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BRADFORD, the first in population and importance of the municipal and parliamentary boroughs engaged in the worsted trade, the second occupied in the several textile industries of Yorkshire, and containing, at the census of 1871, 145,827 inhabitants, is one of the most flourishing of the manufacturing towns of England; the increase of its population having been no less than 39,609 persons, between the census of 1861 and that of 1871. Its growth, during the whole of the present century, has been very rapid. All the sources of its prosperity continue in undiminished activity, whether derived from large supplies of coal, iron, steam-power, and machinery; from the energy and industry with which raw materials, both new and old, have been brought together from, and new markets have been sought in, the most distant regions of the world; or from the skill with which both domestic and foreign materials have been applied to the purposes of industry. Hence it has the promise of a continued and at least as rapid a rate of progress, as that which has been witnessed during the first seventy years of the present century. "The town of Bradford lies in a valley which may justly be considered a branch of Airedale, though from a remote period it has borne the distinctive appellation of Bradford Dale. This valley, stretching from the moorlands above Thornton to the Aire at Shipley, forms at Bradford a considerable bend; and being at this point joined by two small dells, the town appears to be seated at the junction of four valleys." Three abundant brooks or becks, as they are locally termed, unite their waters at Bradford, flowing thence down Bradford Dale in a collected stream to the Aire, about four miles distant. These overflowed the valley after heavy rains, and produced a wide marsh, only passable by a broad ford, from which Bradford is supposed by James and other local authors to have taken its name.

Bradford is an Anglian or English town in name, and probably in origin, although the roads and works of the Romans have been clearly traced within the parish, in the neighbourhood of the iron mines of Bierley,* where the Romans had workings, the remains of which were examined and described by Dr. Richardson, of Bierley Hall, early in the last century. Amongst the remains of these mines were found coins of the reigns of Diocletian, Constantius, Constantine, and others of the later emperors, from A.D. 284 to A.D. 337. Other coins of as early a date as the reign of Trajan, A.D. 98-117, have also been discovered amongst the hills in the neighbourhood of Bradford, as well as a third set, filling up the interval between these two periods. Dr. Richardson, in a letter to Hearne the Oxford antiquary, says, "That iron was made in this neighbourhood" (Bierley, near Bradford) "in the time of the Romans, a late discovery has sufficiently convinced me. Upon removing a heap of cinders to repair the highways, a quantity of copper Roman coins were discovered, some of which I have now in my possession. They were of Constantine, Constantius, Diocletian, and the usurper Carausius. This country abounds with such heaps of cinders, though we have not so much as a tradition that iron was made [here] then."

The modern name of Bradford is evidently derived from the Anglian words brad or broad, and ford, a passage across a stream or marsh; and the names of the townships and villages in the parish are nearly all of Anglian origin, or have Anglo-Saxon terminations. Thus wic or wyke, which is the name for an Anglian or Saxon camp, is found in the parish of Bradford, as well as in many other places in Yorkshire. The Anglian termination of ton, meaning originally an inclosure, but afterwards a town or village, occurs in Allerton, Clayton, Heaton, the two Hortons, and Thornton. Names ending in the Anglian word ley, a field or inclosure, are found in North Bierley and Shipley: and names derived from other well-known Anglian words, such as ford, hill, worth, burg, or bury, and ham or hame, occur in the names of Bradford, Eccleshill, Haworth, Stanbury, and Manningham. The termination of the word Bowling is also Anglian, and is probably derived from the name of a meadow, which was ing; whilst the word or syllable ing, in the name of Manningham, appears to be that form of the Anglian word, which is equivalent to a tribe or sept; Manningham probably meaning the home of the Mannings.* Almost the only British termination amongst the names of the townships of Bradford is Wilsden, the wild den, and that is both Teutonic and Celtic. The den in this word is the British name for a valley, or deep recess, and was perhaps given to this township when it was still inhabited by some ancient British tribe, by the Angles, who themselves afterwards adopted the same word den for the name of a glen or valley. The names of Leventhorpe, Oxenhope, and Denholme are probably Norse in their origin; and though the great preponderance of names of places in the district of Bradford is Anglian or Teutonic, the name of the lord of the manor of Bradford, immediately before the Norman conquest, was Gamel or Gamall, which is a Danish or Scandinavian name, signifying The Old.

Little or nothing is known of Bradford from records or books previous to the Domesday Survey. Bradford, or as it is there written Bradeford, is described in the Domesday Record, made between the years 1084 and 1086, as containing the manor of Bradford, and also six berewicks or subordinate manors. The names are not given, but they are supposed on good evidence to have been Great and Little Horton, Manningham, Stanbury, Haworth, and Oxenhope.± Even before the wasting of this district in the wars of the Norman conquest, Bradford was valued only at the insignificant sum of £4 a year, equal to about fifteen times as much, or £60 a year, in the money of the present time; not equal to £400 of present money, as stated by James in his History of Bradford, for Sir Thomas Duffus Hardy, and other writers of authority, fix the proportion between the pound of Domesday, which was a weight of 12 oz. of silver, and the present pound (£) of 20s. at 15 to 1, allowing for difference in weight, and in the exchangeable value of silver. Much of the district was still waste and deserted when the Domesday Survey was made, nearly twenty years after the Conquest. In addition to the arable land there was a wood or forest, half a mile in length, and seven and a half furlongs in breadth. The following is the description of Bradford, and of the neighbouring manors and vills, given in the Domesday Record. The word carucate, so often used in this description, is sometimes estimated as high as 180 acres, and sometimes as low as 120. In these early times it was an estimate or guess, at the quantity of land that a yoke of oxen could work in a year, and must have varied with the strength of the land and the oxen. It afterwards was fixed in Fleta and some other works at 180 acres.


Bradford.-"A Manor. In Bradeford, with six berewicks [or subordinate manors], Gamel had fifteen carucates of land to be taxed, where there may be eight ploughs. Ilbert [De Laci] has it, and it is waste. Value in King Edward [the Confessor's] time, four pounds [£60 of present money]. Wood pasture half a mile long and half a mile broad. Bowling.-Manor. In Bolline, Sindi had four carucates of land, which pays to the geld [Danegeld], where there may be two ploughs. Ilbert has it, and it is waste. Value in King Edward's time, five shillings [£3 15s. present money]. Bierley.-Manor. In Birle, Stainulf had four carucates of land to be taxed, where there may be two ploughs. Ilbert has it, and it is waste. Value in King Edward's time, ten shillings [£7 10s. present money]. Wood pasture half a mile long and half a mile broad. Bolton.-Manor. In Bodeltone, Archil had four carucates of land to be taxed, where there may be two ploughs. Ilbert has it, and it is waste. Value in King Edward's time, ten shillings [£7 1 0s. present money]. This [the following land] belongs to this manor, Celeslau [Chellow], Alretone, Torentone, Claitone, Wibetesa [Wibsey]. To be taxed together ten carucates of land, where there may be six ploughs. It is waste. Value in King Edward's time, forty shillings [£30 present money]; now [1084-86] nothing. Shipley.- Manor. In Scipleia, Ravenchil had three carucates of land to be taxed, where there may be two ploughs. Ilbert has it, and it is waste. Value in King Edward is time, ten shillings [£7 10s. present money]. Wood pasture one mile long and one half broad.

Bradford in the Hands of the De Lacis, Earls of Lincoln.-After the Conquest, Bradford, with Leeds, Huddersfield, and about 150 other manors in the West Riding, were granted by the Conqueror to one of his warlike followers, Ilbert de Laci, whose descendants became earls of Lincoln, and whose family held them for 230 years; that is, from about the year 1080 to 1311. There is evidence that the De Lacis erected a manor-house at Bradford, and Dr. Whitaker speaks of a fort, or castle, as having been built by them at that place. He says that after the Norman conquest the De Lacis became possessed of the honour of Clitheroe, and erected the castle there; that within a few years the Conqueror put them in possession of the fee and castle of Pontefract; that from Pontefract to Clitheroe was a space of somewhat more than fifty miles, the greater part of which extends (or then extended) over a bleak and desolate country; that a line drawn from one of these points to the other would pass nearly over Bradford; that at Leeds the De Lacis had a castle, and at Colne a manor- house; but that those places being fifty miles from each other, an intermediate resting-place was wanted and was formed at Bradford. The name of "Burgenses" or Burgesses, Dr. Whitaker remarks, occurring in an early inquisition as to Bradford, proves that there had been a burg or castle there, though there was then only a manor-house. "Some of the earlier Lacis," he concludes, "must have erected a small fortress at Bradford, and the protection afforded by a fortress always attracted inhabitants." Whether this reasoning, as to the existence of a burg or castle at Bradford in the time of the De Lacis, is sound or otherwise, there is no doubt that they erected there a manor-house and established courts of justice; that they let part of their land on burgage and other free tenancies; and that they granted, or obtained for the inhabitants of Bradford, some valuable privileges from the crown, which would materially assist in developing the prosperity of the town. When the De Lacis obtained possession of Bradford, in the time of William the Conqueror (1084-86), they found nothing there but ruins, which they had themselves probably assisted in making, in a war of conquest; but when Henry the last earl of Lincoln, of that family, died, in the reign of King Edward II. and the year 1311, Bradford had become a place of considerable trade and activity, and the interest of the Lacis in this and the immediately adjoining manors was valued at a sum equal to £600 a year of modern money. Something was probably due to the liberality of the lords of that great and noble family, who soon forgot Normandy, and became thorough Englishmen. John de Laci, one of those lords, was amongst the twenty-five barons who were appointed by the whole body of the English Peers to enforce the great charter of English freedom, Magna Charta, extorted by the barons and the citizens of London from King John, at Runnymede.

Early Progress of Bradford.- The following facts enable us to trace the progress of Bradford, during the time when the lordship and manor were in the hands of the De Laci family. In the year 1246, the 30th Henry III., Bradford paid a tallage or tax to the crown of four marks, equal to about £40 of present money, and more, by one and a half marks, than was paid by Leeds at the same taxation. Grant of Market to Bradford.-In the year 1256, 40th Henry III., the king granted to Edmund de Laci, and to his tenants and burgesses of Bradford, the valuable privilege of holding a market every week in that town, which could not then be done without consent of the crown or lord. This charter must have given a fresh impulse to the progress of Bradford, by making it the centre of the trade of that portion of Airedale, and of the adjoining hills and dales, which extends from Bingley, if not from Skipton, to Leeds in one direction, and to Halifax in another. The following is a copy of the charter:-"The King to the Archbishops, &c., greeting-Know ye that we have granted, and by this our present charter confirmed, to our beloved servant, Edmund de Laci, that he and his heirs for ever shall have a market every week, on Thursday, in his manor of Brafford (Bradford) in the county of York, unless that market should be to the injury of the neighbouring markets. Witnesses, Ralph son of Nicholas, Bertram de Criol, Master William de Kilkenny, archdeacon of Coventry, Artaldo de Sco Romano, Robert le Norreis, Stephen Banthan, Anketin Mallore, and others. Dated at Merton, 20th day of April, 1256, 40th Henry III.

When King Edward I. succeeded to the throne in the year 1273, he made a strict inquiry into his own rights and those of all the great tenants of the crown, including the Lacis, in Bradford, and their many other manors. The following was the report of the commissioners, who evidently put the De Lacis on their proofs, and claimed everything for the crown to which they could not clearly establish their right:-

"They [the jurors] say that the townships of Clayton, Thorneton, Allerton, and Heton, were taxable to the lord the king (not to the earls), and were appropriated to the liberty of the Lord Edmund de Lasey, by John de Hoderode, late steward of the said Edmund

Hitherto, the said customs are kept by Henry de Lasey, earl of Lincoln [Edmund's successor]. And they say that Peter de Saunton, steward of the said Henry de Lasey, appropriated [to the earl] the towns of Wyk [Wyke] and of Bolling, in the last days of the lord the King Henry [III.], father of the now king, and that service he hath withdrawn from the king, and appropriated to the earl. Concerning those who have liberties [or seignorial rights], they say that Henry de Lasey hath many liberties in the town of Bradeford; to wit, a gallows [the light of inficting capital punishment on criminals], assize of bread and beer, a market, and a free court from ancient times; a sheriff's turn [or court] made by his steward; and the debts of the lord the king levied by his own bailiffs. Also, they say that as well the steward of Alesia de Lascy as of the said Henry, use liberties otherwise than they ought to do, and have taken toll of things bought and sold without the market- place of Bradeford, at the gates, of the sellers and buyers, and that toll is called Dortol and Huctol; and if the sellers and buyers have in anything opposed them, they amerce them; and other things they do contrary to ancient usage. Concerning new approvements, &c., they say that Hugh de Swillington approved [improved] for himself a certain inclosure in the Rodes, in a place called Jordansal, in the time of King Henry, father of the now king [Edward I.], but by what warrant they are ignorant. Concerning sheriffs and bailiffs they say, that Gilbert de Clifton, steward of Henry de Lasey, in the time of King Henry, father of the now king, amerced William de Whiteley of Wilsenden for not coming to the turn [court] when there were sufficient persons to make inquisition. Of those who have felons (in custody), they say that Nicholas de Burton, steward of Henry de Lasey, had Evan, weaver (text'icem) of Gumersal in the prison at Bradeford, and took from him two cows, and permitted him to go without judgment."

Bradford in Testa de Nevill.- Bradford is mentioned in the ancient account of the royal rights existing in various lordships, known as Testa de Nevill, drawn up by Johand de Nevill, a judge or justice itinerant in the reign of Henry III., at some time or times between 1216 and 1272. Every manor then formed a knight's fee, or part of one, and was liable on the summons of the king to the lord of the manor, or to the superior lord of the fee, to furnish a certain number of soldiers to the king's armies, in time of war. The De Lacis held seventy knight's fees in about 150 manors in the West Riding, and they or their tenants had to supply seventy times as many soldiers as an ordinary knight. Their lands in Bradford rendered them liable to furnish half the soldiers required from a knight's fee; the knight's fee in Yorkshire being about 2000 acres of land, though considerably less in the south of England, where the land was then more valuable:-

"The copy of Testa de Nevill, in the King's Remembrancer's Office, shows that the earl of Lincoln (De Laci), his sub-tenants, and others, had in Bradford and the immediate neighbourhood the following fees:-In Bolling, one third part of a knight's fee. William de Swillington (in Bierley) held one fourth of a fee. The abbot of Kirkstall held, in Allerton, one half of a fee. Robert de Horton held one third part of a knight's fee. Gilbert the younger, of Horton, held the tenth part of a knight's fee. In Bradfordale (vallis de Bradeford) was one half of a fee held by the earl of Lincoln. In Clayton there was due for the tax called scutage, 11s. 8½d. The whole of the scutage for the honour of the earl of Lincoln was 79s. 2d, or about £55 of modern money."

Charter for holding a Market and Fair at Bradford, 1294.- In this year King Edward I. confirmed to Henry de Laci, earl of Lincoln, and his heirs, the right to hold a weekly market at Bradford every Thursday; and also conferred upon him and his heirs the right to hold a fair in Bradford every year, to continue for five days, namely, on the eve and on the day of St. Peter ad Vincula, and for three days following. The witnesses to this charter were Edmund (earl of Lancaster), the king's brother, the bishops of Durham, Bath and Wells, and others. The charter was dated at Westminster, 6th June, 1294 (22nd Edward I.). The privilege of holding a fair was then of great value, as in those ages nearly all the trade of the country, except in articles of daily food, was carried on in fairs, which were specially guarded, and were attended by buyers and sellers of wool, cloth, lead, iron, and other articles, from all parts of the kingdom. The Parish of Bradford at the time of Pope Nicholas' Valuation, 1291.-We also obtain a very interesting account of the value of the rectory, vicarage, and tithes of Bradford, in the year 1291, the 19th Edward I., in what is called Pope Nicholas' Valuation. In the year 1288, Pope Nicholas IV. condescended to grant the tenths of all ecclesiastical benefices in England to King Edward I. for six years, towards defraying the expense of an expedition to the Holy Land; and that they might be collected to their full value, a taxation by the king's precept was begun in that year, which was completed in the province of Canterbury in the year 1291, and in that of York in the following year. This taxation was for many ages a most important record, as most if not all the taxes of the clergy, both to our kings and to the popes, were regulated by it, until the 26th year of the reign of King Henry VIII., 1534-35, when the new valuation, well known as the Valor Ecclesiasticus. was established. The taxation of Pope Nicholas also possesses great historical interest, as showing what was the supposed value of the tenths of all ecclesiastical benefices in England, in the year 1291, and thus enabling us to form an approximate estimate of the value of the produce of the parishes, of which the tithes were the tenth part. Thus in the case of the parish of Bradford, it appears that the value of the rectory at that time was £53 6s. 8d., and that of the vicarage £13 6s. 8d. These sums amount together to £66 13s. 4d., and by adding to them the other nine-tenths we obtain an amount of £666 and a few shillings, as the approximate yearly value of the landed produce of Bradford at that time. But as we have already stated, the value of money, of the same denomination, was fifteen times as great in 1291 as it is at present, so that the annual value of the tithable property of the parish of Bradford in the year 1291, in modern money, was fifteen times £666, or about £10,000.

Bradford when it passed into the hands of the House of Lancaster, in 1311.- Much the best account of Bradford in these early ages, is contained in the Inquisition or Inquiry into the value of the De Laci property, in the manor of Bradford and its berewicks, made on the death of Henry de Laci, the last earl of Lincoln of that family, which event occurred in the year 1311, the 5th of the reign of King Edward II. Inquisitions of this kind were held on the death of every great tenant of the crown, in order to ascertain what was the value of his estates, and what rights, if any, accrued to the crown from the decease of its tenant. These inquiries were made with more than ordinary care when, as in this case, the estates passed to a minor or a female; the crown having in those cases the control of the estate until the heir reached his majority, or until the heiress was married to a husband selected by the king. In this case Alicia or Alice,- the sole heiress of Henry the last earl of Lincoln, married Thomas Plantagenet, the son of Edmund the first earl of Lancaster, and a grandson of King Henry III. This was a wretched and disgraceful marriage, attended with all kinds of scandals, and ended in a separation before the death of the earl of Lancaster, who was himself beheaded at Pontefract for high treason; and in the marriage of Alicia, after a variety of discreditable adventures, to Ebulo L'Estrange (said to have been an old lover), with a most liberal allowance of 5000 merks per annum, or not much less than £50,000 a year of modern money. But the estates of the De Lacis, including Bradford, were subsequently given by Edward III. to his cousin Henry, the second earl of Lancaster, and ultimately descended to the duchy of Lancaster, and through it to the Crown. The account of that portion of the estates which was in Bradford and the neighbourhood is as follows:-


After the death of Henry De Laci, the usual Inquisition as to the value of his lands and other territorial possessions was taken at Pontefract, on the 3rd day of March, 1311. The following is a translation of this document, so far as relates to the possessions of the deceased earl in the manor and neighbourhood of Bradford. We are informed that:-

" The earl had at Bradford a hall (aulam) or manor-house with chambers, and it is nothing worth beyond necessary repairs [manor-houses and castles were not taxed in these Inquiries], and there are there forty acres in demesne (land), demised to divers tenants at will, the value whereof yearly is 8d. an acre, And there are there 156 acres of land approved [reclaimed from the waste], demised to divers tenants at will, and valued by the year at 4d. an acre, And there are there four acres of wood which is separate, and the value of the herbage yearly is 2 shillings, And there is there one water mill, valued by the year at. £10, And a fulling mill, which is worth yearly £1, And there is there a certain market, every seventh day, upon the Lord's day, the toll of which is worth yearly £3, And there is there a certain fair which is held yearly upon the Feast of St. Andrew the Apostle, the toll of which is worth yearly £3, And there are certain villeins (bondage tenants) who hold twenty three oxgangs of land in bondage, and render yearly at the Feast of St. Martin (4s. for every oxgang), (8 to 24 acres), £4 16 0, And the same villeins do work in autumn, which is worth yearly, for every oxgang, 3d., And the same villeins hold certain parcels of land approved [reclaimed from the waste], and render therefor at the term aforesaid, £0 18 3, And there are there certain tenants at will, who hold three oxgangs of land, and render therefor yearly, at the term aforesaid (that is, for every oxgang, 5s.), £0 15 0 , And there are there certain burgesses (buyenses) who hold twenty-eight burgages, and two parts of one burgage, and an eighth part of one burgage, and render therefor yearly at the term aforesaid, £1 17 6, And there are there certain free renters or farmers (liberi firmarii), who hold certain messuages and certain parcels of land approved [reclaimed from the waste], rented at their true value, and render therefor yearly at the term aforesaid, £1 11 4, And there are there certain free tenants (liberi tenentes) who hold their tenements of the said earl, and render yearly their rents and services at the Feast of St. Martin, according to the particulars thereof under written:- A de Eton, for a messuage and three oxgangs, £0 7 4, Robert de Northcrofte, for a toft and croft, £0 4 8, Roger Carpenter, for two messuages, £0 0 6, Hugh, son of Luke, for two messuages, £0 0 7, William de Polcover, for six acres of land, £0 0 2, Adam, son of Robert the Clerk, for two oxgangs of land, £0 2 9, William Brome, for three oxgangs of land, £0 3 10, William Grey, for one oxgang of land, £0 1 4, Walter Heris, for two oxgangs of land, £0 3 10, William Baume, for ten acres of land, £0 4 4, William Childyonge, for ten acres of land, £0 3 4, Ade de Eton, for ten acres of land, £0 3 4, Hugh de Benecliffe, for ten acres of land, £0 3 4, Ralph de Rachdale, for two oxgangs of land in Horton, £0 2 3, Luke de Horton, for two oxgangs of land, £0 2 3, William de Clayton, for ten oxgangs of land in Clayton, and four oxgangs of land in Oxenhope, £0 14 10, Jordan de Bierley, for eight oxgangs of land in Clayton, and one librate with all the appurtenances, £0 1 0, William de Horton, for four oxgangs of land in Oxenhope, £0 4 0, The heirs of John de Haworth, for four oxgangs of land in Haworth, and for five oxgangs of land in Manningham, £0 7 0, Thomas de Thornton, for land in Allerton, yielding 5s. yearly, and work in autumn, £0 17 10, William de Scholes, for an oxgang of land, £0 3 1, John King, of Horton, for one oxgang and a half, £0 6 6, And the same renders work in autumn, £0 0 2½, John Lemon, for one oxgang of land, £0 2 2, And renders work in autumn yearly, £0 0 1½, Ralph de Hill, for one oxgang of land in Horton, £0 1 0, And the same renders work in autumn for the same, £0 0 1½, William Crementor, for two oxgangs of land in Horton, £0 0 3, Theobaldus de Thornhill, for one essart [piece of reclaimed land] in Horton, £0 0 2, The abbot of Kirkstall, for four oxgangs of land in Horton, a pair of white spurs. Robert de Northrop, for one oxgang of land in Manningham, £0 0 9, Robert de Manningham, for two oxgangs of land in Horton, £0 0 3, Village of Wike, for work in autumn from ancient times, yearly, £0 2 0, Land held by the church of Bradford, eight oxgangs of land in Bradford for work in autumn, £0 0 8, Adam de Windhill, for essart [piece of reclaimed land] in Allerton, £0 2 0, And the same earl hath a certain free court (held from three weeks to three weeks), and other pleas or perquisites of court, yearly, £0 14 4, The whole sum, £39 9 6

The sum of £39 9s. 6d. given in this interesting return ought to be multiplied by fifteen, to show its value in our present money, when it will be seen that the value of the De Laci estates in Bradford and the immediate neighbourhood, in the year 1311, was about £600 a year. The classes of persons mentioned as holding land are, twenty-eight burgesses, thirty-five free tenants, thirty free farmers, and twenty-three villeins or bondage tenants. This gives a total of about 100 tenants of the classes named; and taking their families at an average of five, the whole number of persons is from 470 to 500. Mr. James estimates the population of Bradford at this time, 1311, at 650. There may have been other residents not included in this return, but the chief distinction at that time was that of bond or free. The extent of the essarts, or newly inclosed land, shows that cultivation was spreading around Bradford.

Bradford in the hands of the Plantagenets, Earls and Dukes of Lancaster.- Bradford passed to the Plantagenets, earls of Lancaster, by marriage with Alicia de Laci and subsequent grant from King Edward III., to Henry the third earl of Lancaster; afterwards into those of other earls or dukes of Lancaster; still later into those of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, the fourth son of King Edward III., on his marriage with Lady Blanche Plantagenet, the only surviving child of Henry, duke of Lancaster; and ultimately into those of Henry of Bolingbroke, son and heir of John of Gaunt, who made himself king of England, with the title of Henry IV. Whatever tendency there may have been, in the population of Bradford, to increase under its old or new lords, was effectually kept down for nearly fifty years, in the reigns of the three Edwards, by an incessant drain of able-bodied men of the town and neighbourhood, raised for the purpose of carrying on destructive wars in Scotland. In Edward I.'s Scottish campaign of 1299, a commission was issued to raise 400 chosen men in the wapentake of "Barkeston" Ash, the liberties of Bradford, and the soke of Snaith, all to be at Carlisle, on the day of the Assumption of the Blessed Lady (August 15). Nor was Bradford alone in these merciless and murderous conscriptions, for the same number of men were also demanded, and perhaps drained away, for the same purpose, from each of the wapentakes of Agbrigg, Morley, Skyrack, and Claro. In the campaign of 1299, near 6000 soldiers were raised, or at least demanded, in Yorkshire alone. In times like those, war, famine, and pestilence conspired to keep down the numbers of the people; hence the increase was almost incredibly slow, and was sometimes stopped altogether. Between the time of the survey of Bradford given above, as made in the year 1311, the 5th Edward II., and the survey made in the time of Henry Plantagenet, earl of Derby, afterwards duke of Lancaster, in the year 1342, the population of this part of Yorkshire must have been much more than decimated by the slaughter of the battles of Dunbar, Stirling, Bannockburn, and Halidon Hill; and after Bannockburn the country had to undergo the misery of a general invasion, by a justly enraged enemy. It is said that the invading army of Bruce, commanded by Randolph, had their head-quarters in the hundred of Morley, near Leeds and Bradford, and laid waste the country at its pleasure. At an inquisition of the manor, taken in the year 1342, the value of the estates in Bradford had sunk to about one-half their previous amount. In a third survey made in 1361, on the death of Henry the first duke of Lancaster, there was some recovery, the fortune of war having again turned in favour of England, and invasion being no longer added to the waste of foreign war; but the effect of these sanguinary wars was long felt in this and every other part of the north of England.

As already mentioned, four earls or dukes of the royal house of Plantagenet held the lordship of Bradford, with the other estates which had belonged to the De Lacis in Yorkshire, before they became the property of the crown in the person of Henry of Bolingbroke, duke of Lancaster, afterwards King Henry IV. Inquiries supplying some information as to the nature and value of their estates in Bradford and elsewhere took place in the time of each earl or duke. The following are summaries of the information obtained at these inquisitions:-

In the year 1342 Bradford belonged to Henry, earl of Derby, afterwards duke of Lancaster. According to a valuation made that year, the manor included a messuage or manor-house, in ruins, worth 2s.; a certain meadow called the Halling, containing one acre, valued at 3s.; forty acres of land in demesne, 40s.; a wood of sixteen acres, 2s., and underwood, 1s. 8d.; pannage for the swine of the nativi (serfs); one fulling mill open (discoopta) to every house, valued beyond repairs at 8s., and held by William the Walker (or Fuller) and James the Walker for 10s.; also a corn mill sufficient for all the houses, which, exclusive of the cost of repairs, was valued at £6 6s. 8d. a year; the toll of the fair on the day of Saint Andrew the Apostle, £5 13s. 4d.; the perquisites of the court held every three weeks, 13s. 4d.; two sheriffs terms yearly, £1 13s. 4d.; fees on the marriage of female serfs, 13s. 4d.; also a parcel of land called Bolleshagh, containing thirty acres by estimation, besides ten at an inferior rent-10s.; sum total, £18 6s. 8d. Another inquisition as to the value of the lordship, was made in the year 1361. In that year Henry, duke of Lancaster, died at Leicester, leaving two daughters, Maude and Blanche, the younger of whom married John of Gaunt, the fourth son of King Edward III., first created Earl of Richmond, and afterwards Duke of Lancaster. An inquisition was taken on the estates of Duke Henry, at York, on Saturday, the Feast of St. George, 1361. In this inquest the jurors stated that there was at Bradford the site of one capital messuage, one acre and one rood of meadow, forty acres of demesne held by tenants-at-will, who paid 33s., at the feast of St. Martin, for the whole year; one water mill and one fulling mill, with the toll of market and fair, paying £12, at two equal terms; that the free tenants and the nativi or bondmen paid £11 4s. 6d.; that at Bradford, Stanbury, and Manningham the nativi paid £4 4s.; that the pannage or mast for feeding the hogs of the nativi yielded 24s.; that the herbage of Bradford Bank and Rohagh was worth 2s.; and that the perquisites of the courts, with the profits of the two sheriffs' turns or courts, were 40s. Mr. James says that Bradford Bank was the hill or bank to the north of the church, and that Rohagh was the same as the uninclosed wood mentioned in the extent, and a remnant of the wood recorded in Domesday Survey.

