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SHEFFIELD, the second in population amongst the parliamentary and municipal boroughs of Yorkshire, has increased during the last twenty years with a rapidity otherwise unexampled, even amongst the many great manufacturing towns of the West Riding. At the Census of 1871, Sheffield contained a population of 239,947 inhabitants, of which number 54,775 was the increase of the decennial period immediately preceding; the population of Sheffield having been 185,172 at the Census 1861.* This ancient capital of the cutlery manufacture of England, which has become during the last thirty years the seat of many new and great branches of industry connected with the steel, iron, and metal trades, is situated near the southern border of the West Riding of Yorkshire, in the south division of the wapentake of Strafford and Tickhill, and in the old Anglian division of Hallamshire. The older part of the town stands on the banks of the rivers Don, or Dun, and Sheaf, from the latter of which streams it takes its name of Sheaffield, now pronounced Sheffield. The more modern part of the town is pleasantly situated on the rising banks of those two rivers, or of other streams which flow into them within the limits of the borough. Sheffield has always derived much of its prosperity from the abundant, widely diffused, and much subdivided water-power supplied by the Don, the Sheaf, and the numerous smaller streams of the Loxley, the Porter, the Rivelin, and other rapid brooks, all of which flow down from the adjoining hills, and in their windings through the town and neighbourhood furnish the means of turning and working innumerable mills, grindstones, and machines, employed in the manufactures of steel, cutlery, and hardware of the Sheffield district.

In early times Sheffield stood in the midst of vast forests of oak and other timber, which then extended, with only partial clearances, over great part of the strong clay soils that cover the coal-field of the West Riding and the adjoining counties of Derby and Nottingham. These ancient forests in early times supplied abundance of wood for the making of charcoal, the smelting of iron, and the working of that metal into every implement of industry which the ingenuity of those times could devise or apply to use. The supplies of the forests have been consumed, although the neighbourhood of Sheffield is still one of the best-wooded districts in England, and preserves, especially in its noble parks, many remains of its ancient forests. But in more recent times, and especially during the present busy century, the produce of the great coal-field, of which Sheffield may be regarded as the central point, and which extends some fifty or sixty miles in length, from the banks of the river Aire in Yorkshire to those of the great river Trent at Nottingham,* has furnished the town of Sheffield and the steel and cutlery district of Hallamshire with other and far more abundant supplies of fuel, derived from the carboniferous deposits of much more distant ages. An abundant and apparently unlimited and inexhaustible supply of steam-power is furnished by the rich coal-fields of Sheffield and Rotherham, which are increasing in productiveness, and in 1872 yielded 3,740,810 tons of coal. This prodigious supply of fuel, joined with the large quantities of iron found in this district, or brought from a distance and here converted into steel, has rendered it possible to develop that immense extension of the steel and iron trade of Sheffield which has been witnessed within the last thirty years. In addition to these large supplies of coal and iron, mountain limestone, and a hard, gritty, sand-stone rock, especially suited for forming the millstones and grindstones used so extensively in the working of cutlery, are found in this neighbourhood, with much excellent building stone. No other place in England is so well suited as the town of Sheffield, and the adjoining district of Hallamshire, for carrying on the manufactures of cutlery and steel, for which they have now been celebrated for many centuries, and which are at the present time increasing much more rapidly than they ever did at any previous period of the history of Sheffield or of England.

Antiquities of Sheffield.- The local position of the town of Sheffield on the rivers Don and Sheaf, and of several other places along the banks of the river Don, which flows through it from north-west to south-east, corresponds very nearly with the southern limit of one of the great divisions of the Roman province of Britain, known by the name of Maxima Caesariensis. Some remains of the Roman period have been found in or near to the town of Sheffield, as well as at other places in the neighbourhood, including two curious copper plates which were dug up near the town, in the Rivelin valley in 1761.* There are also remains of extensive fortifications, some of which probably belong to the Roman and the British times, along the north bank of the river Don, between Sheffield and Conisbro' Castle. The chief Roman station of south Yorkshire of which we possess a clear historical account, stood lower down the stream of the Don than Sheffield, on the site of the pleasant town of Doncaster. But there was another Roman road, besides that which passed through Danurm or Doncaster, leading from York through Chesterfield, or "the field of the camp," to the present town of Derby, which must have crossed the river Don higher up the stream than Doncaster, and probably between the town of Sheffield and the point at which the river Rother flows into the Don. There a fine rectangular camp, indisputably Roman, stood at Templeborough, now called the Ickles, about a mile south-west of Rotherham; and the Roman station Ad Fines, is laid down in the Ordnance Survey, at the junction of the Don and the Rother.

After the departure of the Romans from Britain the river Don, with the great estuary of the Humber, into which it flows, became the southern boundary between the North Anglian kingdom of Northumbria, or Northumberland, and the Middle or South-Humbrian kingdom of Mercia. It was along this line of boundary that the great Northumbrian fortifications of Conisbro', Thrybergh, and other castles, built to defend the southern frontier of the kingdom of Northumbria, were constructed. About the year 828, Egbert the king of Mercia, who claimed to be king of England, led an army to Dore, in Derbyshire, a few miles south of Sheffield, and overawed the Northumbrians into a temporary submission to his authority. These castles continued to be places of great strength for many ages after the Norman conquest, and some of them present magnificent remains at the present day.

Much the greater part of the names of the castles, towns, and villages, in and around Sheffield, are of Anglian or Teutonic origin, and some of them carry us as far back even as the times which preceded the introduction of Christianity among the Anglo-Saxons.

In the neighbourhood of Sheffield, a considerable number of the early names of places also appear to belong to the Norse or Danish period. Such is the name of Tinsley, about four miles from Sheffield, which still preserves the name of the ancient Danish or Norwegian "Tings," or "Things," assemblies of Scandinavian warriors. These assemblies were the rude houses of Parliament, and the law courts of the Scandinavian race, and are found in every part of their once wide dominions, from the Danelagh (or district subject to the Danish laws) in England-which included the present counties of York, Nottingham, Derby, Lincoln, and Leicester- to the coasts of the Shetlands and Orkneys, Norway, and even the remote island of Iceland, where we are told King Olaff built a temple, at the place afterwards named Tingwalla. The well-known and commanding position of Laughton-en-le-Morthen, visible from the neighbourhood of Sheffield, was probably the site of another Scandinavian laghton, or court of law, over which a judge, called by the Danes a laghman, presided.

Sheffield and the Neighbourhood described in Domesday Book.- But at the time of the Domesday Survey, about the twentieth year of the reign of William the Conqueror, 1084-86, the whole of this district, with its castles, manors, and lands, had passed into the hands of the conquering Normans. Sheffield, according to its most learned and accomplished historian, Hunter, is described in the Domesday Record by the unfamiliar name of "Escafeld," and was then held by the powerful Norman, Roger de Busli, under the Countess Judith, the niece of William the Conqueror, and the widow of Waltheof, the Anglian or Saxon earl of Northumberland. We find in the Domesday Survey that these extensive estates had belonged, previous to the Norman conquest, part of them to King Sweyn, the father to Sweyn, who was probably a connection of King Sweyn, father of Canute the Great. Sweyn, the father of Canute, died and was buried at York, then the capital of the Danelaugh, in England, and he or his family are very likely to have had possession in this district, which at that time possessed great military importance. The following is a translation in substance, of that part of the Domesday Survey which relates to the town and neighbourhood of Sheffield, from Hunter's "Hallamshire." It will be seen that it commences with an account of Grimshov, which Hunter supposes to be the modern Grimsthorpe, and to include the district in which it stands, now called Brightside-Bierlow. It afterwards refers to what has become the most important of all, Sheffield and Attercliffe, described in Domesday as "Escafeld" and "Ateclive." With these explanations we proceed to quote what may be regarded as the earliest written or printed account of Sheffield and the neighbourhood:-

The Lands of Roger de Busli.- "A manor in Grimshov (Grim's hill or court); there Ulfac had three carucates and a half of land to be taxed, and there may be enough land for two ploughs. Now Roger (de Busli) has one carucate, and three villani (tenants) and as many cottagers (bordarii) have one carucate. There is a pasturable wood three quarterns in length and two in breadth. In the time of King Edward (the Confessor) it was worth 40s. a year (£30 a year of modern money), now it is worth 20s. a year (£15)." This decline of value was no doubt the result of war and conquest.

Mention is then made of Hallamshire.- "A manor in Hallamshire with sixteen berewicks (subordinate manors or hamlets) and twenty-nine carucates of land to be taxed. There Waltheof had an aula-a hall or court. There may be land for about twenty ploughs. This land Roger de Busli holds of the Countess Judith. He has himself there two carucates of land, and thirty- three villani holding twelve carucates and a hall: There are eight acres of meadow, and a pasturable wood four miles in length and four in breadth. The whole manor (of Hallamshire) is ten miles in length and eight in breadth. In the time of King Edward (the Confessor) it was valued at eight marks of silver a year (£80 modern money), now at 40s. (£30)." Attercliffe and Sheffield.-Next are mentioned "two manors in Ateclive and Escafeld (Sheffield).

Sweyn had five carucates of land to be taxed. There may be enough for about three ploughs." "This land," says Hunter, "is said to have been inland or demesne land, of the manor of Hallam."

