YORKSHIRE PAST AND PRESENT.
HISTORY OF THE COMMERCE, PORT, AND BOROUGH OF KINGSTON-UPON-HULL.
KINGSTON-UPON-HULL is mentioned by the name of Hull, in the annual accounts of the high sheriffs of England, known by the title of the Great Rolls of the Pipe, in the fifth year of the reign of King John, A.D. 1203-4. At that early age Hull had attained the position of the sixth port, or as they were then called "free boroughs on the sea," in England. This appears from a comparison of the sums paid in that year by Hull and other places, to a tax of one-fifteenth per cent. on moveable goods or merchandise, in nearly forty free boroughs on the sea, commencing with the great port of London, and including all the considerable ports of the kingdom, and even some of the smaller ones, which then only paid a few shillings each to the tax mentioned above.
Before this time the port of Hull was known by the Scandinavian name of Vyk or the Harbour, which was afterwards changed to the English names of Wyke, Wyke de Mitune, or Wyke-upon-Hull, by which it was generally known previous to the reign of king John. The Scandinavian term "vyk," a harbour or creek, is found in the names of seaports in Denmark, and along the eastern coast of Great Britain, as in the slightly altered forms of "wyke" or "wich." The use of this name as a termination extended from Norway and Iceland, and from Lerwick in the Shetland islands and Wick on the coast of Caithness, to Berwick-upon-Tweed, to Wyke-upon-Hull, and to Dunwich, Ipswich, and even to Greenwich and Sandwich on the Thames, and on the coast of Kent. There are six or seven places on the sea-coast of Yorkshire which still bear the name of Vyk or Wyke, or close with that word, and it is probable that this is also the origin of the Norse name Jorvik, from which the well-known name of York is derived. In the Danish times and for some ages previous to the Norman conquest, the old Roman city of Eboracum, the name of which the Angles altered to Eoforwic, was again altered by the Danes to Jorvik or Yorvik, which probably meant in their language "the harbour of the Tore or Ure." Nearly the whole of the names on the east coast of Yorkshire and Lincolnshire are of Danish origin, including Whitby, Grimsby, Selby, and Holderness. In the names of the villages Alnwick, Burstwick, Bewick, Bonwick, Oustwick, Wellwick, and Withernwick, the concluding syllable of wick is derived from the Danish word "vyk," meaning a harbour, or from the Anglian word wic, meaning a camp. Of these vyes, or wicks, that on the river Hull was probably the most important. It is not possible to trace the name of Hull to any earlier period, though Beverley existed under its present name in the time of the Anglian kings, and the estuary of the Humber is mentioned by the Greek geographer, Claudius Ptolemy, under the name of the Abus, about 150 years after the commencement of the Christian era.
It is only within the present century that the early history of Hull has been clearly traced by the late Charles Frost, F.S.A., in his notices relative to that town and port, compiled from original records and previously unpublished manuscripts, which were issued in the year 1827.* Amongst the documents relating to Hull published by him is a grant, without date, of lands "del Wyke de Mitune," which is known to have included part of what was afterwards called Hull, made to the monks of Melsa or Meaux Abbey, situated a few miles from Hull. Mr. Frost supposed that this grant was made about the year 1160 (7th Henry II.), by Matilda, the daughter of Hugh Camin, a considerable landowner in that neighbourhood. He states that the "original charter has escaped the ravages of time, and is preserved amongst the ancient muniments of the corporation of the mayor and burgesses of Hull. It is, "he says, "a fine specimen of caligraphy, and the beauty of the writing is heightened by the contrast between it and the rude seal of the grantor, which is attached to the instrument." The following is a translation of this ancient grant:- "To all the sons of Holy Mother Church, as well present as to come, who shall see and hear these letters, Matilda Camin, daughter of Hugh Camin, sends greeting: Know ye, that I have demised and sold to the monks of Melsa two entire parts of the land of my patrimony of Wye of Mitune, and also two entire parts of my patrimony of seven ox-gangs of land in the territory of the aforesaid vill of Mitune; namely, those four ox-gangs which did pertain to my part when the land was divided between me and the Lady Anor, my mother, and pasture for 800 sheep, with all other the appurtenances within the vill and without; so nevertheless that the three ox-gangs which remain in the aforesaid vill of my fee shall have as much pasture as pertains to three other ox-gangs, which the monks hold in the same town. Also, I have sold to the said monks the 'toft' [the Danish