The last twenty years of Edward III. were comparatively prosperous, for he had vanquished all his enemies, had introduced Flemish manufactures into England, and had opened a great trade in wool with Flanders.

Amongst other acts of ownership performed at Bradford by John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, was the making or confirming of a grant of lands to John Northrop of Manningham, on condition of attending upon the duke and his successors when he or they passed through Bradford, and of remaining there for thirty days, armed with a spear and attended by a greyhound, receiving yeoman's board, namely, a penny (15d) for himself, and a halfpenny for his dog. The land was afterwards granted to the Rushworths of Horton.

The following is a copy of this curious grant:-

"Know all present and future that I, John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, have given and granted, and by this my present charter have confirmed, unto John Northrop of Manyngham, three messuages and six oxgangs of land, and sufficient common of pasture to the same belonging, in Manyngham aforesaid, lying and abutting there upon one brook, running between Manyingham and Horton on the south; upon one small brook called Bull-royd Syke on the west; on the north, between Manyngham and Heaton, to the height where the rain-water divides (aqua pluvialis dividit); and on the east upon one small brook called Shaw Syke, to the water which runneth by Bradford; with all and singular the liberties and easements in Manyingham aforesaid: to have and to hold the aforesaid three messuages and six oxgangs of land, with sufficient common to the same belonging and appertaining, with all the conveniences, to the aforesaid John Northrop, his heirs and assigns, of the chief lord of the fee thereof, by his services due and of right accustomed: rendering therefor yearly to me and my heirs, coming to Bradford, one blast with his horn (unum flatum cornu) upon St. Martin's day in winter, and attending upon me and my heirs, coming to Bradford from Blackburnshire, with one lance and hunting dog (cane venatico) for the space of forty days, having yeoman's board, one penny for himself, and a halfpenny for the dog, per day, and rendering as well one of his best cattle (averia), on the day of death for relief, and going with my receiver, or bailiff, to conduct him with his friends safe to Pontefract, whenever the same shall be faithfully required. And I truly, the aforesaid John of Gaunt, and my heirs, the aforesaid three messuages and six oxgangs of land, with sufficient common and all other the premises before mentioned, to the aforesaid John Northrop and his heirs, against all men will warrant and for ever defend. In witness whereof I have to this present writing put opposite my seal.-Dated at Lancaster, 4th of August, Edward III." Mr. James says, " The original horn," which was mentioned by Gough, the editor of Camden, "is now (1841) in the possession of Mr. Jonathan Wright." It is now (1873) owned by Sir Titus Salt, Bart., of Saltaire, near Bradford. It had, previous to coming into the hands of these gentlemen, been handed down from generation to generation, by the possessors of the Hunt Yard (part of the land in question). Since the time of Gough (who wrote about the middle of the last century), it had been reornamented with silver, and Mr. James says of it,, "It is one of the most beautiful specimens of ox horn that I have ever seen. Its colour is a dappled grey. The length on the outer side, from the tip to the end, is twenty- eight inches; the girth of the extremity at the wider end nine inches, tapering beautifully to the tip. This horn has connected with it many associations which are interesting to the inhabitants of Bradford. It is probably coeval with the origin of Bradford Arms, which without a shadow of doubt took their rise from the above- mentioned singular tenure. These arms are now, according to the current representation, Gules, a chevron or, between three bugle horns strung sable; crest, a boar's head erased-and evidently point at the slaying of the woody boar, and the blowing of the horn on Saint Martin's Day."

With regard to the custom of holding lands by the possession and the blowing of a horn, it is of extreme antiquity, and goes back to the time when the Angles and Saxons conquered this country. A considerable portion of the lands of York Minster were held by the possession of the horn of Ulphus, an ancient Anglian king of Deira or Northumbria. The date of this grant is about A.D. 700, but the horn of Ulphus is still amongst the treasures of the Minster. The horn of the Puseys is as old as the time of King Canute, and numerous cases of the tenure of lands by the blowing of a horn, on the arrival of the chief lord or his representative within a lordship, are given in Testa de Nevill, which, as already mentioned, was drawn up in the reign of John of Gaunt's ancestor, King Henry III. The object of this grant was to secure to the lord the personal attendance of a guard of his own military followers, in his journeys from his castles in Lancashire to his great castle at Pontefract. To insure this, it was required that they should come armed to the place of meeting, that they should remain thirty days on duty, and that they should be accompanied by a hunting-dog, for the purposes of sport. The latter was also a very frequent condition in ancient grants of land, and according to Domesday Book the whole of the lands between the river Ribble and the river Mersey were held by the tenants of the crown, on condition that they should attend the great hunting parties of the lord, who a few years before the Domesday Survey was King Edward the Confessor, as great a hunter as Nimrod himself, though not a hunter of men. John of Gaunt, and all the earls and dukes of Lancaster, entertained claims to the throne, which were finally carried out by Henry of Bolingbroke, and which required that they should always be sure of the assistance of their most warlike supporters. John of Gaunt himself had many knights and gentlemen in his pay, to some of whom he gave lands on mere nominal terms, and others of whom he paid by liberal grants of money. Thus Rankin of Ypres, in Flanders, received £10 a year, equal pro- bably to more than £100 a year of present money, on condition of supporting John of Gaunt in all his military undertakings; and that was no doubt the real object in the case of the grant of lands to John Northrop of Manningham and Bradford. These lands had previously been held by the payment of a money rent. King Edward III., in the thirty eighth year of his reign, granted to John of Gaunt, Blanche his wife, to their heirs, and to their tenants in Bradford, as part of their duchy of Lancaster (which included the whole of the estates that had belonged to the De Lacis), freedom from local tolls and charges on roads, bridges, and markets (known in that age as passage, pontage, and stallage), throughout England. This exemption continued in force for two or three centuries; for in the year 1690 the inhabitants of Bradford obtained letters patent, in which, after reciting the grants of Edward III. to John, duke of Lancaster, it was commanded "that our men and tenants, inhabitants of and resident of and within our manor of Bradford, in the county of York, parcel of our said duchy (of Lancaster), shall have, use, and exercise all the liberties in the above grant contained, according to the effect of the above-mentioned grants and statutes; and that they be not molested, provided that all and singular the aforesaid men and tenants do pay toll, pontage, lastage, &c., in all fairs, markets, and places within the said duchy, wherein the same hath heretofore been paid, as is just."* These exemptions were no doubt valuable when they were granted, but they lost their value in modern times. In the same age John of Gaunt granted the manor of Bradford to his son by Catherine Swinford, John de Beaufort, marquis of Dorset, one of his sons of doubtful legitimacy, from whom, however, Henry VII. was descended. In the twenty-first year of Richard II. this John de Beaufort obtained a grant, or rather a confirmation of the ancient right, to hold a fair at Bradford, on the eve and day of Saint Peter ad Vincula, and on the day next following, and to hold a market every Thursday.

Bradford an the hands of the Plantagenet Kings, 1399-1400 to 1482.- Bradford passed to Henry of Bolingbroke, son of John of Gaunt, and afterwards King Henry IV. of England, in the year 1399-1400, and no doubt shared in the miseries of the wars of York and Lancaster, which originated in the rival claims to the throne of two of the descendants of Edward III., the heads of the houses of York and Lancaster. These wars raged with little interruption for more than fifty years. At that time the house of York held nearly one-half of the West Riding of Yorkshire, including the towns of Wakefield and Halifax; and the house of Lancaster held the greater part of the other half, including Bradford and Leeds. In this county the Yorkists held all the estates that had belonged to the earls of Warren, of which Sandal castle, near Wakefield, and Coningsboro' castle, between Wakefield and Sheffield, were the chief feudal fortresses; and the house of Lancaster held those that had belonged to the De Lacis, earls of Lincoln, of which Pontefract and Tickhill castles were the chief places of strength. It is not certain that there was at that time any castle either at Leeds or at Bradford, a circumstance which may have kept the war in Yorkshire away from both, and caused it to spend its fury on Wakefield, York, and the intervening country. In the reign of King Edward IV., the great champion of the house of York, a charter was granted, or rather confirmed, to the people of Bradford, entitling them to hold a market every Thursday, and two fairs yearly.

Bradford in the Time of the Tudors.- At the close of the wars of York and Lancaster, Bradford, like most of the towns in the West Riding of Yorkshire, began to advance in prosperity, partly to the restoration of tranquillity at home, and partly to the opening of a great trade with Flanders, and the influx of large quantities of gold and silver from America, which country was discovered in the year 1492, seven years after Henry VII. gained the English throne by the battle of Bosworth Field, fought in the year 1485. In the reign of Henry VII. the fairs of Bradford had become very extensive. We are told in a bill filed in the Duchy Court of Lancaster by Sir Richard Tempest, John Rawson, John Bowett, Christopher Rawson, and others, in this reign, that there were at that time three fairs held at Bradford, of great resort by merchants, pedlars, chapmen, and the inhabitants of the surrounding country, but that such fairs were much less attended, and the town thereby greatly hurt, by reason of the excessive and unlawful toll demanded by the king's bailiff there. In another bill of a still earlier date, filed by the inhabitants of Manningham against John Clerk the king's auditor, the complainants stated that they or their ancestors had occupied certain oxgang land at 4s. 5d. (about £2 10s.), an oxgang (ten to twenty acres), for the space of 300 years, and had done several services, such as repairing the mill dam, and had carried great quantities of stone and other materials to repair the said dam; that they paid fines on heirships; "that they have hard fare and living;" and that John Clerk, the king's auditor, had put them out of their lands and increased their rents, as well freeholders as copyholders; that they had formerly had common of pasture, on the moors and commons adjoining to the town of Bradford, but that "the said auditor hath lately inclosed great part of them, and left little to the said tenants of Manningham."

We also obtain some further information as to the condition of Bradford, in the 9th Henry VII., 1493-94, from a bill filed in the Duchy Court of Lancaster by inhabitants of Bradford against William Bradford, otherwise Rawson, complaining of him, that he had built a fair place upon a piece of ground holden of the king by copy of court roll, after the custom of the manor of Bradford; that his son, John Bradford, was holding inquiries as to copyhold tenements held by the king, and that "there is now one Bryan Bradford, otherwise Rawson, who is clerk of the Court of Bradford and keeper of the court rolls, which Bryan is brother of the said John, and now has all the court rolls, and no tenant can get to them but by his license, and he may make all to his brother's advantage." By the formation of this family compact, which furnished the brothers with an opportunity of playing into each other's hands for their mutual interest, they certainly laid themselves open to suspicion, and the complaint of the inhabitants seems to have been well-founded. It is thus satisfactory to know that jobbing came within the range of the wisdom of our ancestors, just as instances of it occasionally turn up among their descendants, who in so many other things have profited by their lessons, and shown themselves true to the instincts of the race.

Leland's Account of Bradford.- Leland in his "Itinerary," published about 1536, in the reign of King Henry VIII., speaks of Bradford as an active, rising, town. He says:-
"Bradford [is] a pretty, quick, market town, dimidio autem amplius minus Wackefelda [one half or more less than Wakefield]. It hath one parish church, and a chapel of St. Sitha. It standeth much by clothing, and is distant six miles from Halifax and four miles from Christial Abbey (Kirkstall Abbey)." He further describes it as a quicker or more active town than Leeds. Leland speaks of the brooks which flow through Bradford, down Bradford Dale into the Aire, as follows:-
"There is a confluence in this toune (Bradford) of three brokes. One riseth above Bouline Haul (Bowling Hall), so that the head is a mile and a half from the town, and this at the town hath a bridge of one arche; another riseth a two mile off, having a mille and a bridge. The third riseth four miles off." James, in his "History of Bradford," says that the whole of these brooks are inconsiderable streams; but there can be no doubt that they supplied the water-power which was absolutely necessary for the working of the woollen mill erected there by the De Lacis, earls of Lincoln, in the time of the Plantagenet kings, and to which, as we are expressly informed, the whole of the burgesses and free tenants had access. Mr. James states that the first of these brooks is formed by rills rising in the Roughs and Park Side between Bowling and Bierley, and feeding the pond below Bowling Hall. The second brook, he states, has its source upon Bradford Moor. The third or main stream, known as Bradford Beck, rises at Bell Dean or Old Allen, in the township of Allerton. In the progress of the brook down Allerton valley, it receives several tributary streams and divides the townships of Allerton and Thornton, being called Allerton Beck. In its progress down to Bradford it is joined by Horton Beck, and running past Bradford it falls into the river Aire, at Shipley.
"None of the three streams, which unite at Bradford, have from ancient time had any definite appellation. At least, in the charters and old deeds this is not the case. Even the largest of them, in the early charters, is merely described as " the water which runneth from or through Bradford." Yet these streams were of great value both in ancient and in modern times, not merely in furnishing water-power for the infant manufactures of the town, but in supplying more recently the water, or a portion of it, for the Bradford Canal, which connected the town with the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, and conferred upon it the immense advantage of water-carriage, from near the end of the last century.

Bradford in the Great Civil War, 1640-1645.- Bradford, with Leeds, Halifax, and the clothing district of the West Riding, took a very active and determined part in the civil war between Charles I. and the Long Parliament, Bradford being the chief stronghold of that party, in the West Riding. None of those towns were then directly represented in Parliament, except as forming portions of the county constituency of Yorkshire; but they were already the chief places in the West Riding, and as such took a leading part in all public affairs. The Fairfaxes, the Lamberts, and other great parliamentary families of Yorkshire, several of which resided within a few miles of Bradford, were looked upon as the natural leaders of the people in that great contest, and led them to ultimate victory. At the beginning of the civil war, Sir Thomas Fairfax, the representative of a race of soldiers, and a man of dauntless courage and great military talent, assumed the command of the parliamentary party in the neighbourhood of Bradford; whilst his father, Fernando Lord Fairfax, was appointed governor of the fortress of Hull, and was recognized as the commander-in-chief for the Parliament, in all those parts of Yorkshire which upheld the authority of that assembly and resisted the demands of the king. Thus Hull was the head-quarters of Lord Fairfax, and Bradford the head-quarters of his much abler son, at the commencement of the civil war. But those places are more than sixty miles distant from each other, and it was with great difficulty that they kept up communications across the county, for they were constantly threatened by the royal army, under the marquis of Newcastle, whose head-quarters were at York; and for some time by the royalist garrisons at Leeds and Wakefield, as well as those in Sandal and Pontefract castles. Their chief line of communication, when they had one, was through Leeds and Selby; but on more than one occasion it was closed by the royalists, and it was never permanently secured until the spring of 1644, when the Scottish army advanced from the border, and joined the armies of the Fairfaxes, and those of Manchester and Cromwell, under the walls of York. From the beginning of the year 1643, to the middle of 1644, the parliamentary party in the West Riding was very severely pressed by the royalists. Both Bradford and Leeds were more than once taken, and the parliamentary forces were on one occasion driven back beyond Halifax to the borders of Lancashire. There they were joined and assisted by the parliamentary forces of Lancashire and Cheshire. In return for this service the parliamentary army of Yorkshire, under the command of Sir Thomas Fairfax, occasionally joined the parliamentary forces of Lancashire and Cheshire, and aided them in gaining some very considerable victories. Amongst those was the victory of Nantwich in Cheshire, in which the royal army, organized in Ireland by the earl of Strafford, brought over to Chester by Lord Byron, and aided by the royal forces of Cheshire, was completely defeated by the Yorkshire, Lancashire, and Cheshire parliamentary forces, under the chief command of Sir Thomas Fairfax. There it was that Fairfax and Monk first met; the former as commander of the victorious parliamentary army, the latter as a prisoner in the Irish army organized by Lord Strafford. Many years later they again met at York; and there arranged the restoration of Charles II.

At the beginning of the great civil war on the 9th of January, 1643, Sir Thomas Fairfax, being in command of the parliamentary forces near Bradford, wrote to his father, Lord Fairfax, then in command at Hull, a letter which shows the resolute spirit of the people of Bradford, and the surrounding district. "I am sure," he says, "I shall have 600 muskets if I summon the country to come in; besides 3000 and more (men) with other weapons, that would rise with us." The result showed that he was not mistaken; for the royalists, who had then possession of Leeds, having attacked the parliamentary forces at Bradford, the latter not only held their ground, but succeeded in repulsing the assailants, and opened a communication with Lord Fairfax and the Hothams at Hull. Sir Thomas Fairfax's narrative of the commencement of the civil war in this district is very interesting. He says: "The first action we had was at Bradford. We were about 300 men, the enemy 700 or 800, and two pieces of ordnance. They assaulted us; we drew out close to the town, to receive them. They had the advantage of the ground, the town being encompassed with hills, which exposed us more to their cannon, from which we received some hurt; but our men defended those passages by which they were to descend so well that they got no ground of us; and now the day being spent, they drew off and retired to Leeds. A few days after, Captain Hotham, with three troops of horse and some dragoons (from Hull and Selby), came to us. Then we marched to Leeds; but the enemy having notice of it, quitted the town, and in haste fled to York." Leeds, however, was not taken by Sir Thomas Fairfax without a resolute defence, in which the royalists were at length driven from the town with loss. We have already given an account of the storming of Leeds, by Fairfax, in the history of that town.

But the early triumphs of the Bradford parliamentarians did not last long. The superior numbers, discipline, and equipments of the king's army, 7000 to 8000 strong, under the command of the earl, afterwards marquis, of Newcastle (William Cavendish), proved too much for them; and the Yorkshire parliamentary army under Fairfax was totally defeated on Adwalton Moor, in Birstal parish, near both to Bradford and Leeds. After narrating his adventures at other points, Fairfax, in his " Short Memorial," proceeds to give the following account of his adventures at Bradford, after his defeat by Newcastle at Adwalton:-"The earl of Newcastle," he says, "spent three or four days in laying his quarters about the town of Bradford, and brought down his cannons, but needed not to raise batteries; for the hills, within half musket shot, commanded all the town. Being planted in two places, they shot furiously upon us, and made their approaches, which made us spend very much of our little store, being not above twenty-five or twenty-six barrels of powder, at the beginning of the siege. Yet the earl of Newcastle sent a trumpet to offer us conditions, which I accepted, so they were honourable for us to take and safe for the inhabitants. We sent two captains to treat with him, and agreed to a cessation of hostilities during that time, but he continued working still; whereupon I sent forth the commissioners again, suspecting a design of attempting something upon us. They returned not till eleven o'clock at night, and then with a slight answer. "The royalists had profited by this parley, to get their cannon into position near the heart of the town.

"Whilst they (the commissioners) were delivering the answer to us, we heard great shooting of cannon and muskets; all ran presently to the works, which the enemy was storming. Here for three quarters of an hour was very hot service, but at length they retreated. They made a second attempt; but were also beaten off. After this we had not above one barrel of powder left, and no match. I called the officers together, when it was advised and resolved to withdraw presently, before it was day, and to retreat to Leeds, by forcing a way, which we must do, for they had surrounded the town. Orders were despatched and speedily executed. The foot, commanded by Colonel Rogers, was sent out through some narrow lanes, and they were to beat up the dragoons' quarters, and so go on to Leeds. I myself, with some other officers, went with the horse, which were not above fifty, in a more open way. I must not here forget my wife, who ran the same hazard with us in this retreat, and with as little expression of fear; not from any zeal or delight in the war, but through a willing and patient suffering of this undesirable condition. I sent two or three horsemen before, to discover what they could of the enemy, who presently returned and told us there was a guard of horse close by us. Before I had gone forty paces, the day beginning to break, I saw them upon the hill above us, being about 300 horse. I, with some twelve more, charged them. Sir Henry Fowlis, Major-general Gifford, myself, and three more, brake through. Captain Mudd was slain, and the rest of our horse being close by, the enemy fell upon them and soon routed them, taking most of them prisoners, amongst whom was my wife; the officer, William Hill, behind whom she rid, being taken. I saw this disaster, but could give no relief; for after I was got through, I was in the enemy's rear alone." This high-spirited woman, who afterwards appeared in Westminster Hall to protest against the condemnation and execution of Charles I., was of the noble and warlike family of the De Veres. The marquis of Newcastle, a fine specimen of an English royalist, sent back Lady Fairfax to her husband in his own coach, accompanied by a lady of honour. "Those," continued Fairfax, " who had charged through with me went on to Leeds, thinking I had done so too; but I was unwilling to leave my company, and stayed there till I saw there was no more in my power to do, but to be taken prisoner with them. I then retired to Leeds. The like disaster fell among the foot, that went the other way by a mistake; for after they had marched a little way, the van fell into the dragoons' quarters, clearing their way; but through a cowardly fear, he that commanded these men being in the rear, made them face about and march again into the town, where the next day they were all taken prisoners; only eighty or thereabouts of the foot that got through came to Leeds, mounted on horses which they had taken from the enemy, where I found them when I came thither; which was some joy to them all, they concluding that I was either slain or taken prisoner. At Leeds I found all in great distraction; the [parliamentary] council of war newly risen, where [at which] it was resolved to quit the town and retreat to Hull, which was sixty miles off, many of the enemy's garrisons being in the way. This, in two hours after, was accordingly done [commenced], lest the enemy should presently send horse to prevent us; for they had fifty or sixty troops within three miles. But we got well to Selby, where there was a ferry, and hard by a garrison at Cawood, and so to Hull."

After Fairfax's retreat the people of Bradford were thrown into great terror, by a rumour that Newcastle had ordered his men to give only "Bradford quarter," that is, no mercy at all, to the inhabitants. The origin of the phrase, and supposed motive for the order, was the reported slaughter of a young royalist, said to be a son of Lord Newport, who on claiming quarter was stated to have been struck down by his assailant, a townsman, who exclaimed derisively, "I'll give you Bradford quarter." The murderer of Lord Newport's son, if such a person existed, deserved to be shot; but the earl of Newcastle was much too noble-spirited a man to destroy the population of a whole town, to punish a single crime. Lord Newcastle's purpose, says a popular legend, was changed by a spiritual visitation at his lodgings at Bowling Hall. A figure appeared, and saying, "Pity poor Bradford ! pity poor Bradford!" kept pulling the clothes off his bed, until he had reversed his orders. This story must have been invented by some credulous person, incapable of appreciating mercy and generosity in an enemy. The earl of Newcastle, Sir Thomas Fairfax, Sir Ralph Hopton (another distinguished Yorkshire royalist), and General Lambert, were all noble specimens of the race of English gentlemen, some of the royalist, others of the parliamentary party. We may say of them in the words of Shakspeare, that in the great civil war-
" Naught did they in hate, but all in honour."
Besides the disheartening loss of his wife, Sir Thomas Fairfax had to encounter the greatest difficulties in getting his little daughter, afterwards (unfortunately for herself) duchess of Buckingham, to a place of safety. He was wounded by a musket ball in the wrist, was without food and in the saddle for some forty- eight hours, and saw his child swoon several times from fatigue and privation, before he was able, mangled and exhausted as he was, to place her in security in Hull. His wife was restored to him in a few days, the duke of Newcastle having, as already stated, sent her back in his own coach, attended by a maid of honour. Besides Fairfax's "Short Memorial," there are three rare and curious tracts that illustrate this period of the history of Bradford. They are entitled respectively:-"The Rider on the White Horse [Sir Thomas Fairfax] and his Army, their late good success in Yorkshire; or a true and faithful relation of that famous and wonderful victory at Bradford, obtained by the clubmen there, with all the circumstances thereof; and of the taking of Leeds and Wakefield by the same men," &c.; "The Autobiography of Joseph Lister of Bradford, in Yorkshire; " "A true Relation of the Passages at Leeds, on Monday the 23rd January, 1642-43." A volume containing copies of these tracts was published, in London, in 1842; but Fairfax's truthful and modest history of the events is the most reliable of all the accounts of these spirit-stirring times. An excellent account of these and all the other great events in his history will be found in Clement Markham's "Life of the Great Lord Fairfax," published in the year 1871, in which justice is done to that noble patriot and most gallant and able soldier.

After the great victory of the parliamentary armies on Marston Moor, in July, 1644, the triumph of the parliamentary cause was complete in Yorkshire, except behind the almost impregnable walls of Pontefract Castle, the ancient abode of the De Lacis, and in Scarborough and some other strong castles, where small bodies of the Yorkshire royalists made most gallant but unsuccessful struggles against the victorious armies of Fairfax and Cromwell. Fairfax was alike opposed to the execution of Charles I. and to the military tyranny of Oliver Cromwell. Had it been possible either to trust the king or control the Protector, the great civil war might have ended as happily as the Revolution of 1688; and in that case a second revolution would not have been necessary to secure such institutions as those under which this country has long been so happy, free, and prosperous. After the death of Cromwell the people of Yorkshire consented to receive Charles II. as their king; but when he and his brother, James II., had shown their determination to govern in defiance of laws and of Parliament, they joined Lords Danby, Fairfax, and the leading gentlemen of Yorkshire, in again deposing the house of Stewart. But they did not receive what they had every right to ask (the right of returning members to Parliament), until long afterwards, in the year 1832, when it was given to them, together with all the other great towns of the kingdom.

Progress of Bradford from the Great Civil War, 1644, to the Accession of King George III;, 1760.- The progress of population and industry in the town of Bradford was steady, but not rapid, during this long period. The persevering industry of the inhabitants, and the abundant supplies of water-power, of coal, and of building stone found in the neighbourhood, maintained Bradford in its position as one of the great manufacturing towns of the West Riding, but did not enable it to advance at much more than the tenth part of the rate, judging from the increase of the population, that has been witnessed during the present century. Bradford must have been a town of at least 5000 to 6000 inhabitants at the time of the great civil war, say in the year 1644; but did not more than double its population in the next hundred years. It can scarcely have had more than 10,000 inhabitants at the accession of George III. in the year 1760, as it had only 13,264 at the census of 1801.

During the whole of that period Bradford suffered from two great evils. In the first place it had no water communication, by navigable river or canal, with the other towns standing on the Yorkshire coal-field, or with the more distant parts of the kingdom, including the two great seaports of Hull and Liverpool, through which it now draws a considerable portion of its most valuable materials of industry, and by which it diffuses its numerous and beautiful manufactures over the surface of the globe. In this respect Bradford was in that age much less favourably situated than Leeds, which obtained the advantages of water carriage, by the navigable river Aire, about the year 1700. This was nearly seventy years before Bradford had water carriage of any kind.