It will be seen from the above extracts from the Domesday Record, that the district of Hallamshire had suffered severely from the ravages of the Norman conquerors, and probably from the preceding wars of the Angles and the Danes, on the borders of Yorkshire. In Grimsthorpe, or Brightside- Bierlow, Ulfac, the Anglian or Danish proprietor, had been expelled by the Normans, and his land had declined in value one-half, since the time of Edward the Confessor. In the great manor of Hallamshire, which had been worth eight marks of silver yearly, equal to about £80 a year in the money of the present time, the value of the land had sunk to 40s. or about £30 of modern money. In Sheffield and Attercliffe we have no account of the money value of the land; but a large portion of it seems to have become waste, a common result of the desolating wars of that period. Nor is this desolation at all surprising: for the original owners of these lands were either Angles or Danes of high if not of royal rank, and were also soldiers distinguished by their courage, who defended their castles and estates with determined resolution. Earl Waltheof of Northumberland was the son and successor of the great Northumbrian Earl Siward, celebrated in Shakspeare's " Macbeth," and his mother was a princess of the royal race of the Angles. He headed more than one insurrection against the Normans, and ended his career by being tried and beheaded as a traitor- along with several other chiefs, English, Danish, and Norman-by the Conqueror. Nothing is known of Sweyn, who is mentioned as the possessor of Sheffield and Attercliffe at some time previous to the Norman conquest, unless he was connected with the powerful Danish chief who conquered the greater part of England, and after a victorious career died at York, leaving the kingdom to his still more successful son, Canute the Great. If it was not this Sweyn it was probably some other member of the royal family of Norway, as the name of Sweyn, meaning a youth, and frequently a youth of noble or royal race, was very frequently given about this time. Whether the manor of Grimshov, or Grim's hill or court, at any time belonged to the great Danish warrior, Earl Grim (or, the fierce and cruel), from whom Grimsby , Grimsthorpe, and many other places in the Danelagh and in the north of England were named, is uncertain. In addition to these distinguished persons the Anglian earl, Edwin, had large estates at Laughton and Tickhill, in the neighbourhood of Sheffield. All the Anglic and Danish chiefs appear to have been swept away, sooner or later, in the wars which followed the Norman conquest.

The Life and Times of Earl Waltheof.- At the meeting of the British Archaeological Association held at Sheffield in August, 1873, interesting papers were read on the subject of Earl Waltheof and the Countess Judith, of which the following are extremely brief summaries:- Mr. Edward Levien, F.S.A., read a paper on "The Life and Times of Earl Waltheof." After referring to his father, Siward, who was stationed by Edward the Confessor in Northumbria, because "the kingdom being much infested by the Danes, the great men of the land, consulting with the king, did advise that the little devil (Siward) should be first exposed to the great devil (the Danes)," Mr. Levien stated that in 1070, fifteen years after Siward's death, Waltheof received from the Conqueror the earldom of Northumberland, on the flight of the rebellious Cospatrick into Scotland. He had previously been earl of Northampton and Huntingdon, and had large possessions in Cambridgeshire, also holding the aula and lands of Hallam. In 1069 he joined in the siege of York Castle, and is said to have cut off the heads of several Norman soldiers with his own hands. William, however, professing to be reconciled to him, gave him the hand of his niece Judith, a name, remarked Mr. Levien, uncomfortably suggestive since Holofernes' days of some mischief to the head. In 1074 he was present at the marriage of Roger Fitzosborne's sister to Ralph de Waet, earl of Norfolk, which was celebrated in spite of the king's veto. The wedding- feast was not marked by the dove-like and complimentary speeches now customary: for the bridegroom, the bride's father, and the whole company bound themselves by oath to rid the country of the Normans. Waltheof, overcome, according to the chroniclers, by wine or threats, was a party to the compact, and in an evil moment informed his countess of the plot. She, wishing, there is reason to believe, for a second husband, denounced Waltheof to the king. Having consulted Lanfranc, Waltheof was persuaded by him to go over to Normandy and throw himself on the Conqueror's mercy. The conspirators, suspecting his purpose, broke out into premature revolt, and were speedily defeated. William, on his return to England, executed a number of the insurgents, and caused Waltheof to be beheaded at Winchester.

The Countess Judith one of the earliest Possessors of the Manor of Sheffield.- At the same meeting Mr. J. R. Planche', Somerset Herald, read a paper on "The Early Lords of Holderness, the connections of the Countess Judith." Referring to the conferring of Holderness by the Conqueror in 1086 on his brother-in- law, Count Eudes, or Odo de Champagne, Mr. Planche' remarked that much confusion had existed with regard to this count; some representing him as son of Stephen, second count of Champagne or Brie, by Adela, supposed to have been the daughter of Richard, second duke of Normandy, in which case he would leave been first cousin to the Conqueror. The facts of the case-as elicited from the records of the church of St. Martin d'Auchin, commonly called Aumale from its vicinity to that town-were that about the year 1000, Guerinfai, sire d'Aumale, built a castle on the river Eu, now called the Bresle. His only daughter, Bertha, married Hugh, second count of Ponthieu, and had issue Ingleram, sire d'Aumale, who married Adelaide or Adeliza, the Conqueror's sister, and by her had a daughter Adelaide. Ingleram's widow had for second husband Count Lambert, of Lens in Artois, and had by her a daughter Judith, whom the Conqueror gave in marriage to Waltheof Lambert being killed at Lille a year after his marriage, the widow took for a third husband Odo, count of Champagne, and by him had a son, Stephen, count of Champagne. Odo, owing allegiance both to Rufus and his brother Robert, sided with the former, but afterwards joined in the conspiracy to place his son, Stephen d'Aumale, on the throne. On the failure of this Odo was thrown into a dungeon, whence he never emerged alive. Stephen was condemned to have his eyes plucked out, but this part of the sentence was remitted.

Busli (Rogerus de).- In the list of the great tenants of the crown, given in the general introduction to Domesday Book, drawn up by the late Sir Henry Ellis, we find it stated that Roger de Busli had his residence at Tickhill Castle, Yorkshire, in this county, and in Nottinghamshire, he had his largest possessions. He founded the priory of Blythe, in Nottinghamshire, in 1088. The barony terminated in John, his grandson, who left one daughter.

Sheffield under the Normans.- The parishes of Sheffield, Ecclesfield, and Handsworth, formed in early times the district of Hallamshire-a name that is still preserved, and has been extended to other places beyond the boundaries of those three parishes. The town of Sheffield, with a strong castle on the banks of the river Don, continued to be the capital of Hallamshire after the Norman conquest. In the fifth generation of the De Busli family their extensive possessions passed into the hands of Robert de Vipont, by his marriage with Idonea de Busli, the heiress of that powerful family, descended from Ernaldus, brother of Roger I. Subsequently Sheffield, and other estates belonging to the De Busli family, became the property of the house of De Lovetot; and from the time when the latter family was established in Hallamshire may be traced the first feeble commencement of the prosperity of Sheffield. That was continued and extended by the wise and liberal policy of their successors, the Furnivals, lords of Sheffield, and was owing in a great degree to the liberal tenures of land granted by them, and to the security which the burgesses enjoyed under the shelter of the castle of Sheffield. The probability is that this castle had served as a residence for an Anglian chief before it passed into the hands of the Normans. The family of the De Lovetots seem to have risen above the age in which they lived, in benevolence and public spirit. One of their first acts was to erect churches in their territories, and under the rule of this family the first parish churches were built in Sheffield, and in the neighbouring parish of Ecclesfield and chapelry of Bradfield. At the time when the church of Sheffield was built, "a few straggling cottages and smithies, with a few houses in the neighbourhood of the town mill, formed the whole town of Sheffield."* The last representative of the male line of the De Lovetot family died between the 22nd and the 27th years of the reign of King Henry II., the first of the Plantagenet kings. He left an only daughter, Matilda or Maud, then of tender age, as a ward of the reigning king; and after the death of King Henry II. his son and successor, Richard I., gave her in marriage to the son of one of his companions in arms, Gerard de Furnival, a young Norman knight, who by this alliance became the possessor of the lordship of Sheffield.

Several members of the house of De Furnival were summoned to the early parliaments of England, along with the other barons of the realm. During the term of possession of the barony by this family the castle of Sheffield was rebuilt, and was fortified by authority of King Henry III. in the 54th year of his reign, 1269- 70. On the 12th November, 1296, the 24th Edward I., Thomas, Lord de Furnival, obtained from that king a charter under the great seal Of England, authorizing the holding of a market every Tuesday in his manor of Sheffield, and of a fair to be held every year in the same town during three days-namely, on the eve, the day, and the morrow, of the Feast of Holy Trinity. This market and fair have continued to be held to the present time without alteration, except that the fair is held on the Tuesday following Trinity Sunday.

Thomas de Furnival's Charter to the Burgesses of Sheffield.- Another charter of still greater importance, and often described as the Magna Charta of Sheffield, was granted by the same Thomas de Furnival to his tenants in that town, in the year 1297, the 24th and 25th Edward I. By this charter he confirmed to his burgesses of Sheffield, their burgages, lands, and tofts for ever, on payment of a moderate fixed rent in money. "This charter," says Hunter, "was executed by the Lord Furnival of Sheffield, on the 10th August, 1297. All the persons of rank in the immediate vicinity were assembled to witness the execution of the charter-namely, Sir Robert Ecclesall, Knight, Sir Edmund Foliot, Knight, Thomas de Sheffield, Thomas de Munteney, Robert de Wadsley, Ralph de Wadsley, Thomas de Furneus, William de Darnall, and Robert le Breton, at that time seneschal of Hallamshire. The objects comprehended in this charter were the abolition of those base and uncertain services by which the tenants of Sheffield (in common with those of most manors) had previously held their tenements; and the substitution in their stead of a small fixed annual payment in money. The sum agreed upon, as the burgage rent for the whole town, was £3 8s. 9d. "(of the money of that time, equal to about fifteen times as much in the money of the present day, or from £50 to £60 a year.) "This," says Hunter, "continued to be paid many years after, by the inhabitants of Sheffield, under the description of the burgery" (or burgage) rent. Of this sum the church burgesses formerly paid 7s. 2d. annual rent, for burgage tenures which had fallen into their hands. The rent paid for each tenement was originally small, though a fair rent at the time, and it decreased in value with the depreciation of gold and silver. Hence the collection of the burgage rents seems to have been gradually discontinued, and they are not now paid. But as late as the year 1662, a jury was formed to inquire what houses in the town were of the old burgery (or burgage), and what proportion of the burgage rent rested upon them. They made a return of about 400 dwellings, as included in the original burgage tenure of Sheffield, a sufficient number to create a solid freedom of tenure in the borough, and implying a population of at least from 1000 to 1500 persons."

