YORKSHIRE PAST AND PRESENT.
THE HISTORY OF THE BOROUGH OF WAKEFIELD.
WAKEFIELD, the central town and capital of the West Riding, known from very early times by the name of "Merry Wakefield," cheerful or pleasant Wakefield, stands on a range of hills rising from the river Calder. It probably owes its appellation of Merry Wakefield to the pleasantness of its situation, and may perhaps have been a favourite spot for holding the rural festivals, named wakes, which were the ancient sports of our Anglian ancestors, as it certainly was for the more courtly amusements of Miracle Plays, performed by the stately Normans. Previous to the Norman conquest Wakefield was the chief place of the lordship of the same name. Near that town the castle of Sandal was afterwards built, which was the principal feudal fortress of this district, and whose name is connected with many great events in the wars of York and Lancaster. In this castle the Plantagenet princes of the house of York occasionally resided. In Domesday Book the lordship of Wakefield is described as having belonged to Edward the Confessor previous to the Conquest, and as belonging to the king, William the Conqueror, at the time when the Survey was made. We are told in that record that in Wakefield (Wachfeld), with its nine berewicks or subordinate manors, described as Sandala, Sorebi, Werla, Feslei, Miclei, Wadeswurde, Crumbton, Landfeld, and Stansfelt, there were no less than sixty carucates of arable land to be taxed, equal, perhaps, to about 10,000 acres, and this land might employ thirty ploughs. There were, previous to the Norman conquest, belonging to this lordship three presbyters or priests, two churches, seven sockmen, four villeins, and sixteen bordars or peasants. After the Conquest, at the time of the Domesday Survey, there were only seven ploughs.
Soon after the date of the Domesday Survey, which was drawn up in the years 1084-86, the lordship of Wakefield was granted, either by William the Conqueror or by one of his sons, William Rufus or Henry I., to the first or second earl of Warren, the first of whom married Gundreda, the Conqueror's daughter. The lordship of Wakefield, of which the town of Wakefield was the capital, was of great extent, including nearly the whole valley of the Calder from the neighbourhood of Normanton, through Wakefield, Dewsbury, and Halifax, to the borders of Lancashire. The estates remained in their hands so long as the male line of the house of Warren existed, which was during eight generations of earls. But in the year 1347 the last legitimate male heir of the house of Warren died, as already mentioned, and the reigning king, Edward III., granted these estates to his own youthful son, Edmund of Langley, whom he also made earl of Cambridge, and who was ultimately created duke of York, being the first person who ever bore that illustrious title. These estates remained in the hands of the dukes of York of the house of Plantagenet, with occasional intervals of forfeiture in civil war, until the murder of Richard, the youthful duke of York, in the Tower, along with his youthful brother, Edward V. When King Richard III lost his life and the crown of England, in the battle of Bosworth Field, the dukedom of York, as well as the dukedom of Lancaster, passed to the triumphant Henry VII.
The Manor or Lordship of Wakefield.- The lordship of Wakefield, - with its original limits, extended over the whole of the valley of the Calder, from the borders of Lancashire to the neighbourhood of Castleford. After passing through the hands of the earls of Warren and the dukes of York, and after having been held by the crown from the reign of Henry VII. to that of Charles I., the manor was granted to Henry Rich, earl of Holland, by whom it was given as a part of the portion of his daughter, on her marriage with Sir Gervase Clifton, of Clifton, Notts, Bart. In the year 1663 the manor was purchased by Sir Christopher Clapham, and in the year 1700 was sold to the first duke of Leeds, in whose family it still remains. In the honour of Wakefield the direction of writs within this liberty is to the lord of the manor of Wakefield and his deputies. The axe of the gibbet was long preserved in his possession, as a relic of antiquity.
