YORKSHIRE PAST AND PRESENT.
YORKSHIRE AT THE CENSUS OF 1871.
IN bringing our account of this, the greatest of English counties, to a close, it may be desirable to slow how rapid and large has been the increase of the population during the present century, and mote especially during the ten years which intervened between the Census of 1861 and that of 1871, and what are the prospects of a continuance of a similar rate of increase in the future.
In former times there was no regular Census or enumeration of the people, and all that was known, or rather conjectured, was that the number was great and appeared to be rapidly increasing. Now we know both the numbers and the rate of increase from the time when the Census of 1801 was taken. Formerly even statesmen and actuaries had to rely either on vague estimates, or on somewhat uncertain calculations founded on the parish registers, Which showed the number of births, deaths, and marriages, and thus enabled them to form a guess as to the number of persons amongst whom they took place.
Area and Population of the County of York.-As already stated, the area of the county of York, according to the Ordnance Survey, is 3,923,697 statute acres. The Registrars' Returns give it as 3,882,851 acres; but the figures of the Survey are no doubt correct, including the whole of the county as ascertained by actual survey.* The number of houses in the county of York in 1871 was 507,040 inhabited; 29,533 uninhabited; and 6019 building. The population in 1871 was 2,436,355 persons, of whom 1,206,625 were males, and 1,229,730 females; the average number of persons to an acre was 0.63; the average number of acres to a person was 1.59.
Rapid Increase of the Population of Yorkshire during the present Century.- The population of the County of York showed a continued increase at each decennial period from the commencement of the century, as will be seen from the following table:-
Population. Population. 1801, 859,133 | 1841, 1,592,059 1811, 986,076 | 1851, 1,797,995 1821, 1,173,895 | 1861, 2,033,610 1831, 1,371,966 | 1871, 2,436,355
The increase during each decennial period was as follows:-From 1801 to 1811,126,943 persons; from 1811 to 1821, 187,819; from 1821 to 1831, 198,071; from 1831 to 1841, 220,093 ; from 1841 to 1861, 205,936; from 1851 to 1861, 235,615; and from 1861 to 1871, 402,745. It will be seen from the above figures that the increase of population in the county of York, has been great and rapid during the whole of the present century, and that it was very much larger in the ten years between the Census of 1861 and that of 1871 than in any previous decennial period. In comparison with previous ages and times it has been immense. Of coal produced within the county of York in the same year was 15,311,778 tons; and in addition to this the produce of the coal-field of South Durham, which amounted in the same year to 17,436,045 tons, was to a great extent used for the purpose of smelting the iron ores of Cleveland or North Yorkshire. Thus there was a total quantity of 32,747,823 tons available for the various purposes of industry carried on in the county of York, or in the districts of Durham and Derbyshire immediately adjoining to this county. In addition to this the quantity of long wool produced in the county of York, judging from the number of sheep existing in it in the year 1871, was very considerable, amounting to about one-tenth of the whole quantity produced in
England, whilst large additional supplies were drawn from the adjoining counties, both of the northern and the north-midland districts. This was originally the chief supply of wool available for the manufacturers of Yorkshire, and it is still an important addition to the quantity they receive from every other part of the world. The application of steam-power to the purposes both of manufacture and of transporting merchandise has given a wonderful impulse to every branch of industry, and to the conveyance of passengers; and few parts of England have been more benefited by this great change than the county of York, which possesses an admirable system of railways and a great fleet of steamships communicating through the port of Hull, and indirectly from those of Liverpool and London, with every part of the world.
But in addition to the immense material advantages which this great county possesses for all the purposes of trade, it is now beginning to enjoy on an extensive scale all the advantages of a wise and truly liberal system of education among all classes of the people. It is an immense advantage that so large a portion of our public men have determined to withdraw the great question of education from the narrow limits of party, and it is also a great satisfaction that the measure introduced by the Right Honourable W. E. Forster, one of the representatives of an enlightened Yorkshire constituency, should have met with so general a support as to render it certain that it will remain the law of the land in all its most essential provisions. In counties like that of York, in which there are numerous mechanics institutes which have been working steadily for the last thirty or forty years for the instruction of the people, the ground has been well prepared for the purpose of popular instruction. Already public libraries have been formed in most of the great towns of Yorkshire, which issue numerous and excellent books. Amongst these are the public library of Leeds, which in 1873 issued 304,295 books to its subscribers; that of Sheffield, 244,849; that of Bradford, 117,000; and that of Middlesborough, which issued 33,073, in addition to the Yorkshire Union of Mechanics Institutes, which, in the same year, issued 349,560 volumes.