name of an inclosure] in which the Hall was situate, with all the tofts which did pertain to my aforesaid part, and the bed of one fishery in the Humber, and two parts of the salt pits of my fee in the same vill, and two parts of cotecroft and two parts of lancroft, in the same manner in which the aforesaid parts were divided, when the aforesaid land of Mitune was partitioned between me and the before-named Anor, my mother; and all my jurisdiction of the aforesaid vill, as it remained to my part and to my use on the day on which partition was made between me and my mother, with all the appurtenances within and without the vill, without reserve, I have sold to the aforesaid monks for fourscore and eleven marks of silver, which they have given to me" (equal to about £900 of modern money); "and I grant and by testimony of the present deed, as far as in me is, do confirm to the aforesaid church of Melsa, that all the aforesaid premises shall be holden of me and my heirs in perpetual alms, free from all earthly service which shall pertain to me or to my heirs; saving, nevertheless, foreign service, as much as pertains to other four ox-gangs of land in the same vill of the same tenement, except counties, and wapentakes, and trithings [now called Ridings], whereof I and my heirs will wholly acquit the monks of the aforesaid church; and with all other liberties and free customs, the aforesaid monks shall have and hold the aforesaid premises as freely as I or any of my ancestors at any time freely held the same, in meadows, in pastures, in fields, in waters, in ways, in paths, and in all other easements, within the vill and without. And that all the premises may be holden as aforesaid, and warranted against all men to the use of the church of Melsa and the monks there serving God, without evil design, I have placed the same in the hands of Basilia, daughter of Odo de Frieboys, and have confirmed the same by my oath on the Holy Evangelists, before these witnesses-John, priest of Waghen; Richard, son of Scherius de Sutton; William de Emminghebure; Geoffrey, the priest, brother of Ralph de Dudingheton; Thomas, parson of Waghen; Thomas, the brother of Bennet de Sculecothes; Peter, son of John de Melsa; Stephen le Blache; Robert, son of Scherius de Sutton; Basilia, the wife of Richard de Sutton; Christian, the wife of Bennet de Sculecothes; Aldured, the wife of Thomas de Ruda; Matilda, the wife of Robert de Swine; Juliana, the wife of Richard de Waghen; Robert, son of Richard de Scures; Adam and Alexander, sons of John the Priest."
After giving the above grant, Mr. Charles Frost observes, "As introductory to a few observations on this grant, we shall give some account of the monastery of Melsa, which from the connection of that religious house with the town of Wyke or Hull, for a period of nearly a century and a half, will not be thought irrelevant to our subject. This monastery was founded in the year 1150 by William le Gros, earl of Albemarle, in commutation of a vow which he had made to go on pilgrimage to the Holy Land. He selected for its site a sequestered spot in the township of Melsa or Meaux, in Holderness, about five miles from Hull, and dedicated it to the service of God and the fraternity of monks of the order of Cistercians. Out of his ample possessions he made liberal donations to the monks of Melsa, who were also indebted to many of the neighbouring barons and gently for extensive grants of land, particularly in Yorkshire. Of these grants the histories and registers of the abbey contain full records, the most perfect of which are to be found in an original chartulary, beautifully written upon vellum, about the close of the fourteenth century, and now preserved in the British Museum."
Mr. Frost states that from Matilda de Camin's charter we learn that, in addition to the lordship of Myton, there was also a town which bore that name. This town is mentioned in documents of more recent date, but it has long ago been lost. It is probable that it was absorbed in the increase of Wyke or Hull; but it is remarkable that neither any written document nor even tradition has marked the spot where it stood, or left any ground for conjecture under what circumstances or at what period it ceased to exist. All that we can now learn respecting it is, that in very early times it had a chapel which was destroyed by the monks of Melsa, who were compelled to make atonement in the 4th and 5th year of King John, 1205, for that and other transgressions, by paying a fine of 100s. (about £75 of modern money) as a compensation to Richard Ducket, then clergyman (persona) of the church at Hessle. The necessity of providing an additional place of worship within the parish of Hessle, for the use of the inhabitants of Myton and Wyke, affords very strong evidence that the population of those places was at that period, not only considerable, but increasing.