Another very great disadvantage under which Bradford suffered during the period above mentioned was that it had no representation of its inhabitants, either in the Parliament of the United Kingdom or in any town council or other public body, speaking their opinions and capable of carrying out their wishes and directing the public expenditure. When the sagacious Daniel Defoe travelled through Yorkshire, about the year 1725, he remarked that the town of Wakefield, though containing a population which was then estimated to be nearly as great as the population of the city of York, had no local government, except that of a constable appointed by the lord of the manor as in any country village. The same observation would at that time have applied to Bradford, Halifax, Huddersfield, and Dewsbury, and indeed to Manchester and Birmingham. All these towns grew up into manufacturing and commercial greatness without any local government worth mentioning; and that is the principal reason why many things connected with the public health and comfort, and even with the industrial prosperity of those places, which now form the legitimate and most important duty of their municipal governments, were then neglected. The general laws of the country, which were free and good, produced an independent and high-spirited people; but in local administration almost every one did what seemed good in his own eyes, without regard to the general interests of the community amongst which he dwelt. Leeds and Sheffield were the only large manufacturing towns of the West Riding that possessed even moderately good local governments, previous to the passing of the Municipal Boroughs Act in the reign of William IV.

Daniel Defoe's Account of Bradford.- The best account that we have of Bradford in this age is contained in Daniel Defoe's "Tour through the Whole Island of Great Britain, by a Gentleman," published in the year 1727. That most sagacious observer and admirable describer of life and manners, made three long tours on horseback through Yorkshire, in the course of which he carefully examined every thing of interest in the large manufacturing towns of the West Riding, as well as in the city of York, the port of Hull, and the agricultural and pastoral districts of the county. He says, "In my first journey I came only west from York to Wakefield, and then turning south by Barnsley and Doncaster, went away still south to Rotherham, Sheffield, Chesterfield, Chatsworth, and the Peak. In the second journey I came out of the western part of England, namely from Cheshire through Lancashire, and passing east over those Andes of England called Blackstone Edge, and the mountains which, as I stated before, part Yorkshire and Lancashire, and reach from the High Peak (of Derbyshire) to Scotland, I came to Halifax, Bradford, Huddersfield, Leeds, Wetherby, Pontefract, and Borough Bridge, and so went away into the East Riding. The third journey I went from the Peak in Derbyshire again, and traversing the same country as I returned by in the first journey, as far as Wakefield, went on again north to Leeds, and thence over Harwood [Harewood] Bridge to Knaresborough Spaw [Harrogate], thence to Ripon, and through that old Roman streetway called Leeming Lane, to Pierce Bridge, thence to Durham, and so into Scotland." "If," says Defoe, "by all these circuits, and traversing the country so many ways, which I name for reasons above, I am not furnished to give a particular account of the most remarkable things, I must have spent my time very ill, and ought not to let you know how often I went through it." Describing the manufacturing district of the West Riding generally, Defoe observes:-"As the Calder river runs by Halifax, Huddersfield, and through Wakefield, so the Aire runs by Skipton, Bradford, and through Leeds, and then joins the Calder at Castleford Bridge, near Pontefract, so in a united stream forming that useful navigation, from this trading part of Yorkshire to Hull, to the infinite advantage of the whole county, and which as I took a singular satisfaction in visiting and inquiring into, so I believe you will be no less delighted in reading the account of it, which will be many ways both useful and very instructive." At the period described by Defoe, he says "that the kersey and shalloon trade was confined to Halifax, and the towns, already named, of Huddersfield and Bradford." In making his journey from Halifax to Leeds he remarked that everywhere, to the right hand and the left, the country appeared busy, diligent, and even in a hurry of work, though they [the people] were not scattered and dispersed as in the parish of Halifax, where the houses stand one by one, but in villages; those villages large, full of houses, and those houses thronged with people; for [as he adds] the whole county is infinitely populous. All this part of the county is so considerable for its trade, that the post-master-general has thought fit to establish a cross-post through all the western part of England into it, to maintain the correspondence of merchants and men of business, of which all this side of the island is so full. This cross post leaves Plymouth in the south-west part of England, and ends at Hull, passing through Bristol, Gloucester, Shrewsbury, and Chester, to Liverpool, and then through Manchester, Bury, Rochdale, Halifax (Bradford), Leeds, and York."

Making of the Lancashire and Yorkshire, or Leeds and Liverpool, Canal.- But it was not until the year 1768, the 9th George III., that the grand project of forming a navigable canal through Yorkshire and Lancashire, from Leeds to Liverpool, running within three miles of Bradford, and joining the Aire and Calder Navigation, so as to give that town access to most of the great towns of Yorkshire and Lancashire and the ports of Hull and Liverpool, was originated. Scarcely ten years had then elapsed since the new plans of construction, of the great Brindley had been tried on the duke of Bridgewater's and the Staffordshire canals, and had shown that it was possible to carry navigable canals, by means of locks and tunnels, over or through hills of considerable height. The project of forming this canal was eagerly taken up by the inhabitants of Bradford, to whom it supplied the greatest of all requisites for their further prosperity; namely, a connection with the interior, and with the western and eastern coasts of England, by the cheapest of all modes of transport, water carriage. On the 30th December, 1768, the following announcement was published in the Liverpool and Yorkshire newspapers:-"Whereas at two numerous meetings, in pursuance of announcements of the public papers, of the gentlemen, merchants, landowners, and others of the county of York, held at Bradford, the 5th of this instant December, and of the county of Lancaster, held at Liverpool, the 9th, called to receive and consider Mr. Brindley's report of his survey of the proposed navigable canal from Leeds to Liverpool, it was unanimously agreed that the said canal is very practicable, and will be of great public utility, and application should be made to Parliament, in the present session, for leave and power to effect the same. A meeting is therefore desired of the nobility, gentlemen, merchants, landowners, manufacturers, and others, who are disposed to promote this most beneficial undertaking-for the county of York, at the Sun Inn, Bradford, on Monday the 9th day of January next; and for the county of Lancaster, at the Exchange in Liverpool, on the same day-when and where a subscription will be opened upon the following scheme [terms], being nearly the same as those of the Staffordshire, Coventry, and other canals, for which Acts have been lately obtained: namely, that the power be vested in a company under the name of the proprietors of the Yorkshire and Lancashire Canal; that the capital sum be divided into shares of £100, and each subscriber have a vote for every share he is possessed of, but no person to be allowed more than 100 shares; that such shares be made personal estate and transferable as such; that the money subscribed be made payable by different calls or instalments; that no call shall exceed ten per cent. at one time, and between every call there shall be at least an interval of three months; that an interest of £5 per cent. be regularly paid at a stated day in every year, to attend the sum advanced upon every call; and that when the whole navigation is completed, every proprietor shall become entitled to a proportion of the full profits of the shares he is possessed of."*

The progress of that part of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal which extends from the neighbourhood of Bradford up the valley of the Aire to Bingley, and down that valley to Leeds, was very rapid, and that also was the case with the part of the line extending from the Lancashire coal-field, at Wigan, to the town and port of Liverpool; but it took many years to complete the middle part of the line, across the hills of Yorkshire and Lancashire. The portion of the work between Bradford and Bingley was opened on the 21st March, 1774, and was considered to be the greatest work of the kind that had ever been effected in that part of England. "From Bingley, and about three miles down the valley of the Aire," says a writer of that age, "the noblest works of the kind that perhaps are to be found in the universe are exhibited-namely, a five-fold, a three-fold, a two-fold, and a single lock, making together a fall of 120 feet; a large aqueduct bridge of seven arches over the river Aire; and an aqueduct on a large banking (embankment) over Shipley valley. On the day on which this part of the canal was opened five loaded boats passed the grand lock, the first of which descended through a fall of sixty-six feet in less than twenty-nine minutes. This much wished for event was welcomed with ringing of bells, a band of music, the firing of guns by the neighbouring militia, the shouts of spectators, and other marks of public rejoicing." In the same year, 1774, on the 19th of October, the Lancashire end of the canal from Wigan to Liverpool was opened with equal rejoicing at Liverpool, Wigan, and all along the line. But the progress of some portion of the works was very slow, owing partly to the great difficulties of the country, and partly to the imperfect engineering skill of that age. It was not until the year 1796 that the Leeds and Liverpool Canal was finally completed, on Tuesday the 9th of May. On that day the grand tunnel on the Leeds and Liverpool Canal at Foulridge, between Colne and Burnley, was opened. Its length was 1630 yards, and it took five years to complete it. The rejoicings on that occasion were very general and lively. From that time water carriage through this part of England was fully established-a circumstance which had a great effect in advancing the progress of all the towns along the line, and of the whole district extending from Bradford to Hull on one side of the island, and from Bradford to Liverpool on the other. The reduction in the cost of transport, which followed on the substitution of water carriage for land carriage, was equal to about four-fifths of the whole amount: that is to say, for a hundred miles the reduction in the cost of conveying a ton of goods was from about £5 to £1. This was the case even in the more level districts of England, but in the more hilly and mountainous districts it was very much greater; and thus many branches of trade which could not previously be carried on with much profit, and some which could not be carried on at all, began to extend-at a rate never before witnessed. At that time the chief supplies of foreign wool were imported into Hull, and the chief supplies of cotton into Liverpool, both of which ports were brought into cheap and easy communication with Bradford and Leeds, by the opening of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal. Alpaca and some other of the finer textile materials, since brought into use at Bradford, were then unknown in England. The Bradford Canal, connecting that town with the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, was opened in the year 1774. It commenced at Bradford, and extending along the east side of Bradford Dale, joined the Leeds and Liverpool Canal at Shipley. Its length was three miles, with a rise from the Leeds and Liverpool Canal of eighty-six and a quarter feet, effected by means of ten locks. The locks were of the same dimensions as those of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, namely, sixty-six feet in length, and fifteen feet two inches in width. The depth of water was five feet. At the time when the Act of Parliament for forming the Bradford Canal was obtained, the subscribers consisted of twenty-eight persons, who were incorporated by the name of "The Company of Proprietors of the Bradford Navigation." They were empowered to raise among themselves £6000, in sixty shares of £100 each. The works were not to commence till the whole sum was raised; and if more capital should be required, they were empowered to raise an additional sum of £3000, by the admission of new subscribers. In order to obtain a better supply of water, the proprietors were obliged to buy up mills and land contiguous to the banks, and so to increase by calls the price of their shares to £250 each. After sixty to eighty years of the greatest public usefulness, during which time the population and buildings of Bradford increased more than ten fold, an injunction in chancery was obtained against the proprietors of the Bradford Canal, compelling them either to let the water off, or to fill the canal with pure water. As they could not see their way to get a sufficient supply of pure water, the canal was allowed to run dry in 1867, and it remained unused for five years. But eventually a new company was formed; the canal from Northbrook Street, Bradford, to Shipley, was purchased and supplied with pure water, was thoroughly repaired, and partially re-opened on the 1st of May, 1872. New wharves were constructed at the Bradford end, and on April 15, 1873, the canal was once more in full working order. The supply of water is derived from streams flowing from the adjacent hills, and by pumping water from other sources where a pure service can be obtained. The scheme is expected to prove highly remunerative in the conveyance of heavy materials. The old bed of the canal at Bradford has been filled up, and several streets formed through it. The new company expended £25,000 in the purchase and repair of the navigation, and in the construction of wharves. On Easter Tuesday, 1873, the Enterprise, a screw steamer, sailed up the canal from Shipley to Bradford, in the presence of a large concourse of people, this being the first steamer that had ever reached Bradford. The new works were constructed under the superintendence of Mr. W. B. Woodhead, of Bradford.

Progress of Bradford to the End of the Eighteenth (Century).-The forming of this great line of water communication in the neighbourhood of Bradford, giving it cheap and easy transport at home and with distant countries; the constructing of numerous turnpike roads; James Watt's great improvement of the steam-engine; and Arkwright's and Hargreaves' inventions of spinning machinery, applicable to worsted and wool as well as to cotton-gave a great impulse to the progress of the trade of Bradford in the last thirty years of the eighteenth century. The Piece Hall of Bradford was erected in the year 1773, just before the commencement of the American war of Independence. Previous to that time the small manufacturers, from the out districts, attending the Bradford markets, resorted with their goods to a popular public house, the White Lion Inn, where their customers, the merchants, met and dealt with them. As trade increased a want was felt, which only the erection of a Piece Hall could satisfy, and a large and, for the times, commodious hall was raised by subscription. This hall was about fifty yards in length by eleven broad, the lower room being divided into two by a brick wall running from one end of the building to the other. Against this wall were fixed about 100 show-boards for the display of goods, with closets to store them, which were at first reserved for the original subscribers to the edifice, and were used by them as a safe place of deposit for their goods from market to market. The upper room was also closeted for the convenience of non-subscribers who had to pay rent for the use of the closets. "Hither," says Mr. James, writing so late as the year 1841, "are brought great numbers of pieces of different kinds, besides worsted tops and gross yarns, which are exposed to sale every market day. This is on Thursday, precisely at ten in the morning, when a bell, hung in the cupola for the purpose, announces the opening of the market. It lasts till half past eleven, when the same bell announces the close of business. At two in the afternoon of the same day the market is again opened, for the sale of worsted tops and gross yarn, being finally closed at half past three, by ringing of bell." There is no Piece Hall now. The premises are used for other purposes, and manufacturers have either warehouses or piece rooms in different parts of the town. These piece-rooms are now rely numerous; and the warehouses of the merchants are palatial in size and appearance.

Introduction of Steam-power into Bradford.- About twenty years after the perfecting of Watt's steam-engine, in the year 1793 Mr. Buckley, a spirited manufacturer at Bradford, proposed to introduce steam-power into his mill, but he was deterred from doing so by a threat of an action at law on the part of some very respectable, but not very far-seeing inhabitants of the town, on the ground that the smoke from the engine furnace would be a nuisance. Five years later, in 1798, Messrs. Ramsbotham, Swaine, and Murgatroyd, proved more resolute, and saw their new building raised, and a steam-engine set up within it, in spite of all opposition. This was the commencement of a new era in the history of Bradford.

The Ironworks near Bradford.- One of the most important results of establishing cheap water carriage between Bradford, London, Liverpool, Hull, and other parts of the kingdom, was to bring into use the rich mineral ores existing in this neighbourhood. The extensive ironworks of Bowling were commenced before the canal was altogether completed. In the year 1789 a partnership was formed between John Sturges the elder, of Wakefield, John Sturges the younger, of Bowling (or Bolling) Hall, Richard Paley, of Leeds, Richard Sturges, of Datchett (Bucks), and John Elwell, of Fall-Ing, in Sandal Magna, near Wakefield, for carrying on the business of iron-founders, at Bowling and Fall-Ing, for forty years. The foundry at Bowling was erected on land purchased of Madam Rawson, of Bradford, and her son Benjamin. In 1792 this partnership was dissolved, so far as John Elwell was concerned; and in the year 1800 another and more numerous partnership was formed for carrying on the Bowling Ironworks.* The works eventually passed into the hands of a limited liability company, and in 1873 were conducted with great vigour. The manufacture of steel was prosecuted in conjunction with that of iron, the works being largely extended. Nothing but the best quality of iron is made at Bowling, and the early fame obtained by the Bowling iron has been maintained by the new proprietors. About the same time, namely, in the year 1788, the manor and mansion of Royds Hall were purchased by Messrs. Hird, Dawson, Jarratt, and Hardy, for the sum of £34,000. The land was then worth between £800 and £900 a year, and the colliery was valued at £950 a year. The proprietors of the Low Moor Ironworks are the present lords of the manor of Royds. The Bierley Ironworks were commenced shortly after 1800, when the coal and ironstone under the estates of Miss Currer, of Bierley Hall, were leased to Henry Leah, Esq. and others, for a term of forty-six years. After the death of Mr. Leah the Bierley Ironworks were purchased by the Low Moor Company, and in 1873 were still in their possession. Mr. James, in mentioning the commencement, observes that it is well known that the eminent success of this undertaking was in a great measure due to the able management of Mr. Leah. Writing on the same subjects in the year 1841, Mr. James observes, that "for half a century Royds Hall had been the residence of the Dawsons. Joseph Dawson, Esq., one of the first proprietors of the Low Moor Ironworks, the father of the present possessor, was the intimate friend of Dr. Priestley; and what is worthy of observation, part of the apparatus is yet at Royds Hall, with which that great philosopher made his discoveries respecting the qualities of air and the phenomena of electricity."* Mr. G. N. Smythe, who was connected with the works, resided at Royds Hall in 1873. The Dawson family had removed to Wharfedale. In that year the works had been largely extended, the concern had not changed hands, and the business was prospering. It may be mentioned, in connection with this proprietary, that at one time three members of the firm occupied seats in Parliament. The late Mr. H. W. Wickham sat for Bradford, Mr. John Hardy for Dartmouth, and the Right Hon. Gathorne Hardy for Oxford University.

Bradford at the Commencement of the Nineteenth:- A growth of Bradford, from the position of a town of 13,000 inhabitants to that of a great city, commenced with the discoveries and undertakings above named, and may be dated from the beginning of the present century. In 1803, although it did not then contain more than from 14,000 to 15,000 inhabitants, the advancing ing progress of the town was both shown and promoted by the passing of an Act of Parliament, to provide for the purposes of cleansing, lighting, and watching. There being then no town council, a body of commissioners was appointed to superintend the carrying out of the Act. But the town was lighted with oil lamps until the year 1822, when the Bradford Gaslight Company was formed. Beginning with 600 shares, value £25 each, the company in little more than twenty years had increased its capital three-fold. The price charged at one time for the gas was as much as 11s. 6d. for 1000 feet, a quantity for which not more than 3s. was paid in 1872. The company have three stations; in Mill Street, Thornton Road, and at Valley Road, respectively. But in the year 1871 the Gaslight Company was dissolved, the Corporation purchasing the shares, plant, and other rights of the company, for the sum of £210,000. The Corporation bought an estate at Bowling in 1872, with the view of erecting new works. Power was obtained, in the Bradford Improvement Act, 1873, to borrow £50,000 for the extension of the gasworks.

Bradford Fifty Years ago.- When Bradford was described rather more than fifty years ago by the first Edward Baines, he stated that the town was pleasantly situated at the junction of three beautiful and extensive valleys; that it was built almost entirely of stone; that the soil was dry, the air sharp and salubrious, and the annual mortality not much exceeding one in fifty. Worsted stuffs, he stated, formed the staple manufacture of the town and neighbourhood; but broad and narrow cloths, wool-cards, and combs, were also made here to a considerable extent, and the cotton trade from Lancashire had found its way into the district. No manufacturing town in England had then suffered so little from the depression of trade as Bradford. In war and in peace it had been alike prosperous, and within the preceding ten years the population of the town had increased by 5297 persons. At that time most of the business was done in the Piece Hall, which was attended not merely by the manufacturers of the town itself, but by numerous others from the neighbouring towns and villages of Allerton, Apperley Bridge, Baildon, Bierley (East and North), Bingley, Birkenshaw, Bolton, Bowling, Bradley Mills, Bramhope, Burley, Burley Wood Head, Calverley, Clayton, Coley, Cottingley, Cullingworth, Denholme, Eccleshill, Eldwick, Esholt, Frizinghall, Fulneck, Guiseley, Halifax, Harden, Haworth, Heaton, Hipperholme, Horton (Great and Little), Idle, Keighley, Lightcliffe, Manningham, Morton, Northowram, Oakenshaw, Otley, Ovenden, Pot Ovens, Rawden, Shelf, Shipley, Stanningley, Sutton, Thornton, Tong, Wibsey, Wike, Wilsden, Windhill, Wrenthorp, and Yeadon.

Manufactures of Bradford.- An account of the rise and progress of the worsted trade of Bradford from the earliest times to the year 1868 will be found in the first volume of this work, pages 673 to 696. It will be seen from that account that the trade has become centred in Bradford, which is justly styled the "metropolis of the worsted trade." In addition to worsted fabrics the Bradford merchants, especially those engaged in the foreign trade, transact a large and increasing business in woollen goods. Linen yarns are also merchantmen in Bradford. One of the largest silk mills in the country is in course of erection at Manningham, by Messrs. Lister & Co., on a scale of size and splendour rarely seen in manufacturing establishments, and not even surpassed by the remarkable works at Saltaire, already described. Mr. S. C. Lister, the improver of the woolcombing machine, which has done so much to meet the wants of the trade of Bradford, not satisfied with his efforts in this direction, turned his attention to the manufacture of silk and velvet. After spending some of the best years of his life in experiments, he was at length successful in perfecting machines for the manufacture of these goods, which enabled him speedily to realize all that he had attempted. He then commenced the building of a new mill at Manningham, designed by Messrs. Andrews and Pepper, covering nearly eleven acres, the cost of which, when completed, will not be less than half a million sterling. A new town has risen round the works; and as the buildings stand on high ground, and are crowned by a chimney of great size, height, and even beauty, Manningham Mills form one of the most conspicuous objects in Bradford. Reckoning the several stories of the mill and warehouse, they give a total extent of flooring of about sixteen acres. A portion of these works, where the velvet manufacture is carried on by the aid of a new power-loom, has been in operation for some years.

The manufacture of silk and velvet promises to become an important part of the future trade of Bradford. The Chamber of Commerce, established in 1851, has been the means of great service to the trade of Bradford and the worsted district generally. Its operations are described in another part of this work. That district now extends for several miles round the town in every direction, and as far as Colne and Nelson, in Lancashire. All the manufacturing firms in the worsted district have market rooms in Bradford.

The Steam-Power of Bradford.- We have seen that the steam-engine was first introduced into Bradford in the year 1798. The steam-engine thus planted, though only of fifteen horse-power, was the first of a numerous host, and the creator of many new forms of industry in the town. In 1819 the steam- engines employed in mill-work in Bradford and its immediate neighbourhood, had increased to 492 horse-power; in 1830 to 1047; in 1841 to upwards of 2058; and it appears by the latest return, that the three factories which stood in the town in 1800 have multiplied until the number reached in 1872 was 186, and the strength of steam 5176 horse-power. But this return is supposed to be very incomplete, and much below the amount of the steam-power in use at present. Statistical information respecting the position of the worsted trade, except in the export department, and that is a mere declaration of values, is very difficult to obtain. The Bradford Chamber of Commerce has urged the importance of correct data being yearly registered of the state and position of the various departments; but up to 1873 nothing of this kind, which it is very desirable should be done regularly, had been attempted in the worsted trade. The number of persons employed has increased proportionately with the machinery, and the annual produce of all their labour, if judged by its sale alone, has advanced in the present century from about 150,000 pieces to upwards of 3,000,000 a year. Saltaire alone finds work for 4000 people. The staple stuffs of Bradford are manufactured from long wool, as cloth is made from short wool. These worsted goods go into the markets of the world, under various shapes, colours, and names. There are merinos, Saxony cloths, shalloons, moreens, Orleans cloth, figured crapes, and alpacas. Bradford also supplies most of the worsted yarn required by other manufacturers in the several trades peculiar to Nottingham, Huddersfield, Kidderminster, Rochdale, Paisley, and Glasgow. The town is not without its cotton mills, dye-houses, cloth factories, and machine-making establishments; but worsted is its main production. Its success in industry has drawn into its bosom wealthy merchants from Leeds, Liverpool, and Manchester, and there are also many German merchants, owning some of the largest and richest concerns in the borough, who contribute to the progress of the town, and are ever ready to participate in any public enterprise that promises advantage or improvement to their fellow townsmen.

Value of the Trade of Bradford.- It is due to these gentlemen to state, that they were among the pioneers in the erection of the magnificent stuff warehouses which are so great an ornament to Bradford. Mr. Leo Schuster, an enterprising merchant of Manchester, was the founder of the first foreign stuff concern in the town. This firm existed in 1873 as Messrs. Leo Schuster, Brothers, & Co., and occupied one of the largest and handsomest warehouses in the city, at the corner of Leeds Road and George Street. About 1836 Mr. Schuster gave what was then thought an extravagant price for about 1000 yards of land, fronting to Charles Street and Brook Street, paying 30s. a yard for the land fronting to the former street, and 20s. for the latter, and expending between £7000 and £8000 in the erection of the first foreign stuff warehouse. This erection was the forerunner of the grand piles of buildings now occupied by the Bradford merchants. Mr. Schuster's old warehouse in Charles Street was to be sold in May, 1873, and was valued at £20 a yard. The principal firm of home stuff merchants in Bradford in 1824- said by some persons to be the only one in the town at that period-was Messrs. T. & J. Mann, who had their place of business in Mann Yard, Kirkgate, occupied in 1873 by Messrs. T. Arton & Co. The late Mr. Robert Milligan, founder of the firm of Milligan, Forbes, & Co., the owners of the largest warehouse in the town in 1873, had in 1824 a retail draper's shop in Kirkgate, and he also sold goods wholesale, having a small warehouse in the Talbot Hotel Yard. Mr. Milligan began life in Bradford as a travelling draper, and died one of the wealthiest men in the town. In 1834 there were twelve stuff merchants in Bradford, but in 1873 the number had increased to 252, and in addition to these there were a large number of commission agents connected with the worsted trade. We have it on the authority of gentlemen of eminent position in Bradford, who have been in business there from their youth upwards, and have entered into careful calculations on the subject, that an approximate estimate of the total value of the business transacted in the year 1872, in the warehouses of the home and foreign merchants, amounted to between £40,000,000 and £50,000,000 sterling. To this amount will have to be added some millions in value of goods sent from the Bradford district by manufacturers to other places, and which are not merchanted in Bradford. Mr. Jacob Behrens, an excellent authority, informs us that when he came to reside near Bradford, early in the present century, the value of the trade done in the warehouses of the town in one year did not exceed £300,000. Stuff goods were in those days manufactured in Bradford, and were purchased by merchants in Leeds and other places. The total estimated value of the wool grown in the United Kingdom, consumed in the worsted district in 1872, was £11,112,500. The import of colonial wool into Bradford in 1872 was estimated to amount to from 80,000 to 100,000 bales, and the value of the wool consumed in the district in the same year would be from £2,250,000 to £2,500,000. In the same period the value of mohair imported into Bradford was estimated at £1,000,000, and that of alpaca at from £450,000 to £500,000, all consumed in the district. In 1872 the aggregate value of cotton warps consumed in the Bradford trade was calculated to amount to £5,000,000, and there was also a comparatively small but growing demand for China grass for manufacturing purposes. It must be distinctly understood that these estimates are approximate. They have all been prepared by leading merchants in the several departments, who have kindly obliged the author with the results of their calculations, and the estimates are believed to be rather under than over the mark.

The Water- Works of Bradford.- Although surrounded with rills and streams, Bradford long continued to be ill supplied with water, chiefly from the want of a proper local government to provide for the increasing wants of a large town. An Act of Parliament was passed in 1842, which authorized the forming of a joint stock company to supply the town with water. The company drew their supply from an excellent spring at Manywells, in the Hewenden valley. The water was conveyed to two storage reservoirs at Chellow Dean, and was supplied to Bradford from the service reservoir at Whetley Hill. This supply was found insufficient for the wants of the town. The Corporation applied to Parliament and obtained an Act in 1854 authorizing them to purchase the works of the company, and to take over a new scheme for which the company had secured an Act, to obtain a supply of water from the watersheds of the rivers Aire and Wharfe. The sum of £215,000 was paid by the Corporation for the entire undertaking. "The result of these exertions," says Mr. James, "was the formation of the New Bradford Water-works, which constitute one of the mightiest triumphs of this engineering age, and surpass the greatest of the famous aqueducts which supplied imperial Rome with water. From the chief feeder at Hebden, near Grassington, to Bradford, the works extend twenty-four miles, intersecting deep glens, crossing high mountains, and piercing the hills by many miles of tunnel. Difficulties of no ordinary magnitude had to be surmounted in completing the work [and it is not even now, 1873, completed], on account of the rugged nature of the country, and the porous quality of the strata on which the reservoirs rest." The supply of water is, however, abundant, and of the best quality both for manufacturing and domestic purposes. There are on this line of service the compensation reservoir at Grimwith, and the reservoirs of Parden (storage, unfinished), Chelker (storage), Silsden (compensation), and Heaton (service for the town). Subsequently the Corporation extended their works into the watersheds of the Hewenden valley. They constructed Stubden storage reservoir on Thornton Moor, at an elevation of about 1030 feet above sea-level, to supply the population residing on the high levels round Bradford, 600 and 800 feet above the sea. They also formed Doe Park compensation reservoir on Stubden beck, and afterwards the Brayshaw service reservoir at Orion Bank Top, to increase the high-level supply. Another large storage reservoir at Orion Bank was in course of construction in 1873, and it was intended to make one on Thornton Moor, above Stubden. In addition to these immense works, a stone conduit, strong and massive as the work of the Romans, was being carried underneath Thornton Moor into the Oceans or Worth valley, where, at Leeming and Leeshaw, two compensation reservoirs were being made. The Corporation possess powers to make five more service reservoirs-at Stairs and Shady Bank, at the head of the Worth Valley; at Thornton Moor, and at Bowling and Bunker's Hill, near Bradford. Various Acts have been obtained to increase the borrowing powers of the Corporation on account of the waterworks; the total amount authorized to be borrowed, up to 1873, being £1,300,000. Of this large sum, £1,043,923 had been spent on land and works up to December, 1872. The revenue from water, which, in 1856, was £10,225, in 1872 had risen to £52,000. Of late years the works have been constructed from the designs and under the superintendence of Mr. C. Gott, C.E., borough surveyor and waterworks manager, and are certainly among the finest series of waterworks in the kingdom.