Testa de Nevil.- The following is the notice of the possessions of these two houses, in the neighbourhood of Sheffield, given in this well-known work, drawn up chiefly in the reign of King Henry III.:- Gerard Furnival held five knights' fees, and one-fourth in the fee of the honour of Tickhill. At the same time Nigel De Lovetot held five knights' fees in the same honour; and Robert Fitzwilliam, five knights' fees.

The name and family of De Furnival continued at Sheffield for fifty years after the death of the above-named benefactor of the town, when Joan De Furnival, the only daughter of William, the son of the above Thomas, married Sir Thomas Nevil, and carried Sheffield and the De Furnival estates into the hands of a younger branch of the celebrated house of Nevil. From this marriage sprang another daughter, named Maud Nevil, who married John Talbot, afterwards the great earl of Shrewsbury; and the descendants of this marriage held the estates down to the year 1616. John, the first and great earl of Shrewsbury, after triumphing in France, Ireland, and on the English borders, in forty battles or engagements, was slain at the battle of Chatillon in the south of France, on the 20th July, 1453; his son, the "young John Talbot" of Shakspeare, falling by his side in the same disastrous engagement. The second and third earls of Shrewsbury were zealous adherents of the house of Lancaster, in the wars of the Red and the White Rose; and the castle of Sheffield was one of the Yorkshire fortresses of the house of Lancaster, until the triumph of King Edward IV., the representative of the house of York, on Towton Field, over-threw it for a time, although it was again raised, on the triumph of Henry of Richmond, afterwards King Henry VII., on Bosworth Field.

George Talbot, the fourth earl of Shrewsbury, born in the year 1468, held the lordship of Sheffield for seventy years, and in the early part of the reign of King Henry VIII. built a noble country mansion, sometimes called Sheffield Manor, at other times "The Lodge," in Sheffield Park, about two miles from the centre of the town. The castle and manor of Sheffield derive a strong historical interest from the illustrious prisoners who were confined within their wills, by order first of Henry VIII., and afterwards of his daughter, Queen Elizabeth. Cardinal Wolsey, who was archbishop of York at the time of his memorable downfall, was arrested by order of the king at Cawood Castle, one of the residences of the archbishops, near York, and was brought to Sheffield on his way to London. He was detained at Sheffield manor for sixteen or eighteen days, and after leaving it, first for Hardwick-upon-Line, in Nottinghamshire, and next for Nottingham Castle, he reached Leicester Abbey, where he died a few days after his departure from Sheffield. As Shakspeare says:-
"At last, with easy roads, he came to Leicester, Lodg'd in the abbey; where the reverend abbot, With all his convent, honourably receiv'd him; To whom he gave these words-' O father abbot, An old man, broken with the storms of state, Is come to lay his weary bones among ye; Give him a little earth for charity! ' So went to bed; where eagerly his sickness Pursu'd him still; and, three nights after this, About the hour of eight (which he himself Foretold should be his last), full of repentance, Continual meditations, tears, and sorrows, He gave his honours to the world again, His blessed part to heaven, and slept in peace."

A still more illustrious captive, the unfortunate Mary Queen of Scots, also spent many sad years of her long imprisonment in Sheffield Castle. After being removed for greater security from Bolton Castle in Wensleydale, Yorkshire, to Tutbury Castle in Staffordshire, she was brought to Sheffield Castle, then again to Tutbury, afterwards to Chartley Castle in Staffordshire, and finally to Fotheringay Castle, Northamptonshire, where she was put to death on the 5th February, 1587, after a captivity in one or other of those castles of eighteen years, eight months, and twenty-two days. Of this long period of imprisonment thirteen years were spent in the castle of Sheffield. The sixth earl of Shrewsbury, who undertook this painful duty by command of Queen Elizabeth, was the kindest of her keepers, though as a zealous Protestant he was strongly opposed to the plots formed against Queen Elizabeth. There is a noble, but poetical picture of the character of this fine old earl, in Schiller's tragedy of "Maria Stuart." The circumstances of Mary Queen of Scots' imprisonment at Sheffield are well traced in Hunter's "Hallamshire," and a very candid and truthful appreciation of her character is found in the Rev. A. Gatty's recent interesting work, entitled "Sheffield: Past and Present." George, the sixth earl of Shrewsbury, was succeeded by Gilbert, his son, who died on the 8th of May, 1616. Lady Alethea Talbot, the youngest daughter and co-heiress of Earl Gilbert, married Thomas Howard, earl of Arundel and Surrey, and by this marriage the lordship of Sheffield was transferred from the Talbots, earls of Shrewsbury, the premier earls of England, to the Howards, earls of Arundel and Surrey, and dukes of Norfolk, the premier dukes.

The Great Civil War.- In the great civil war, in the succeeding century, Sheffield was for a time occupied by the parliamentary general, Sir John Gell, of Derbyshire; but on the advance of William Cavendish, marquis of Newcastle, at the head of the royal army of Yorkshire, Sir John Gell was compelled to retreat, and the royalists held Sheffield for some time. After the great parliamentary victory of Marston Moor, in the year 1644, and after the retreat of Prince Rupert from Yorkshire, and the withdrawal of the marquis of Newcastle from England, Sheffield was besieged by Major-general Crawford, of the Scottish army, supported by the armies of the earl of Manchester, Oliver Cromwell, and Sir Thomas Fairfax. The castle was well defended for nearly a month; but on the 11th August, 1645, it was found to be no longer tenable, and was surrendered to the parliamentary commander on honourable terms. The Howards were allowed by Parliament to ransom their Sheffield estates, on payment of a fine of £6000; but on the 30th of April, 1646, the Long Parliament, which was determined to destroy all feudal fortresses that had been held by its opponents, passed a resolution directing that the castle of Sheffield should be rendered untenable; and on the 13th July, 1647, another resolution for demolishing that ancient structure. This was done in the month of April, 1648, so far as the castle was concerned; but the manor house was habitable until the year 1706, when it was dismantled by order of Thomas, duke of Norfolk.

In the Parliament of 1628 the cutlers of Hallamshire were erected into a corporate body, consisting of one master cutler, two wardens, six searchers, twenty-four assistants, and the ordinary members of the trade. By this Act it was provided that the governing body of the Hallamshire cutlers should be elected every year, on the Feast of St. Bartholomew, and that they should make laws for the government of their trade. The Old Cutlers' Hall was built in the year 1608.

The Trust of Sheffield.- The town trust of Sheffield was incorporated in the year 1554, and according to the original patent it formed the inhabitants of the town and parish of Sheffield into one body, politic and corporate, by the name and style of the twelve capital burgesses and commonalty of the town and parish of Sheffield. The body thus incorporated was authorized to hold lands, which were assigned to repair the parish church, to build bridges and common ways, to assist the poor, and for any other charitable and public purposes. From this fund the trustees defrayed the expense of lighting the public streets.

The church burgesses are a self-elected body, and all their funds go to ecclesiastical purposes. The town trustees are elected by the resident freeholders, and their funds are applied to public improvements and useful purposes.

The Early Progress of the Trade of Sheffield.- The progress of Sheffield in manufactures and industry has been continuous, though at very different rates of progression, from the granting of the great charter of Thomas de Furnival. In the time of King Edward III. the cutlery of Sheffield was well known, and was in general use throughout the kingdom; and Chaucer, in his "Canterbury Tales," describes the hardy miller of Trumpington, near Cambridge, as carrying a Sheffield whittle or knife in his hose. At the beginning of the seventeenth century, the town of Sheffield had a population of 2207 persons, of whom not more than 100, amounting with their families to about 500 persons, are said to have been householders; but this disproportion in the number of householders and inhabitants is not probable, and may perhaps have arisen from confounding the number of the burgesses, who were a select class holding burgage houses, with the inhabitants generally. The earliest accounts of the articles of cutlery manufactured at Sheffield mention "whittles," or knives; but gradually shears, scissors, scythes, and razors were added. In the reign of Queen Elizabeth the earl of Shrewsbury, the great friend and patron of the town, sent to his friend the great Lord Burghley, "a case of Hallamshire whittles, being such fruites as this pore cuntrey afordth, with fame throughout the realme." This old-fashioned name for knives survives in common use on the other side of the Atlantic, where the thoughtful Yankee often spends his leisure hours in "whittling" a stick. Lord Burghley was still alive when a new element of successful industry was introduced into Sheffield in the persons of skilled craftsmen from the Low Countries, driven into exile in England by Spanish and Austrian tyranny.

The Progress of Sheffield in the Eighteenth Century.- The celebrated Daniel Defoe visited the town of Sheffield about the year 1727, and in approaching that place from Doncaster, he had "a fair view of that ancient whittle-making cutlery town called Sheffield." Here, as he tells us, he found the town very populous and large; but the streets were narrow and the houses dark and black, owing to the continued smoke of the forges, which he says "are always at work." "They make," as he informs us, "all sorts of cutlery, but especially edge-tools, knives, razors, axes, and bills;" and there was for some time the only mill for turning grindstones. The people, he says, were "a prodigious many, as well in the town as in the bounds of what they call Hallamshire. They talked of 30,000 people being employed on the whole; but," he adds, "that I believe on the credit of the report;" that is, he did not believe ill it at all, and was quite right in withholding his belief. At that time the river Don was as terrible in its risings as it has sometimes been in modern times. This river, he says, is akin to the Derwent, from the fierceness of its streams, taking its beginning in the same western mountains, which pour down their streams so rapidly that nothing is able to stand in their way. This district has always been famous for its magnificent trees. The great oak tree described by Evelyn, in his book on forest trees, was still growing in Sheffield Park, and Defoe mentions a great chestnut tree, near Attercliffe, which can hardly be "fathomed or grasped by the arms of three men.