The book of Meaux furnishes some early instances in which Hull is mentioned, both as a place and as the name of a family. In the year 1160 (7th, Henry II.) a croft in Sutton is described as having formerly belonged to Henricus de Hull; and soon after the commencement of the reign of Henry III. we find enumerated, in a list of the benefactors of the abbey, Henricus de Hull, son of Roger de Hull, and Agnes, the daughter of Thurstan de Hull. In addition to these instances the Great Roll of the Pipe of the 48th Henry III. makes mention of Stephen de Hull and Thomas de Hull. Hull is likewise mentioned as a town in a demise, from Sayer de Sutton to the abbot and canons of Thornton in Lincolnshire, of common pasture in the territory and marshes of Sutton, Hull, Sudcotes, and Drypole, with free ingress and egress between Hull and Wiflet. The register of Walter Giffard, archbishop of York, who died in the year 1279, also speaks of lands held by Walter de Gray in Sculcoates, Drypole, and Hull, while the Lady Joanna de Stotvill's men of Hull are mentioned in an agreement made between her and Archbishop Giffard in the year 1269. It was in 1278, the 6th Edward I., that the king granted to the abbot of Meaux the right to hold a market on Thursday in each week "at Wyke near Miton-upon-Hull," and also a fair. Before granting permission to hold this market and fair, an inquisition was taken at York before Thomas Normanville, the king's steward, in which it was found by the jury that the abbot and his successors might have a market and fair at Le Wyke, without injury to the king or to the neighbouring markets and fairs.
The fact that Hull had attained a considerable position among the ports of England about this time, is proved still more clearly by the following account, already referred to, of the respective amounts paid by the principal ports of England to a tax of one-fifteenth on the goods of merchants, raised in the year 1203-4, the 5th of King John. The whole amount paid by all the ports of the kingdom to this tax in that year was about £5000; but that amount, allowing for the difference between the value of silver at that time and its present value, was equal to about fifteen times as much as in the reign of King John.
Hull was a very considerable port at the beginning of the reign of King John, in the year 1203-4. The importance of Hull or Wyke-upon-Hull, both as a town and place of trade in the 6th year of King Edward I., in the year 1277-78, is testified by a petition of the abbot of Meaux to that king, praying that the abbot and his successors might hold a market on Thursday in each week at Wyke, near Myton-upon-Hull; and that they might hold a fair there in each year on the Eve or Vigil, the day and the morrow, of the Holy Trinity, and on the twelve days following. Soon after this we find royal mandates addressed to the bailiffs of Hull. In the interval of ninety years between the date of the above return of King John in 1203-4 and the year 1293, when Hull passed into the hands of King Edward I., and was made a royal borough under the style and title of Kingston-upon-Hull, it is frequently mentioned, sometimes as Hull, sometimes as Wyke (or the Harbour) upon the sea, in such a manner as to show that it was rapidly advancing in trade and population.
Towards the end of the reign of King Henry III., the son of King John and the father of King Edward I., before surnames had come into common use and when people chiefly derived their appellations from the towns or villages which they inhabited, William de Wyke, the son of Simon de Wyke, granted to Walter Giffard, archbishop of York, all his lands in Wyke upon the river Hull, lying between the lands of Stephen, son of Robert de Wyke, and the lands which William de Wyke held of the abbey of Meaux. We find also the name of Thomas de Wyke as an attesting witness to grants from Alicia de Longo Campo, lady of Burton, in the 3rd year of King Edward I, 1275.
We learn from the history of the abbey of Meaux that in the year 1293 King Edward I, who was then carrying out his great and formidable, but ultimately unsuccessful schemes for the conquest of Scotland, purchased the property and rights of the monks of Meaux, in Hull or Wyke-upon-Hull, and raised that port to the rank and dignity of a royal borough, conferring upon it the name of Kingston-upon-Hull, or the King's Town on the river Hull, which has been its proper name from the reign of King Edward I. to the present time. The price which the king agreed to pay to the abbot and monks for their possessions in Hull was a yearly fee farm rent of £78 14s. 6d., a sum equal to at least £1000 a year of the money of the present time. That was an exceedingly high rent in those days and one which shows the progress that the port of Hull had already made. At that time the yearly value of the adjoining manor of Myton was only £24 6s, per annum in the money of that period, or not much more than the third part of the value of the property of the monks in Wyke-upon- Hull.