The total water area of the fourteen service reservoirs will be 270 acres; the area of land, 360« acres; the water capacity 1,580,650,000 gallons; and the gathering ground 5885 acres. The water area of the six compensation reservoirs will be 192 acres; the land area, 238 acres; the water capacity, 1,283,000,000 gallons; and the gathering ground, 12,020 acres. The aggregate water area of the twenty reservoirs will be 462 acres; the land area; 5982 acres; the water capacity, 2,863,650,000 gallons; and the gathering ground, 17,905 acres.

The small amounts spent on some of the older reservoirs are the expense incurred since they came into the hands of the Corporation. Barden reservoir has been almost entirely reconstructed by Mr. Gott, C.E., the original works having proved defective. Mr. Gott has also repaired Chelker reservoir, and has rendered it, as well as Doe Park reservoir, tight and strong.

Railway System of Bradford.- Soon after the introduction of railways Bradford was connected with the railway system. The first railway was the Leeds and Bradford line, which passes circuitously through the valley of the Aire, describing an irregular semi-oval of fourteen miles and a half. It is united to the "little North Western" at Shipley, from which place the latter line extends to Skipton, Colne, Settle, Lancaster, and Ingleton, and will soon be extended from Settle to Carlisle, forming a line into Scotland, by a new and beautiful route. The Leeds and Bradford line was completed in 1846, and is leased to the Midland Company, whence the name of its Bradford station, in Well Street, is the Midland Station. Second, a shorter route to Leeds, being only nine miles in length, proceeding from the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Station, near St. George's Hall. This direct line to Leeds was opened in 1854; and from the same centre branches extend to Halifax, Huddersfield, Dewsbury, Wakefield, Rochdale, and other important seats of industry. A new branch was making in 1873 from Shipley, round the hills to Idle, Eccleshill, and Laister Dyke, where it joins the Great Northern main line. The Bradford and Thornton Railway, for which parliamentary sanction had been obtained, was to start from the Lancashire and Yorkshire line at Bowling, passing through Horton and Clayton to Thornton, with a branch to Queensbury, 1000 feet above sea-level. Another branch would strike off at Horton in the direction of New Millers Dam, on Thornton Road. In connection with this line a scheme has been introduced into Parliament for continuing the Thornton line to Denholme, Cullingworth, and Keighley, and by a junction with the Halifax and Ovenden Railway facilitating communication, by a new route through the hills, between Halifax, Bradford, and Keighley. The bill had passed the House of Commons in May, 1873, and had to go up to the Lords. Another new line of some importance to Bradford is a short length from Shipley by Low Baildon and Esholt to Guiseley, to diminish the distance between Bradford and Ilkley, in Wharfedale, the latter being a favourite residence of the wealthy inhabitants of Bradford. This line had not been commenced in 1873. Should these various schemes be carried out, the borough will be encircled with a most convenient network of railways, but the rapid extension of the trade of Bradford has rendered the stations of the Midland, Great Northern, and Lancashire and Yorkshire Railways inadequate to meet the large and increasing traffic in passengers, goods, and minerals. Powers have, however, been obtained for improving the existing works on, or in connection with, all these lines.

Bradford made a Parliamentary Borough.- Bradford was empowered by the English Boroughs Reform Act of 1832 to return two representatives to the House of Commons, a number which has not been augmented. The town is also a court and polling-place for the election of members for the northern division of the West Riding.

Bradford made a Municipal Borough.- In the year 1847 Bradford was made a municipal corporation by royal charter, with a commission of the peace, a mayor, fourteen aldermen, and forty-two town councillors. The area of the four townships comprised in the borough of Bradford is 6508 acres, 2 roods, 39 perches, namely:- Bradford, 1595 acres, 1 rood, 2 perches; Bowling, 1561 acres, 2 roods, 16 perches; Horton, 2033 acres, 39 perches; and Manningham, 1318 acres, 2 roods, 22 perches. There were at the latest return, in 1872, 56 3/10ths miles of paved and macadamized roads, and 79 7/10ths miles of flagged footways. The four wards of Bradford township return twenty-four of the councillors; Bowling and Little Horton return six each; while Manningham and Great Horton wards are represented each by three councillors. The parliamentary and municipal boundaries of the borough are identical, nor was any change made in these limits by the Reform Act of 1867. Power has been obtained in the Corporation Improvement Act, 18 73, to incorporate the township of Bolton, which is to be made into a ward, and to be represented in the town council by one alderman and three councillors. The town council has sedulously employed the powers conferred by the Bradford Improvement Act of 1850 in improving and draining the streets and thoroughfares, and in supervising the erection of new buildings. The council is divided into several committees for the specific execution of the various objects of municipal administration. Under the authority of additional powers, obtained by the Corporation from time to time, vigorous steps have been taken to remodel and improve the centre of the borough and the principal thoroughfares leading therefrom. Much valuable work has been accomplished, but although the entire aspect of the centre of the town has been changed, a good deal remains to be done. The spirit and energy of the Corporation are such that the improvements begun will be steadily continued until the town is rendered more sightly, and the intricate network of narrow streets is pierced by broad and commodious thoroughfares. A large sum of money, upwards of £345,000, has been expended in these undertakings, and the work is still (1873) going on; but a considerable proportion of the cost has been recouped to the Corporation by sales of land left after the streets were formed. Powers were obtained by the Improvement Act of 1873 to borrow £300,000 for street and other improvements. The most important of these works is the formation of a new main artery, about three quarters of a mile long and twenty yards wide, starting from Sun Bridge, in the heart of the town, and proceeding in a westerly direction to Brick Lane. There are a series of other improvements projected in this Act, of almost equal magnitude. Amongst these are several streets in the Bradford valley, to unite one side of the town with the other, and a bridge to span the Midland Railway. The police force at the command of the Corporation consists of one head constable and 174 subordinate officers. The police station, with a depot for the town engines, is in Swaine Street, but the police station and all other departments of business are to be removed to the town hall. A new fire-brigade station-house, with a free library above it, is to be built at the corner of Godwin Street and Aldermanbury. As the burial board, the town council have the cemetery at Scholemoor under their jurisdiction.

Streets formed and Improvements made along the line of the Old Bradford Canal.- The capital of the new Canal Company is £35,000. The shares are mostly held by stone merchants and others interested in the development of this important branch of the Bradford trade. The canal is 24 miles long, and the proprietors are bound by penalty to keep the water clean, and not to suffer any "fetid or offensive water to flow or pass thence into the Leeds and Liverpool Canal." The company paid the small sum of £2900-a mere acknowledgment-to the old company for that portion of the undertaking from below Northbrook Street to Shipley; but they were bound to re-open the canal. The aspect of this part of the borough, which was formerly covered with old and dilapidated buildings, has been completely changed. The Bradford Corporation has obtained powers to make the new Canal Road, eighteen yards wide, from Well Street, in the centre of the town, to Frizinghall, midway to Shipley. The total cost to the Bradford Corporation for the improvements adjacent to the canal will be between £30,000 and £40,000. Canal Road, which in 1873 was in progress, passes alongside the canal wharves. A row of stately warehouses has been raised on one side of the thoroughfare, and in a few years the street-one of the few level roads out of the town-will in all likelihood be entirely built up. On the west side of the valley the Midland Railway Company have determined to make a new thoroughfare, twenty yards wide, commencing at present at Salem Street, and proceeding to Bolton Lane, parallel with the Midland line, but which will no doubt eventually be continued to Kirkgate, in Bradford, and forward, down the valley, to Shipley. At the rate at which building operations were proceeding in 1873 there appears to be every probability that, within the next half century, the three miles of the valley between Bradford and Shipley will be covered with mills, manufactories, and houses. A railway station has been formed at Manningham, and the Midland company intend to open another at Frizinghall. The Bradford valley, which was originally picturesque, has lost nearly all its natural charms, and is becoming thickly populated; building operations extending down to Saltaire, in Airedale. Future developement will be much accelerated by the forming of the new roads mentioned above.

The New Town Hall of Bradford.- The public business of Bradford will shortly be carried on in the new Town Hall, which is nearly completed, and will be opened in a few months (1873). The building is a handsome erection, in the mediaeval style. It stands on 2000 square yards of land, is constructed of beautifully coloured stone, and will be ornamented on the exterior with thirty-seven stone statues of the kings and queens of England, placed in canopied niches. In the centre is a splendid tower, rising to a height of 220 feet, in which will be placed a clock and a peal of bells or carillons, to play a variety of tunes. The building is admirably adapted for conducting every department of public business. It is tastefully fitted up inside, and will cost, exclusive of land, about £100,000. Two small, but neat rooms, will be used as the council chamber and the borough court. The architects are Messrs. Lockwood and Mawson, of Bradford and London. The foundation stone of the hall was laid August 10, 1870, by Mr. Ald. Mark Dawson, mayor of Bradford.

Memorial Statues.- A bronze statue of Sir Robert Peel, Bart., by Mr. Behnes, of London, was erected in Peel Place, in 1855, by subscription, at a cost of about £4000. Mr. Jos. Brown, wool-stapler, Bradford, was one of the principal promoters. A memorial statue to Mr. Richard Oastler, styled the "Factory King," was reared in 1869, at a cost of £1500, as a testimonial of his exertions on behalf of the operatives during the agitation for the Ten Hours' Factory Bill. The memorial, which stands in Well Street, in front of the Midland Railway Station, consists of a figure of Mr. Oastler and two factory children-boy and girl attired in their working dresses. The figures are executed in bronze, and the group is placed on a red granite pedestal, with a base of grey granite. Mr. J. B. Philip, of London, was the artist. The prime movers in the erection of the statue were Mr. Matthew Balme, of Bradford, and Mr. Philip Grant, of Manchester, and the factory operatives of Yorkshire and Lancashire. The statue was uncovered by the earl of Shaftesbury, in the midst of a vast assemblage. In front of the town hall a memorial to Sir Titus Salt, Bart., of chaste design, was being erected by public subscription in 1873. The memorial will consist of an elaborate Gothic canopy, containing in the centre a marble figure of Sir Titus Salt, in a sitting attitude, by Mr. J. Adams-Acton, of London. The cost will be about £2500. The steps leading up to the statue will be flanked by figures of a couple of alpacas, emblematic of the new trade introduced into Bradford by the worthy baronet. At the other end of the town hall is to be placed a statue of S. C. Lister, Esq., a gentleman who, by his improvements in the wool-combing machine and his introduction of the silk and velvet manufacture, has rendered invaluable services to the town of Bradford. The statue, which is to be executed in white Sicilian marble, by Mr. M. Noble, of London, is also to be erected by public subscription, at a cost exceeding £2000. The Bradford corporation gave the sites for the Oastler, Salt, and Lister memorials.

The New Exchange of Bradford was begun in 1864, when Lord Palmerston, then prime minister, laid the foundation stone with the usual solemnities. The building was completed in 1867. The handsome and spacious interior is tastefully embellished with allegorical figures. The clock tower at the east end of the edifice is 150 feet high, its effect being enhanced by the turrets on the corners of the building, and by the statues of Bishop Blaize, the patron saint of woolcombers, and of King Edward VI., who granted a charter to the town. The circular medallions, placed between the windows on the ground floor, are not without interest. A news-room is provided for the subscribers. The Chamber of Commerce has a suite of rooms in the exchange. The cost of erecting the building, was £40,000.

St. George's Hall.- From the mart of commerce to the hall of song will be no abrupt transition for music-loving Yorkshire men. Bradford became conspicuous among northern towns for its architecture, when the erection of St. George's Hall was completed in 1853. The foundation stone of the building had been laid in true masonic style in 1851, by the late earl of Zetland, grand-master of the order of freemasons. It is a handsome edifice, built of Yorkshire stone, with a lofty front, supported by Corinthian pilasters. The hall, more than fifty yards long and twenty- five yards broad, will contain upwards of four thousand persons. Saturday evening concerts for the people were tried for some short time by Mr. Angus Holden, J.P., with the view of drawing the operatives away from low singing rooms and public-houses, and were continued by Mr. W. Morgan with great success up to 1872, when the hall company themselves became caterers for the public. The Bradford Festival Choral Society, founded principally through the agency of Mr. Samuel Smith, J.P., has gained a high reputation for the excellent manner in which the choruses of the oratorios are sustained by the practical members of the society. There is another musical organization, known as the Old Choral Society, which has in connection with it an instrumental band. It was mainly through the persevering energy of Mr. S. Smith that Bradford possesses a music hall second to none in the kingdom, either for beauty of design, adaptability to the purpose intended, or comfort to the spectators. In 1873 the directors of the hall spent about £2000 in improving and embellishing the interior, and in remodelling the organ, originally built at the expense of Mr. S. Smith. The Bradford subscription concerts, promoted by a number of gentlemen with the view of affording to their townsmen the opportunity of hearing the finest vocal and instrumental music interpreted by the first musicians and vocalists that could be found, had been held in St. George's Hall for several years previous to 1873. The season of 1872-73 though financially not successful, was perhaps the best, in a musical point of view, that had been known. The concerts were to be continued. The name of Mr. H. Averdieck, a German merchant, may be alluded to as one of the most enthusiastic and liberal supporters of the subscription concerts and the Festival Choral Society. He was in 1873 one of the vice-presidents of the latter society, Mr. S. Smith being president. The subscription concerts would seem to have superseded the musical festivals, formerly held at Bradford with marked success. Messrs. Lockwood and Mawson were the architects of the hall, which cost about £30,000.

The Court-house.- The court-house, situated in Hall Ings, is a substantial building, with a portico of massive columns of the Ionic order. It was erected in 1834, at a cost of about £7000. Quarter and petty sessions for East Morley are held here, and it is the head-quarters of the police division of East Morley. Superintendent Ball had charge of the division in 1873.

The County Court for Bradford, which is held at the court house in Manor Row, exercises jurisdiction over the following townships:-Allerton, Bradford, Bolton, Bowling, Calverley-cum-Farsley, Clayton, Cleckheaton, Drighlington, Eccleshill, Heaton, Horton, Hainsworth, Idle, Manningham, North Bierley, Pudsey, Shipley, Thornton, Tong, Wike, and Wilsden. Mr. W. T. S. Daniel, Q.C., was judge in 1873, and Mr. George Robinson, registrar. Bradford and North Bierley Unions.-Bradford gives name to a poor-law union of four townships. To shelter the paupers of this large district a spacious well-arranged workhouse was erected, at Little Horton, in 1852, from designs by Messrs. Lockwood & Mawson, at a cost of about £7000. The building has since been enlarged, a new infirmary erected, and the place will hold 1000 inmates. The expenditure on land and buildings, up to 1873, was £27,700. The receipts of the union for the year ending Lady Day, 1873, inclusive of balance brought over, was £39,378 5s. 5d., and the expenditure for the same period was £34,459 4s. ld., leaving a balance of £1582 6s. 4d. The paupers relieved in the workhouse, on the 1st January, 1873, were 480, and those relieved out of the house were 1373; total paupers in the union at this date, 1853. The number of vagrants relieved at the workhouse for the September quarter 1868, was 3381, while for the same quarter in 1872 they were only 144; a remarkable difference, which may be attributed to the prosperity of the district, and to the fact that the vagrants have to do a specified amount of labour on the workhouse farm for their temporary accommodation. Mr. John Darlington was clerk to the union in 1873, and was appointed in the year 1850. Another local division, to which Bradford gives name, is the superintendent registrar's district, covering an area of 41,622 acres. The population of this district, which in 1851 was 181,964, rose in 1861 to 196,463, and in 1871 to 257,706; of the latter 123,530 were males, and 134,176 females. On the 14th May, 1873, the assistant-overseers of the four townships of the union returned the annual value as follows:-
Bradford, £321,052;
Bowling, £63,842;
Horton, £131,022;
Manningham, £93,603 10s.;
total valuation, £609,519 10s.

The increase on the previous year was about £25,000. The North Bierley Union-formerly included in the Bradford Union-comprising seventeen townships, is part of the Bradford superintendent registrar's district, and the population is comprised in the above figures. The workhouse, at Clayton, was built in 1856, and the total expenditure on the structure up to 1873 was £10,600. Accommodation is found for 326 inmates. The assessment of the union for 1873 was £301,405. The receipts for the year ending Lady Day, 1873, were £26,789 3s. 6d., inclusive of a balance brought over, and the expenditure to same date was £24,586 8s. 3d. leaving a balance in hand of £2202 15s. 3d. The paupers relieved in the workhouse on the 1st January, 1873, were 201, and those relieved out of the house numbered 2017; total paupers in the union at this date, 2218. For the half-year ending 1872, the number of vagrants relieved was upwards of 500. Mr. W. Lancaster, appointed clerk to the union in 1857, retained that office in 1873. The basis of values on which the county and police rates are levied, as confirmed at the West Riding Sessions on the 30th December, 1872, shows the following results as regards the East Morley division, which is co-extensive with the North Bierley Union:-
Allerton, £10,178;
Bolton, £5223;
Calverley-cum-Farsley, £26,456;
Clayton, £13,752;
Cleckheaton, £32,968;
Drighlington, £13,312;
Eccleshill, £15,549;
Heaton, £9154;
Hunsworth, £8755;
Idle, £34,394;
North Bierley, £42,860;
Pudsey, £36,028;
Shipley, £42,170;
Thornton, £23,183;
Tong, £16,124;
Wike, £12,323:
total value of the division, £342,429.

According to the same basis the valuation of the four townships forming the Bradford Union was-
Bradford, £334,239;
Bowling, £68,678;
Horton, £136,787;
Manningham, £84,754:
total, £624,458.

If the totals for the East Morley division and the Bradford Union are added together, it is found that within a radius of about five miles of the Bradford Exchange, the annual value of the property on which the above-named rates were levied, amounted to the very large sum of £966,887.

Position and Public Health of Bradford.- The soil of Bradford is dry, and the air salubrious. The annual mortality formerly did not exceed one in fifty, and modern civilization, while it has increased the wealth and population of the town, has not greatly increased the death-rate. The registrar-general now states that the average annual rate of mortality within the borough of Bradford was equal to 262 per 1000 of the mean population (126,024) during the ten years 1861-70. Of the twenty great cities and towns of the kingdom, arranged in the order of mortality, Bradford stood ninth in the average annual death-rate per 1000 for the years 1868-72. Portsmouth stood lowest with 21.9 per 1000; Bradford was 26.4, Leeds 27.6, and Liverpool had the highest, 31.3. The corporation has steadily directed its attention to sanitary improvement. The total number of deaths for the year ending September 28, 1872, was 3975, or 26.19 per 1000, taking the population of the borough at 151,720. The average weekly number of deaths was 76.44. For the quarter ending December 1872, the death-rate was 24.1 per 1000 persons, against 26.6 and 22.7 in the corresponding periods of 1870 and 1871. Four sweeping machines, forty-four men, fourteen boys, and fourteen horses and carts, were employed in cleansing the public streets; the roads were regularly watered in dry weather. In addition to the abattoirs of the Corporation, and those at Bolton Bridge, there were sixty-six slaughter-houses in the borough. As well-paved streets have something to do with the public health, it may be stated that the Corporation had purchased a stone-breaking machine for granite, and a steam road-roller for getting the macadamized roads rapidly into good condition. In 1873 the Bradford Corporation appointed Mr. H. Butterfield medical officer of health for the borough, at a salary of £500 per annum, subject to the approval of the Local Government Board, who pay half the salary. As against 6628 deaths registered in the Bradford district in 1872, there were of births 10,402, so that the increasing populousness of the town is progressive. Of marriages in the district, there were in the same year the goodly number of 2666.

Theatre-royal.- This building is situated in Manningham Lane, and supplanted an old wooden theatre that formerly stood in Duke Street. The theatre-royal belongs to a company, and was leased to Mr. C. Rice for seven years from July, 1872. The original lessee was the celebrated comedian, Mr. J. B. Buckstone. It is a roomy, comfortable place; and had in 1873 been enlarged and improved. The architects were Messrs. Andrews, Son, and Pepper. The building was opened in 1864. A large wooden building, capable of seating more than 3000 people, had been erected by Mr. Pullan, in Brunswick Place, and was used as a music hall.

The Manor and Market.- The manorial and the market rights, formerly held by Miss Rawson of Nidd Hall, were leased, so far as the market rights are concerned, on 13th December, 1865, to the Bradford Corporation for 999 years, at a rent of £6000 yearly. The fairs for horses, cattle, and sheep, on March 3, June 17 and 18, and December 9 and 10, were formerly held in the public streets; but the Corporation purchased a large tract of land adjacent to Leeds Road, where the wholesale markets and the fairs are now held. New abattoirs on the most approved principles have been constructed, and a range of warehouses and other conveniences were commenced in 1873 for the wholesale dealers in fish, fruit, vegetables, &c. The market is styled St. James'. Communicating with it will be a branch line from the Great Northern Railway, by means of which cattle and produce can be brought to the doors of the dealers and butchers. The total expenditure on the buildings will be about £23,000. The old uncovered market place being utterly inadequate to the requirements of Bradford, the manor hall and a range of other buildings, fronting to Kirkgate and Darley Street, were pulled down. On this site has been raised the first half of a beautiful, new, covered market. The market hall occupies the centre of the structure, and is approached from Kirkgate by a broad flight of stone steps. Round the interior are shops, and in the centre are grouped the stalls. The hall is well lighted and ventilated, and presents a very pleasing appearance. Underneath are vaults for storage. The exterior, of stone, is in the Italian style, three stories in height, the facades to Kirkgate and Darley Street being most effective. The grand entrance in Kirkgate is surmounted by a clock tower, and over the archway are carved representations of Flora and Pomona, the goddesses of flowers and fruit. There are shops fronting to Kirkgate and Darley Street, and over these are offices and the German Club, known as the Schiller-Verein. The entire structure will be 360 feet long by 200 feet wide. The portion opened in 1872 measures 200 feet by 125 feet, and its cost, including the exterior shops, was £28,000. The whole expenditure on the entire scheme is estimated at £50,000. Messrs. Lockwood and Mawson were the architects, and they had also charge of the erection of the abattoirs and the wholesale market premises. The Bradford butchers built abattoirs of their own at Bolton Bridge, just outside the borough; but these were bought up by the Bradford Corporation, in 1873, for £10,500. The total expenditure by the Corporation upon the markets up to December 31, 1872, was £70,775 19s. In connection with the markets the Corporation exercises jurisdiction over weights and measures and the testing of gas meters. It is a remarkable fact-worthy of record here, as showing the great increase in wealth and importance of the town-that the rights which Miss Rawson has leased to the Bradford Corporation, and for the use of which that lady and her heirs will receive such a handsome sum spread over 999 years, were conveyed by indentures dated 12th and 13th February, 1795, from John Marsden of Hornby castle, Lancashire, then lord of the manor, to Benjamin Rawson, Esq., of Bolton-in-the-Moors, for £2100.

The Mechanics Institute.- The Mechanics' Institute was established in 1832. An attempt to form a useful society of this kind was made in 1825, but failed. Mr. Joseph Farrar, the secretary (now Mr. Ald. Farrar, J.P.), was principally instrumental in establishing the institute, and zealously laboured to promote its interests for many years. Dr. Steadman, principal of Horton Baptist College, was the first president of the Mechanics' Institute. His successor, the Rev. James Acworth, A.M., LL.D., had the opportunity, in 1839, of addressing the members in a new and handsome hall, erected at the junction of Well Street and Leeds Road. This commodious building contained a lecture-room, a library of 10,000 volumes, a reading-room, and an interesting collection of stuffed birds and other objects of natural history. It was sold in 1872, and is now converted into a warehouse. The foundation stone of a new Mechanics' Institute in Bridge Street, Bradford, was laid on Friday, January 29, 1870, by Lord Houghton, in the presence of a large body of gentlemen, among whom were the Rev. Dr. Campbell, the president of the Institute; Mr. Ald. M. Dawson, the mayor of Bradford; Right Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P., Mr. Edward Miall, M.P., Mr. Alfred Illingworth, M.P., Mr. H. W. Ripley, &c. The new building stands on a site 1000 yards in extent, purchased from the Bradford corporation at a cost of £12,500, and has frontages to Bridge Street, New Market Street, and Tyrrel Street. The structure is an excellent specimen of the Italian style, and was designed by Messrs. Andrews and Pepper, of Bradford. On the ground floor are a range of shops, and above these are the news-room and library, a lofty, well-lighted apartment, extending over the whole width of the building, and divided in the centre by a screen. Behind this room is the lecture- hall, which is chastely decorated, elegantly fitted up, and capable of seating 1500 persons. In the upper stories are the class-rooms and apartments for the science and art department, conveniently arranged and well lighted. The entire cost of this splendid People's College, as it has been termed, inclusive of land, was £35,839. The educational work of the institute has gone forward with energy in all its branches, and the results were on the whole satisfactory. The number of members in 1873 was 1845. The total receipts from all sources were £2061 17s. 5d., and the expenditure was £1948. The number of volumes in the library was 11,185, and the issues of the year were 52,531 volumes, being an increase of 8997. The lectures and readings, especially the scientific lectures, had been well attended. Of twenty-six students who were examined in connection with the science and art department at South Kensington, only one had failed to pass. The school of art had become an important branch of the institute. The debt was £4839 7s., beyond the amount of which interest on the other portion of the scheme was covered by the rental of shops. Mr. Charles Semon, of Broughton Hall, near Skipton, was president in 1873, and the vice-presidents were-Rev. Dr. Ryan (vicar of Bradford), Rev. J. R. Campbell, D.D., Rev. Dr. Fraser, Mr. Alderman Law, Mr. H. W. Ripley, Mr. James Wales, Mr. Sam Smith, and Mr. James Hanson; treasurer, Mr. C. Lund; honorary secretaries, Mr. J. T. Newboult and Mr. Thomas Clark.