In the year 1742, in the reign of George II., Mr. Thomas Bolsover of Sheffield discovered the art of plating silver upon copper, and of so producing a silver-faced material which was employed in making buttons, snuff-boxes, and many fancy articles. A few years later Mr. Joseph Hancock employed this metal to imitate the finest and richest embossed plate, and in a short time the Sheffield plate became generally adopted. The manufacture of pure silver plate also began to be followed; and in order that the Sheffield manufacturers might be freed from the necessity of sending their goods to London to be stamped, all assay office was established in Sheffield, which was opened on the 20th December,

1773. A few years earlier the refining of the precious metals was introduced into Sheffield, and Mr. John Read, who settled there in the year 1765, carried on this branch of industry on a large scale. A superior kind of pewter, called Britannia metal, was subsequently invented and brought into general use. In Sheffield and its immediate neighbourhood there were already numerous foundries of iron, brass, and white metal, and many works were established, on the banks of the numerous streams, in the town and neighbourhood, for the purpose of tilting and grinding by water-power the iron and steel for the manufacturers. About the year 1758 extensive lead-works were formed on the banks of the Sheaf, a stream which flows into the Don at Sheffield. A silk mill, and subsequently a carpet manufactory, were established about the same time at Sheffield; but the example was not followed, and the working in metals is and always has been the great staple of Sheffield industry.

The Roads and River Navigation of Sheffield.- The trade of Sheffield long suffered from want of good roads, and still longer from want of river or canal navigation. It was about the middle of the last century, or more precisely in the first years of the reign of George III., that good roads were formed between Leeds and Sheffield, which were afterwards extended southward to Nottingham, Leicester, Northampton, and ultimately to London. Up to that time the produce of the Sheffield smithies and workshops was conveyed weekly to London, and less frequently to other places, on the backs of packhorses. River navigation was introduced somewhat later. The river Don was made navigable in the year 1751 from Tinsley, about three miles from Sheffield, down to Doncaster, from which town it had long been navigable to the Humber and the port of Hull; but the navigation from Tinsley to Sheffield was not completed until the year 1819, when a canal was opened. Some years earlier, the river Don and the Aire and Calder Navigation had been connected with each other, from the neighbourhood of Sheffield to Wakefield, by the Dearne and Dove Navigation. But even with these disadvantages, in the early mode of conveying the manufactures of Sheffield, the industry of the town continued to increase, and some of the inventions which have created the wealth and industry of Sheffield began to be successfully developed.

Introduction of Steam-power.- The first steam-engine grinding wheel was erected by Messrs. Proctor, on the east bank of the river Sheaf, in the year 1786, and from that time the agency of water-power, though still most extensively used, has been extended by the more certain and efficient power of steam, but not at all superseded; for in these days of dear coal water-power is more valuable than ever.

Churches and Chapels of Sheffield.- The parish church of Sheffield, though anciently dedicated to St. Peter, and described by the names of St. Peter and St. Paul, in the Census of England and Wales for 1871, is also known as Trinity Church. It stands near the centre of the old town of Sheffield, and was erected in the reign of King Henry I., about fifty years after the Norman conquest. The mortal remains of four earls of Shrewsbury of the family of Talbot, and of numerous other members of that famous and ancient house, are interred in the parish church of Sheffield. Many other churches and chapels adorn the town. St. Simon's Church, Eyre Street, built in 1841, is of brick. St. Mark's, Glossop Road, is in the pleasant elevated district that includes Broomhill and Endcliffe, in which are also the Collegiate School, the Wesley College, a handsome Grecian building, and the beautiful Botanic Garden. St. Luke's Church, Solly Street, was opened in 1860. All Saints, a handsome well-proportioned church standing on an eminence near Ellesmere Road, was erected and endowed in 1868 by Sir John Brown, of Endeliffe Hall. The tower and spire rise to the height of 190 feet. Sir John Brown has also given £600 and the site for the church of St. Andrew's, in Sharrow district, built in 1869. There is also St. Michael's and All Angels church in Burton Road, Neepsend, built in 1869, and the district church of Dyers Hill. In addition to sixteen churches in the town of Sheffield, there are seven other churches in the following out-townships-namely, Attercliffe, Crookes, Darnall, Ecclesall, Fulwood, Heeley, and Walkley. The total amount of the stipends paid annually to the incumbents of the twenty-nine benefices in the parish of Sheffield is £8000, and a large majority of the livings have been created and churches built for them within the last twenty-five years.

In 1846 the Queen and Privy Council sanctioned a plan of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners for re-constituting this extensive and populous parish, which was accordingly done by dividing it into twenty-five districts, since become parishes, having each of them a church and an incumbent. The archbishop of York also raised the parish into a deanery.

The Parish Church of Sheffield, dedicated to St. Peter and the Holy Trinity, is rectangular in form, and bears a tower and spire. It is situated in the centre of the town, and surrounded by a churchyard. In 1805 the nave of the parish church was rebuilt, and several restorations have been made. In the time of Henry VIII. the fourth earl of Shrewsbury founded the chapel here, which contains some remarkable altar tombs commemorative of this noble family. That erected to the memory of the founder, George Talbot, fourth earl of Shrewsbury, is the most important. Elizabeth, countess of Lennox, wife of Charles Lennox, younger brother of the unfortunate Darnley, husband of Mary Queen of Scots, is interred here. Her mother, the widow of Sir William Cavendish, married the sixth earl of Shrewsbury, keeper of Mary Queen of Scots, and was in attendance on the royal captive during her long imprisonment at Sheffield. There is a handsome monument also of this sixth earl, which was erected during his lifetime. A bust by Chantrey (his first, it is said) finds an appropriate place in this church; for though born in the Derbyshire village of Norton, four miles distant from Sheffield, Chantrey was apprenticed in Sheffield as a carver and gilder, and here commenced his career as an artist and sculptor. The bust which is in the chancel is that of the Rev. James Wilkinson, vicar of the parish, who died in the year 1805. There is another work of Chantrey's in the parish church of Sheffield- namely, a monument of Mr. Thomas Harrison, of Weston Hall, and his wife, Elizabeth, who died respectively in 1818 and 1893. The tower of this church is furnished with ten bells, a set of chimes, and an illuminated clock. The parish register commences in 1560, and is very large and full. The living is a vicarage, of the annual value of £500. The new vicarage is built on the site of the ancient building, together with the Church of England Educational Institute.

The Rev. Dr. Gatty, at the visit of the British Archaeological Society in 1873, traced the history of the parish church of Sheffield which, he thought, was built or rebuilt by William de Lovetot, about 1103. Possibly it was burnt at the same time as the castle, and rebuilt by Thomas de Furnival, about 1270. The tower, apparently the oldest part of the present edifice, the external casing of which is not a century old, might include some portion of his edifice. The perpendicular work in the nave bespoke considerable external rebuilding in Henry VII.'s reign. The church-wardens' accounts of 1559 showed the existence of a clock, and there was also an organ, which was removed during the Commonwealth, the church remaining without one till the beginning of this century. None of the furniture of the ante-reformation date is left except the handsomely-carved oaken sedilia for the three priests, supported by the inhabitants, to assist the vicar. The oldest bell bears date 1538, and the peal of ten, to which two have been recently added, was recast in 1799. The chancel was much injured by a storm in 1703, and underwent complete repair at the cost of the lay rector, the lord of Hallamshire. The addition of the Shrewsbury Chapel and that of the vestry and burgess room, in 1771, have converted the church from a cruciform into a rectangular shape. In 1800 the nave was rebuilt from the ground, and galleries were erected. These and other alterations have impaired the beauty of the building, but it is still impressive from its solidity and its lofty spire.

The Shrewsbury Chapel, Sheffield.- At the meeting of the British Archaeological Association at Sheffield in September, 1873, the first visit of the members was to the Shrewsbury Chapel, in the parish church, where members of the Shrewsbury family were interred from 1538 to 1632. The vicar acting as cicerone, the altar tomb of the founder, George, fourth earl of Shrewsbury, was examined with much interest. It has spiral columns at the four corners, and bears recumbent effigies in marble of the earl and his two countesses. The inscription represents both ladies as interred here, it having been probably executed before the death of the Countess Elizabeth, who was actually buried with her ancestors at Erith in Kent. The earl is sculptured with a coronet, and in the robes of the Order of the Garter. His feet rest on a talbot, a rebus to which heralds and sculptors of former times were much addicted, and his hands are joined in prayer. The only side of the tomb which the wainscot and upright shafts supporting the arch allow to be seen, has three rose compartments; a shield of arms in brass occupying the centre of each. In the centre of the chapel is a second tomb, without effigy or inscription; the shields of arms, however, seeming to show that it was erected in 1585 by George, sixth earl, as a memorial of his first countess and their four sons. Near the south wall is the monument erected by that earl, bearing his effigy in armour, and surmounted by a slab, with a long inscription composed by Foxe, the martyrologist, whose rough draught is preserved among the Harleian manuscripts in the British Museum. Foxe died three years before the earl, who was not content to trust his executors with his memorial, but had it completed, minus the date of his decease, in his lifetime; one of his objects being to rebut aspersions on his character with regard to his custody of Mary Queen of Scots. The vicar also pointed out a brass plate found beneath the foot in memory of Lady Mountjoy, who died in 1510, it is supposed, while on a visit to the earl of Shrewsbury; also the old altar stone of the church, bearing the crosses with which such stones were marked before the Reformation. This was found buried beneath the surface, and has been raised a few feet above the floor. The vicar mentioned that he accompanied the late duke of Norfolk into the vault below the chapel, and found two coffins of the Shrewsbury family, others having apparently been walled up.