No sooner had Edward I. acquired the absolute ownership of Wyke-on-Hull than he changed its name, and honoured it with the royal appellation of Kingston or Kingston-upon-Hull. This appears from the Book of Melsa, folio 211, in which it is stated that the king, having obtained the said town of Wyke and manor of Myton, changed the name of the vill of Wyk and caused it to be named the town of Kingston-upon-Hull. "In addition to this passage we may cite others " says Charles Frost, "which together must remove all doubt of the fact that one and the same town was designated under the several names of Kingston, Hull, and Wyke: for instance, 'Our town of Wyke, which now with a changed name is called Kingston-upon-Hull;" and the passage where it is stated that 'Our lord Edward, formerly king of England, of famous memory, the town of Wyke, then on the water of Hull situated, acquired, and caused it to be named the town of Kingston-upon- Hull."'
When King Edward I. had acquired the ownership of Hull he made it a royal borough, placed it under the government of a warden (custos) and bailiffs, and made it a manor of itself, independent of Myton. The first official document in which we meet with the new name for Hull is a writ of inquiry (ad quod damnum) dated November 5, in the 22th of Edward I. (1294), directed to "the King's Bailiffs of Kingston-super-Hull," commanding them to inquire, by the oath of good and lawful men of the town, whether it would be to the prejudice of the king or any other person, if he should grant that Philip de Coltfield might acquire and hold to himself and his heirs, by the due and accustomed services, a messuage with its appurtenances in the town of Kyngeston-on-Hull, which Ivo de Cottingham, formerly a burgess of the said town, held of the king on the day on which he died, and which by his death had come into the king's hands. The inquisition took place at Kyngeston-on-Hull, on Wednesday, the morrow of the Epiphany (6th of January, 1294), the 23rd of Edward I.; and the jury found that the grant might be made without prejudice to the king or to any other person. The jurors likewise found that Ivo de Cottingham had done suit to the king's court twice, and had paid a rent of 20s. (equal to about £15 of modern money) per annum, and that the messuage in question was worth 1Os. a year beyond the amount of the rent. Another inquisition was made about the same time on the death of William de Moule, who, as the jury found, had held on the day on which he died four tofts in the town of Kyngeston-super-Hull at an annual rent to the king of 29s. 4d.; the tofts being worth £2 2s. 4d. beyond that sum.
Visit of King Edward I. to Hull.- A mint for the coinage of money was established at Hull soon after it had been raised to the position of a royal borough; and in the year 1300 this great king, who was not only the most celebrated warrior of his time, but who has also been called the English Justinian from the wisdom and number of his laws, and who certainly first gave the sanction of the crown to the representative system of England, and to that famous parliament which has become the mother of parliaments, and the example to the whole world of representative government, conferred on the burgesses of Hull the honour of a personal visit. "After holding a parliament," says Charles Frost, "in April, 1300, he set out for the north; and taking the route through Lincolnshire, he crossed the Humber with his retinue, on the 26th May, by the royal ferry between Barton and Hessle. The high road northward (via regia) lay at that time in a direct line from Hessle to Beverley; but the king took a circuitous route thither, solely for the purpose of viewing the state of the newly created borough of Hull, where, though his stay was of short duration and no particulars are recorded of his proceedings, the effects of his visit were soon visible in the various improvements by which it was succeeded, and particularly in the pavement of the streets, for defraying the expenses of which a grant was made, a few days after the king's departure, of certain tolls, to be levied on all goods coming to the town for sale within the five succeeding years. The roads in the neighbourhood of the town were likewise repaired; and in the 19th year of the same king a ferry was established across the Humber, between Barton and Hull, the value of which in the year 1320 was 40s. in the money of that time, equal to about £30 in present money. So great was the progress of intercourse with the new port that the value of this ferry had risen, in the 30th year of the reign of Edward III., 1356, to the sum of £535 4d., which (if we assume that the money of that time retained the proportion to present money, assigned to it by Sir Thomas Hardy, which is £15 for every £1 of the money of that time) would amount to a sum of from £7000 to £8000. Even in modern times, when Mr. Frost wrote his "Notices" in the year 1827, this ferry produced a rental to the corporation of Hull, of £900 per annum. In explanation of the charges in the reign of Edward III., it should be mentioned that the passage of Edward I. and the royal party across the Humber occupied two days, the sum of 13s. having been paid for the wages of Galfrid de Seleby (Selby) and other sailors, with eleven barges and boats employed during that time.