The Bradford Grammar School.- The Bradford Grammar School was erected immediately after the Reformation. Extant is a decree of the Duchy of Lancaster Court, dated 1553, 7th Edward VI., showing that six or seven distinct plots of land "anciently belonged to the living and sustentation of a schoolmaster teaching grammar within the town of Bradford." This endowment was confirmed by Edward VI., and augmented by other gifts in the following century. In 1663 the trustees were incorporated by letters patent granted by Charles II., and a scheme of government was drawn out for the school. The old school-house was pulled down in 1818, and a new one erected at North Parade in 1820. Among the boys educated in the school, who attained celebrity, are enumerated Archbishop Sharp (1644- 1713), Dr. Richardson, of Bierley Hall, the naturalist and antiquarian (1663-1741), and Abraham Sharp, the mathematician and assistant to Flamsteed (1651-1742). In 1871 the school was re-organized and placed on a new basis of management. The old masters were superannuated, and new ones appointed, and it was determined to replace the old building by a more commodious structure on the same site. A design was prepared by Messrs. Andrews and Pepper in the French Gothic style, and this work has been executed at a cost of upwards of £7000. The new building contains a large schoolroom for boys, many classrooms, and a master's house fronting to North Parade. A tower in the centre rises to a height of 110 feet, and there is a roomy playground in the rear of the building. Accommodation is found for 400 boys. Attached to the school are several valuable exhibitions, which have been increased by scholarships founded by the Right Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P., vice-president of the council, and by Mr. Henry Brown, of Bradford; the latter gentleman having given, in 1873, £6000 for this purpose. The new scheme for the management of this school, dated 12th August, 1871, and approved by an order in council, lays down that the general object of the foundation is to supply a liberal education for boys, and to- promote the education of girls. The governing body to consist of not more than sixteen persons, nor less than thirteen, called governors. The ex-officio governors are-the vicar of Bradford, the mayor of Bradford, the chairman of the Bradford School Board, and the president of the Mechanics' Institute. Two representative governors are elected from the town council and two from the school board, and there are eight co-optative governors. Religious opinions do not weigh in the election of governors. From the date of the scheme, or within three years, the governors have power to appropriate the annual sum of £200, and on the determination of the pensions to the late schoolmasters a further annual sum of £50, for the establishment and maintenance of a girls' school. The entrance fee for boys is not to exceed £1 in the junior, and £2 in the senior department: the tuition fees in the junior are not to be less than £4, nor more than £10, nor less than £10, nor more than £20 in the senior department, and no extras of any kind to be allowed without the sanction of the governors. Boys are admitted into the junior department at eight years old, and may remain until they are fifteen; into the senior at thirteen, and may remain until they are nineteen. The school to be open to all boys of good character and of sufficient bodily health. No boy to be admitted without being examined by the head master, and found fit for admission.

In both departments the religious instruction is restricted to lessons in the Bible, but exemption from attendance at prayers or from any lesson on a religious subject may be claimed by written notice to the head master. The boys are to be examined every year. The governors have power to grant exhibitions tenable at the school itself, and entitling the holders to exemption from the payment of tuition fee, these exemptions to be the reward of merit only; and they have further power to confer other pecuniary emoluments. Three exhibitions, founded by Mr. H. Brown, are tenable at any institution of higher education, one of £60 per annum for three years will be offered for competition annually. One exhibition, to be held at the school itself, has been founded by Mr. Forster, M.P.; five by Mr. H. Brown; and others by the governors. There are three terms in the year. No entrance fee is charged, but 2s. 6d. has to be paid for registration. The tuition fee in the senior school is £5 6s. 8d. per term, and in the junior £3 6s 8d. per term. The Rev. W. H. Keeling, M.A., was head master in 1873, and there are seven other masters. Mr. G. E. Mumford, solicitor, was the secretary. There were forty boys in the old school; but at the beginning of 1872, when the school was re-opened in the High School, Hallfield Road, there were 100 boys. The number had gone on increasing, and at the opening of the first term in 1873 the pupils numbered 172. The new buildings were to be opened in 1873.

Modern Establishments for Education.- The earnestness and activity of the desire for knowledge, secular and religious, among the people of Bradford, needs no stronger testimony than the following summary of educational establishments:-At Undercliffe is Airedale Independent College, founded at Idle in 1800, and removed to its present situation in 1834. The Church Literary Institute, intended to replace a small building in Albion Court, Kirkgate, has been erected in North Parade, at a cost of upwards of £7000; but the total expenditure on the entire scheme will be more than £13,000. This is a handsome structure, in the French Gothic style, designed by Messrs. Andrews and Pepper. The facade to North Parade is lofty and commanding in elevation. Two canopied niches in the centre of the institute are to be filled in with statuary. The interior of the building contains several fine, lofty well-lighted, and tastefully-decorated rooms. There is a large gymnasium in the basement, the library is on the ground floor, and on the story above is the lecture-hall, to accommodate 500 persons, and forming one of the handsomest rooms in the town. In the rear are a large reading-room, class-rooms, and every convenience for effectually carrying on the work of the institute. The foundation stone was laid in 1871, by Earl Nelson, in the presence of a large assemblage of the local clergy and gentry. The mayor of Bradford (Mr. Ald. M. W. Thompson) contributed the liberal sum of £2000 to the building fund of the institute, and other churchmen have given liberally. The Bradford Female Educational Institute was established in November, 1857, for the education of the female factory workers of Bradford and its neighbourhood, by means of evening classes. The pupils are instructed in reading and writing, arithmetic, elementary geography, English grammar and history, plain sewing and dress-making. The operations of the institute were carried on by means of branches in the most populous parts of the town. The late Mr. S. C. Kell was a liberal supporter of the institution, and Mr. H. Brown was one of its most steadfast friends. Mr. J. H. Rawnsley had been manager from the commencement. The institute was the only one of its kind in the country; it had done much to instruct young women whose early education had been neglected, and was not without its influence in improving the homes of the members. The Rebecca Street Ragged Schools were built in 1865 by voluntary contributions, at a cost of £2754, for the education and welfare of destitute children, of whom about 200 are provided here with a daily dinner. Besides a School of Industry, many large day and Sunday schools are supported by subscription. Strenuous efforts were made, within twenty years previous to 1873, in the erection of schools. During that time a large sum of money had been expended by various Christian communions in providing day and Sunday schools in connection with their churches; so that now, in 1873, there is not a church in Bradford without its school, and attached to many of the dissenting places of worship are excellent day schools. Mr. H. W. Ripley has built a large school at Ripleyville, at his sole expense. An Industrial Reformatory School is established in Broomfields, where ninety children are accommodated. The inmates are taught various occupations, and in addition to being instructed in elementary knowledge, they are sent out to situations, and are boarded and lodged on the premises until they are of suitable age to leave the school. The Roman Catholics have not been behind their neighbours in providing schools. In addition to the eight temporary board schools and the eight schools building for the board, forty-three other elementary schools were reported to the School Board by the Education Department of Government as efficient schools, situated within the school district of the borough of Bradford. These schools belong to the Church of England, Wesleyans, Independents, Wesleyan Reformers, Primitive Methodists, and Roman Catholics. In addition to the schools above enumerated, there are several superior private educational establishments where the children of the middle class receive instruction, as well as a number of minor schools which do not come within the category of the Educational Department.

The Bradford School Board.- The board was elected without a contest, November 30, 1870. The first meeting was held December 15, 1870, when Mr. M. W. Thompson (mayor of Bradford), was elected chairman, Mr. J. V. Godwin, J.P., vice-chairman, and the other members were-Rev. J. R. Campbell, D.D., Mr. W. Coates (postmaster of Bradford), Mr. E. P. Duggan, Mr. James Hanson, Mr. Angus Holden, J.P., Mr. Ald. Jas. Law, J.P., Very Rev. Canon Motler, Mr. Archibald Neill, Mr. Henry William Ripley, J.P., Rev. Vincent W. Ryan, D.D. (vicar of Bradford), Mr. Edward West, J.P., Mr. William Whitehead, and Mr. Ald. H. Mitchell, J.P. Premises were taken in Market Street, and the Rev. T. T. Waterman, B.A., was elected clerk; Mr. G. Ackroyd, Bradford Banking Company, treasurer; Mr. Ald. Jos. Dawson, solicitor. The first year was devoted to obtaining information as to the state of education in the borough, seeking and securing suitable sites, preparing plans, and negotiating loans for erection of schools. The returns obtained showed that on April, 2, 1871, there were 21,355 children in the borough for whom accommodation should be provided. The public accommodation for children in February, 1871, was-existing, 17,119; contemplated or in course of erection, 4296: total, 21,415. In the private schools there was accommodation for 2812 scholars. It was found that this accommodation was unevenly distributed, some districts being inadequately supplied when the existing schools were filled to the utmost of their capacity. Steps were taken to erect four others in places where they were most wanted; it was determined to borrow £20,000 from the Public Works Loan Commissioners to meet the cost, and an education committee was appointed to prepare a scheme of instruction. Various other measures were adopted, a form was prepared for the transfer of schools, and two precepts of £500 were issued, requiring the town council to pay those sums into the hands of the treasurer of the board. In 1872 measures were taken for the erection of more board schools, and to borrow money from the loan commissioners to pay for them. The board have since gone on in the course planned out, and decided to build eight handsome and capacious new school premises, with an aggregate capacity for 4800 scholars, at a total cost, inclusive of land, buildings, and fittings, of £116,400; to be met by loans from the commissioners, at 32 per cent. interest, to be repaid in fifty equal annual instalments. These school buildings, which are pretty evenly distributed about the borough, are in progress (1873), and they will all be erected with as little delay as possible. They are situated as follows:-Feversham Street, 800 scholars, cost £23,800; Bowling Back Lane, 500, £13,600; Ryan Street, 800, £18,000; Horton Bank, 220, £6200; Lilycroft, 500, £16,000; Whetley Lane, 500, £12,400; Dudley Hill, 480, £12,300; Barker-end, 500, £14,900. Architecturally, the Bradford Board schools, which have all been designed by local architects, will be commodious structures, provided with every modern convenience. To meet pressing necessities the board, early in 1873, opened several temporary schools, capable of accommodating 2170 children. The business had increased so much in 1873, that Mr. Ellis Ingham was appointed assistant- clerk. Since 1871 the other school accommodation in the borough has been increased, so that when the board schools are opened the town will be well supplied with educational appliances. Of the eight scholarships founded by Mr. Henry Brown, in connection with the Bradford Grammar School, three are eligible by boys educated at the Bradford Board schools, entitling them to admission to the grammar school, and the board school-boys have other advantages in respect to this endowment. Mr. Forster's endowment to the grammar school is open to all boys educated at elementary schools in Bradford.

Churches and Chapels.- The provision for religious worship is very large in Bradford, there being, according to the Bradford Corporation Year Book for 1873, no less than ninety-seven different edifices devoted to divine service. The religious denominations in the town are various, and are approximately represented by the number of their places of worship. There are twenty-six churches for members of the establishment, including preaching rooms (but three mission churches were opened in 1873, after the corporation book was issued), fifteen chapels for Wesleyans, nineteen for Primitive and other Methodists, eleven for Baptists, thirteen for Independents, five for Roman Catholics, one for Unitarians, one for Friends, one for Moravians, one for Plymouth Brethren, one for United Presbyterians, one for New Jerusalem, one for Latter-Day Saints, one for The Brethren, and one for Spiritualists. The parish church of St. Peter is a spacious building on the hill side, in the perpendicular style. It was erected about 1458, and has been restored, the south aisles having been rebuilt, in 1832. Other alterations are of recent date; the old oak roof has been opened out to view, and the whole length of the church thrown open, with great advantage to the appearance of the interior. Most of the mural monuments have been removed into the tower. Chief among those in the chancel is Flaxman's beautiful personification of old age-an old man between his son and daughter-on a monument raised to the memory of Abraham Balme, a gentleman of Bradford. Five windows in stained glass add to the beauty of the restoration. Upwards of £6000 has been spent in this work, contributed by all shades of Christians. The mayor of Bradford (Ald. Thompson) gave a reredos, which cost £300. The living was in 1873 worth upwards of £1400 per annum, and is in the gift of the trustees of the late Rev. Charles Simeon. The old vicarage house was in Goodmansend. The vicar's residence now is in Horton Road. In 1671 there was a lectureship founded, of £40 a year, by Mr. Peter Sunderland, of Fairweather Green. Bierley Church was built in 1766, at the cost of R. Richardson, Esq., but it was not consecrated until 1824. It was enlarged, at the expense of Miss Currer, in 1828. The building is in the Grecian style, seats 900 persons, and has of late years been further improved. The other churches in Bradford are as follows:-Christ Church, situated at the top of Darley Street, was built in 1815, at a cost of £5400, which was raised by subscription; one anonymous subscriber, a lady, alone contributed £800. It was enlarged and repaired in 1826 and 1836. The register dates from 1837. The building is in the Gothic style, and contains 1300 sittings, of which 600 are free. On the 31st of October, 1836, the first stone of St. James' Church was laid in Manchester Road, by Mr. John Wood, of Bradford, who, with a liberality happily not unexampled, himself bore the entire cost, amounting to £14,000, of the structure, together with that of a parsonage house and school-room attached. The schoolhouse was subsequently considerably enlarged at Mr. Wood's expense. The church is an excellent specimen of the early English style, being surmounted by a handsome tower and spire, and contains 1100 sittings, of which 600 are free. St. John's Church, also in the Manchester Road, owes its existence to the liberality of two gentlemen, strangers to Bradford, and even to Yorkshire-Mr. Berthon, of Romsey, Hants, and Mr. Preston, of North Wales. About £4000 was expended on the erection, and the church was opened in 1840, with accommodation for 1150 worshippers. The patrons of the living are the two founders, in unison with the vicar of Bradford; but the situation being inconvenient, a large new church, to take its place, is now in course of erection (1873), in Little Horton Lane. The new edifice is in the geometrical decorated style, designed by Messrs. T. H. & F. Healey. It is built of stone outside, and coloured bricks and stone are used for the interior. The church is to have a lofty tower and peal of bells. The cost, inclusive of land, is estimated at £10,000, and accommodation is to be found for 750 worshippers. Mr. J. R. Cordingley, of Bradford, was to present eight bells, costing £700. St. John's Church, Bowling, which seats 980 persons, was built in 1840 at the expense of the proprietors of the Bowling Ironworks. St. Jude's Church, Lumb Lane, was erected in 1843 by subscription, cost £3000, and seats about 1000 persons. The congregation have opened a mission room in Golden Square, White Abbey, and intend to build a new church, schools, and house, in the district, at a cost of £13,000, towards which £2500 was raised early in 1873. St. Paul's Church, Manningham, designed in the early English style, by Messrs. Mallinson and Healey, was built at the expense of Mr. John Hollings, in 1848, at a cost of about £4000. It has since been twice enlarged, and is a handsome church, with a well-proportioned tower and spire. The church affords sittings for 1100 persons. Another church, St. Mark's, is to be built in Grosvenor Road, Manningham, designed in decorated Gothic by Messrs. Walford and Pollard, and is estimated to cost £7000. St. Andrew's Church, Lister Hills, was erected in 1853, from the plans of Messrs. Mallinson and Healey, and has since been enlarged. It seats 982 persons, and is one of the most flourishing of the Bradford churches. One of the best specimens of ecclesiastical architecture in the borough is the church of All Saints', Little Horton Green, the product of the ripened experience of the late Mr. Thomas Healey, who designed the building in the geometrical decorated Gothic; at his death the carrying out of his ideas was superintended by his son, Mr. Frank Healey. The church is composed of nave, side aisles, transepts, and chancel, and seats 1000 people. The tower and spire rise to a height of 200 feet, and the church is intended to have a peal of bells. It was built at the expense of Mr. F. S. Powell, M.P., of Horton Old Hall, cost about £20,000, and was consecrated in 1864. St. Luke's Church was built in 1862 on a piece of land in Chandos Street, Wakefield Road, which was given by the late Mr. Chas. Hardy, of Low Moor. The structure, which is in the decorated style, will accommodate about 750 persons, and cost £3000. In the same year rose St. Thomas' Church, Butterfield Place, built at a cost of £4000, on a piece of land given by Mr. F. S. Powell, M.P. It is capable of holding 700 persons, is endowed with £300 a year, and is in the gift of the bishop of the diocese. A neat little church in Leeds Road is dedicated to the Holy Trinity, and accommodates 650 persons. The living is in the gift of trustees. The other modern churches in the borough are-St. Matthew's, Wibsey Bank Foot; St. Mary's, Laister Dyke; St. Stephen's, Bowling; St. Michael's, Brick Lane; St. Philip's, Girlington Road; St. Stephen's School Chapel, Chapel Green; St. Augustine's School Chapel, Undercliffe, to be supplemented with a church, the site for which has been given by Mr. W. Garnett, J.P., Bradford. St. Chrysostom's Mission Church is in Bolton Road, and a site for a new church was given by Lieutenant-colonel Pollard, of Scarr Hill. Bolton School Church had been enlarged; it was proposed to build a church there. St. Bartholomew's Church, Ripleyville, intended as a memorial to the late Mr. Charles Hardy (who, in his lifetime, was a munificent contributor to the scheme for erecting ten new churches in Bradford), is an excellent example of early geometrical Gothic. The exterior is of stone, and the interior of coloured bricks and stone, the proportions of the edifice and its treatment being good. It is built on a site given by Mr. H. W. Ripley. The cost was £7000, and sittings are provided for 740 persons. The Hardy family were large contributors to the building fund. A new church is erecting at Great Horton in the early Gothic style, which is to cost a similar sum. It is to take the place of the old Bell Chapel, and will be a strong, substantial, stone edifice, with tower and peal of bells. The site was given by Mr. F. S. Powell, M.P., and the church will accommodate 800 persons. St. Barnabas' Church, Heaton, which may be said to belong to Bradford, is a neat structure, also in the early Gothic style, and has a tower and spire. With a few exceptions, the whole of the churches erected in recent years in Bradford have been designed and built under the superintendence of Messrs. Mallinson and Healey, or their successors, Messrs. T. H. & F. Healey. These gentlemen have had the advantage of the experience of a talented father, and they have shown, in the handsome churches that have come from their hands, that they have profited by the lessons they have learned. They have also designed most of the church schools. In the Ripon Diocesan Church Calendar for 1873, the number of churches in the borough of Bradford, to which districts had been assigned, was returned as nineteen. The aggregate population of the districts was stated to be 156,682, the total number of sittings was given as 13,814, and the aggregate annual value of the livings was £5583. The mission churches were not included in the returns. The greater portion of the Bradford churches, each with its school, have risen within the twenty years preceding 1873. The Bradford Church Building Society originated the movement in favour of church building; and although extraneous aid has not been wanting, the great bulk of the large sums expended of late years has been raised by the voluntary offerings of wealthy and liberal-hearted churchmen resident in the town and neighbourhood. Mr. John Rand was one of the most liberal contributors to the scheme of building ten churches, which had been nearly accomplished in 1873.

Nonconformist Chapels.- After the royal declaration of Charles II. in favour of freedom of worship in 1672, the Presbyterians built themselves a chapel, which in 1717 was replaced by another, in Chapel Lane. The cost of this humble structure was £340 3s. 5d.; but there was an antiquarian interest about it, the interior being fitted up with old oak wainscoting from Howley Hall, from which place also the ancient curiously wrought gateway was traditionally said to have come. The chapel has a valuable endowment bequeathed in 1724 by Jeremy Dixon, of Heaton Royds, yeoman. The old chapel was pulled down in 1868, and a new Gothic building erected on the site, from the designs of Messrs. Andrews & Pepper, at a cost of nearly £6000. It will seat 500 worshippers, and has a handsome appearance. In the rear of the chapel are Sunday schools. The Rev. J. G. Miall, of Salem Chapel, Bradford, in his "Congregationalism in Yorkshire," gives some reliable particulars of the origin of the Independents in Bradford. It is conjectured that Nonconformity was established about the year 1665, at Thornton, near Bradford, and that the first meetings were held in a place afterwards known as "Kipping House," situated in a lonely and retired valley. In 1672 the church at Kipping sent a member, George Wade, to be present at the formation of a Congregational church, Call Lane, Leeds. In 1766, when the Rev. John Whiteford was pastor, a new chapel was built. Rev. Joseph Cockin held the pastorate from 1778 to 1792, and was "the apostle and itinerant of his district." The chapel was subsequently enlarged, but in 1844 a new building and school-house were erected. The Rev. James Gregory became pastor in 1834, and held that position in 1873. About 1784 a chapel was built in Little Horton Lane, then in the outskirts of the town. Rev. Thomas Taylor followed in 1808. During his time and up to his death, in 1853, the congregation was very large, and the chapel and premises were enlarged. Rev. J. Glyde succeeded in 1836, but died, greatly lamented, in 1854. The Rev. J. R. Campbell, M.A., D.D., took charge of the pastorate in 1855, and was minister in 1873. The old structure, after being improved at various times, was at length, in 1862, superseded by a large new chapel, designed by Messrs. Lockwood & Mawson, in the Elizabethan style. This capacious edifice, together with the range of Sunday schools adjoining, cost upwards of £14,000. In 1836, owing to the increase of the congregation at Horton Lane Chapel, Salem Chapel, Manor Row, was built at a cost of about £7000. It was subsequently enlarged and improved, at a considerable expense. Preaching places at Spinkwell and Valley Road were attached to it. The Rev. J. G. Miall was pastor in 1873, having held the charge since the opening of the chapel, and was joined, in 1865, by Rev. J. Andrews as assistant. In 1843 a movement was originated at Salem Chapel, which had the effect of freeing multitudes of Independent chapels in the West Riding from debt, and "since then the former system of religious mendicancy, equally burdensome and disgraceful, has happily become obsolete." Airedale Independent College, for the training of Independent ministers, is the expansion of an academy founded for the same purpose, in 1756, at Heckmondwike. It was removed for a time to Northowram. The college was founded at Idle in 1800, and received £5000 three per cent. consols shortly afterwards from Mr. Edward Hanson; and in 1827 two estates at Fagley and Undercliffe, and £8000 in consols, from Mrs. Bacon, of Bradford. The present college at Undercliffe was erected by subscription in 1831, and is rather commanding in position. The place has, however, become objectionable for a college on several grounds. The constituents of Airedale College held a meeting in April, 1872, at which it was resolved to erect a new building in the neighbourhood of Bradford. The new college is to be on the non-resident principle, and will be open to lay students as well as to those who intend to enter the ministry. The endowments produced in 1872 about £500; but the total income of the college was £1300, and the expenditure about the same. The number of students that could be accommodated in the college was twenty-four, and in 1873 it was attended by eighteen. The Rev. D. Fraser, LL.D., was president in 1873; the Rev. Professor Shearer, classical and mathematical master; treasurer, Mr. Titus Salt, Milner Field; secretary, Rev. S. Dyson, Idle. Airedale College Chapel, in Park Street, Otley Road, was built by subscription in 1839, at a cost of £3000. The Independents also have chapels at Lumb Lane (Greenfield, proposed to be rebuilt); Lister Hills; Essex Street, Bowling; Cambridge Place; High Street, Great Horton; Thornton Lane; Wesley Place, Great Horton; Jer Lane, Horton Bank; Holme Lane; Cemetery Road, Lidget Green; and Valley Road. The Yorkshire Congregational Year Book for 1873 showed that in the Bradford district, which embraced a large area of country, there were forty-seven chapels, with sitting accommodation for 22,091 persons. In the borough of Bradford, included in the above returns, the aggregate number of sittings in the chapels was 7265. The Baptist church at Bradford was commenced in 1751 by some members of the churches at Rawden and Haworth. A few persons met at the house of Elizabeth Frankland, at Manningham, near Bradford. In the following year they invited Mr. Smith of Wainsgate, Mr. Hartley of Haworth, and Mr. Lord of Bacup, to preach once a quarter at Manningham. William Crabtree, a native of the township of Wadsworth, near Halifax, visited Bradford, and in November, 1753, received a call to the ministry, which he accepted. On the 4th December, 1753, the church at Bradford was formed, consisting of twenty-three members, and Mr. Crabtree was ordained. He was originally a shalloon weaver. The infant church met for some time in a private house; but this place becoming inconveniently crowded, they worshipped in "the Cock-pit," near the end of Thornton Road; the "good people exulting greatly that they had dispossessed Satan of a portion of his dominions." So poor were they that they could not afford to procure benches for their sanctuary, and "the old women wended their way thither with their stools under their arms." In those primitive days new members were baptized in the mill-goit at the bottom of Silsbridge Lane, then a pure stream, but now (1873) foul and discoloured from the refuse of manufactories. In 1755, £100- was raised, and a building capable of holding 400 or 500 people was erected at the top of Westgate, then the highest part of the town, and now the school-room of Westgate Chapel. In June, 1757, an association of Baptist churches was formed in Bradford, consisting of Wainsgate, Sunderland, Whitehaven, Haworth, Rawden, Bacup, Liverpool, and Bradford. On the 11th March, 1758, John Fawcett (a native of Lidget Green, near Bradford), afterwards the Rev. Dr. Fawcett, was baptized at Bradford. He was one of the most eminent ministers of his time. A chapel was erected at Farsley in 1777, and in March, 1780, thirty members were dismissed from Bradford to form a church at that place. In 1782 Westgate Chapel was erected, which then contained sittings for about 700 persons, but it has since been considerably enlarged. It now has sittings for 1400 persons, besides accommodation for the school children in the upper gallery. Mr. Crabtree laboured up to his eightieth year, preached twice in his eighty-ninth year, and died February 14, 1811, in his ninety-first year. He was succeeded by the Rev. W. Steadman, afterwards Dr. Steadman. This eloquent preacher was pastor of Westgate from 1805 to 1837, when he died, April 12, aged seventy-three. During his time the Baptist church increased from the year 1805 to 1825, when it reached the zenith of its prosperity. A baptistry was formed in Westgate Chapel about 1805, the chapel was enlarged in 1817 at a cost of £1000, and the Sunday school numbered 300 children. Dr. Steadman's name will always be honourably associated with the Baptist College, which he commenced in 1806 in Little Horton, as a private academy for the education of young men for the ministry. By means of gifts and bequests, both of books and money, it became in the course of a few years an important centre of education. In the year 1859 the college was removed to Rawden, where the teachers and students are housed in a handsome building, erected in the Tudor style, from the designs of Mr. H. J. Paull, Manchester.