St. Paul's Church, in Norfolk Street, built in 1720, also contains a monument by Chantrey. The living is a perpetual curacy, worth £300 a year, in the gift of the vicar of Sheffield. The church of St. James', in St. James' Street, was erected about the close of the last century. The eastern window of stained glass, representing the crucifixion, is the work of Peckett in 1797. The benefice is valued at £300 a year. St. George's Church, St. George's Square, is a noble Gothic stone building, with a tower 139 feet in height. It was built by a parliamentary grant under the Million Act, and cost £14,819. The chief object of interest in the interior is a painting over the communion table, representing Christ blessing little children. It was presented to the church by the painter, Mr. Paris. St. Philip's, a Gothic church, standing at the junction of the Infirmary and Penistone Road, was commenced in 1822, and was not completely finished till 1833. Like St. George's, it cost a large sum-£11,874. This church district includes part of Nether Hallam township, which contains another new church, at Walkley, called St. Mary's. The church dedicated to St. Mary, standing in Brammall Lane, is a fine Gothic building, affording accommodation for 2000 persons. It was opened in 1830, and was built under a grant by Parliament at a cost of £12,650. St. John's, on the Park hill, is also Gothic in style, having a tower and spire 100 feet high. The twelfth duke of Norfolk gave the site for the church and its extensive burial-ground, which stands on a conspicuous elevation. Holy Trinity Church, in Nursery Street, built in 1848 at the sole expense of the Misses Harrison, of Weston Hall, affords accommodation for 1000 persons. The western end supports a tower, and there is a good east window of stained glass. St. Jude's, in Eldon Street, was erected in 1849 by subscription, aided by a grant from the Incorporated Church-building Society. The foundation is laid on thirty-three stone columns springing from a disused coal mine. St. Jude's Church, in Moorfields, built by subscription, to which John Gaunt of Darnall contributed £1000, unfortunately fell down when almost finished, on Sunday the 7th November, 1852, the foundation giving way through some defect. The church was rebuilt in a different form, and opened in 1855. The church dedicated to St. Thomas, at Crookes, was built in 1844, and Christ Church, at Pitsmoor, a pleasant suburb of the town, in 1850. St. Matthew's in Carver Street, built in 1854-55, has a spire 125 feet high, and in the tower a bell of cast steel. Mr. Henry Wilson contributed largely to the fund raised for building this church. The same generous benefactor also defrayed the cost of St. Stephen's Church, standing at the entry of Bellefield and Fawcett Streets, which was built in 1857 for the district of Netherthorpe and Jericho. Mr. Wilson also gave the endowment of £1500 a year.

Dissenting Chapels in Sheffield.- The Independents have ten chapels in Sheffield. The Wicker Congregational Church, situated at the junction of Occupation and Burngreave Roads; a new church in Cemetery Road; a large chapel called the Tabernacle, in Oxford Street; Broom Park Church, in Newbould Lane; and also chapels at Tapton Hill and Attercliffe. The Baptists have four chapels in the following places- Town Head Street, Portmahon, Cemetery Road, and Glossop Road. In Hanover Street the Presbyterians have a church with a good spire. In Norfolk Row the Roman Catholics have a splendid church, dedicated to Ste. Marie, opened in September, 1850. It is a stone structure of large dimensions and excellent proportions, designed on the model of Heckingham Church, Lincolnshire, one of the best examples of the pure old decorated parish churches in England. The tower, which contains a peal of eight bells, supports a spire 200 feet high. The Roman Catholics have also a church dedicated to St. Vincent, in Whitecroft, built in 1856; a chapel dedicated to St. William, in Leecroft; and another built in 1868, dedicated to St. Charles, in Attercliffe Road.

There are thirty chapels belonging to various other religious bodies in Sheffield, besides a Friends' meeting house, in Meeting House Lane.

The Wesleyans have six spacious chapels in Sheffield-Brunswick Chapel, which, with its fine portico, has a commanding appearance; Ebenezer Chapel, and others severally situated in Carver Street, at Bridgehouses, Norfolk Street, the Park, Sheffield Moor, and Cherrytree-hill. The Wesleyans have also smaller chapels at Owlerton, Crookes, Heeley, Attercliffe, and the Manor, and also one at Wesley College. There is also a Wesleyan Methodist chapel at Fullwood Road, Broom Hill, cruciform in structure, and having a high and beautiful spire. The New Connection Methodists have chapels in the following places, and elsewhere:- Scotland Street, South Street, Sheffield Moor, Talbot Street, Park, for which the late duke of Norfolk gave the site; one at Broom Hill, which cost £3500. The United Methodist Free Church has a handsome chapel, with schools, in Hanover Street. There are also several smaller chapels in the adjacent villages, and at Walkley. The Primitive Methodists, the Wesleyan Reformers, and the United Methodists Free Church, have several large and well-built places of worship. Likewise the Plymouth Brethren, the Latter Day Saints, and the Swedenborgians, have each a meeting room in the town. There are two Unitarian chapels, and a Catholic Apostolic church in Victoria Street.

The Schools of Sheffield.- The Free Grammar School of Sheffield, in St. George's Square, was built by subscription in 1842, in place of the old free school, erected in 1648 with materials from the ruins of Sheffield Castle. The original school was founded by Thomas Smith, an attorney of Crowland, Lincolnshire. By his will, dated July, 1603, he left £30 a year to Sheffield township "as long as the world shall endure," for the support of "two sufficiently-learned men to teach and bring up the young children there in godliness and learning." For the election of masters and other acts of administration, the founder gave power to the vicar of Sheffield and twelve "of the best and most sufficient parishioners." King James I., in May, 1604, granted letters-patent confirming the institution, and incorporated the vicar and twelve governors with a common seal. Although the master and his assistants were required to be members of the Church of England, and to have graduated at one of the universities, the advantages of the school were not limited to children of any denomination or creed. The Free Writing School in Schoolcroft, Sheffield, was established by William Birley in 1715, but the present building, which is on the old site, dates from 1827. Forty scholars are taught gratuitously the elements of writing, arithmetic, grammar, geography, and mensuration, from an endowment of about £90 per annum, increased by the admission of private pupils. The Sheffield Collegiate School, founded in 1835, is an elegant Gothic building in a fine position in Broom Hall Park, with grounds extending over three and a half acres. The two great branches of education, classical and commercial, are here taught separately. The Sheffield School of Art, Arundel Street, was first established in Victoria Street, in 1841; but the present Byzantine building, which is large, commodious, and handsome, was opened in 1857. Wesley College, in Glossop Road, was opened in the year 1838, having been built by means of a sum of £15,000 raised in shares. The building, which has a fine Corinthian portico in the centre, and affords accommodation for nearly 250 students, stands in the midst of six acres of land laid out as pleasure grounds. This college is in connection with the University of London, and is empowered to grant certificates to candidates for examination for university degrees.

Schools formed under the Public Education Act.- The provisions of this wise and noble Act have been thoroughly carried out in Sheffield; and in the year 1874 five schools were opened in the presence of his grace the archbishop of York, the Right Hon. E. W. Forster, Mr. Roebuck, M.P., Mr. Mundella, M.P., and the mayor, master cutler, and other leading inhabitants. The following is a summary of what has already been effected:-
Literary and Scientific Institutions.- The Literary and Philosophical Society of Sheffield, founded in the year 1822, holds its meetings in the School of Art, where it has a museum and library. The Sheffield Proprietary Library, founded in 1771, occupies part of the Music Hall, and contains more than 50,000 volumes. It is the property of about 300 shareholders. This town, which a century and a half ago possessed but a few volumes kept in the old vestry, has now several large libraries, public and private, each containing many thousand volumes.

The Sheffield Free Public Library, Surrey Street, is open to the public every day from ten in the morning till half-past nine in the evening, Sunday excepted. This noble library, which is well attended by all classes of readers, was established by the town council of Sheffield in 1855. The Athenaeum in George Street was opened in 1868, as a club-house for ladies and gentlemen, with rooms furnished for the lady members. The Sheffield Club, in Norfolk Street, holds a high position. The Mechanics' Institute was originally founded in 1832, but the present building in Tudor Street was opened in 1848. It has since been sold to the corporation. The Church of England Educational Institute, in St. James' Street, was opened in 1860. The National School, in Carver Street, dates from 1813, and has several branch day and Sunday schools, affording education to above 7000 children. There are many other national day and Sunday schools connected with the church and dissenting places of worship. The Sisters of Mercy have an establishment in Solly Street, and at Howard Hill is the Yorkshire Roman Catholic girls reformatory school, opened in 1861, for the north of England. This institution is under the management of Sisters of Mercy of the order of St. Vincent de Paul. The Convent of Notre Dame, situated in Springfield, Convent Walk, is a boarding and day school for young ladies and a day school for poor children.

The Cutlers' Hall in Church Street.- A prominent place amongst the public buildings of Sheffield must be given to the Cutlers' Hall in Church Street, a handsome structure in the Corinthian style of architecture, built in 1832 at a cost of £6500, besides which £5000 has been spent on subsequent additions and alterations, including a new banqueting hall, which was completed in 1868.

The Town Hall of Sheffield.- The Town Hall, built in 1808; has various commodious rooms for municipal and other purposes. The Council Hall was purchased in 1865 from the trustees of the Mechanics' Institution. The County Court Hall, in Bank Street, was built in 1854-55. In 1851 was opened the Norfolk Market Hall, erected at the cost of the late duke of Norfolk, the lord of the manor. In 1871 a new post office was erected by the government, in Old Haymarket. There are various other markets for meat, cattle, corn, hay, &c. In the market place is a bronze statue, by Burnard, of Ebenezer Elliott, the Sheffield "Cornlaw Rhymer," the figure being represented in a sitting position.