The Birth Place of Robin Hood.- The researches of that learned and accomplished antiquary, the late Joseph Hunter of the British Museum, the historian of Hallamshire and of South Yorkshire, led him to the conclusion that the old tradition of the existence and the exploits of Robin Hood, the famous outlaw of Sherwood Forest, was founded in fact, and that Robin Hood was a real personage, and a native of Wakefield, whose name appears in several transactions in the court at that place. The investigations of Hunter, whilst they leave little doubt that Robin Hood was a real personage, bring the date of his exploits down to a somewhat later period than that at which they are fixed in Walter Scott's incomparable "Ivanhoe," which, it will be remembered, places his life and times in the reigns of Richard I. and King John, or between the years 1189-1216. According to the researches of Hunter, Robin Hood lived in the reign of Edward II., 100 years later, and was one of the Yorkshire followers of Thomas, earl of Lancaster (who was at that time the lord of all this part of the West Riding), in his unfortunate insurrection against Edward II. in the year 1322. As already mentioned, this Thomas, earl of Lancaster, who was at that time the representative of the younger branch of the royal family of Plantagenet, and also of the De Lacis, was defeated at Boroughbridge, and put to death at Pontefract; the whole of his estates, and those of his adherents, being confiscated by King Edward II. According to Hunter's opinion Robin Hood was born in a family of some station and respectability, seated at Wakefield or in one of the villages near to it: and he, with many others, partook of the popular enthusiasm which supported the earl of Lancaster, the great baron of these parts. When the earl fell there was a dreadful proscription, but some of the persons who had been in arms, not only escaped the hazards of battle, but the arm of the executioner. Robin Hood was one of these, and he protected himself against the authorities of the times, partly by secreting himself in the depths of the woods of Barnsdale, or the forest of Sherwood, and partly by intimidating the public officers, by the opinion which was abroad of his unerring bow, and his instant command of assistance from numerous comrades as skilled in archery as himself. He supported himself by slaying the wild animals found in the forests, and by levying a species of black mail on passengers along the great road from London to Berwick; occasionally seizing upon treasure which was being conveyed along the road, but with a courtesy which distinguished him from ordinary highway-men. He continued this course for about twenty months, from April, 1322, to December, 1323, when he fell into the hands of the king (Edward II.) personally, and was pardoned and made one of the valets, porteurs de la chambre, in the royal household. This office he held for about a year, when he again returned to the "greenwood shade, where he lived for an uncertain time. At last he resorted to the prioress of Kirklees, his own relative, for surgical assistance, and in that priory he died and was buried."
The Battle of Wakefield.- The sanguinary battle between Richard, duke of York, the claimant of the crown, and Margaret of Anjou, the royal consort of its possessor, Henry VI., took place in the South Meadows, between the town of Wakefield and the castle of Sandal, in the year 1460, and is fully described in a previous division of this work, in the original words of Hall's Chronicle, one of the earliest and most graphic historians of the bloody wars of York and Lancaster. It will be seen from that account that Richard, duke of York, "came to his castle of Sandall, beside Wakefield, on Christmas eve."* There he began to assemble his tenants and his friends, and there, before he could get any great force together, he was surrounded by a large Lancastrian army of from 18,000 to 20,000 men, under the personal command of the heroic queen of Henry VI., Margaret of Anjou, and Lord Clifford, and other distinguished chiefs of her party; that he persisted in fighting with has been described as "the great battle in the South Fields" at Wakefield, in spite of the remonstrances of all his wisest advisers; and that he was there defeated and slain by the Lancastrian forces. After the battle, and the murder of his youthful son, Rutland, by the bloody Clifford, Richard's head was cut off, and presented to the queen as the king's ransom; he being then in prison. "At which present was much joy and great rejoicing. But many laughed then that sore lamented after, as the queen herself and her son; and many were glad then of other men's deaths, not knowing that their own were near at hand (at the still more bloody battle of Towton Field), as the Lord Clifford and others."