Local Government of the Three Ridings of Yorkshire.- Yorkshire has from an early period been divided into three Ridings, each of which is administered by its own lord-lieutenant. The lord-lieutenants of the three Ridings at the present time are:-
The Marquis of Ripon, North Riding.
Earl Fitz-William, West Riding.
Lord Wenlock, East Riding.
We subjoin a list of the peers of the United Kingdom, and of Scotland and Ireland, connected with Yorkshire by title, residence, or estate.
PEERS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM AND OF SCOTLAND AND IRELAND, CONNECTED WITH YORKSHIRE BY TITLE, RESIDENCE, OR ESTATE.
AILESBURY (second Marquis of).-George William Frederick Brudenell Bruce, K.G., P.C.; creation of marquisate, 1821. Residences (among others), Jerveaux, Bedale, Yorkshire; and Whorlton, Northallerton. The barony of Bruce of Whorlton, county of York, was created by Charles I., 1661. A name of great antiquity and celebrity. The fee of Robert de Brus in Yorkshire described in this work, vol. i. p. 513.
BEAUMONT (ninth Baron).-Henry Stapleton; creation of barony, 1307. Residence, Carlton Hall, Selby. A family of great antiquity, including one of the original Knights of the Garter.
BOLTON (third Baron).-Henry Orde-Powlett; creation of barony, 1797. Residence (amongst others), Bolton Hall, Bedale. A descendant of the marquises of Winchester and dukes of Bolton, of Bolton Hall, Wensleydale.
CARLISLE (eighth Earl of).-Rev. William George Howard; creation of earldom, 1661. Residence, Castle Howard, York. Descended from Lord William Howard, second son of Thomas the fourth duke of Norfolk, and representative of the Howards and Dacres of Naworth Castle in Cumberland.
CLEVELAND (fourth Duke of).-Harry George Powlett, K.G.; creation of dukedom, 1833. Residence, Raby Castle, Durham. The representative of the ancient family of Vane, of Raby Castle, and of the famous Sir Harry Vane, of the Long Parliament.
CONYERS (twelfth Baron).-Sackville George Lane Fox; creation of barony, 1509. The representative by the female line of the earls of Holderness and Baron Conyers.
CRAVEN (third Earl of).-George Grimston Craven; creation of earldom, 1801. Descended from the Cravens of Appletreewick, in Craven, Yorkshire, and from the son of Sir William Craven, Kt., who was lord mayor of London in 1611.
DARTMOUTH (fifth Earl of).-William Walter Legge; earldom created, 1711. Residence (amongst others), Woodsome Hall, Huddersfield.
DE-L'ISLE and DUDLEY (second Baron).-Philip Sidney Foulis; creation of barony, 1835. Residence (amongst others), Ingoldsby Manor, Northallerton.
DE ROS (twenty-first Baron).-Dudley Charles Fitzgerald De Ros; creation of barony, 1264. The family of De Ros held their barony in Holderness in the time of Henry I. The barony of De Ros, as described in Testa de Nevill, mentioned in this work, vol. i. p. 514.
DEVONSHIRE (seventh Duke of).-William Cavendish, K.G., F.R.S., D.C.L.; creation of dukedom, 1694. The first barony of this distinguished house was that of Baron Cavendish of Hardwicke, who married Anne, daughter of Henry Keighley, Esq., of Keighley, Yorkshire. This barony was conferred in the year 1618. In the year 1748 William Cavendish (fourth duke of Devonshire) married Charlotte, Baroness Clifford of Londesborough, in the county of York, only daughter and heiress of Richard, earl of Burlington and Cork, by which union the barony of Clifford, created by writ of Charles I. in 1628, came into the Cavendish family.