Hospitals and Infirmaries.- The Shrewsbury Hospital at Sheffield was founded by Gilbert, seventh earl of Shrewsbury, and completed in 1673 by his grandson, the duke of Norfolk, in compliance with the earl's will. The original hospital, which stood in the centre of the town, was taken down and rebuilt in its present more agreeable situation, in 1827. The buildings include a chapel, chaplain's residence, and thirty-six dwellings for the pensioners. Not far from it is the monumental cross erected in 1834 in the cholera burial-ground, in memory of the 339 victims of that fearful plague. Hollis' Hospital, New Hall Street, was founded by Thomas Hollis in 1703, for poor widows of cutlers and other alms-women of Sheffield.

The Botanical Gardens.- These gardens were laid out in a very tasteful manner by Robert Marnock, a celebrated landscape gardener, who was afterwards engaged to lay out the Royal Botanical Gardens in the Regent's Park, London. The Sheffield gardens, which were opened in 1836, cover about eighteen acres, in a beautiful situation in the most picturesque part of the outskirts of the town, on a gentle slope, and form a favourite place of resort in the summer season. They contain magnificent conservatories 300 feet long, and a pavilion 120 feet by 33 feet for exhibitions and promenades, where four galas are held in the course of the year.

The Sheffield General Cemetery.- This abode of the dead was formed and opened in the year 1836. It contains more than fourteen acres of land, and is situate on the south-western outskirts of the town, at Sharrow, on an elevated spot of considerable beauty, sloping towards the valley. At the highest altitude stands the cemetery church, erected in 1850, which is a fine specimen of the decorated style, and has a lofty, well-proportioned tower and spire. In this cemetery is buried James Montgomery, the poet, and over his grave stands a bronze statue designed by Bell, the sculptor. The cemetery of Brightside-Bierlow is about a mile from the parish church, on the north side of the town. It was opened in 1860, and covers about twenty-seven acres of land, on which stand two chapels of excellent construction. St. Philip's cemetery, about one mile and a quarter from St. Philip's Church, consists of about five acres of land situated on high ground. The Rivelin Glen cemetery, for the Roman Catholics, was opened in 1862; the public cemetery for the township of Attercliffe, in 1859; and that of Darnall, in 1858.

Persons of note connected with Sheffield.- Amongst the notabilities of Sheffield was the distinguished poet and journalist, James Montgomery, who was born in Ayrshire in the year 1771, but who spent nearly the whole of his life at Sheffield, and whose remains are interred there. When a child of four years old he began to receive instruction at Gracehill, Antrim, and in 1778 he was sent to Yorkshire to the Moravian settlement at Fulneck, between Leeds and Bradford. He there distinguished himself only for his indolence and melancholy. He took a fancy, however, to poetry, which was his true vocation; and though it was forbidden in the school, he wrote in secret some small pieces before he was fourteen years of age. His teachers became dissatisfied with him, and sent him from his poetical dreams to a business at Mirfield, near Huddersfield, from which he soon ran away. He then went to a situation at Wath, not far from Sheffield, where he remained for a year, and whence he sent some poetry to a London publisher, Mr. Harrison. Having but little money, he presented one of his poems to Earl Fitzwilliam, who gave him a guinea in return. After that he went to London, and was engaged as Mr. Harrison's shopman. His first production in London was the "Chimaera." He then wrote a novel which the publisher declined (strangely enough, when we remember Montgomery's subsequent title of Christian poet), because of the number of oaths that it contained. He again went to Wath, but soon removed to Sheffield. In 1794 appeared under his auspices the Sheffield Iris, a tasteful and elegant newspaper, which he edited for many years. It was at first successful as a publication; but having in that newspaper given an account of a riot at Sheffield in which he stated that military force was used to quell it, he was brought before the magistrates, and was imprisoned in York Castle for a considerable time, he being probably the most blameless prisoner that ever entered that gloomy prison, and his punishment being altogether the result of the exaggerated fears and political prejudices of the magistrates. Fortunately for himself he had no one dependent upon him, and whilst in York Castle he spent his time in writing a number of lyric poems, to which he gave the name of "Prison Amusements." After his release his high Christian character, his warm philanthropy, and gentle manners made him a favourite, not only with his townsmen of Sheffield, but with the whole reading public. He published his fine poem, the "Wanderer of Switzerland," soon after the liberties of Switzerland had for a time been trampled on by the republicans of France. This poem obtained for him great popularity, which was still enhanced by the greatest of his works, "The World Before the Flood," and by the "West Indies," the "Pelican Island," &c. He also contributed largely to the hymnology of the country. He was much attached to the Moravian community, amongst whom he spent his youthful days. In 1830 he gave a course of lectures on poetry at the Royal Institution in London, having previously lectured on the same subject before the Philosophical and Literary Society of Leeds and several other literary bodies. In 1835 he received a pension from the crown. In 1841 he visited Scotland on a missionary tour, and was made a burgess of his native town of Irvine. He lived forty years in the house of his old master, Gales the bookseller, at Sheffield, and died on April 30, 1854. He had lived an active and useful public life in Sheffield for sixty-two years, leaving the character of an excellent man, and of an elegant and graceful poet.

Of a different style, though also excellent in his way, was Ebenezer Elliott, the corn-law rhymer, who was born March 17, 1781, near Rotherham. He was the son of a rough and fervent religionist of Calvinistic doctrine, and his hatred of the corn laws and other abuses, long ago removed, made him a republican. It is said that he was regarded as a dull child, was sent to school for a time, but soon taken away, and transferred to Masbro' Foundry, where his father was a clerk, and where he acquired skill enough to be considered a clever workman. At one time he fell into habits of intemperance, but his early love of nature and of books saved him from the dangers by which he was surrounded. He began to collect botanical specimens, and became a diligent reader and versifier. Nor did he neglect his business, but from his sixteenth to his twenty- third year worked laboriously for his father. Whilst thus employed he composed his first published poem. After a time Elliott set up in business for himself at Rotherham, but failing there removed to Sheffield, where he was very successful as a dealer in iron and steel, and built himself a handsome residence in the suburb called Upperthorpe. Indignation, as Juvenal says, made him write verses. He had not been long settled at Sheffield before he wrote the "Corn Law Rhymes," which made a great impression, especially amongst the labouring classes, and assisted in giving a strong impulse to a just and popular movement, which ended in a great act of National justice. He finally withdrew from business, and retired to a country residence at Great Houghton, near Barnsley; there he lived surrounded by friends and admirers till his death in 1849. This poet of the poor, as he was called, well deserves to be remembered as a fearless advocate of truth and justice, having lived to see the abolition of those restrictions on the food of the people, against which he had long warred with the vehemence of despair. His occasional excess of vehemence is described in his own words with a true Hallamshire colouring: "Is it strange that my language is fervent as a welding heat, when my thoughts are passions that run burning from my mind like white-hot bolts of steel?" His poems abound in illustrations drawn from Hallamshire scenery.

Barbara Hofland, the writer of the "Son of a Genius," a story that has touched the heart and inspired the ambition of many a young artist, was born in 1770 at Sheffield, where her father, Mr. Robert Wreaks, was partner in a manufactory. At the age of twenty-six she married Mr. Hoole, who was in the same business as her father. But two years after she was left a widow, and was nearly forty years old when she took for her second husband Mr. Hofland the painter, who was then giving lessons in drawing at Derby. On coming to live in London she gave herself up to literary pursuits, writing chiefly books for the young. Her works enjoyed great popularity both in England and America. She died in the year 1844, having survived her second husband nearly two years.

Sheffield Manor.- At the meeting of the British Archaeological Association, in 1873, the members paid a visit to the ruins of Sheffield Manor, which occupy two or three acres, and are situated at a short distance from the town. The manor, or lodge, was either built or enlarged by the fourth earl of Shrewsbury, whose penchant for building was assisted by the accumulation of his property during a long minority. Mary Queen of Scots spent some part of her time there, Gilbert Talbot, the earl's son, assuring one Dr. Wilson that she was continually watched day and night; men being posted under her windows, over her chamber, and on every side of her, so that unless she could transform herself to a flea or a mouse escape was "impossible." Tradition asserts that she endeavoured to escape from the lodge by a window. The manor escaped the ravages of the Civil War, to which Sheffield Castle, Mary's ordinary place of detention, fell a prey, and was the residence of agents of the duke of Norfolk till 1706, when the then duke ordered it to be dismantled. The woods which environed it were destroyed, and the park was divided into farms. It is now a farm-house, but the present duke is restoring the part traditionally connected with the Scottish queen. Explanations were given at the meeting as to the works in progress.

Population and Occupations of the Inhabitants of Sheffield.- In Sheffield and Hallamshire we find an entirely new class of occupations from those that are found in the other large towns of the West Riding; cutlery, steel, and iron taking the place of woollen manufactures. According to the Census of 1871, the number of persons in Sheffield of twenty-one years and upwards, whose occupations are described, was 64,018. The chief characteristic occupations of Sheffield were as follows:-

Musical instrument makers and dealers, 54;
lithographers and lithographic printers, 58-others, 6;
wood carvers, 47-others, 8;
toy makers and dealers, 5-others, 14;
pattern designers, 23;
type founders, 49;
watch makers and clock makers, 126;
philosophical instrument makers and opticians, 99;
weighing-machine scale measure makers, 123;
surgical instrument makers, 143;
gun-smiths and gun manufacturers, 46-others, 45;
engine and machine makers, 1262;
spinning and weaving machine makers, 25;
agricultural implement makers, 427;
millwrights, 108;
tool makers and dealers, 1328;
file makers and dealers, 3673;
saw makers and dealers, 1001;
cutlers, 10,296;
scissors makers, 828;
needle manufacturers, 8;
pin manufacturer, 1;
others engaged in tool making, 15;
coach-makers, 119;
wheelwrights, 144;
others engaged about carriages, 266;
saddlers' harness and whip makers, 101;
shipbuilders, shipwrights, and boatbuilders, 7;
architects, 46;
surveyors, 12,
builders, 125;
carpenters and joiners, 1248;
bricklayers, 893;
marble masons, 30;
masons and paviors, 893;
slaters and tilers, 116;
plasterers, 201;
paper- hangers, 35;
plumbers, painters, and glaziers, 684-others, 8;
cabinet makers and upholsterers, 503;
carvers and gilders, 72;
furniture brokers and dealers, 37-others, 2;
manufacturing chemists and labourers, 24;
dyers, scourers, and calenderers, 21-others, 32.