Wakefield under the Tudor Princes.- Wakefield was one of the most flourishing manufacturing towns in the West Riding of Yorkshire at the time when it was visited by Leland, in his survey of England made for the information of King Henry VIII., and completed about the year 1536-38. Speaking of Wakefield, he says:-"Wakefield-upon-Calder is a very quick (lively) market town, and meatley (moderately) large, well served of flesh and fish, both from the sea and by rivers, whereof divers be thereabout at hand, so that all vitaile is very good chepe there. A right honest man (a very respectable person) shall fare well for twopence a meal (perhaps equal to about 1s. of present money). It (Wakefield) standeth now all by clothing. Leland adds the following particulars:- "These things I especially noted in Wakefield: the fair bridge of stone of nine arches under which runneth the river of Calder. On the east side of this bridge is a right goodly chapel of Our Lady, and two chantries of priests founded in it, of the foundation of the townsmen, as some say; but the dukes of York were taken as founders for obtaining mortmayn (per- mission to found). I heard one (a person) say that a servant of King Edward IV.'s father (Richard, duke of York), or else the earl of Rutland, uncle to King Edward IV., was a great doer of it. There was a sore battle fought in the South Fields by this bridge; and in the flight of the duke of York's party, either the duke himself, or his son the earl of Rutland, was slain a little above the bars beyond the bridge going up to the town of Wakefield, that standeth full fairly upon a cliving (sloping or rather ascending) ground. At this place is set up a cross in memory of the event, an rei memoriam. The common saying is there that the earl would have (wished to have) taken (refuge) in a poor woman's house for succour, and that she for fear shut the door, and straight the earl was killed. The Lord Clifford, for killing of men at this battle, was called the butcher. The principal church that now is in Wakefield is but of a new work, but it is exceedingly fair and large. Some think that where now is a chapel of ease, at the other end of the town, was once the old parish church. The vicarage at the east end of the church garth is large and fair. It was the parsonage house not very many years since; for he that now liveth is the fourth or fifth vicar that hath been there. Before the impropriation of this benefice to Saint Stephen's college at Westminster, the parsonage (of Wakefield) was a great living, in so much that one of the Earls Warrenes, lords of Wakefield, and of much of the country thereabout, did give the parsonage to a son or near kinsman of his, and he made (built) the most part of the house where the vicarage now is. A quarter of a mile without Wakefield appeareth a hill of earth cast up, where some say that Earl Warrene began to build, and as fast as he builded violence-of wind defaced the work. This is like a fable. Some say that it was nothing but a wind mill. The place is now called Low-hill;" Low or Law being the Anglian name for a hill. "The town of Wakefield stretches out all in length by east and west, and hath a fair area for a market-place. The building of the town is meatley (moderately) fair, most of timber, but some of stone. All the whole profit of the town standeth by coarse drapery. There be few towns in the inward parts of Yorkshire that have a fairer site or soil about them. There be plenty of veins of sea-coal in the quarters about Wakefield."
There was a chapel on the bridge at Wakefield as early as the year 1357, the 31st Edward III., though Dr. T. D. Whitaker is "willing to be persuaded that the endowment took place in order, as is generally supposed, to pray for the souls of the slain in the battle of Wakefield, and especially of poor little Rutland, who is said to have been murdered on this bridge by Lord Clifford, known as the butcher. "It is very likely, however, that there was a chapel and a chantry on the bridge of Wakefield, as on nearly all the bridges of Yorkshire built at a very early time, in order to interest the saint to whom it was dedicated in the safety of the bridge and of those who passed over it, or perhaps, that mass might be said before the bridge was crossed in great floods and stormy weather; and it is not at all improbable that the chapel on the bridge of Wakefield, which was and is of remarkable beauty, was enlarged and improved after the battle of Wakefield, to secure prayers for the soul of the duke of York, of his son, the youthful Rutland, and of the many supporters of the soon afterwards triumphant family of York. The great battle of Wakefield was succeeded in a few months by the very much greater battle of Towton Field, where the Yorkists took a terrible revenge on the Lancastrians for their losses at the battle of Wakefield.