DONCASTER (Earl of).-Walter Francis Montague Douglas Scott, K.G., P.C.; also duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry.
DOWNE, Viscount.-Hugh Richard Dawney; viscountcy created, 1680. Residences (amongst others), Baldersby Park and Danby Lodge, Yorkshire.
EFFINGHAM (second Earl of).-Henry Howard; creation of earldom, 1837. Descended from Lord William Howard, eldest son of Thomas, the second duke of Norfolk. The barony of Howard of Effingham, was created by Queen Mary in the year 1554, and Lord Howard of Effingham, as lord high admiral, commanded the English fleet which defeated the Spanish Armada. Residence (amongst others), The Grange, Rotherham.
FAIRFAX (Baron).-The representatives of this ancient family are still found in Virginia; Charles Snowden being the present and tenth Baron Fairfax of Cameron.
FALKLAND (tenth Viscount).-Lucius Bentinck Cary, P.C., G.C.H.; creation of viscountcy 1620. Residence, Skatterskelf, Yarm. A descendant of Baron Hunsdon, who was the first cousin of Queen Elizabeth through her mother Queen Anne Boleyn, and of the race of the great and good Lord Falkland, famous in the Great Civil War. Also connected by marriage with the Fitz-Clarences, of the family of King William IV.
FEVERSHAM (first Earl of), and Viscount Helmsley.-William Ernest Duncombe; creation of earldom, 1868. Residences, Duncombe Park, Helmsley, and the Leases, Bedale. Thomas Duncombe, Esq., of Duncombe Park, high sheriff of the county of York in the year 1728. Charles Duncombe created Baron Feversham in the year 1826.
FITZ-WILLIAM (sixth Earl).-William Thomas Spencer Wentworth-Fitz-William, K.G.; creation of earldom, 1716. Residence, Wentworth House, Rotherham. Sir William Fitz-William was present as marshal of the Norman army at the battle of Hastings, 1066. His descendants were established at Elmley and Sprotburgh in the year 1117. Two members of this family are mentioned in Testa de Nevill, a record of the great tenants of the crown in the reigns of King John and Henry III., about the year 1220.* William, the third earl, married Lady Anne Wentworth, eldest daughter of Thomas, marquis of Rockingham, and sister and co-heiress of Charles, second marquis.
GRANTLEY (third Baron).-Fletcher Norton; creation of barony, 1782. The Nortons are a very ancient Yorkshire family, and bear the title of barons of Markenfield. The first Lord Grantley was for many years speaker of the House of Commons in the reign of George III.
HALIFAX (first Viscount).-Charles Wood, P.C., G.C.B.; creation of viscountcy, 1866. Residences, Hickleton Hall, Doncaster, and Garrowby, near Pocklington, York. A distinguished minister of state, he filled the office of secretary of the Treasury from 1832 to 1852; was, secretary to the Admiralty from 1835 to 1839; chancellor of the Exchequer from 1846 to 1852; president of the Board of Control in 1852; first lord of the Admiralty from 1855 to 1858, and afterwards secretary of State for India, and president of the Indian council. Represented the borough of Halifax for many years, and afterwards that of Ripon.
HAMMOND (first Baron).-Edmund Hammond, P.C.; barony of Hammond of Kingston-upon-Hull created, 1874, in recognition of fifty years of distinguished service in the Foreign Office.
HAREWOOD (fourth Earl of).-Henry Thynne Lascelles; earldom created, 1812. Residences, Harewood, Leeds; Goldsborough Hall, Knaresborough. The barony of Harewood was created in the year 1790 in favour of Edwin Lascelles, Esq., of Harewood Castle. The family is of great antiquity in the county of York, as will be seen from the account of their possessions, given in Testa de Nevill, which was drawn up partly in the reign of King John, and partly of his, son Henry III, and which may be dated 1220. Roger de Lascelles was summoned to Parliament as a baron, A.D. 1295, but dying without male heir the barony fell into abeyance. Francis Lascelles was a colonel in the parliamentary army in the Great Civil War.
HAWKE (sixth Baron)-Rev. Edward Henry Julius Harvey-Hawke; barony created, 1776. Residence, Willingham Rectory, Gainsborough. A descendant of the celebrated Admiral Hawke, victorious in the great naval battle of Calvados.