King Edward III. and the De la Poles, and other Merchants of Hull.- When that most vigorous and able but ambitious king, Edward III., abandoned the wild schemes of his grandfather and father for the conquest of Scotland, he undertook the still wilder project of conquering France, to which he claimed a right, in spite of the Salic law, through his mother, Queen Isabella, wife of Edward II. So popular was the war with France, at its commencement, that the Parliament adopted the cause of the king with great eagerness, and granted supplies far exceeding those granted to any previous sovereign.But money being at that time both scarce and somewhat debased in England, the Parliament voted a grant to the king of 30,000 bags of wool, the greater part of which was collected in the different counties, and a portion no doubt brought down the Trent, the Ouse, and other streams which swell the Humber, for the purpose of being shipped to Flanders, where King Edward III. was assembling the army that afterwards fought the battle of Crecy, and where there was an unlimited demand for English wool, which was then the only great article of export from this country, and was only allowed to be exported on extraordinary occasions. William de la Pole, of Hull, had at that time extensive commercial operations with the merchants of Antwerp, and he and some of the greatest merchants in London raised amongst them the enormous sums of money which were required for carrying on this most costly war. Sir William de la Pole alone, who obtained from the king the flattering titles of the Merchant to the King (Mercator Regis), and Our Beloved Merchant (Dilectus Mercator Noster), is said to have raised no less a sum than £18,500, an amount certainly equal to something approaching very nearly to £200,000 of modern money. Even this he would have no difficulty in raising, from his own great resources and those of his friends in Hull, Antwerp, and Bruges, on the credit of a government which had the disposal of 30,000 bales of English wool, generally considered to be worth about £40 a bale in modern money. This was the commencement of the enormous wealth acquired by, and the distinguished honours conferred upon, the famous family of the De la Poles, the merchant princes of Hull. We are also told by Leland that they were extensively engaged in the fisheries of Iceland and of the Arctic Seas, which were for hundreds of years amongst the great and staple resources of the commerce of Hull.
The Erection of Suffolk Palace at Kingston-upon-Hull.- Sir Michael de la Pole, the son of Sir William, was not less a favourite with Richard II. than his father had been with the preceding monarch. He had held the position of admiral of the fleet on the northern parts of the coast in the 51st year of Edward III. and the 1st of Richard II.; and in the latter reign, in addition to a pension or income of £50 per annum, equal to from ten to fifteen times as much in modern money, he was made lord-chancellor of England, and afterwards created Earl of Suffolk. He it was who beautified his native town of Hull with many fine buildings. About the time when he received the somewhat incongruous office of lord-chancellor, after holding that of admiral of the northern fleet, he "began to erect" (at Hull)" that stately and superb palace known afterwards by the name of Suffolk's Palace, which stood opposite to the west end of St. Mary's Church. At the entrance into this spacious edifice there was a lofty and grand gateway, over which, supported by strong timbers, were erected two chambers. At the end of a passage leading to the gateway, upwards of thirty yards long and six broad, stood a spacious and handsome tower, three stories high, covered with lead, in which were chambers eighteen feet square. Adjoining this tower was a court-yard containing two roods of ground, neatly covered with a large square pavement, and each side of the yard was adorned with elegant buildings. On one side was a large hall, built of brick and stone, sixty feet in length and forty in breadth. At the west end was a fine range of buildings which occupied the whole side of the square. North of this court lay another yard neatly walled, containing an acre or more of land, ornamented with fish-ponds and a dovecot; and to the west of this was a pleasant spot of ground, containing two acres of pasture, inclosed with a brick wall, which was still standing nearly to the end of the last century, and which is described in Tickhill's "History of Hull" as adjoining the Manor Boarding School; "Before the great hall window," says Tickhill, "was a most delightful and spacious flower garden of upwards of an acre. On the north side stood a beautiful chapel, dedicated to St. Michael the archangel. This was the town house or palace of the earls of Suffolk; and in addition to this the earl erected three other splendid and magnificent houses, adorned with stately towers, two of which stood within the town, but the other was situated at a small distance from it, and commanded an extensive and delightful prospect of the country adjacent."* The wonderful prosperity of the earl of Suffolk, though not greater than might have been acquired in the extensive operations and the important offices which he held as the manager of the royal finances, or in other important offices under the crown, made him an object of great envy; and in the conflicts which ultimately led to the deposition and murder of Richard II. and to the occupation of the throne by Henry of Bolingbroke, the earl of Suffolk was driven into exile, and ultimately died in France, in the year 1389.