Wakefield was also the seat of great military events. In the rising of the north the castle of Sandal, then a place of great strength, was held for Queen Elizabeth by her gallant cousin, Henry Carey, one of the ancestors of the Viscounts Falkland. In the more modern conflict between Charles I. and the Long Parliament, one of the earliest and most brilliant exploits of Sir Thomas Fairfax was performed at Wakefield, which was, even in the opinion of Oliver Cromwell (a most competent judge), amongst the most important events in the earlier part of the great civil war. An account of the storming of Wakefield, given in Carlyle's "Life and Letters of Oliver Cromwell," shows that the attack of Fairfax was made with very inferior numbers, and was only successful owing to his own determined courage, and to the most resolute support given to him by the trained bands of Yorkshire, nearly the whole of whom were zealous supporters of the parliamentary cause. This victory occurred at a most critical time, when the successes of the marquis of Newcastle and the royalists threatened the parliamentary party in Yorkshire with complete destruction-a result which might have changed the whole fortune of the war.
Wakefield taken by Sir Thomas Fairfax.- In the great civil war, the elder Fairfax being compelled to retreat from Selby to Hull, and Leeds and Bradford being the only places of strength held by the parliamentary forces in the West Riding, Sir Thomas Fairfax determined to take the town of Wakefield, then in the possession of the king's forces, and held by about 3000 men. Accordingly, on the morning of the 21st of May, 1643, at the head of 1500 horse and foot, he marched from Leeds to attempt the reduction of that town. The battle commenced about four o'clock in the morning, and after an hour and a half's hard fighting Sir Thomas entered the town, took 500 prisoners, with 80 officers, 27 colours, and a large quantity of ammunition. A copy of a letter from Lord Fairfax to the speaker of the House of Commons, giving particulars of this victory, was in possession of the late Mr. Denny, of Leeds. It is dated Leeds, 23rd May, 1643, and is signed "Fer. Fairfax." The letter states "that the earl of Newcastle had possessed himself of Rotherham and Sheffield." It then goes on to say that "the earl of Newcastle's army do now range over all the south-west part of this country, pillaging and cruelly using the well- affected party; and here about Leeds, Bradford, and Halifax, being a mountainous barren country, the people now begin to be sensible of want, their last year's provisions being spent and the enemy's garrisons stopping all the provisions, both of corn and flesh and other necessaries, that were wont to come from the more fruitful counties to them; their trade utterly taken away, their poor grow innumerable, and great scarcity to relieve them; and this army, which now lyes amongst them to defend them from the enemie, cannot defend them from want, which causeth much murmure and lamentation amongst the people; and for the army itself, it is so far in arreare, and no way appearing how they shall either be supplied with money or succours, they grow very mutinous. Yet upon Saturday last, in the night, I caused to be drawn out of the garrisons in Leeds, Bradford, Halifax, and Howley, some horse, foot, and dragoons, in all about 1500 men, and sent them against Wakefield, commanded by my son, and assisted by Major-Generall Gifford, Sir Henry Fowles, and Sir William Fairfax, with divers other commanders; they appeared before Wakefield about four o'clock on Sunday in the morning, where they found the enemies (who had intelligence of their design) ready to receive them. There was in the towne Generall Goring, Sergeant-Major Generall Mackworth, the Lord Goring, with many other principall commanders and eminent persons, with about seven troops of horse, and six regiments, containing 3000 foot, the towne well fortified with works and four pieces of ordnance; yet our men, both commanders and common soldiers, went on with undaunted courage, and notwithstanding the thick volleys of small and great shots from the enemie, charged up to their works, which they entered, seized upon their ordnance and turned them upon themselves, and pursued the enemie so close as they beate quite out of the towne the most part of the horse and a great number of the foot, and made all the rest prisoners, and with them took four pieces of ordnance, and all the ammunition then in the towne, and a great number of arms, and amongst the prisoners Generall Goring himselfe, with divers other commanders and other common souldiers, in all about 1500 men, and twenty-seven colours of foot, and three cornets of horse. When the town was thus taken, they found their number and strength too weak to keep it and their prisoners, so they left the place and marcht away with their booty. In taking the towne we lost no man of note, and not above seven men in all; but many of our men were shot and wounded."