The college stands in a commanding position, overlooking the valley of the Aire, and has a fine appearance. It is surrounded by beautifully laid-out grounds, and cost, inclusive of the estate on which it stands, £12,000. The revenue of the college, from endowments and other sources, is about £1500. Accommodation is provided for twenty-six students. Dr. Steadman was succeeded at Westgate Chapel by the Rev. H. Dowson, who laboured with great acceptance for many years until he resigned to become the principal of Bury Baptist College. Sion Chapel, Bridge Street, was erected in 1823, on a site given by Miss Ward. The Rev. Dr. Godwin, whose name is honoured and revered in Bradford, officiated as pastor for many years. He was followed by the Rev. Thomas Pottenger, who in his turn was succeeded by the Rev. J. P. Chown, the present able and esteemed pastor (1873). The chapel was enlarged to its utmost capacity, and it was decided to build a new one. A site was obtained in Harris Street, Leeds Road, and a large and beautiful edifice in the Italian style, designed by Messrs. Lockwood and Mawson, has been reared at a total outlay, for building and land, of nearly £16,000. The chapel has a handsome Corinthian portico, fronting Harris Street, and accommodation is provided for 1500 persons. In the rear of the chapel are large Sunday schools. The building is to be opened in 1873, and is styled Sion Jubilee Memorial Chapel and schools. Trinity Chapel, Little Horton Lane, rose in 1857, and contains 1000 sittings; the Sunday schools were subsequently enlarged. Hallfield Chapel and schools, a handsome pile of buildings in the Gothic style, were built in 1863, at a cost of £7000, in Manningham Lane; there are seats in the chapel for 1000 persons. There are also preaching places at Allerton Road (Lady Royd), New Leeds (Mulgrave Street), and Caledonia Street. The General Baptists have a chapel in Infirmary Street, and there are Baptist chapels in Tetley Street, Darfield Street, and Ripley Street, Manchester Road. The Baptist interest in Bradford is strong, and the people are active in well-doing. The rise of the Wesleyan Methodists of Bradford may be traced to the zealous and indefatigable preaching of John Wesley in the West Riding, of John Nelson, who suffered bonds and imprisonment from the bigots of his time, and of many other zealous and devoted men. The first Methodist chapel in the vicinity of Bradford was erected at Birstal in 1751, but it was not until 1756 that a "preaching place" was opened at Bradford. On June 17, 1744, John Wesley first preached at Little Horton, and again visited Bradford and preached on the 24th January, 1746, and 25th April, 1747. Their first meeting-house was at the Cock-pit, which Mr. Crabtree and the Baptists vacated in 1755. It was not till 1766 that they had a chapel of their own building. It was called the Octagon, and stood in Great Horton Road. In 1769 Bradford became the head of a circuit, Halifax being then included; but in 1785 Halifax was separated from Bradford. In 1835 Bradford was divided into two circuits, Kirkgate and Eastbrook. Horton was constituted a circuit in 1842; Manningham became another in 1866, Low Moor in 1871, and in 1872, Greenhill (Bradford Moor) was made into a circuit. There are thus five circuits in Bradford. John Wesley preached last in Bradford, at five o'clock in the morning of May 2,1788, at the Octagon, when there was a large congregation. Kirkgate Chapel was built in 1811, with 1400 sittings, and at a cost of £11,000; Eastbrook Chapel in 1825, with 1500 sittings, and a much handsomer exterior than that in Kirkgate. Its cost was upwards of £7000. White Abbey Chapel was built in 1838, and has been considerably enlarged; Centenary Chapel, Clayton Lane, in 1839. There are large chapels at Bradford Moor, Dudley Hill, Richmond Terrace, Undercliffe, Mount Street, Little Horton Lane (Annesley), Girlington, Great Horton, Prospect (Bowling), Carlisle Road (Manningham), and Heaton Road. A new chapel was building in 1873 in Otley Road, at a cost of £6400. Most of these chapels have roomy Sunday schools attached, and of late years the Wesleyans have spent a very large aggregate amount in the extension of chapel and school accommodation. A new chapel has been built at Frizinghall, just outside the borough. From the year 1744 to 1839, when the centenary of Methodism was celebrated, embracing a period of ninety-five years, the Wesleyans of Bradford had extended their numbers until, in the latter year, there were 3500 members, 4306 children in the schools, and at least 15,000 of the population directly or indirectly under its influence. In the thirty-five years up to 1839, upwards of £40,000 had been spent in the erection of chapels and schools. Up to the first half of 1873, the total number of sittings in the Wesleyan chapels built and building in the borough of Bradford was 13,000, and the chapels were all well attended. The number of Sunday scholars was between 8000 and 9000. From 1838 to 1873 no less a sum than £80,000 had been spent in the borough of Bradford by the Wesleyans, in the building of chapels and schools. The Primitive Methodists are also prospering. They have places of worship at Carlisle Road, Manningham; at Daisy Hill; at Great Horton, Town-end; at Horton Bank; at Laister-dyke (Zion); at Manchester Road; at Sun Street (Philadelphia); at Rebecca Street; and at Park Lane. The Methodist New Connection have chapels at Horton Lane (Ebenezer), and Sticker Lane, and they opened a preaching place in Bowling Old Lane in 1873. The United Methodist Free Church people have built chapels at Bridge Street, Dudley Hill; Otley Road, Free Street (Mount Olive); Westgate, Holmes Street; and Swaine Green (Providence). The Wesleyan Reformers possess chapels at Bowling Old Lane (Muff Field), Peckover Street (Bethesda), and Abbey Street. The other dissenters, not capable of classification, who have places of worship, are-United Presbyterian, Infirmary Street; Moravians, Little Horton; New Jerusalem, Infirmary Street; Latter Day Saints, Kirkgate; and the Brethren, Salem Street. It does not come within the limits of this work to describe the operations of these bodies in detail; but it may be remarked that they all, more or less, have Sunday schools or other agencies by which the instruction of the young in religious knowledge is carefully attended to. The same may be said of the Roman Catholics, who celebrated public mass in Bradford, probably for the first time since the days of Queen Mary, in 1822, at the Roebuck Inn, Bradford, and who have now five chapels in the borough-St. Mary's, Stott Hill; St. Patrick's, Westgate; St. Ann's, Hardy Street; St. Joseph's, Grafton Street; and St. Peter's, Leeds Road. It is contemplated to build a large new chapel in connection with St. Mary's, and further extension is intended in respect to St. Patrick's. The Roman Catholics form a numerous portion of the population of Bradford; but the comparative poverty of the great mass of the people acts as a hindrance to the wish of the priests to extend the chapel and school accommodation for the members of their communion. The Society of Friends was established in Bradford as early as 1672; for in that year William Wright, clothier, gave an acre of land in Goodmansend, in trust for "the children of light, whom the people of the world commonly call Quakers," to use as a burial ground for them and their succeeding generations. Their meeting- house, which will accommodate 1400 persons, was built on the site of the old chapel in 1811, enlarged in 1825, and improved subsequently. A large Sunday school has been built adjoining the meeting-house.

Public Parks.- Bradford, like most of the manufacturing towns of England, has been liberally supplied with public parks for the pleasure and recreation of all classes, including those engaged in labour. Peel Park, containing an area of about fifty-six acres, was purchased and laid out by public subscription, at a cost of about £25,000. Sir Titus Salt, Bart., and Messrs. Milligan, Forbes, & Co. were each contributors of £1000. The park is on the north-east side of the town, and is situated in a beautiful valley, well wooded, and commanding extensive views to the west and north-west. One of the principal features of the park is a terrace 400 yards long and thirty feet wide. On the 7th November, 1863, this fine estate was conveyed to the Bradford Corporation, in trust for the people of Bradford. On the 28th October, 1870, the Corporation purchased Lister Park, Manningham, from Mr. S. C. Lister, for £40,000, with power to sell off not more than fourteen acres. The total area of the park was fifty-three acres, three roods, thirty-two poles, but it has, since the original purchase, been a little enlarged. This delightful domain, with its noble trees and extensive greensward, is not to be dismembered, the Corporation having decided not to sell any land in either of the parks. Land has been bought at Horton for a third park. An instalment of six acres out of forty which it is proposed to acquire, has come into the hands of the Corporation, and has been thrown open to the inhabitants as a recreation ground. A fourth park is to be purchased at Bowling, on the site known as Bowling Springs, not far from the ancient mansion of Bowling Hall. It is also proposed that Bradford Moor shall be acquired as a recreation ground. When all these schemes are matured, Bradford will have five places for outdoor recreation, within easy reach of the homes of the inhabitants, an advantage which few towns possess. Galas have been held for many years in Peel Park, at Whitsuntide and on other occasions, but the largest gatherings are at Whitsuntide, when business in Bradford is suspended for the holidays, and the proceeds of the galas are given to the charities. In 1873 upwards of 100,000 people paid for admission to the galas on Whit Monday and Tuesday, and a large sum was realized. Galas are also held in Lister Park, and a band, paid for by public subscription, played in the grounds on Saturday afternoons in the summer months of 1872, and was continued in 1873. No better indication of the prosperity of the town and districts can be afforded than the assemblages at these galas, where the people of both sexes are well dressed, displaying excellent taste in their attire, and their behaviour is highly commendable, such a thing as a complaint being very rarely heard. The good order observed in these vast assemblages no doubt arises, in a great measure, from the fact that intoxicating liquors are not allowed to be sold in the parks, either at galas or at other times.

Boundary Commissioners' Report on Bradford.- The position and limits of the parliamentary and municipal borough of Bradford, as described by the Boundary Commissioners of 1868, were as follows-
The large and flourishing borough of Bradford stands in a hilly country, very favourable for creating water-power, on the banks of a considerable brook which flows northward into the river Aire, at a distance of about two miles north of Bradford. Since the time when the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, which runs along the banks of the river Aire, was constructed, soon after the commencement of the reign of George III., Bradford has possessed the advantage of a cheap inland navigation, both to the eastern and western seas. The borough of Bradford in 1868 consisted of the several townships of Bradford, Manningham, and Bowling, and the township of Horton, including the hamlets of Great and Little Horton.

Free Library.- On the 5th March, 1868, an able report was prepared by a sub-committee of the general purposes committee of the Bradford Corporation, of which Mr. J. V. Godwin was chairman, setting forth what had been done in other towns as to the working of the Free Public Libraries Act, and stating that it was desirable that the Act should be adopted in Bradford "at as early a period as the ratepayers may deem expedient," and "that whenever the council shall be called upon by a decided expression of local public opinion, they should be prepared to do their part with alacrity and spirit." Nothing further was done that year, but subsequently the subject was warmly taken up. A town's meeting was convened, and Mr. J. V. Godwin moved a resolution in favour of adopting the Act, which was carried by a very large majority. The town council at once proceeded to make the necessary arrangements for establishing the library, and in 1872 the free library was opened in temporary premises in New Market Street. In 1873 it was proposed to erect a handsome building specially for the purpose at the corner of Godwin Street and Aldemanbury, over a new fire brigade station- house. The structure has been designed by Messrs. Andrews and Pepper, in the classical style, and is estimated to cost about £14,000. The library contains 14,000 volumes. There is a reading-room, supplied with the magazines and periodicals and the local newspapers, and a reference department. From the opening on 15th June, 1872, to 31st April, 1873, 27,544 volumes had been issued to be read on the premises. The lending department was opened on the 17th February, 1873, and from that time to 31st April in the same year, 25,130 volumes were issued to be read at home. In addition to the above, upwards of 130,000 persons had visited the library to peruse the current literature, &c., with which the tables in the reading room were regularly provided. Mr. Charles Virgo is librarian. The cost of purchasing books, fitting up the library, &c., to the end of 1872, was £1879 18s. 10d. The Bradford library, formed in 1774, is supported by subscription, and the books are stored in a commodious building devoted to the purpose in Darley Street. The number of volumes in the library in 1873 was 16,000.

Sewage Defoecation.- The Bradford Corporation, bound by an agreement in chancery to cleanse and purify the sewage flowing from the town into the river Aire, have had constructed, in the Bradford valley between Bolton and Frizinghall, a range of sewage defaecation works which it is expected will answer the desired purpose. The scheme is to be worked by the Peat Engineering Company, under an agreement with the Corporation. The process is simple, and is worked on the gravitation principle. The sewage matter flows from the main drain into subsiding tanks, and from thence passes into five filtering chambers; two filled with burned peat and clay, and three with charcoal. In its passage through these chambers the sewage is purified, and it flows thence into the Bradford beck on its way to the river Aire. The first section of the works was in operation in the early part of 1873, and appeared to be successful in cleansing the sewage. The whole scheme was expected to be worked during the year. The cost of these works, inclusive of land, &c., up to December, 1872, was £58,751. Adjoining the sewage works the Bradford beck was, in 1873, in course of being covered in at the joint expense of the Bradford Corporation and the Midland Railway Company. The cost of this important work to the Corporation was £19,906 13s. 9d., the Company paying sixty-two per cent. and the Corporation thirty-eight per cent. of the cost of the works.

Model Lodging Houses.- In the year 1865, during the mayoralty of Mr. Charles Semon, J.P., a German gentleman, a company was formed for the erection of model lodging houses, to give decent working people and wayfarers, who had to move about the country, the opportunity of securing clean lodgings at a moderate price. In 1866 a large building, costing £4000, was opened in Captain Street, Bolton Road, affording accommodation for 172 persons. The charges were 4d. and 6d a night for single men, and 8d. for married couples. Mr. H. Gardner was appointed superintendent, and the scheme answered so well that a second house was built and opened in Wigan Street, in 1872, on the opposite side of the town. This building, which cost £5000, is exclusively devoted to single men, and has accommodation for 185. The charges are 4d. and 6d. a night. Mr. Gardner was given charge of the place, and Mr. G. Baldock was appointed to Captain Street. Begun in a philanthropic spirit, the lodging-houses have proved so useful and have been so largely appreciated, that the proprietors have derived a dividend from the undertaking.

Reading-rooms, the means of cooking their own food, and other conveniences are provided for the lodgers, many of whom remain for a lengthened period in the houses. Religious service is conducted on Sunday, and the lodgers are stated to behave well. Mr. Charles Semon, who has taken a lively interest in this provision for houseless wanderers, was chairman of the company. In 1873 there were thirty-six other registered lodging houses in Bradford (one to accommodate about 100 persons), and many houses that were not registered by the Corporation.

Baths and Washhouses.- The Bradford Corporation, in 1865, had the old waterworks offices in Thornton Road converted into baths and washhouses, by Messrs. Milnes and France, at a cost of £7500. The building was formally opened by the mayor (Mr. C. Semon) on July 22, 1865. There are first and second class swimming, slipper, vapour, and douche baths, and a beautifully fitted up Turkish bath. Swimming and slipper baths are also provided for females. There are ten compartments for washing, furnished with drying houses and other conveniences. The baths and washhouses have been extensively used, but these aids to cleanliness are required in other parts of the borough; the washing department being inadequate to meet the demand. In the first year of their formation the baths were used by 93,375 persons, and the receipts were £1436 16s. 7d. In 1872 there were 109,333 bathers, and the money earned was £1653 3s. 5d. Mr. John Howarth has been superintendent from the commencement. In 1873 the accommodation for bathers was enlarged.

Hospitals and Charitable Institutions.- The great increase of wealth in Bradford has been followed by liberal contributions to charitable objects, and the town now (1873) possesses many institutions for ameliorating the sufferings of the sick poor. Foremost amongst these is the Bradford Infirmary and Dispensary, begun in a small way in 1825; but in 1844 a large building in the Elizabethan style was erected between Westgate and Lumb Lane, from the designs of Mr. Walker Rawstorne, at a cost, inclusive of site and grounds, of upwards of £10,000. In 1864 the building was raised another story, by Messrs. Andrews and Delaunay, at an expenditure of £6578; and in 1873 a new dispensary was added by Messrs. Andrews and Pepper, the expenditure being upwards of £5200. An anonymous donation of £3000 was received towards the cost of the new dispensary. The outlay on the building, &c., although stated in the aggregate at £21,778, has been considerably more than this sum, as many minor additions have been made. The institution is liberally supported. Amongst the numerous list of benefactions is the princely legacy of £10,000 (less duty) bequeathed in 1863 by Mr. Abraham Musgrave, of Bramley. In 1872, 7976 patients were treated in the house, and 16,887 visits were paid by the dispensary surgeons to patients at their own homes. At December 31, 1872, the total money invested was £21,000, and there was a balance at the bank of £568 6s. The total income for 1872 was £5701 17s. 2d., the expenditure exceeding this sum by £6 0s. 7d. The average cost of a bed per annum, which, in 1869, was £36 2s. 5½d., rose in 1872 to £43 13s. 4½.; but this does not include items of expense shared with the out-patients. In connection with the Infirmary is the Outhwaite Convalescent Fund, for sending patients who are recovering to Harrogate, Ilkley, Buxton, and Southport. Next in importance is the Bradford Fever Hospital. This institution owes it origin to Mr. Alfred Harris, of Sleningford Park, Ripon, formerly a partner in Harris' Old Bank, Bradford. Grateful for the prosperity of his life, Mr. Harris in 1867 offered £4398 15s. towards the foundation of a fever hospital. Sir Titus Salt, Bart., of Saltaire, seconded this handsome offer with the munificent sum of £5000; and "A Friend" giving £3000, other large donations flowed in, and the result was the erection of a building at Penny Oaks, Leeds Road, which is believed to be one of the most complete and efficient fever hospitals in the kingdom. The design was prepared by Messrs. Andrews and Pepper. The hospital is erected on the detached pavilion principle. The administration department and the wards are connected with each other by covered corridors of glass and wood. The wards are only one story in height, and attached to them are convalescent wards. No expense was spared to render the hospital as perfect for its purpose as possible. The building, picturesque in appearance, stands upon a hill in the centre of several acres of land, and the grounds are tastefully laid out and planted with trees. The memorial stone was laid on September 10, 1869, by Mr. Alfred Harris, and the hospital was opened 16th January, 1872. The total expenditure for land, building, furnishing, &c., up to December 31, 1872, was £24,269 3s. 7d. The Eye and Ear Hospital was established in 1857 by Mr. Edward Bronner, M.D., an eminent German oculist and aurist; and on March 29, 1864, the foundation stone of a new building was laid in Hallfield Road, by Sir Titus Salt, Bart. (then Mr. Salt), and was opened June 28, 1865, by the mayor (Mr. C. Semon). Mr. John Abbott, of Halifax, gave £1000, and an anonymous donor contributed a similar sum. The site, 1450 yards in extent, cost 3s. per yard. The hospital, one of the handsomest Gothic structures in Bradford, was designed by Messrs. Lockwood and Mawson, and was completed at a cost of £5500. It was to be enlarged in 1873 by the addition of two wards for infectious cases, at an estimated cost of £1200. The hospital does not confine its operations to Bradford, but receives patients from the surrounding towns and villages. The number of patients admitted in 1872 was 1443, and of these 240 were in-patients, who remained in the hospital 6364 days, or 26¼ days each, at a cost of only 11¼d. per day, or 25s. for each patient. Of the 1203 out-patients, 552 came from other towns, and of the 240 in-patients, 153 were from other places. The expenses for the year ending February, 1873, were £882 13s. 5d., and the income was £834 6s. 3d. The invested fund in that year amounted to £3000. The Nurses' Training Institution was opened in Eldon Place, Bradford, in 1872, mainly through the instrumentality of Mr. C. Semon, J.P. Its object is to train up young women to become nurses in private families and in hospitals, there being great difficulty in Bradford, where employment for women in the mills is plentiful, to obtain good nurses. In 1873 there were eight trained nurses connected with the institution, and six probationers. The income from private nursing for ten months ending March 31, 1873, was £240 6s. 1d., and the total expenses had been £600, the funds required being raised by subscription. It was intended to commence district nursing amongst the sick poor as soon as a sufficient number of nurses had been trained and the funds would warrant. The Tradesmen's Benevolent Institution, originated in 1857 by the mayor (Mr. H. Brown), gives pensions to unfortunate tradesmen. In 1873 the number of pensioners was 37, of whom 10 were males, and 27 females. The males receive £24 yearly, and the females £18. The money invested in 1873 was £3400. In connection with this institution is the Tradesmen's Home at Manningham, a range of thirty houses, built from the designs of Messrs. Milnes and France in 1867. In the centre of the pile is a handsome chapel or reading-room elegantly furnished, and containing some fine stained glass windows. The foundation stone was laid by Sir Titus Salt, Bart., in September 1867, and the cost of the whole scheme was £14,000. The home stands in the midst of its own grounds. Like its kindred charity, it is for decayed tradespeople, male and female, who are each furnished with a house free. Mr. John Robinson has the credit of being the originator, and the home has been liberally supported by donations of 2000 guineas from Sir Titus Salt, Bart., 800 guineas from Mr. Henry Brown, 700 guineas from the late Mr. H. Harris, and large sums from other gentlemen. The Spinsters' Endowment Fund, for furnishing elderly maiden ladies with the means to qualify them for occupying the homes, was started, after the home was opened, by Mr. Thomas Buck, J.P., who gave £1080 for this purpose. Other donations have swelled the invested capital to £1470. The fund is managed by trustees, and in 1873 Mr. W. W. Harris was honorary secretary, the scheme being worked with very little cost. In 1873 six spinsters were on the fund, each receiving £18 per annum. The Bradford Association for improving the social condition of the blind, owes much to the late Mr. W. Lythall. It was begun in a small way, but in 1868 a large Gothic building was reared in North Parade, at a cost of £6590, from the designs of Messrs. Knowles and Wilcock, where the work of the institution is conducted. The institution is managed by ladies, Mrs. Gale and Miss Holloway being the honorary secretaries in 1873. A special donation of £2000 was given by a lady anonymously. In 1872, thirty-four men and eighteen women were constantly employed in the workshops, receiving regular wages. The mission woman had paid 495 visits to the blind in the town and neighbourhood in 1872, teaching them to read, administering religious consolation, and succouring the sick and aged blind. The amount received for goods in 1872 was £6552 19s. 9½d., and the surplus of assets, being the value of stock, &c., and inclusive of cash in bank and in hand, £930 18s. 4½d., was £5374 12s. 7½d. The Bradford Female Refuge was established in 1860, for reclaiming fallen women. The institution is in Arctic Parade, Great Horton. In 1872, fourteen women were received, and their earnings were £105 9s. 6d. The expenditure was £311 6s. 10d., and there was a balance in hand of £40 4s. 10d. A branch had been opened at Halifax. The refuge is doing a small but valuable work. The Bradford Female Orphanage for training up young girls as domestic servants, owes its establishment to Mrs. Lythall, a benevolent lady who has spent many years of her life in this good cause, and has contributed bountifully to the support of the orphanage. A building was erected in Shipley Road in 1870, at a cost of £3425 9s. 6d. Mrs. Lythall, Miss Crossley, and an anonymous donor, each gave £500. The number of orphans received is limited to twenty, but in 1872 there were twenty- seven. The receipts were £365 3s. and the expenditure £411 10s. 9d., leaving a balance of £46 7s. 9d. owing to the treasurer. In the year 1868, Mr. Briggs Priestley, of Bradford, established an orphan school at New Leeds, a poor district of the borough; and he also opened a free lending library, which in 1873 consisted of 1000 volumes, and had proved very useful; the issues being 150 to 180 per week. The object of the school was the reception of poor orphans, children without parents, or those of widows and widowers in destitute circumstances. The children are taught reading, writing, arithmetic, sewing, knitting, &c., and each child is provided with a dinner daily. The only condition enjoined on the parents or relatives is, that the children must be sent to school as clean and tidy as possible. Prizes are given to the children according to their merits, for regularity of attendance, progress, and general good behaviour. A teacher and a cook are engaged, who live on the premises. The cost of fitting up and furnishing the New Leeds School was £150. The number of scholars on the books in 1873 was 110, and the average attendance was ninety. Encouraged by the success of his first experiment, Mr. Priestley generously opened a second school on the same principle, in Pine Street, Bolton Road, in January, 1870, the expense of furnishing and fitting being £130. The number on the books in 1873 was ninety, and the attendance averaged seventy- six. The annual cost of this philanthropic scheme, entirely supported by Mr. Priestley, was £500 in 1872, and the whole of the advantages offered by the schools is supplied free of charge. The schools were ostensibly formed to enable poor widows to go out and earn their living, with the satisfaction of knowing that their children were well cared for during their absence from home. A small institution for the deaf and dumb exists in Bradford, and the Wesleyans originated the Benevolent or Strangers' Friend Society in 1813, which continues to distribute by its visitors weekly sums to the amount of £100 yearly.

Club Houses.- There are a large number of club-houses in Bradford, both for the wealthy merchants and manufacturers, and for the more humble operatives. The members of the Bradford Club have a large mansion, fitted up in a costly manner, in Manor Row. The Union Club have premises in Piece Hall Yard, which are to be largely extended and brought to the front of Kirkgate. The Germans have their Schiller Verein in the New Market buildings. The Exchange Club is held in rooms in the Exchange buildings, and there are Anglo-French and Swiss Clubs.

The Stone and Building Trades.- An important branch of industry in the Bradford district is the stone trade. Rich in coal and iron, the district also yields some of the best stone in the kingdom. From the heights of Northowram, Queensbury, Denholme, Thornton, Allerton, Clayton, Heaton, Calverley, Pudsey, Bolton, and Idle, vast quantities of stone are brought down to Bradford, to be exported thence to all parts of the kingdom, especially to London, and even to such distant places as South America. Unfortunately no reliable statistics can be had as to the total quantity of stone quarried; but the aggregate amount must be very large, and the capital invested in these operations heavy. An approximate estimate, prepared by a gentleman conversant with the trade, gives the total value of the output of stone from the quarries in the Bradford district for the year 1872 at upwards of £350,000. Steam cranes are now generally used at the quarries, and the price of stone has risen considerably. From the Cliffe Wood quarries, near Bradford, a beautiful cream-coloured stone is obtained of fine texture, with which the front of the town hall at Bradford has been built, and the town hall at Manchester also is being erected. Stone and landings of almost any size and weight may be obtained, the only limit being the lifting power of the cranes. The flagstones quarried at Northowram are exceedingly hard and durable Machinery has been employed of late years to cut and polish stones and flags. Messrs. A. & A. R. Neill, of Bradford, have several of these machines in operation, which perform their work deftly and well. The stone is not only cut, chiselled, and polished, but it is also turned.

The Banks.- There are several large and handsome premises in Bradford devoted to banking purposes. The Bradford and East Morley Savings' Bank was commenced in 1818, and its operations are conducted in a building in Manor Row. The amount, including interest, deposited at the Bank for investment with government by 39,657 depositors since the opening of the bank in 1818, up to November 20, 1872, was £1,689,117 12,. 9d.; the repayments during the same period were £1,552,738 6s. 5d., leaving the balance due to depositors £136,379 6s. 4d. In April, 1870, a new investment fund was opened, by which the amount of deposits was not limited, interest was allowed at four per cent., and the funds invested in other than government security. From April, 1872, up to November 20, 1872, the total deposits in this manner by 2486 depositors, with interest, was £199,936 6s. 2d.; the repayments were £31,834 12s. 4d., leaving the balance due to depositors £168,101 13s. 10d. The total amount due to depositors in both departments was £304,481 Os. 2d., being an increase during the year of £51,263 0s. 6d. The combined capital of the bank in the two departments in May, 1873, was £323,246 5s. 7d., and the new scheme was working very well. The Old Bank, Limited, occupies a Gothic building at the corner of Cheapside and Market Street, erected from the designs of Mr. Waterhouse. The Bradford Banking Company have a classical edifice at the corner of Kirkgate and Darley Street, built from the plans of Messrs. Andrews & Delannay. The Commercial Bank is housed in Old Market, in a French Gothic building, surmounted by a tower, designed by Messrs. Andrews & Pepper. The Bradford branch of the Yorkshire Banking Company was, in 1873, removed from the old premises in Market Street to a more commodious structure at the corner of Hustler Gate and Bank Street. This beautiful classical building was erected from the designs of Messrs. Lockwood & Mawson, and cost about £24,000. The Bradford District Bank is to find a home in a new building, in the Italian style, in course of construction in 1873, from the designs of Messrs. Milnes & France, at a cost, inclusive of land, of about £23,000. The space at our disposal does not allow of a detailed description of these handsome edifices, which form some of the principal architectural ornaments of the town, and have cost large sums of money, the banking rooms and other apartments being fitted up in a costly manner. There are branches of the Union Bank of Manchester, and the Leeds Exchange and Discount Bank. An approximate estimate of the business transacted by the seven last- named banks in the year 1872 shows that the aggregate amount was equal to the large sum of about £74,000,000. If to this be added the transactions of bankers in London, Manchester, Leeds, and Halifax, on account of Bradford traders, estimated at £24,000,000 for 1872, the product is the immense sum of £100,000,000 as the turn-over of the bankers in connection with the Bradford trade.