The Steel and Iron Manufactures of Sheffield.- The prosperity of Sheffield during the last twenty years has been prodigiously increased by the improvements in the manufacture of steel. According to a statement of Mr. W. R. Barlow, F.R.S., the president of the mechanical section of the British Association, at the meeting at Bradford in September, 1873, the movement was commenced by Mr. Bessemer seventeen years ago, who read a paper on the subject at the Cheltenham meeting of the British Association that year; and further important steps were afterwards taken in the production and treatment of steel by Dr. Siemens, Sir Joseph Whitworth, and others. In 1850, according to the Jury Reports of the Exhibition of 1851, the total annual production of steel in Great Britain was 50,000 tons. At the present time (1873) the Bessemer process alone supplies upwards of 500,000 tons, the Siemens' works at Landore 200,000, besides further quantities made by his process at other works. This new material is now largely in use for rails and wheel-tires, the duration of steel rails being variously estimated at from three to six times that of iron rails. Steel is used for ships' plates and for the lining of the heaviest guns; whilst Sir Joseph Whitworth and Krupp make guns entirely of steel, though for these purposes the metal is of different quality and differently treated, in order that it may withstand the enormous concussions to which it is subjected. Steel, again, is used for railway axles, crank axles for engines, in boilers, in piston-rods, and for many other purposes. In conclusion, Mr. W. H. Barlow, F. R. S., said, "We possess in steel a material which has been proved, by the numerous uses to which it is applied, to be of great capability and value. We know that it is used for structural purposes in other countries, as for instance, in the Illinois and St. Louis Bridge in America, a bridge of three arches, each 500 feet span; yet, in this country, where modern steel was originated and has been brought to its present state of perfection, we are obstructed by some deficiency in our own arrangements, and by the absence of suitable regulations by the Board of Trade, from making use of it in engineering works." A committee of the Institution of Civil Engineers conducted a series of experiments in 1868, from which it appeared that the mild steels of Bessemer and Siemens-Marten may be taken as capable of bearing a strain of eight tons to the inch, instead of five tons to the inch, estimated for like purposes in iron. Taking the ordinary form of open-wrought iron detached girders, the limiting span in iron with five tons to the inch is about 600 feet; it follows that a similar steel girder capable of bearing eight tons to the inch would have a theoretical limiting span of 960 feet, practically 900 feet. Mr. Barlow considered that the first step to insure the adoption of steel, was to put the testing on a systematic and satisfactory basis, and next to establish some means by which the metal when tested can have its quality indicated, so as to be practically relied on. Even in the absence of these securities the use of this metal has prodigiously increased during the last twenty years, and its employment forms one of the great sources of the wonderful extension of the trade and manufactures of Sheffield.

WORKS HAVING BESSEMER CONVERTERS IN SHEFFIELD IN 1872.- The whole number in England of works having Bessemer converters is nineteen. The number of converters is ninety-one, and the capacity of the converters is 119 tons 10 cwt. In addition to the works at Sheffield and the neighbourhood having Bessemer converters, in the year 1872, there were works of the same kind at the following places:-Weardale Iron Co.'s. Works, Towlaw; the Glasgow Bessemer Steel Co. (Limited), Atlas Works, Glasgow; Samuel Fox, & Co., Stockbridge Works, Deepcar; Lloyds, Foster, & Co., Old Park, Wednesbury; Bolton Iron and Steel Works, Bolton; London and North-western Railway, Crewe; Lancashire Steel Co., Gorton, Manchester; Mersey Steel and Iron Works, Liverpool; Manchester Steel and Railway Plant Co., Gibraltar Works, Newton Heath, Manchester; Barrow Hematite Steel Co., Barrow; The Dowlais Iron Co., Dowlais,; Ebbw Vale Co., Ebbw Vale; Steel Ordnance Co. (Limited), Greenwich; West Cumberland, Workington; Phoenix iron Co., Rotherham; Carnforth Hematite Iron Co. (Limited), Lancaster.

MILLS AND FORGES IN THE SHEFFIELD AND ROTHERHAM DlSTRICT.-The Atlas Works were founded by Mr. (now Sir John) Brown about the year 1844, at which time he commenced the manufacture of railway springs, and was the patentee of Brown's Patent Conical Buffer Springs. Mr. Brown had about that time five small works in various parts of Sheffield, and in 1855 he purchased the Queen's Steel Works, Savile Street, situated close to the Midland Railway, changing the name from Queen's to Atlas Works. These works were then situate on the Savile Street, or south side of the Midland line only, the first portion of the "north side" works being opened in June, 1860. Since that time great extensions have been made. In 1854 Mr. Brown took a partner in the person of Mr. J. D. Ellis, and in 1359 Mr. Bragge also became a partner. In March, 1864, these gentlemen transferred the Atlas Works to a limited company, who have since carried them on under the name of John Brown & Co. (Limited.) Sir John Brown, until 1871, was chairman of the Company; when he resigned, and was succeeded by John D. Ellis, Esq., the present chairman.

In 1861 Messrs. John Brown & Co. introduced the manufacture of rolled armour plates into Sheffield, and are now able to roll armour plates ten feet wide. At that time plates four and a half inches thick were thought to be wonderful, but they can now be rolled fifteen inches thick. In 1861, too, the firm adopted the Bessemer process, being the first to take out a license from the patentees. The production of Bessemer steel, for the first week after the commencement of the manufacture, was thirty-two and a half tons. This was in July, 1861: the present productive power of the works is 2000 tons Bessemer steel. Immediately after commencing the Bessemer process, John Brown & Co. applied it to the manufacture of rails, up to that time made invariably of iron, and thus produced the first steel rails ever rolled. At the present day some thousand tons of steel rails are rolled in Sheffield.

In August, 1872, John Brown & Co. (Limited) purchased Car House and Aldwark Main collieries, near Rotherham; and on November 1, 1872, the first blast furnace was lighted, being an extension of the Company's Sheffield works.

At present the Company employ at their various works in Sheffield, Swinton, Hazlehead, and their collieries, from 5000 to 6000 hands, and pay in weekly wages £8000.

There are in the works 150 steam-engines, with a nominal horse-power of 6000, seventy-six puddling furnaces, three blast furnaces, and twenty three trains of rolls. The consumption of fuel at the various works of the Company is at the rate of 250,000 tons of coal and 60,000 tons of coke per annum.

Norfolk Works.-The enormous Norfolk Works undertaking, carried on by Messrs. Mark, Edward, and Charles Henry Firth, under the firm of Thomas Firth & Sons, was established upwards of thirty years ago, and now covers almost thirteen acres of ground, by the side of the Midland Railway. This firm also has extensive works at Whittington, near Chesterfield. The productions of Messrs. Thomas Firth & Sons range, from crucible steel for finest watch springs, up to the large tubes for the Woolwich eighty-ton guns. They produce files and edge tools, as many an old Sheffield house does; but they also forge huge guns of twenty tons weight, and steel shot and shell ranging from 200 to 500 lbs. The famous Woolwich "infants," and also the eighty-ton guns, have been forged in these works, and bear the mark of "Firth's Steel," and no one can visit the ships of the British fleet without seeing on their armament this well-known name. On the occasion of inaugurating the first twenty-five-ton double action Nasmyth hammer, of which Messrs. Firth have now two at work, General Lefroy and several members of the Ordnance Select Committee were present and inspected the works. They were first shown the rough bars of blister steel as they come from the converting furnace, and saw how they were broken and sorted according to quality, ready for melting and using in the many different ways in which steel is employed. Passing thence, they witnessed one of the ordinary operations of Norfolk Works; the casting of an ingot of steel weighing six tons, that was intended to be forged into a 300-pounder gun. The day was a warm one; and when the furnace men, each in their own departments, began with almost military order and regularity to empty the furnaces and fill the mould, the heat was intense. Upwards of 240 pots had to be emptied to make up the required quantity; and when once the stream of metal begins to flow it must flow on continuously or the casting would be spoiled. No break in the chain occurred, and amidst a heat that only Sheffield men could bear, the casting was successfully made. The visitors were thence conducted to the rolling mills, where they saw the beautiful process of drawing out steel under the rolls, for fine cutlery, crinoline, rifle barrels, and many other purposes. In the same mill were rolls, standing side by side, devoted to the production of those very opposite things- rifle barrels and ladies' crinolines. One of the most interesting sights in Sheffield is the forging of steel shot, as it is done in the shot and shell department of these works. Several of the hammers in this factory were at work, and the visitors had an opportunity of seeing what perfect spheres could be formed and finished under the strokes of Nasmyth's hammers. So beautiful is the work done that the shot, when completed, look more like the productions of a lathe than of hammers capable of striking with the power of hundreds of tons. The visit to these interesting departments was, however, but introductory to the great object of the day, the opening of the twenty-five-on hammer. Crossing from the shot and shell department to the gun factory, all was activity. Great hammers were thundering upon masses of incandescent metal, with a force that shook the earth, and speedily reduced the ingots to the required dimensions. There were seen twelve and a half ton hammers, until now the largest made, battering into shape and consistency 300-pounder guns. When we remember that only a few years ago 60-pounders were thought monsters in the way of ordnance, and only a short time ago 100-pounders were believed to be the largest guns that could be efficiently worked, the manufacture of 300-pounders seems an advance too rapid for credibility. But even these enormous guns are now outdone, and Messrs. Firth have found it necessary to supply themselves with the means of forging 600-pounders, or even larger. For this purpose they have erected a new mill to contain two twenty-five ton hammers. The weight of the head is twenty-five tons; but it descends by pressure of steam with a force of several thousands of tons, and yet can be regulated by one man with the utmost ease. In looking upon such a monster of power one is apt to forget the difficulties and dangers of erecting it. To see it at work appears so simple a thing, that its very perfection draws attention away from its merits. In forging a 600-pounder gun it only appears equal to its work; but to form some conception of its power, its massive head should be seen descending upon forgings such as are ordinarily put under smaller hammers. Then a large ingot would be flattened at a stroke, and spectators would be conscious of the presence of a force outrivalling that of the fabled Titans, and excelled only by those great powers of nature that have rent valleys and upheaved mountains in the geological eras of the world. One peculiarity about the appendages of the new hammer is, that the furnace for re-heating the blocks is not made after the old construction, but is one of Siemens' gas furnaces. The invention has never before been applied to so large a furnace, but in this case has proved a great success. By its means a perfectly clear fire is obtained, together with uniform heat. It is easily regulated, gives off no sulphur, and effects a great economy in fuel. The block on which the hammer descends weighs 160 tons, and was cast by Messrs. J. M. Stanley & Co. James T. Firth & Sons employ about 1500 workmen. They have twenty steam-engines and sixteen steam- hammers. Their products are sent to all parts of the world, and they have been most successful in maintaining a uniform excellence in the quality of their steel.