Defoe's Visit to Wakefield, 1727.- We have a very full and interesting account in Daniel Defoe's "Travels," the first edition of which was published in the year 1727, of the state and condition of the town of Wakefield at the time of the accession of the house of Hanover to the throne. The prosperity of Wakefield had received a great impulse at that time from two circumstances-first, the erecting of a large cloth or piece hall, before any similar place of trade had been formed at Leeds, or any other Yorkshire town, except Halifax; and second, the completion of the Aire and Calder Navigation to Wakefield, which gave that place not only cheap water-carriage to Leeds and other towns, in the interior of Yorkshire, but also a convenient and cheap access by water to the estuary of the Humber, the port of Hull, and the German Ocean. The effect of the latter improvement was in the end less favourable to the manufactures of Wakefield than it was at first expected to be; for though they continued large (and are still considerable), the superiority in the means of transport of coal from Wakefield to Hull and the eastern counties had a still greater effort in turning attention to the working of the rich coal and minerals district lying round the town of Wakefield, for purposes of exportation, and also in making Wakefield the great depot and market for cattle, corn, and other articles of agricultural produce, brought down the Trent and the Humber, and up the Aire and Calder Navigation, to supply the wants of the manufacturing districts of Yorkshire. In the year 1872 the Wakefield coal district contained fifty collieries, and produced 1,080,195 tons of coal, according to Mr Wardell's official returns in the mineral statistics of the United Kingdom.
Wakefield Fifty Years Since.- The following account of Wakefield, in the year 1823, is from the pen of a writer well acquainted with aquainted with Wakefield at that time. He says it "is a large and opulent town, delightfully situated on the left bank of the Calder. . . . The streets are for the most part regular, handsome, and spacious, and the houses, which are principally of brick, are well-built, large, and lofty. . . . It is a place of great antiquity . . . . Wakefield now, as in the time of Leland, still 'standeth by clothing.' Like Leeds, it is situated on the edge of the manufacturing district, of which the Calder here forms the eastern boundary. . . . Some increase has taken place in the population within the last twenty years, but that increase is by no means in proportion to that of the other principal towns of the Riding. . . .Wakefield is a town alike interesting in its remote history and its present state; and it remains only to add that the manners of its inhabitants unite the honest frankness of the manufacturing character, with the urbanity and polish of those places where the clack of the shuttle never breaks upon the ear of the stately citizen.
The quarter-sessions of the West Riding, and the meetings of the county magistrates and barristers, many of the former and some of the latter- including Mr. Frank Maude, as he was always called, and Mr. Hardy, the father of the present secretary for War (1874), who were the leaders of the bar at the West Riding sessions-residing in the pleasant neighbourhood of Wakefield, gave life and animation to the town. There also was, and still is, the office for the registration of landed property in Yorkshire, an institution which has now existed from the reign of Queen Anne to the present time, and has been so successful as greatly to encourage the adoption of a similar system in other parts of the kingdom.