Chamber of Commerce of Bradford.- The trade of Bradford has received valuable aid, for many years, from the establishment of the "Chamber of Commerce for Bradford and the Worsted District," instituted in 1851. Mr. Jacob Behrens, one of the first of the German settlers who came to reside in Bradford, and who have done so much to advance the prosperity of their adopted town, has the credit of having originated the Bradford Chamber. The first annual meeting of the chamber was held on the 26th January, 1852, in the large room of the Bradford Exchange, Kirkgate. Mr. William Rand, president, occupied the chair, and amongst those present and who took part in the proceedings were the members for the borough (Colonel) P. Thompson, M.P., and Mr. Robert Milligan, M.P.), Mr. W. E. Forster, Mr. Jacob Behrens, &c. Mr. John Darlington was appointed secretary, and was still acting in that capacity in 1873, having occupied that important position from the commencement. The number of members the first year was 189. The objects of the chamber are-to promote measures calculated to benefit and protect the mercantile and trading interests of the town and neighbourhood; to represent and express the sentiments of the trading classes of Bradford on commercial affairs; to collect statistics bearing upon the staple trade of the district; and to undertake the settlement, by arbitration or otherwise, of questions and disputes arising in the trade. All questions of party politics are strictly excluded. The business of the chamber is managed by a council of twenty-four members, who arrange themselves in committees, those for 1873 directing their attention to the questions of arbitration, law amendment, tariffs, wool supply, and postal and railway communication. The objects set forth at the foundation of the chamber have been steadily pursued, with great success. Mr. Cobden expressed himself greatly indebted to the Bradford Chamber for the successful working out of the first French tariff of 1860, which proved so advantageous to the Bradford trade; and the chamber was consulted on the changes proposed by M. Thiers in 1873. The Belgian tariff was also improved by the advice of the Bradford Chamber, and on many occasions matters affecting the well- being of the general trade of the country have been brought by it before the government in such a manner as to insure their recognition; one of the most recent being that of the trade with Yarkand and other little-known districts of Central Asia. At the meeting of the Social Science Association at Bradford, in 1859, a meeting of the representatives of chambers of commerce was held under the chairmanship of Mr. H. W. Ripley, president of the Bradford Chamber, when it was resolved, that, for the purpose of mutual co-operation and assistance, delegates from the chambers of commerce in the three kingdoms should meet annually in London. Meetings have since been held in the provinces; one was held in Bradford in 1870. The chamber secured the adequate representation of Bradford manufactures in the Exhibitions of 1851, in London; of 1855, in Paris; of 1862, in London; of 1867, in Paris; and at the Exhibition in London of 1871. Valuable reports were prepared on the Paris Exhibition of 1855 respecting wool, machinery, tops, warp, weft, and woven and dyed fabrics. These reports were drawn up by Messrs. Samuel Bottomley and Edward Waud, of Bradford, and Mr. J. W. Child of Halifax; Mr. John Darlington, the secretary, acting with those gentlemen. Similar reports were also prepared on the Paris Exhibition of 1867, by Messrs. J. V. Godwin, Alfred Illingworth, Charles Stead, and G. M. Waud. Three Bradford workmen were also sent to this exhibition, at the suggestion of the Society of Arts. Mr. John French reported on the machinery, and Messrs. George Spencer and Daniel Illingworth on the spinning and weaving of worsted goods. These reports were printed. No collective display of goods was sent to the Vienna Exhibition of 1873, but the trade of the town was represented there by articles sent by Bradford firms, the chamber lending its aid. In 1859 special attention was directed to the supply of wool, and in 1869 a revised report was issued by the chamber on colonial and foreign wool, which was sent to all foreign countries in which that article is grown. The report was accompanied by detailed descriptions of twenty-five sorts of wool, namely, those of Portugal, Iceland, Russia, Turkey, Transylvania, Wallachia; Belgium, Flanders, Holland, India and Persia, Egypt, Mogadore, Canada, California, Peru, River Plate, China, Port Phillip, Sydney, Adelaide, New Zealand, Cape of Good Hope, Natal. It also embraced alpaca, mohair, and China grass (Urtica nivea), which was described, and stated to be daily becoming more valuable. Great progress had been made in adapting it to textile purposes, and almost any quantity would find a ready market in this country. The Bradford Chamber had more than 300 members in 1873. The names of the gentlemen who have filled the office of president from the formation of the chamber were: 1852-54, Mr. William Rand; 1855, Mr. Samuel Smith; 1856-57, Sir Titus Salt, Bart. (then Mr. Titus Salt); 1858, and for ten succeeding years, up to 1867, Mr. H. W. Ripley; 1869-70, Mr. Jacob Behrens; 1871, Mr. J. Y. Godwin; 1872, Mr. James Law; and 1873, Mr. Charles Stead (Sir Titus Salt, Bart., Sons, & Co.). The vice-presidents for 1873 were Messrs. A. Hoffmann and Joseph Oddy; auditor, Mr. W. H. Sachs; treasurer, Mr. H. W. Ripley. The ex officio members of the council are the members for the borough (the Right Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P., Mr. E. Miall, M.P.), and the mayor of Bradford (Alderman M. W. Thompson).

The Bonding Warehouses.- In 1860 bonding warehouses were opened at Bradford, and a custom-house was established. Business increased so rapidly that the Midland Railway Company soon built a large bonding warehouse in Commercial Street, Bradford, adjoining their station; and in 1873 they completed another large warehouse on the opposite side of the street, the two piles being joined together by a glass roof spanning the street. The Bradford customs revenue for the year ending March 31, 1873, was £75,292, and for the corresponding period of the previous year, £62,100, showing an increase on the year of £13,192. The customs officers in charge in 1873 were-Mr. Francis Evans, collector and surveyor; Mr. Duncan M'Lellan, clerk; Mr. Alexander Gillanders, examining officer; Mr. James Middleton, locker.

The Volunteer Movement.- Bradford was in 1873 made the headquarters of the 10th Brigade Depot of the regular army, and the barracks at Bradford Moor, which have existed for many years, are to be largely extended. The depot consists of the 1st and 2nd battalions of the 14th Regiment of Foot (Buckinghamshire), Colonel F. G. Hibbert being the commanding officer; 4th West York Militia, Colonel-commandant Pollard; 5th Administrative Battalion of West Riding Rifle Volunteers, Hon. Colonel H. F. Beaumont; 29th West Riding Rifle Volunteers, Major John Wormald; and 34th West Riding Rifle Volunteers, Major Joseph Collins. In 1860 a volunteer artillery corps was formed. The first officer was Lieutenant W. Clarke, attested 3rd December, 1860, and the first adjutant was the late Captain Robson, appointed 4th January, 1861. In May of the same year the corps was increased to two batteries; a third was added in 1861, and the corps continued to increased up to May, 1863, when there were one major, five captains, five first and five second lieutenants, one adjutant, one surgeon, and 400 men of all ranks, in five batteries. In January, 1864, the corps was divided into two, styled the 2nd and 5th corps, of two and three batteries respectively. In 1864 Lieutenant-colonel G. Wood commanded, who was succeeded by Lieutenant-colonel W. M. Selwyn in 1866. In the same year the 6th and 7th corps were formed, and the whole was commanded by Lieut.-colonel Sir C. H. Firth. In 1871 the 8th corps (Halifax) was formed and joined the brigade, which in 1873 consisted of ten batteries, with a total, of all ranks, of 800 men. Lord F. C. Cavendish, M.P., was honorary colonel, Sir C. H. Firth, Knight, D.D., lieutenant-colonel, and Captain F. Page, adjutant. The brigade, whose headquarters were at Bradford, consisted of the 2nd corps (Bradford), 5th corps (Bowling), 6th corps (Heckmondwike), 7th corps (Batley), and 8th corps (Halifax), each of two batteries. The brigade has a battery of eight guns in Peel Park, Bradford. It has highly distinguished itself at the National Artillery competitions at Shoeburyness, and has twice won the Queen's Prize, the Prince of Wales' Prize, the prizes for repository drill and for highest average. It has also carried off the Lords' and Commons' Prize, the Elkington Prize, and the running target prize, no volunteer brigade in the service having excelled it. In 1873 means were taken to raise a new drill hall at Bowling, on land given by Mr. H. MT. Ripley, father of Major Ripley, of the Bradford corps. The hall, which is to be a handsome, commodious building, is intended for the use of the 2nd and 5th corps. The 3rd West York Bradford Rifle Volunteers were formed in 1859, Captain S. C. Lister, the first commander, receiving his commission as captain, Sept. 22, 1859, and as lieutenant-colonel on Sept. 27 1860. He resigned the command August 6, 1862, and was succeeded by Lieut.-colonel Hirst, who commanded in 1873, and who had been a captain in the corps from September 26, 1859. Captain Lepper was the first adjutant, and he has been succeeded in that post by Captain Neild. In 1873 the corps consisted of eight companies (seven at headquarters and one at Eccleshill). There was a very efficient staff, and seven captains, seven lieutenants, and six ensigns. Seventeen of the officers hold certificates of proficiency; the corps altogether is a smart, soldier-like body of men, and has been highly commended on every occasion by the inspecting officer. The handsome range of barracks in Manningham Lane were reared in 1861, at a cost of £3000. There is a spacious drill-room, armoury, gymnasium, orderly room, stores, non-commissioned officers' room, stable, house, &c., and an inclosed square for drill purposes. The corps holds a very high position for drill, being considered one of the best regiments, in the county. The enrolled strength in 1873 was 600. The 39th (Saltaire) Rifle Volunteers is attached to the Bradford corps for drill, and musters ninety men of all ranks, under the command of Lieutenant Crowther and Ensign Delves. The corps was raised by Mr. Titus Salt, of Milner Field, in 1869, and does credit to Saltaire. The corps is drilled in the gymnasium at the Saltaire Institute. The Bradford corps, with the 39th attached, forms part of the 9th Depot Brigade, under the command of Colonel Collings, C.B., the headquarters being at Halifax.

Men of Note in Bradford.- Amongst men of distinguished talents and attainments born or who have settled in the town or parish of Bradford; we may mention Dr. Richardson, M.D., who was born at Bierley Hall, the residence of his ancestors, in the year 1663. He was educated at Bradford grammar school, which then stood very high as a seminary for education. Dr. Richardson, writing in the year 1718, speaks of it as the "renowned school of Bradford," and in after life he contributed to the school library, to which he considered himself greatly indebted. After receiving the best education which the universities of Oxford and Leyden, the latter then the great seat of medical knowledge, could impart, and after having taken the degree of Doctor of Physic at Oxford, he settled at his paternal seat of Bierley Hall, his ample estate rendering it unnecessary for him to practise physic as a profession. His whole life was spent in the pursuits of science, and more especially of botany and natural history. In 1712 he was admitted a fellow of the Royal Society, and during the greater part of his life lived on terms of the closest friendship with Sir Hans Sloane, Dr. Martin Lister, and John Ray, as well as with the antiquaries Hearne, Thoresby, and Drake. Dr. Richardson rendered an immense service to Yorkshire topography by purchasing Hopkinson's MSS. collected from the national records. He placed them at Bierley Hall, where they were always thrown open to men of letters with the utmost readiness, not only by himself, but by his descendants and representatives, including Miss Currer, whose kindness and hospitality are warmly acknowledged by Dr. T. D. Whitaker, and by Mr. James, the historian of Bradford. Amongst the memorials of his botanical pursuits was a beautiful cedar of Lebanon, in the grounds of Bierley Hall, which, not-withstanding the severity of the climate, in 1816 measured in circumference at the bottom twelve feet four inches, at the top of the solid trunk twelve feet nine inches, and in height, to the point where the stem begins to branch out, fourteen feet. The tree was still alive in 1873. Another scholar of distinguished talents and attainments, was John Sharp, D.D., the son of a Bradford manufacturer and landowner, who was born at Bradford in the year 1644, and educated first at Bradford grammar school, and afterwards at the university of Cambridge. He was a friend of the not less celebrated Dr. Tillotson, born in the adjoining parish of Halifax, who attained the high position of archbishop of Canterbury in the same age in which Dr. Sharp attained the dignity of archbishop of York. He was raised to that dignity in his forty-seventh year. Another member of the same family, Abraham Sharp, the distinguished mathematician, was born at Little Horton, Bradford, in the year 1651. He also received his education at Bradford grammar school, and ultimately settled in London, where he obtained the friendship of the great astronomer, Flamsteed. Abraham Sharp constructed and graduated most of the instruments used at the Royal Observatory. The great mural arch fixed at that place was made by his own hands, in fourteen months. According to the authority of the eminent engineer, John Smeaton, "Abraham Sharp was one of the best astronomical instrument-makers of his time." While at the observatory at Greenwich, he assisted Flamsteed "to model heaven and calculate the stars." The celebrated catalogue published by Flamsteed of 3000 stars, with their longitudes and magnitudes, their right ascensions and polar differences, owed much to the labours of Abraham Sharp. In his latter years he resided on his paternal estate at Little Horton, Bradford. He there built a square tower to his house, and fitted it up as an observatory. The telescopes which he made use of were of his own construction, and the lenses were ground and adjusted with his own hand. To every person intimately connected with Bradford this lonely tower possessed peculiar interest, and it was still standing in 1873. He had a workshop fitted up with a curious collection of tools, most of them made by himself. After he had settled at Horton, he still continued to assist Flamsteed. The elaborate tables in the second volume of the "Historia Coelestis" were calculated by him. He also prepared drawings of all the constellations, which were sent to Amsterdam to be engraved by an eminent artist. During his long residence at Horton he maintained a scientific correspondence with Sir Isaac Newton, Flamsteed, Halley, Wallis, and other distinguished men of science. He died on the 18th of July, 1742, at the age of ninety-one years, and was interred in the parish church of Bradford with great solemnity.

The Rev. William Scoresby was vicar of Bradford from 1839 to 1847. He was the author of a valuable work on "The Arctic Regions," was in his earlier years one of the most accomplished of sea-captains, and afterwards a man of high scientific attainments, as well as an excellent clergyman. His observations, made during his numerous voyages, have added greatly to our knowledge of the natural history of those remote regions, especially in the departments of electricity and magnetism.

Bradford has not been of late years without many local men of note. The late Rev. Dr. Godwin was an eminent minister amongst the Baptists, and wrote some able controversial works. Dr. William Macturk, M.D., was a physician whose talents were sought far and wide round Bradford. The late Mr. John Wood, of Theddon Grange, of the firm of Wood and Walker, Bradford, rendered great services in connection with the Ten Hours' Factory Act, of which he was one of the foremost champions and most self-denying and liberal supporters. In 1873 Bradford had the honour of being represented by the Right Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P., vice- president of the Council. Before entering Parliament Mr. Forster had taken an active share in the promotion of every good work calculated to benefit society. The Right Hon. Gathorne Hardy, M.P., member for Oxford University, is a native of Bradford, and other members of the Hardy family are in Parliament. Mr. Alfred Illingworth, M.P. for Knaresborough, is also a native of Bradford.

Mr. John James, F.S.A., author of the "History of Bradford" and other valuable works, was born at West Witton, Wensleydale, January 22, 1811. By dint of perseverance he educated himself and became a clerk in the office of the late Mr. Ottiwell Tomlin, solicitor, Richmond. He was subsequently in the office of the late Mr. Tolson, solicitor, Bradford, and while with that gentleman he published his "History of Bradford" in 1842. His next work was the "Life of John Nicholson," the Airedale poet, which was followed by the "History of the Worsted Manufacture in England." He read a paper at the meeting of the British Association at Leeds, on the "Statistics of Trade in Yorkshire," and wrote an article on Yorkshire in the Encyclopedia Britannica. His "Continuation and Additions to the History of Bradford" was published in 1866. He removed from Bradford, died at Nether Edge, Sheffield, July 4, 1867, and was buried at West Witton. The author of this work is indebted to Mr. James for many facts contained in his excellent "History of Bradford," which shows him to have been a man of taste, judgment, and great literary industry.

Samuel Hailstone, Esq., F.L.S., of Horton Hall, was an eminent botanist and geologist. Born at Hoxton, near London, in 1768, the family settled at York, and at an early age he came to Bradford as an articled clerk to Mr. Hardy, solicitor, father of John Hardy, Esq., formerly M.P. for Bradford, and subsequently became a partner with Mr. Hardy. The study of botany and natural philosophy was the great pleasure of Mr. Hailstone's life.

He contributed to Dr. Whitaker's "History of Craven" a list of rare plants growing in that district, and botanists of later times gladly admit the value of Mr. Hailstone's untiring labours in this branch of natural history. He was also an excellent geologist, collected specimens of fossils, formed a large and well-selected library-rich in MSS. on the antiquities of Yorkshire-and had a large museum of geological remains and of antiquities. He was indefatigable in the promotion of the pursuits of science, contributed largely to the botanical and geological publications of the day, laboured in the formation of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Bradford in 1806, and at its resuscitation in 1823; and at length, as Mr. James states, "after passing a long and laborious life, without a blot on his memory, he sank to the grave with almost unperceived decay. His habits were simple and methodical. He rose early at all periods of his life. His intellect was ever quick and piercing, and, like his style in writing, clear and precise. He was very exact in all his work and actions. In politics and religion his views were liberal and philosophical." He married, in 1808, the daughter of Mr. T. Jones, surgeon, Bradford; died December 26, 1851; and rests by his wife at Boston Spa. He left two sons, the Rev. John Hailstone, and Edward Hailstone, Esq., F.S.A., late of Horton Hall, but now of Waterton Hall, near Wakefield, who has inherited his love of literature and science, and whose library is wonderfully rich, especially in local antiquities.

Colonel William Sykes, F.R.S., M.P., was born at Frizinghall, January 25, 1790, where his father, Samuel Sykes, Esq., a gentleman of considerable literary attainments, resided, and was cousin to the Rev. James Sykes, then vicar of Bradford. Colonel Sykes, in his early years, was educated at Bradford grammar school, and in 1804 entered the Bombay army. He served seventeen years in India with distinguished success, taking part in many of the great battles of that period. In 1820 he came to England for four years, married, and returned to India in 1824, staying until 1831, during which time his labours, as statistical reporter to the government, were most valuable. In 1840 he was appointed a director of the East India Company; in March, 1854, was elected Lord Rector of Marischal College and University, Aberdeen; in April, 1856, was chosen chairman of the East India Company; in March, 1857, was elected M.P. for the city of Aberdeen; and in May, 1858, was president of the Royal Asiatic Society. He was the author of more than sixty papers on the ancient history, antiquities, statistics, &c., of India. He has often presided over the statistical section at the meetings of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, and rendered eminent services to the numerous literary and scientific societies over which he has presided or with which he has been connected. The King of Prussia conferred upon him the honour of commander of the first class of the Prussian Order of the Red Eagle, as an appreciation of his character as a public contributor to various branches of knowledge.

Mr. Thomas Rawson Taylor, eldest son of the Rev. T. Taylor, for some years minister of Horton Lane Chapel, was born at Ossett, near Wakefield. He came to Bradford with his father, 9th May, 1807. He was educated at Bradford grammar school, and by the Rev. Dr. Clunie, of Manchester, under whom he made great progress in classical learning. First placed in a bookseller's shop at Nottingham, he afterwards entered as a student at Airedale College, Bradford. He passed his probationary course with much success, and in October, 1829, became the minister of Howard Street Chapel, Sheffield. There he remained for five years, much esteemed by his congregation; but the fatal disease which ended his bright but brief career developed itself. He returned to Bradford, where he died March 7, 1835. He was a young man of great promise, gave indications of a fine poetic genius, and some of his printed poems clearly prove that had he lived he would have attained a high position as a poet. James Montgomery, of Sheffield, wrote of Mr. Taylor, "that nothing more natural, tender, or affecting can be quoted than some of his verses."
The Rev. Joshua Fawcett, M.A., second son of Mr Richard Fawcett, one of the first manufacturers of Bradford, was born there on the 9th May, 1809. He was first educated at Bradford grammar school, and proceeded to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he took the degree of M.A. in 1830. He became curate of Pannal, near Harrogate, and in 1832 was appointed incumbent of Wibsey, being inducted 17th February, 1833. He married in 1834 the third daughter of the Rev. L. Hird, and sister of H. W. Wickham, Esq., sometime M.P. for Bradford. Mr. Fawcett was a most amiable clergyman of distinguished ability, and adorned his profession. He was a writer of considerable talent, and much attached to antiquarian pursuits. He read a carefully prepared paper at the meeting of the Social Science Association in Bradford, in 1859, "On the rise and progress of the town of Bradford," and was an industrious lecturer on several subjects. During his time the church at Low Moor was rebuilt and the parsonage house erected. He was appointed domestic chaplain to Lord Radstock in 1854, chaplain to the bishop of Ripon in 1860, and honorary canon of Ripon Cathedral in the same year. He died suddenly, while returning home from visiting the sick, and was buried 28th December, 1864, in the graveyard of Holy Trinity Church, Low Moor. Mr. James writes, "A vast concourse of people assembled to do honour to his memory, nearly all the clergy of the neighbourhood being present, forty-eight in number. To, pronounce his eulogy in full would be beyond my powers; but this much may be said, that in every relation of life, whether as a philanthropist, a man of letters, an unassuming, courteous gentleman, or a Christian pastor, he was beloved and admired by all who knew him." An exquisitely beautiful mural monument has been erected to his memory, in the church in which he officiated.

The Bronte family have become deservedly famous in the literary annals of the parish of Bradford. Charlotte Bronte, the most distinguished member of the family, was born April 21, 1816, at Thornton, near Bradford, where her father, the Rev. Patrick Bronte, was incumbent. The family removed about 1820 to Haworth, Mr. Bronte having been appointed incumbent of that place. Haworth is one of the most distant parts of Bradford parish, on the borders of Lancashire, is situated on the northern slope of a hill, and almost surrounded with wild moorlands. It is now a thriving place; but when the Brontes went to reside there it was lonely and desolate, and comparatively "out of the world." Mrs. Bronte died in September, 1821, and in September of 1824 Charlotte Bronte, being then but eight years of age, was sent to school at Cowan Bridge, near Kirkby Lonsdale, along with her sisters, Maria, Elizabeth, and Emily. In 1825 a fever broke out at the school. Maria and Elizabeth died, and Charlotte and her sister Emily returned home. The children amused themselves and relieved the tedium of life at Haworth by writing tales, magazines, and plays, the germs of future excellence. In January, 1831, Charlotte went to school at Roehead, near Heckmondwike, and in 1835 became a teacher at that place. She afterwards, in 1838, held a situation as governess at Bradford. In 1842 Charlotte and Emily went to a boarding school at Brussels. Emily returned to Haworth, and Charlotte took at Brussels a situation as teacher. She left that city in 1843, and in 1846 the three sisters published a volume of poems, some of them of great merit. In July, 1847, Charlotte Bronte's celebrated work, "Jane Eyre," was published, and the family at once became famous. Charlotte visited London, and was introduced to many of the leading celebrities of the day. " Shirley" followed in October, 1849, and proved, like its predecessor, a great success. "Villette" was produced in 1853; and she also wrote "The Professor." On the 29th of June, 1854, Charlotte Bronte was married to the Rev. A. B. Nicholls, B.A., her father's curate. Their union, though happy, was of short duration. Mrs. Nicholls took cold during a walk on the moors, and on March 31, 1855, she died in her thirty- ninth year, and was buried in Haworth church. Patrick Branwell Bronte, younger brother of Charlotte, was a young man of some ability, and had a taste for painting, producing some creditable specimens. His career was unfortunate. He died September 24, 1848, aged thirty-one. Emily Jane Bronte, born at Thornton in 1818, had carefully trained herself in poetic composition, and her poems show that she possessed a powerful intellect. In 1846 she produced the tale of "Wuthering Heights," but the work was not very successful. The critics treated it harshly, and this preyed upon her spirits. She died December 19, 1848, and lies in Haworth church. Ann Bronte, the youngest of the family, was born at Thornton. About 1846 she wrote a tale, "Agnes Grey," and afterwards the "Tenant of Wildfell Hall;" but neither Of these works, which, like Emily's, show great literary ability, was successful. She died on the 24th of May, 1849, in her twenty-ninth year, at Scarborough, where she had gone for her health. The Rev. Patrick Bronte has since passed away, and thus not one member of this remarkable family is left.

The Cemeteries.- Bradford has three cemeteries, one at Undercliffe, on the east side of the borough, the second at Scholemoor, to the west, and the third at Leeds Road. The Undercliffe cemetery belongs to a private company, and was beautifully laid out by Mr. W. Gay in the year 1852. The total amount expended on the cemetery freehold estate account up to December 31, 1872, was £17,498 10s., and it covers twenty-six acres. There are two chapels, registrar's house, and entrance lodges. The place was fast filling up, and attempts were made in 1872 to extend the grounds to a plot of land on the opposite side of Otley Road, sixteen acres in extent; but the opposition of the landowners and others in the neighbourhood defeated the new scheme. Scholemoor cemetery, which occupies a site in the vicinity of Great Horton, and is owned by the Bradford Corporation, was opened in 1860. The grounds are laid out in a tasteful manner, and comprise nineteen and a half acres. The expenditure on the cemetery up to December 31, 1872, was £11,271 10s. 8d. Mr. James Seaton was registrar in 1873. There are two large chapels, built of stone from the plans of Messrs. Milnes and France, and a registrar's house. The Roman Catholics save a small cemetery in Leeds Road, to which is attached the registrar's house and a school-chapel. It was proposed to enlarge this place in 1873.

The Aspect of Bradford in 1873.- Those who knew Bradford twenty years previously would hardly recognize it in 1873, the changes in the intervening period having been great and numerous. The old, narrow, crooked thoroughfares have given place to wide streets, and although Bradford, from its position in the hollow of a basin with hills rising on almost every side, may never become what can be considered a commanding town, it has, nevertheless, been immensely improved. No new street is allowed by the corporation to be laid out less than fourteen yards wide. Eighteen and twenty yards is the width prescribed for the principal thoroughfares leading out of the town, which are to be widened to this extent as occasion offers. As the streets have been widened, public and private enterprise has reared handsome structures to face them. The merchants led the way with their magnificent ranges of warehouses, the bankers followed the example, and tradesmen have not been behind in building retail premises of colossal size. The style of the public institutions, churches, chapels, and schools, shows that a similar spirit actuates their builders; and it is a rare thing to see a structure of any kind erected without some regard to architectural pretension, though not always to good taste. The residences of the merchants and manufacturers display similar characteristics. The buildings of this class erected in modern times in Horton and Manningham will bear comparison with similar buildings in any town in the kingdom. The Wellington and Oak Mount estates at Manningham, consisting of villas, semi and detached, terraces, and streets of houses, comprise some as good residental property as can be found anywhere. These residences, as well as all the other erections in the town and neighbourhood, are built externally of stone. The cottages of the operatives were formerly constructed on the back-to-back principle, allowing no free circulation of air, and generally consisting of two large apartments, a living-room and a bedchamber. After a fierce struggle with property-owners, a new code of bye-laws for building was passed by the corporation; but although the principle of back-to-back houses was not entirely done away with, the new regulations, which are stringently carried out, specified that cottage houses should be built in blocks of four, with a wide passage leading from the street to the back houses. The streets of the town, formerly covered with Yorkshire setts, are now being gradually paved with granite, set in hot pitch, and they have been levelled and straightened to assume a more sightly aspect. The dense black pall of smoke which formerly rested over the town has been somewhat dissipated- though it is still bad enough-by the vigorous action of the corporation, through the smoke committee of the town council. The borough is now well lighted with gas, and the appearance of the hill-sides at night time, as seen from any of the adjacent heights, is most striking; myriads of lights dotting the country side for many miles to the boundaries of the borough, and spreading out in all directions from a mile and a half to three miles from the Bradford town hall. The number of new public lamps erected in 1872 was 268, making the total in the borough up to that time 2817. Hackney carriages had increased from 85 in 1862, to 135 in 1872, and 267 drivers' licenses were granted in the latter year. Omnibuses formerly had no existence in the town, but in 1872 licenses were obtained for sixty-two vehicles to ply for hire under this designation. The hackney carriage committee of the corporation exercises a careful supervision over all kind of licensed vehicles, and the result is that all the hackney carriages and omnibuses are kept in excellent order, and the horses are generally in good condition.

In 1873 land and property in Bradford of all kinds had risen considerably in value. Shop property in the centre of the town had more than doubled its value in twenty years, warehouses and mills had risen in price- warehouses especially had gone up, in some instances, fifty per cent.- and residences of all kinds were much higher rented. Land on the outskirts of the borough, which could have been purchased twenty years ago at 1s. 6d. and 2s. a yard, was fetching in 1873 from 5s. to 10s. and in good situations 12s. 6d. a yard. In the town, land which was sold at 10s. a yard thirty years ago now brings £10 and upwards. As much as £23, £24, and £28 a yard has been given for choice situations. In one instance, when the Boar's Head Hotel, at the corner of Cheapside and Market Street, was sold, it realized, with the license attached, £32 a yard. It was then, in the opinion of an eminent valuer, cheap at the price. In 1857 and 1863, when trade was at a low ebb, when many houses were empty, and when, as in 1807, thousands of the operatives were absolutely in a state of want, property of all descriptions sunk rapidly in value. There was one district, known as New Leeds, where whole rows of houses- certainly not the most eligible property were tenantless; but in 1873 these houses were all occupied, and the tenants were paying good rents. In 1857-58 cottage houses in Bedford Street let at 2s. a week, but in 1873 the tenants had to pay 3s. 6d. a week and upwards. In another instance, a house which had cost £220 to build was sold in 1872 for £530. In 1863 fifty houses were purchased in Bolton Road at £35 each. The owners would not sell them in 1873 for less than three times that amount, and some of the tenants were paying 4s. a week. These are but samples of what was going on in other parts of the borough. Buildings of every description were being erected at a rapid rate, especially the better classes of houses and cottages. In the plans of houses approved in 1872 the number of rooms ranged from three to eighteen. There was only one with the latter number, but there were 72 houses with three rooms each, 1419 with four, 99 with five, 135 with six, 59 with seven, 53 with eight, and 28 with twelve rooms each. It will, therefore, be seen that although the great proportion of houses approved may be styled cottages, yet the plans of many good houses were passed.