1777 Samuel Norris        |1810 John Tillotson.     |1843 Thomas Wilkinson.
1778 William Linley.      |1811 John Eadon.         |1844 Francis Newton.
1779 Josephus Parkin.     |1812 James Smith.        |1845 William Butcher.
1780 *John Rowbotham.     |1813 John Holt.          |l846 Thos. Burdett Turton.
1781 Peter Spurr.         |1814 Joseph Parkin.      |1847 Henry Mort.
1782 William Fowler.      |1815 James Makin.        |1848 Frederick Fenney.
1783 Joseph Hawksley.     |1816 Thomas Asline Ward. |1849 Henry Atkin.
1784 Benjamin Broomhead.  |1817 George Tillotson.   |1850 Samuel Scott Deakin.
1785 Thomas Settle        |1818 John Fox.           |1851 William Webster.
1786 Samuel Wilson.       |1819 John Hounsfield.    |1852 Michael Hunter.
1787 Jonathan Watkinson.  |1820 J. Dixon Skelton.   |1853 William A. Matthews.
1788 Thomas Nowell.       |1821 William Colley.     |1854 Thomas Moulson.
1789 Thomas Tillotson.    |1822 Thomas Champion.    |1855 Fred. Thorpe Mappin.
1790 Jos. Ward.           |1823 Thomas Dewsnap.     |1856 George Wostenholm.
1791 George Wood.         |1824 Peter Spurr.        |1857 William Hutchinson.
1792 John Henfree.        |1825 Henry Moorhouse.    |1858 Robert Jackson.
1793 Thomas Warris.       |1826 William Sansom.     |1859 Robert Jackson.
1794 Benjamin Withers     |1827 Samuel Hadfield.    |1860 Michael Hunter, jun.
1795 William Birks.       |1828 James Crawshaw.     |1861 George Wilkinson.
1796 J. Fletcher Smith.   |1829 Philip Law.         |1862 Henry Harrison.
1797 William Linley.      |1830 Enoch Barber.       |1863 Thomas Jessop.
1798 S. B. Ward.          |1831 John Blake.         |1864 Charles Atkinson.
1799 Benjamin Vickers.    |1832 ±Thomas Dunn.       |1865 Sir John Brown.
1800 Samuel Newbold.      |1833 Thomas Ellin, sen.  |1866 Sir John Brown.
1801 Joseph Bailey.       |1834 John Sansom.        |1867 Mark Firth.
1802 Joseph Withers.      |1835 John Spencer.       |1868 Mark Firth.
1803 James Mekin.         |1836 John Blake.         |1869 Mark Firth.
1804 William Nicholson.   |1837 John Greaves.       |1870 William Bragge.
1805 John Eyre.           |1838 Samuel Hadfield.    |1871 Thomas Turner.
1806 John Sorby.          |1839 Samuel Smith.       |1872 Thomas E. Vickers.
1807 Peter Brownell.      |1840 James Moorhouse.    |1873 Samuel Osborn.
1808 Ebenezer Rhodes.     |1841 Thomas Ellin, jnr.  |1874 George Wilson.
1809 Robert Brightmore.   |1842 William Broadhurst. |

* Mr. Rowbotham died in his year of office, and Mr. Parkin served again. Mr. Blake died of cholera during the last month of his official year. ± Mr Thomas Dunn was the first Dissenter admitted to the office of Master Cutler.

The Cyclops Works, Sheffield.- The Cyclops Works in Savile Street (east), were commenced by Messrs. Johnson & Cammell, about the year 1842, when an area of four acres was taken on lease from the duke of Norfolk, and works were erected capable of producing one ton of railway springs per week. The convenient situation of the new works by the side of the Midland Railway, and the enterprise of the partners, soon led to a largely augmented trade, and in 1865 the undertaking was transferred to a limited liability company. The following figures, which have been kindly furnished to us by George Wilson, Esq., the managing director, and master cutler of Sheffield for the year ending August, 1875, will convey the best idea of the growth of this large establishment, and of the various articles now produced there. Besides the original works in Savile Street, which have been extended from four to fifteen acres, the company has works at Grimsthorpe and Penistone, and the average weekly production of the whole is-steel rails, about 1000 tons; railway tyres of crucible and Bessemer steel, about 200 tons; railway springs, about 160 tons; best iron of all kinds, including armour plates, about 450 tons; crucible cast-steel for tyres, plates, sheets, forgings, castings (such as propeller blades and machine castings), steel for railway springs, telegraph wire, &c., about 400 tons; shot by the Siemens-Martini process, about 420 tons. To turn out this immense weekly yield, there are forty- three steam-hammers of all sizes, up to twenty-five tons' weight each; of steam-engines in daily use, there are upwards of eighty, ranging from ten to 1000 horse-power. To supply these hammers and steam-engines with working power, there are 118 steam boilers, many of which are made entirely of steel of the company's make. The number of rolling mills on the various premises is nineteen, the largest of these (the armour plate mill) having rolls 36 inches in diameter, and 11 feet long in the barrel. The cranes for lifting number eighty-seven, and are of various kinds-overhead cranes, hydraulic cranes, locomotive cranes, and others fixed and movable, worked by steam and hand power. All the overhead cranes in use at the works are driven by power, and require only one man to work each. Some are worked by a wire rope not thicker than one's finger, and yet are capable of lifting weights of forty tons each, and of carrying them high over the machines from one end of the shops to the other, to put them down just where they are wanted. The number of converting furnaces employed by the company is twenty-six. Twelve miles of railway are laid down through and around the company's workshops. The hydraulic press for bending armour plates up to 20 inches in thickness, and 10 feet wide, is capable of giving a dead pressure of fully 3000 tons. All the armour plates made at these works are bent as they come from the rolls, without reheating. The quantity of coal consumed weekly is about 6000 tons, and the number of hands employed upwards of 6000. Recently the company acquired by purchase the Oaks Colliery, near Barnsley, besides other coal mines, and these are now producing 8000 tons of fuel per week.


Antiquities of Sheffield in Roman, Anglian, and Danish periods.-Vol. ii. pp. 471-77.
Sheffield under the Norman families of De Busli, De Lovetot, and De Furnival.-Vol. ii. pp. 477-80.
1297.-Thomas de Furnival's charter to the burgesses of Sheffield.-Vol. ii. p. 479.
1409.-Sheffield passes by marriage to the house of Talbot.-Vol. ii. p. 480.
1453.-John Talbot, the great earl of Shrewsbury, slain at the battle of Chatillon.-Vol. ii. p. 480.
1539.-Cardinal Wolsey confined at Sheffield manor.-Vol. ii. p. 481.
1554.-The Town Trust of Sheffield formed.-Vol. ii. p. 483.
1587.-Mary Queen of Scots put to death after eighteen years' imprisonment, of which thirteen years were spent in the Castle of Sheffield.- Vol. ii. p. 481.
1616.-Lady Alethea Talbot marries Thomas Howard, earl of Arundel and Surrey, heir to the dukedom of Norfolk.-Vol. ii. p. 482.
1628.-The cutlers of Hallamshire erected into a corporate body.-Vol. ii. p. 482.
1644.-The castle of Sheffield besieged and taken in the Great Civil War.- Vol. ii. p. 482.
1648.-The castle of Sheffield destroyed by order of the Long Parliament.- Vol. ii. p. 482.
1706.-The manor house of Sheffield dismantled.-Vol. ii. p. 482.
1727.-The progress of Sheffield in the eighteenth century. Daniel Defoe's account of the town of Sheffield at this time.-Vol. ii. p. 484.
1742.-Discoveries of Bolsover and Hancock in the art of plating silver.- Vol. ii. p. 484.
1751.-The river Don made navigable to Tinsley, and afterwards to Sheffield. -Vol. ii. p. 485.
1773.-Assay Office established at Sheffield.-Vol. ii. p. 484.
1786.-Introduction of steam-power.-Vol. ii. p. 485.
1871.-Population and occupations of the inhabitants of Sheffield.-Vol. ii. p.498.
1872.-List of works having Bessemer converters in Sheffield and other places.-Vol. ii. p. 500.
1872.-List of mills and forges in the Sheffield and Rotherham district.- Vol. ii. p. 501.

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