Wakefield Churches and Chapels.- There was a church at Wakefield at the time of the Domesday Survey, and it is supposed that there was a Norman edifice, either that or its successor, which remained until the time of Edward III. A new erection took place in the year 1329, and the present structure was built about 140 years later. Leland, speaking of the church in the year 1538, states that it was then a new building. In the year 1724 the south side of the church was rebuilt, and the north side and east end in the latter part of the eighteenth century. The spire, after being altered in 1715 and 1823, "was in 1860-61 entirely rebuilt with crockets, of which the immediately preceding spire was devoid, and raised to its present height. In 1868-69 the chancel stalls were repaired and restored, and are now very good; other judicious restorations were made under the direction of Sir G. Gilbert Scott. St. John's is also a handsome church, standing in one of the pleasantest parts of the town. There are other churches and chapels in Wakefield, amongst them the Independent Chapel with its new schools, which long preserved the memory of its first minister, the Rev. Samuel Bruce, as "Bruce's Chapel." The Baptist Chapel on the top of the Fair Ground was built in 1844; the Primitive Methodist Chapel in 1838; and the United Methodist Free churches in 1858.
Literary and Scientific Institutions.- The Mechanics' Institution, known as the Music Saloon, was built in the year 1820-21, and was purchased by the institution in the year 1855 for the sum of £3000. It contains news- rooms, library and lecture room, and is a commodious and neat structure. Opposite it stands the Clayton Hospital and the Wakefield General Dispensary. The dispensary was established in 1787, and the Clayton Hospital owes its existence to the liberality of Mr. Thomas Clayton, who contributed nearly £9000 to its erection, and excited the liberality of the people of Wakefield to further contributions, to the extent of £3000.
Parliamentary and Municipal Enfranchisement of Wakefield.- Wakefield was first authorized to send a member to Parliament by the Reform Act of 1832. The population at the Census of 1871 was 3889, and the number of parliamentary electors in 1874 was 3889. In 1848 Wakefield was made a municipal borough, with a mayor, eight aldermen, and twenty-four councillors. The Public Health Acts were applied in 1853, the parliamentary borough was made co-extensive with the municipal in 1868, and the borough commission was granted in 1870. The School Board was first elected in 1871. The number of the municipal burgesses in 1874 was 4219, and the rateable value of property, according to the return of the overseers on the 4th June, 1873, was £86,428.
Wakefield Industrial and Fine Art Exhibition.- A very successful exhibition for the above objects, was held at Wakefield between August 30 and October 19, 1865, under the presidency of Lord Houghton. A large temporary building in Wood Street and the adjacent Tammy Hall, were the scene of the exhibition, which was visited by 189,418 persons. The receipts being £6339, and the expenditure not more than £3997, a handsome balance of £3042 was left and applied in the foundation of the Wakefield Industrial Fine Art Institution, intended to comprise a school of art, a school of science, and a public museum. The art school and the scientific classes are now in active and successful operation.
Distinguished Men in Wakefield.- Wakefield has produced many distinguished men; some born within the limits of the present town, and others in the neighbourhood. The lives of some of the most prominent of these eminent men have been written by Mr. J. J. Cartwright. Amongst the most distinguished are those of Sir Thomas Gargrave, who commanded Pomfret Castle for Queen Elizabeth in the great rising of the north, and Sir Martin Frobisher, one of the greatest of our early naval discoverers, who assisted in the defeating of the Spanish Armada, and who, after rising to the rank of vice-admiral, was killed in an attack on the fort of Crozon, near Brest.
Sir Thomas Gargrave was descended from Sir John Gargrave, Kt., of Snapethorpe and Gargrave, in the county of York, who was master of the Ordnance, and a governor in France under King Henry V., and was military tutor to Richard Plantagenet, duke of York, who was slain at the battle of Wakefield in 1460. Sir Thomas Gargrave was made a member of the Council of the North in the year 1539, and in 1517 he accompanied the earl of Warwick in the expedition into Scotland and there received the honour of knighthood. During the reign of Queen Mary he was especially active on the Council of the North, and in the first Parliament of Queen Elizabeth he was returned a second time as a member for the county of York. The Journals of the House of Commons under the date of the 25th January, 1558-59 state that "by the first motion and nomination of Mr. Treasurer of the Queen's House, the worshipful Sir Thomas Gargrave, Kt., one of the honourable council in the north parts, and learned in the laws of this realm, was with one voice of the whole house chosen to be Speaker." When Parliament was dissolved on the 5th May in the same year, Sir Thomas Gargrave returned into Yorkshire, and soon became the leading spirit of the Council of the North. During the troublous times which followed he was the ablest supporter of the queen's government acting as vice- president of the Council of the North under Thomas Radcliffe, earl of Sussex, who was appointed president of this council in the year 1568. On the 3rd December, 1569, he wrote to Lord Clinton from Pontefract Castle, then far the strongest fortress in Yorkshire, informing his lordship of the retreat of the insurgents, which was the commencement of the overthrow of the insurrection. During the troublous times which followed he took a principal part in restoring the authority of the queen's government, and was to the close of his career one of the ablest of the supporters of the queen and her government.