Bradford and District Tramways.- In 1872 a scheme was launched to provide Bradford with tramways along the principal streets. Owing to the hilly nature of the town and the comparative narrowness of some of the streets, there was a difficulty in devising a scheme to meet the wants of the borough in this respect. The promoters of "The Bradford and District Tramway Act, 1873," however, have overcome the difficulty. The company propose to make the space between the rails three feet nine inches wide, and the cars are to be light and handy. Thornton Road was the only level thoroughfare out of the borough in 1872, the other roads being more or less hilly. The scheme comprises lines to Saltaire, Thornton, Wibsey, Bradford Moor, and Bolton, and no doubt is entertained that the increased facility of communication which these lines will afford will render the scheme advantageous to the borough. The promoters applied to Parliament in the session of 1873 for powers to make the tramways. The Bradford Corporation, under the conviction that the tramways ought to be tried, entered into an agreement with the promoters, on certain terms, conditions, and stipulations, to be incorporated in the bill, for the protection of the interests of the Bradford ratepayers. The corporation gave their assent to the bill on condition that the plans, &c., should be approved by the borough surveyor, Mr. Gott, C.E.; that the tramways should be commenced within six months of the passing of the Act, and should be completed within two years, except the corporation consented to the postponement of any part of the undertaking-the corporation to be at liberty to construct any tramway abandoned or delayed; that the gauge or width of the carriages should not be altered without the consent of the corporation; that, while making the tramways, subject to the approval of the borough surveyor, the street traffic should not be unnecessarily interrupted; that the space between the rails, and for eighteen inches on either side, should be laid with granite setts, and be maintained by the company on a level with the streets; that passing places for the cars should be laid down as the corporation considered necessary, and that the corporation should have power to regulate the traffic as with other vehicles, to prescribe whether second lines should be laid, and in case the levels of the streets were altered, the company to conform to such level, pay their own costs of alteration, and afford facility for other necessary work of the corporation in the streets without any claim for damages. If the company fail to lay down any work as required by the agreement, and neglect to keep their portion of the roads in repair, they are to forfeit £5 a day while the neglect continues, the corporation having authority to do the work after giving notice, charge the company with the cost, and not be answerable for any loss or damage. If the corporation, within five years from the completion of the tramways, think they ought to be discontinued, the company are to remove them after three months' notice, and make good the streets to the satisfaction of the borough surveyor; failing to do this, the corporation to have authority to remove the tramways, sell the material, and hand the residue of expenses to the company. For the first three years after the tramways are opened the company are to pay £10 per acre for each street mile of tramway, and in proportion for a less distance; after that time £60 per annum for the same distance, and the like proportion for any part of a mile; the agreement to be in force for twenty-one years, the corporation to have power to purchase in the meantime, but at the expiration of twenty-one years the paving to belong to the corporation and the rails to the company, the latter to pay all the costs of the agreement, and after the passing of the Act, deposit £5000 to indemnify the corporation against loss. The agreement, however, was made dependent on the condition that the bill should pass in the parliamentary session of 1873. The entire length of the projected tramways is fourteen miles.

The Ripley Convalescent Home.- In 1873 Mr. H. W. Ripley, of Bradford, who had intimated his intention to give £10,000 towards the cost of a convalescent home for the town, purchased an estate of twenty acres at Rawden, beautifully situated, where he intends to have the home erected at his sole expense, paying as much more than £10,000 as may be required. When finished it will be handed over to trustees for the benefit of the people of Bradford. A design for the home was prepared by Messrs. Andrews and Pepper, of Bradford. The style is a satisfactory attempt to engraft upon Gothic the domestic characteristics of Yorkshire architecture of the sixteenth century, and a picturesque pile is the result, with mullioned and transomed windows and gables. The building will be 300 feet long, and the front to the south will consist of two pavilions at either end, joined in the centre with a winter garden, thirty-four feet by forty-five feet. One pavilion will be for males, and the other for females. The dining-hall, thirty-six feet square, is to be in the rear of the conservatory or winter garden. The pavilions will be two stories in height, and the north front, in which will be the entrance hall and suites of rooms, is to be of similar height. Ample provision is made in light airy apartments for the inmates and the administrative department, and conveniences of all kinds are arranged with no sparing hand. Along the south front will be a fine wide terrace, divided for the males and females, and accessible from the winter garden. The home is to accommodate about sixty-four inmates. The idea is not to keep many servants-that the female inmates should do a portion of the household work, and the males employ themselves in any light jobs that they may be considered capable of undertaking; the object being to give them a little of something to occupy their minds. The land around will be laid out and part of it farmed, and the little community will be so arranged as to really constitute a home. The works were to be prosecuted with the utmost practicable despatch. The home will be situated just above Mr. Ripley's beautiful estate of Acacia, overlooking Airedale, where he has built a mansion.

The Rate of Wages and Salaries in the Worsted Trade.- The author is indebted to the kindness of gentlemen practically engaged in the trade for the subjoined valuable table as to the rate of wages ruling in the worsted trade from 1836 to 1840, and the comparative rate in 1873. In the case of the warehouses no comparative rate is given, but the advance in that department in the intervening period from 1840 to 1873 will be somewhere about ten per cent. In some instances, such as pressers and weavers, the payment is by piece- work. The weavers formerly had charge of one loom, but now they have to "mind" two looms, and both the length of the piece and the speed of the loom have been increased. A piece of stuff goods was formerly woven thirty yards long, but now the length is from fifty to fifty-five yards. The hand wool combers were paid by the quantity of wool combed. They were once a numerous body in Bradford, before the introduction of the combing machine; but that machine, which has proved of such immense value to the worsted trade-which, in fact, could not be carried on without it- annihilated the hand wool-combers. Unfortunately for the men who have to attend to the combing- machine, it does its work so well that an unskilled man can soon get a knowledge of it, and hence the machine wool-combers are about the worst-paid class in the worsted trade. The hand wool-comber, when he would work, could make from 20s. to 30s. weekly, or with the assistance of his wife and other members of his family might perhaps earn more. The occupation was most unwholesome. The wool was combed at home, generally in the bedchamber, the bed being rolled up in one corner out of the way. What with the fumes emitted from charcoal fires that had to be kept up to heat the steel combs, and the smell of burnt oil used in the process, the house of the wool-comber was neither an agreeable nor healthful place of abode, and the combers bore a bad reputation for their dissolute habits. There were, doubtless, bright exceptions. Badly paid, however, as the machine wool-comber is, if he has a family, the united earnings in the mill will now be large. There are families in Bradford, where the sons and daughters are steady and unmarried, whose united income will not fall much short of £5 a-week, and they are never troubled with an income-tax collector. The hand wool-comber, in the old time, could turn out weekly from 80 lbs. to 100 lbs. of long English wool. A combing machine, on the contrary, attended by two men and four or five women, will in the same time comb about 4000 lbs of the same kind of wool. But, while the machine wool-comber receives only a moderate remuneration, wool-combing is for the employers one of the most prosperous departments of the trade. The rates given in the table are the lowest and highest paid, the minimum being paid to learners, and the maximum is the reward of talent and experience in the several departments. Exception may possibly be taken to some of the highest averages, but they are wages and salaries that were actually paid in Bradford in 1873, and in rare instances they were even exceeded, especially in the case of heads of departments and managers noted for superior efficiency.

Progress of Population at Bradford in the Present Century.- How rapidly the town has increased in population during the present century may be seen from the following figures:-

Years.  Inhabitants.
  1801,    13,264
  1831,    43,527
  1841,    66,508
  1851,   103,778
  1861,   106,218
  1871,   145,815
  1873,   156,605, as estimated.

The number of inhabited houses in 1832 was 6224, and in 1861, 22,518. Of 92,796 male occupiers in 1866, as many as 16,626 were at a rental below oe10, and the number of "ten pound" electors on the register was 5189. The change wrought in the constituency by the Reform Act of 1867 was manifest at the election which ensued in 1868, when more than 18,000 electors voted. In 1871 the number of inhabited houses was 29,413; uninhabited 782; building 578. In 1849 the burgesses numbered 4741; in 1859, 15,333; in 1869 they had increased to 24,775; and in 1872 to 27,774. In 1849 the parliamentary electors were 2117; in 1859 there were 3770; but in 1868-69 they rose to 21,518; and in 1872 are stated to number 21,121. The property assessable to the poor rates in Bradford in 1852 was £213,674 18s.; in 1862 it was £294,022; in 1872 it had reached £580,689 10s.

Local Press of Bradford.- Bradford has four daily newspapers. The Observer and the Chronicle are morning papers, published at a penny; the Telegraph and the Mail are evening papers, published at a halfpenny. There is also a small weekly newspaper the Bradford Advertiser. Previous to July, 1868, there was no daily paper published in Bradford.

Meeting of the Yorkshire Union of Mechanics' Institutes at Saltaire, 1873.- The thirty- sixth annual meeting of this institution was held at Saltaire, near Bradford, on the 4th of June, 1873, and was attended by Lord Lyttleton, Lord F. Cavendish, M.P., Sir A. Fairbairn, Mr. F. S. Powell, M.P., Mr. Isaac Holden, Mr. Stuart, of Cambridge, the mayors of Bradford and Leeds, and other friends of education; Mr. Baines, M.P., the president, occupying the chair. Sir Titus Salt, Bart., the founder and owner of Saltaire, was present, and met with a most cordial reception from the 250 or 300 delegates of the Yorkshire Mechanics' Institutes present on that occasion. The morning sitting of the conference lasted three hours and a half, after which the delegates were conducted through the various institutions in Saltaire, which are all supported by Sir Titus Salt's munificence-namely, the schools, the alms-houses, the infirmary, the working men's large dining hall, the recreation ground, and the extensive mill in which the alpaca and mohair manufacture is carried on. The business of the day was transacted in the Mechanics' Institute, a building noble in its exterior, and perfectly commodious and handsomely fitted up in its interior. Mr. Baines, in opening the proceedings, said that without unduly magnifying the importance of this Union, he must say that every year it was growing more necessary, great industries continually becoming less dependent on mere manual exertion and more dependent on art and science. The first object of this Union was to give the working class that power which knowledge alone could impart, and they threw their doors wide open to the humblest, and inscribed above them "Come, and welcome."

At the annual meeting held in the lecture hall in the evening, Lord Lyttleton in the chair, his lordship said that his reading of the reports of this Union for the year 1871 and 1872 had shown him great results, such as often moved the admiration of the people coming south of the Trent. Such figures as 109 institutes in connection with this Union, numbering 30,000 members, and an issue of books amounting to all but 350,000 a year, undoubtedly spoke of a very active and stirring state of things. These figures, they must hope, represented some tangible amount of good, and indicated that there was not one person connected with the institute who was not thereby raised in the scale of existence.

The Bradford Philosophical Society.- The present year (1873) will be rendered memorable in Bradford by the visit of the British Association for the Promotion of Science to this great seat of the arts of life; and confident hopes are entertained that the visit will have a lasting influence in increasing the progress of scientific knowledge in the district, as similar visits of that important truth-diffusing institution have done in other places. A hundred years ago, about the year 1766, a Philosophical Society was established at Bradford, chiefly by the influence of Dr. Priestley, then residing at Warrington; but after a brief existence the society was dissolved. A similar society was again formed in 1823, through the exertions of Mr. Samuel Hailstone. Money was subscribed towards the erection of a hall, and the purchase of a library, apparatus, &c., but, as Mr. James remarks, "The (then) vicar of Bradford having preached a sermon in which he enlarged on the irreligious tendency of a philosophizing spirit, several of the subscribers took fright and withdrew their subscriptions, and thus a society so auspiciously formed was broken up." In 1839 these scruples were overcome, owing to the energy of Mr. William Sharp, F.R.S., and a Philosophical Society was once more established, one of the objects of which was "the formation of a local museum, or a collection of the natural productions of the district within fifteen miles of Bradford." In the first year 174 ordinary and fourteen honorary members were elected. This society was resuscitated in 1865, the president being Lord Rosse, and the vice-presidents-Mr. J. Behrens, Rev. Dr. Burnet, Mr. H. W. Ripley, and Mr. M. W. Thompson. The first report of the council in 1866 stated that "an auspicious commencement was made with a roll of 282 members and sixty-two associates, of whom sixteen became life members, at a composition of fifty guineas, and two at the lower scale of twenty guineas; the remaining list comprising forty-five members, subscribing three guineas annually, fifty-one subscribing two guineas, and 168 one guinea." Lectures and papers were delivered by the most eminent men of science in the country. A museum was formed, in which the old town-horn of Bradford was deposited as a gift by Sir Titus Salt, Bart.; the geological collection formed by Mr. Richardson, of Northowram, was purchased; the mineralogical collection of the late Mr. Dawson, of Royds Hall, was deposited with the society; and the museum was enriched with other valuable presents. A house was taken in Manor Row, and the foundation of a scientific library was laid; a complete set of the Philosophical Transactions from its commencement in the year 1660, the annual Reports of the British Association, as well as a number of other books, were presented by the family of Mr. Dawson. The society also purchased a number of valuable works, and the reading room was kept open two evenings in each week. The premises being too small for all the objects of the society, the design of erecting a suitable lecture hall and museum was entertained. At the last annual meeting of the society, February 28, 1873, Mr. H. W. Ripley was elected president; the vice- presidents were Rev. Dr. Campbell, Mr. Titus Salt (Milner Field), Rev. Dr. Ryan, and Mr. M. W. Thompson. The advisability of erecting a building was again urged, and steps were being taken, in co-operation with the School of Art, to rear a joint structure that would be adequate for the efficient management of both institutions. The society was stated to possess an excellent museum, a scientific library of nearly 1000 volumes, a collection of philosophical instruments, &c. In conjunction with the Bradford Corporation and the committee of the Mechanics' Institute, the British Association has been induced to hold its meeting in Bradford in the autumn of 1873, which it was thought would be of considerable benefit, tending to stimulate and promote a more extended taste for philosophical research in the town. Mr. H. W. Ripley promised to head the subscription list for a new building with £1000, and it is thought that for about oe10,000 an excellent structure might be erected. The Society of Arts was held in 1873 in the High School, Hallfield Road, tenanted temporarily by the boys of the Grammar School; and when they vacated the place in 1873, it was considered that the site would be an admirable place for the proposed building of the Philosophical Society. The number of members of the society in 1873 was 227, and of associates, principally ladies, 100; total, 327. The receipts for 1872 were £413 7s. 7d., and the expenditure £882 6s. 11d., including a deficiency brought over from 1871 of £377 6s. 9d., leaving the deficiency in 1872, £463 19s. 4d. Every other society has succeeded well in Bradford, and this is specially deserving of success.

Bradford Art Treasures and Industrial Exhibition at the Mechanics Institute.- With a view to clear away a debt of £5000 on the new building of the Mechanics' Institute at Bowling Green, an Art Treasures and Industrial Exhibition was opened in the institute on the 16th of July, 1873. The exhibition comprised an extensive and valuable collection of oil paintings, water-colour drawings, engravings, statuary, carving, bronzes, porcelain, pottery, selections from the South Kensington and India Museums, ancient armour from the Tower of London, and other antiquities. The machinery in motion included combing, spinning, weaving, printing, lithography, envelope-folding, card-making, glass-blowing, and other interesting arts and manufactures. In addition to these there were musical instruments, stained glass, mechanical models, electric and other scientific apparatus. The whole of the building, with the exception of the library, was devoted to the purposes of the exhibition. In addition to these varied attractions, concerts were given in the lecture hall. Underneath this hall, in a large unused room in the basement, Mr. John Parker, of Bowling, constructed an extensive grotto, with mimic waterfall and lake. Mr. Parker displayed considerable taste and ingenuity in the work, and produced a surprising effect in the circumscribed area on which he had to operate. The committee were liberally supported by the owners of works of art, and they could have obtained double the number of pictures that they required. The large class-rooms and other well-lighted apartments in the upper part of the building were found admirably adapted, not only for hanging paintings and water-colour drawings, but for the efficient display of other works of art generously lent to the committee. There was every prospect that the exhibition would prove as successful in a pecuniary point of view, as it was undoubtedly rich in the choicest productions of painters and artists in the higher departments of industry. The exhibition was opened under the auspices of a distinguished array of patrons.


Coal Mines of the Bradford District.- The mineral statistics of the United Kingdom for the year 1871, published in 1872, give the number of collieries in the Bradford district, at forty-nine. The following are their names as furnished by Mr. Frank N. Wardell, colliery inspector for Yorkshire for the year 1871:-


Allerton (2), Aycliffe Hill (Horton), Bolton Wood, Booth Holme Field (Tong), Bowling (4), Bradford, Broom Hall, Bunkers Hill, Cleckheaton (2), Clifton, Cotton Hole (North Bierley), Culter Height, Dog Lane, Eccleshill, Haycliffe Uilt (Horton), Heaton, Heaton (Shipley), Holme Bank, Hunsworth, Laister Dyke, Little Horton, North Bierley (2), North Cliff, Red Hill (Tong), Rockwell, Scholes, Seventeens (Clifton), Shelf (2), Shipley, Shipley Moor, Smeddles (Bowling), Thornton, Thornton Road (2), Tong Street, Tong (3), Wibsey, Wibsey Bank Foot, Wike, Wroe.

The Bradford district in 1869 yielded 1,799,500 tons of coal.


A.D. 284 to 337.-Roman remains of this age found in iron mines near Bradford.-Roman roads in neighbourhood of Bradford.-Yorkshire: Past and Present, vol. ii. p. 243.
A.D. 600 to 800.-Anglian origin of the name of Bradford and of the names of the surrounding townships.-Vol. ii. p. 243.
1066.-Gamel, a Danish chief, lord of Bradford before the Norman Conquest. -Vol. ii. p. 244.
1084-86-Account in Domesday Book of manor of Bradford and its six berewicks or subordinate manors, supposed to be Great and Little Horton, Manningham, Stanbury, Hayworth, and Oxenhope.- Vol. ii. p. 244.
1084-86.-Value of Bradford at time of Domesday Survey.-Vol. ii. p. 244.
1084-86.-Bradford granted by William the Conqueror to Ilbert de Laci, one of his Norman followers.- Vol. ii. p. 245. Bradford in the hands of the De Lacis, earls of Lincoln from 1080 to 1311 -Vol. ii. p. 245.
About 1086.-Castle or manor-house of Bradford built by the De Lacis.- Vol. ii. p. 246.
1216-72.-Bradford as described in "Testa de Nevill."-Vol. ii. p. 248.
1246, 30th Henry III.-Bradford paid tax or tallage to the crown, equal to £40 of present money.-Vol. ii. p. 247.
1256, 40th Henry III.-Grant of market to Bradford.-Vol. ii. p. 247.
1273.-Inquiry into royal rights at Bradford, and into those of the De Lacis, lords of the manor.-Vol. ii. p. 247.
1291.-Valuation of the rectory, vicarage, and tithes of Bradford, in the time of Pope Nicholas.-Vol. ii. p. 249.
1294.-Charter of King Edward I. for holding a market and a fair at Bradford.-Vol. ii. p. 249.
1311, 5th Edward II.-Inquiry into the value of Bradford on the death of Henry de Laci, the last earl of Lincoln.-Vol. ii. p. 251.
1311.-Lordship of Bradford in the hands of the Plantagenets, earls and dukes of Lancaster.- Vol. ii. p. 253.
1361.-Bradford in the hands of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster.-Vol. ii. p. 255.-Grant of land to John Northrop, of Manningham, Bradford, by John of Gaunt, held by blowing one blast of a horn on St. Martin's day.-Vol. ii. p. 256.
1365.-Extensive privileges to John of Gaunt and his tenants at Bradford granted by Edward Ill., which continued in force to the year 1690.- Vol. ii. p. 258.
1399, 1400 to 1482.-Bradford in the hands of the Plantagenet kings.- Vol. ii. p. 259.
1485.-Bradford in the time of the Tudors.-Vol. ii. p. 259.
1536.-Leland's account of Bradford in the reign of Henry VIII.-Vol. ii. p. 261.
1639.-Baptisms at Bradford this year, 209; marriages, 61; deaths, 183.
1642-45.-Bradford in the great civil war.-Vol. ii. p. 262.
1643.-The parliamentary general, Sir Thomas Fairfax, assembles his army at Bradford.-Vol. ii. p. 262.
1645.-Progress of Bradford from the close of the great civil war, 1644, to the accession of King George III., 1760.-Vol. ii. p. 268.
1665-66.-Plague raged at Bradford.
1690.-Trial as to the right of people of Bradford to be free from tolls throughout England, under Edward III.'s charter to John of Gaunt.- Inhabitants of Bradford free from tolls to this date.
1700.-Plan of Bradford, belonging to Sir. Edward Hailstone, showing the town to consist chiefly of half a dozen streets, forming a sort of cross, with three brooks running through them; the brooks and two bridges very clearly traced. Also a few houses in Goodman's End and Baker End.-James' "Bradford."
1727.-Daniel de Foe's account of Bradford at this time.-Vol. ii. p. 269.
1738.-Great number of persons receiving parish relief at Bradford.
1743.-Henry Marsden, of Wennington Hall, lord of manor of Bradford.
1744.-Water Company established at Bradford.
1768.-Bridge at Broadstones, Bradford, swept away in a great flood.
1773.-Introduction of water carriage at Bradford by the making of the Lancashire and Yorkshire or Leeds and Liverpool Canal, running within three miles of Bradford.-Vol. ii. p. 271.
1774.-Making of the Bradford Canal to join the Leeds and Liverpool Canal.-Vol. ii. p. 273. 1774 to 1800.-Progress of Bradford from the making of the canal to the end of the eighteenth century.-Vol. ii. p. 274.
1783.-Riotous mob in Bradford.
1789.-The Bowling and Low Moor and Bierley Iron Works constructed in the neighbourhood of Bradford.-Vol. ii. p. 276.
1790.-Water-works company incorporated by Act of Parliament.
1793.-Introduction of steam-power into Bradford.-Vol. ii. p. 275.
1793.-Court of Requests at Bradford.
1794.-Volunteer regiment raised, commanded by Colonel Busfield.
1798.-Flaxman, monument to Abraham Balme, a gentleman of Bradford.
1801.-Bradford at the commencement of the nineteenth century.-Vol. ii. p. 277.
1803.-Bill obtained for lighting and cleansing the town of Bradford.- Vol. ii. p. 277.
1819.-Steam-engines employed in mill-work in Bradford and its immediate neighbourhood, 492 horse-power.
1822.-Bill for lighting town with gas.-Vol. ii. p. 277.
1823.-The first Edward Baines' description of Bradford fifty years ago (1823).-Vol. ii. p. 278.
1825.-Procession of Bishop Blaize, the patron of wool-combers.-Great turn- out of the wool-combers.
1830.-Steam-engines, 1047 horse-power.
1831.-History of the Worsted Trade of Bradford.-Vol. i. pp. 673-696.
1831.-Manufactures of Bradford.-Vol. ii. p. 278.
1831.-The steam-power of Bradford.-Vol. ii. p. 279.
1831.-Value of trade of Bradford.-Vol. ii. p. 280.
1832.-Bradford made a parliamentary borough.-Vol. ii. p. 286.
1832.-List of members returned to Parliament by the borough of Bradford from 1832 to 1873.-Vol. ii. p. 286.
1834.-Court house of Bradford built.-Vol. ii. p. 292.
1834.-Bradford and North Bierley Unions.-Vol. ii. p. 292.
1837.-Destructive flood in brooks at Bradford.
1842-73.-Progress of the Water-works of Bradford.-Vol. ii. p. 282.
1846.-The railway system of Bradford from 1846 to 1873.-Vol. ii. p. 285.
1847.-Bradford made a municipal borough, and great works carried out by the Corporation.-Vol. ii. p. 286.
1847.-List of mayors of Bradford from 1847 to 1872.-Vol. ii. p. 288.
1851.-St. George's Hall, Bradford; foundation stone laid by the earl of Zetland.-Vol. ii. p. 291.
1851.-Petty Sessions and County Court of Bradford.
1852.-Bradford Poor Law Union Workhouse at Little Horton.
1853.-St. George's Hall, Bradford, completed.
1854.-Direct line of Railway to Leeds completed.
1861.-Number of inhabited houses, 22,518.
1863.-Manor and market of Bradford.-Vol. ii. p. 285.
1864.-Lord Palmerston laid foundation-stone of New Exchange.
1864-65.-Philosophical Society formed this year.
1865.-Model lodging houses, baths, and wash houses, the hospitals and charitable institutions, the club houses and banks of Bradford.-Vol. ii. pp. 316 to 322.
1865.-Chamber of Commerce at Bradford.-Vol. ii. p. 323.
1865.-The Volunteer movement in Bradford.-Vol. ii. p. 326.
1865.-Men and women of note born in, or connected with, Bradford.-Vol. ii. pp. 327 to 334.
1865.-The cemeteries of Bradford.--Vol. ii. p. 334.
1865.-Aspect of Bradford in 1873.-Vol. ii. p. 335.
1867.-The New Exchange of Bradford completed. Vol. ii. p. 290.
1867.-The parliamentary and municipal boundaries of the borough identical, and no change made in the limits by the Reform Act of 1869.-Vol. ii. p. 287.
1867.-Area of borough of Bradford, 6508 acres, 2 roods, 39 perches; namely-Bradford, 1595 acres, 1 rood, 2 perches; Bowling, 1561 acres, 2 roods, 16 perches; Horton, 2033 acres, 39 perches; and Manningham, 1380 acres, 2 roods, 22 perches.-Vol. ii. p. 286.
1868.-Boundary Commissioners' report on Bradford.-Vol. ii. p. 314.
1868.-Free Library of Bradford.-Vol. ii. p. 314.
1868.-Sewage defaecation at Bradford.-Vol. ii. p. 315.
1870.-Foundation stone of new Mechanics' Institute at Bradford laid by Lord Houghton.
1870.-The Bradford School Board and its operations. Vol. ii. p. 301.
1870.-Churches and chapels in Bradford.-Vol. ii. pp. 302 to 313.
1870.-Public parks of Bradford: their extent and beauty.-Vol. ii. p. 313.
1871.-The Bradford Grammar School reorganized.-Vol, ii. p. 297.
1871.-Modern establishments for education in Bradford.-Vol. ii. p. 299.
1871.-Population of Bradford, 145,827.
1872.-People's College founded at Bradford.
1872.-Bradford and district tramways.-Vol. ii. p. 338.
1872.-The Ripley Convalescent Home.-Vol. ii. p. 339.
1872.-The rate of Wages and salaries in the worsted trade.-Vol. ii. p. 342.
1872.-Rapid progress of population of Bradford in the present century.- Vol. ii. p. 343.
1873.-The new town hall of Bradford opened in 1873.-Vol. ii. p. 289.
1873.-Local Press of Bradford-Vol. ii. p. 344.
1873.-Meeting of the Yorkshire Union of Mechanics' Institutes at Saltaire. -Vol. ii. p. 344.
1873.-The Bradford Philosophical Society, and the Meeting of the British Association at Bradford.- Vol. ii, p. 345.
1873.-Bradford Art Treasures and Industrial Exhibition at the Mechanics' Institute.-Vol. ii. p. 347.
1873.-Appendix.-Churches and Chapels at Bradford.-Vol. ii. p. 348.
1873.-Coal Mines of the Bradford District.-Vol. ii. p. 348.

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