HEADLEY (third Baron).-Irish representative peer, Charles Allanson Winn; barony created, 1797. Residence, Bramham Biggin, near Tadcaster. Descended from the ancient line of the Wyunes of Gwydyr, of North Wales.
HOTHAM, Baron.-Baroncy created, 1797. Residence (amongst others), South Dalton Hall, Beverley.
HOUGHTON (first Baron).-Richard Monckton Milnes; creation of barony, 1863. Residences, Frystone Hall, Ferrybridge, and Bawtry. The present noble lord represented the borough of Pomfret for many years, and has acquired the highest reputation, not only as a consistent politician, but as a poet and an elegant scholar.
HOUNDING (Baron).-See Falkland.
LEEDS (ninth Duke of).-George Godolphin Sobered; dukedom created, 1694. Ancient residence, Hornby Castle; also Gogmagog Hills, Cambridge. The first duke of Leeds was the celebrated Sir Thomas Sobered, lord high treasurer of England in the reign of Charles II., who was raised in 1673 to the titles of Baron Sobered of Kivedon and Viscount Latimer of Danby, and in the following year to that of earl of Danby. At the Revolution of 1688 he seized on the city of York for William, Prince of Orange, afterwards King William III., by whom he was created Marquis of Carmarthen in the year 1689, and Duke of Leeds in 1694. His great qualities have found a distinguished place in Lord Macaulay's "History of England."
LONDESBOROUGH (second Baron).-William Henry Forester Denison; barony created, 1850. Residence, Londesborough. The first Lord Londesborough was the son of Henry, the first marquis of Conygham, by Elizabeth, his wife, daughter of Joseph Denison, Esq., of Denbies, county Surrey, and successor to the great property of his uncle, the late William Joseph Denison, Esq., the banker. The first lord married Henrietta Maria, fourth daughter of Cecil-Weld, first Lord Forester.
MEXBOROUGH, Earl.-Earldom Created, 1766. residence, Methley Park, near Wakefield.
MIDDLETON (eighth Baron).-Henry Willoughby; Creation of barony, 1711. Residence, Birdsall, New Malton. Of the ancient family of the barons of Herries of Terregles, but assumed the name of Middleton on succeeding to their estates.
NORFOLK (fifteenth Duke of).-Henry Fitz-Alan Howard; dukedom created, 1483. Heirs of the ancient lords of Sheffield.
NORMANBY (second Marquis of).-George Augustus Constantine Phipps, P.C., K.C., M.G.; creation of marquisate, 1838. Residence, Mulgrave Castle, Whitby. Sir Constantine Phipps, an eminent lawyer, was lord chancellor of Ireland in 1710. His son, William Phipps, married a daughter of the earl of Anglesea by his countess, Lady Catherine Darnley, natural daughter of James II. The first marquis of Normanby (Constantine Henry) was a distinguished statesman, diplomatist, and politician, and was raised to the marquisate for his great abilities and public services. He was lord lieutenant of Ireland, governor of Jamaica, Home and Colonial Secretary, ambassador to the court of France, and envoy to the Grand Duke of Tuscany. The present marquis has held the offices of governor of Nova Scotia and of lord in waiting to H.M. the queen, and is now governor of Queensland.
NORTHUMBERLAND (sixth Duke of).-Algernon George Percy, P.C.; dukedom created 1766; Earl de Percy and of Beverley. The family of Percy has been connected with the county of York from the Norman conquest. An account of the Percy fee in Yorkshire, as described in Testa de Nevill be found in this work, vol. i. p. 514. (The name of the Percy family is inseparably connected with the great events of the wars of York and Lancaster, and more peacefully by the glories of the Percy Shrine in the cathedral of Beverley; and by the records of Wrexall Castle, near Beverley, one of their ancient feudal castles.
RlBBLESDALE (third Baron).-Thomas Lister; barony created, 1797. Residence, Gisburn Park, Skipton, where the Listers have resided for more than 500 years.