Sir Martin Frobisher, who was born at Altofts in the parish of Normanton, near Wakefield, became a seaman early in life, and joined in the expeditions to the coast of Guinea and to South America, in which so many able and valiant leaders were trained in the reign of Queen E1izabeth. In the great battle in which the Spanish Armada was defeated in the year 1588, the important post of vice-admiral was committed to Martin Frobisher; and in an attack made upon the rear division of the Spaniards on the first day they appeared off Plymouth, Drake, Hawkins, and Frobisher played so stout a part, that many of the ships opposed to them were completely shattered. For his great services on that occasion Frobisher received the honour of knighthood at the hands of the lord high admiral. But his career, though most brilliant, was brought to a close a few years later; and in the year 1594 he was mortally wounded in an attack on the fort of Crozon, near Brest, having successfully stormed the fort, but with the loss of the lives of many gallant officers and men, as well as of his own.
DATES OF THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS CONNECTED WITH THE HISTORY OF THE BOROUGH OF WAKEFIELD.
1084-86.-The lordship of Wakefield at the Domesday Survey. Vol. ii. p. 457.
About 1090.-The lordship of Wakefield granted to the earls of Warren.- Vol. ii. p. 458.
1347.-Wakefield granted to Edmund of Langley, the first duke of York, by his father, King Edward III.-Vol. ii. p. 458.
1322.-The celebrated Robin Hood born in the neighbourhood of Wakefield.- Vol. ii. p. 459.
1357.-The chapel on the bridge at Wakefield.-Vol. ii. p. 462.
1460.-The battle of Wakefield, and the death of Richard, duke of York.- Vol. ii. p. 460.
1536-38.-Leland's account of Wakefield in the reign of Henry VIII.-Vol. ii. p. 460.
1569.-Sandal Castle, Wakefield, held by the Careys for Queen Elizabeth in the insurrection of the North.-Vol. ii. p. 462.
1643.-Wakefield taken by Sir Thomas Fairfax's army.-Vol. ii. p. 463.
1663.-The manor of Wakefield purchased by Sir Christopher Clapham.- Vol. ii. p. 458.
1700.-The manor sold to the first duke of Leeds.-Vol. ii. p. 458.
1701.-The Aire and Calder rendered navigable to Wakefield and to Leeds. -Vol. ii. p. 465.
1727.-Daniel Defoe's Visit to Wakefield.- Vol. ii. p. 464.
1820-21.-Literary and scientific institutions.-Vol. ii. p. 466.
1823.-Wakefield as described fifty years since by Edward Baines. Vol. ii. p. 465.
1823.-Pleasant society of Wakefield at this period-Mr. Frank Maude and Mr. John Hardy.-Vol. ii. p. 466.
1832.-Parliamentary and municipal enfranchisement of Wakefield.-Vol. ii. p. 467.
1865.-Wakefield Industrial and Fine Art Exhibition.-Vol. ii. p. 467.
1872.-Wakefield coal district with fifty collieries, and this year producing 1,080,195 tons of coal.-Vol. ii. p. 465.
Wakefield churches and chapels.-Vol. ii. p. 466.
Distinguished men in Wakefield.-Vol. ii. p. 467.
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