained 18,217 persons; in 1861, 23,633; and in 1881, 25,804.

The Lythe, or Wapentake of Pickering.- The liberty of the Pickering Lythe, which is the old name given to the Pickering district, comes down from the time of the Danes, who gave the name of Lythes to their military and naval districts along the sea-coast. The area of the liberty of Pickering Lythe is 156,314 statute acres.

Pickering Registrar's District (530), an extensive and fertile one, embraces an area of 99,037 acres. In 1801 it contained 7133 inhabitants; in 1861, 10,549; and in 1871, 12,737.

Scarborough.- This beautiful watering place, with the fine scenery of the surrounding district, has already been described in the present volume. A description of the sea-coast of the North Riding, from the mouth of the river Ure to Filey Bay, will be found in the first.

Scarborough Registrar's District (525), covers an area of 88,098 acres. In 1801 it contained a population of 6688 persons; in 1861, of 30,425; and in 1871, of 36,560.


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