RICHMOND (sixth Duke of).-Charles Gordon Lennox is duke of Richmond in Yorkshire, earl of March and baron of Settrington, also in the county of York. The earls of Richmond, of a still more ancient creation, were for ages the most powerful noblemen in Yorkshire; and Henry, earl of Richmond, won the crown of England, and reigned as King Henry VII.
RIPON (first Marquis of).-Sir George Frederick Samuel Robinson, K.G., P.C.; marquisate created, 1871, as a mark of honour for distinguished skill and judgment in bringing to a successful issue one of the most important treaties of modern times, namely, that by which peace was preserved between England and the United States of America.
RIPON (Bishop of).-Robert Bickersteth, D.D., formerly rector of St. Giles, and canon of Salisbury. Residence, Palace, Ripon.
SCARBOROUGH (ninth Earl of).-Richard George Lumley; earldom created, 1690. Residences, Sandbeck Park, Rotherham; Tickhill Park, Rotherham. Family of very great antiquity, said to be sprung from Lyulph, son of Osbert de Lumley, who married a daughter of one of the Anglo-Saxon earls of Northumberland, and was a nobleman of great influence in the time of Edward the Confessor. Sir Ralph de Lumley, Kt., was summoned to Parliament amongst the barons of the realm from 1384 to 1399. Sir Richard Lumley, Kt., was created Viscount Lumley of Waterford in 1628; and Richard, the second Viscount Lumley, was made Earl of Scarborough in the year 1690.
SHEFFlELD (second Earl of).-George Augustus Frederic Charles Holroyd; creation of earldom, 1816. The barony of Sheffield, Yorkshire, was created in the year 1802.
STOURTON (nineteenth Baron).-Alfred Joseph Stourton; creation of barony, 1448. Residence, Allerton Park, Green Hammerton, Yorkshire. The representative of an extremely ancient family which derives its surname from the town of Stourton, in the county of Wilts, and held a considerable position even before the Norman conquest.
SUTHERLAND (third Duke of).-Sprung from an ancient Yorkshire family, one member of whom, Sir Allan Gower, Lord Stittenham, in Yorkshire, is said to have been high sheriff of that county at the time of the Conquest, and another of whom is mentioned in the High Sheriff's Accounts of 1167. John Gower, one of the earliest of English poets, is said to have been of this family. Sir John Levison-Gower was raised to the peerage as Baron Gower of Stittenham in the year 1702-3.
TUFTON.-Sir Henry Jacques Tufton, Bart., of Applebey Castle, Westmoreland, and Skipton Castle, York, represents the earls of Thanet, who long held these castles and the adjoining estates by marriage with the ancient family of the Cliffords.
WENLOCK (second Baron).-Beilby Richard Lawley; barony created, 1839. Residence, Escrick Park. Lord-lieutenant of the East Riding of the county of York. Sir Thomas Lawley was made a baronet by King Charles I. in the year 1641.
WHARNCLIFFE (third Baron).-Edward Montagu Granville Stuart-Wortley; barony created, 1826. Residence, Wortley Hall, Sheffield, and Simmonstone, Bedale. Of the ancient family of Wortley, and of the Stuarts, earls of Bute. The celebrated Lady Mary Wortley Montague was the only daughter of Edward Wortley Montague, eldest son of the first earl of Sandwich. James Archibald Stuart-Wortley represented the county of York until he was raised to the peerage by the title of Baron Wharncliffe in the year 1826.
YORK (Archbishop of).-William Thomson, D.D., P.C., Primate of England. Residence, Bishopthorpe Palace, York. Dr. Thomson was successively fellow, tutor, and provost of Queen's College, Oxford; Brompton lecturer; rector of All Soul's, London; preacher to the honourable society of Lincoln's Inn, and chaplain in ordinary to Her Majesty. He was consecrated bishop of Gloucester and Bristol in 1861, and was translated to the archiepiscopal see of York, 1863.
ZETLAND (third Earl of).-Lawrence Dundas; earldom created, 1838. Residences (amongst others), Aske Hall, Richmond, and Allerthorpe. Lawrance Dundas was made a baronet in the year 1762, and his son, Sir Thomas, was elevated to the peerage as Baron Dundas of Aske, county York, 1794. His lordship married Lady Charlotte Fitzwilliam, second daughter of William, third Earl Fitzwilliam.
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