But the greatness of the house of De la Pole did not expire with the death of the second earl; and in the many changes of the houses of York and Lancaster, Michael de la Pole, the third earl, again rose to a high position, distinguished himself greatly in King Henry V.'s invasion of France, and was slain at the battle of Agincourt, in the year 1415. His next brother, William, the fourth earl of Suffolk, fought his way through twenty-four campaigns in France, without once visiting England, and when France was finally lost had to bear the discredit of that misfortune. Nor were his fortunes ultimately very much improved by the distinguished part that he took in bringing about the marriage of the youthful King Henry VI. with the beautiful Margaret of Anjou, the daughter of the feeble-minded Rene, king of Sicily, which indeed raised him to a higher position, and secured to him the titles first of marquis and afterwards of duke of Suffolk, but in the end involved him in the fortunes of the house of Lancaster at their darkest period, and caused him to be tried, driven into exile, and ultimately murdered on the high seas, in the year 1450. Even then the house of De la Pole was not destroyed, for the dukedom was revived, and John de la Pole, duke of Suffolk, married Elizabeth Plantagenet, sister of Edward IV. and Richard III., and by her had issue, John de la Pole, earl of Lincoln.
Although the movement caused by the wars of King Edward I. and his successors in Scotland gave a great impulse to the trade of Hull, yet the fortune of war brought an invading Scottish army into Yorkshire in the year 1322 (after the battle of Bannockburn), which threatened the town of Hull with destruction. At that time the inhabitants petitioned the king for license to fortify the town with ditches and moats, which license was very willingly granted. These fortifications were gradually enlarged in succeeding reigns, by the addition of castles, blockhouses, &c., until Hull became one of the strongest fortresses in the kingdom. This it continued to be down to the great civil war, when its possession became the chief object of contention between Charles I. and the parliamentary armies under Fairfax. The citadel of Hull, afterwards erected by order of Charles II. at a cost of more than £100,000, stood on the east side of the river Hull, and the arsenal was large enough to contain equipments for 20,000 infantry and 3000 cavalry, besides ordnance and stores for fourteen sail of the line. But in the year 1863 the commissioners of woods and forests decided to abolish this ancient stronghold, which was sold that the land might be used for docks and iron-shipbuilding yards. At the present day not a vestige remains of the ancient fortress, which for several centuries rendered Hull the chief defence of the north of England against foreign invasion. In the reign of Queen Elizabeth, Hull supplied 800 men and £600 to defend the kingdom against the Spanish Armada.
Origin and Progress of the Commerce of Hull.- The commerce of Hull dates at least, from the age of the Scandinavian occupation of this part of England, nearly a thousand years from the present time. There is every reason to believe, not merely from the name, but from historical evidence, that Vyk or the Harbour; the predecessor of Hull, was occupied by the bold navigators of the Scandinavian race, who ruled nearly the whole of the present counties of York and Lincoln, and indeed the whole of the counties included in the great valleys of the Ouse and Trent, during the 200 years which preceded the Norman conquest. The natural superiority of Hull as a seaport arises from its proximity to the sea, from its great depth of water, and from the shelter given to vessels in the river Hull, which there enters the estuary of the Humber. There is no other position on the Humber, the Ouse, or the Trent, which possesses either the same depth of water or the same easy access to the German Ocean.
The first great trade of Hull, then probably called Vyk or the Harbour, was in the stock-fish or dried fish of the Arctic Ocean, which was most extensively consumed in the weekly and yearly fasts of the Roman Catholic Church, not only in England, but in all parts of Western Europe. The second great source of the trade of this port was in supplying the merchants of Flanders, and even of Florence and Lombardy, with the English wool which they used in their manufactures, and which was produced in great abundance on the sheep pastures of Yorkshire, and in all the districts watered by the Ouse and the Trent. These two great branches of commerce were the chief sources of the wealth of the De la Poles of Hull. Their name is found in connection with all that is great and striking in the history of the commerce and progress of Hull, from the reign of Edward III. to that of Henry VI.
In the reign of the Tudor kings and queens Hull had attained a high degree of prosperity, and was second only to London in the extent of its trade. Leland in his "Itinerary," written in the reign of King Henry VIII. and published about the year 1538, after giving an erroneous account of the early history of Hull (which he describes as having originated in the reign of Edward III.) gives a very clear and spirited account of what he had himself seen of the town, as it was at the time when he visited it, and as it had been for many years previous to that visit. "The first great increase of the town," he says, "was by passing for fish into Iceland, from whence they had the whole trade of stock fish (dried fish) into England, and partly other fish. In Richard II.'s days the town of Hull waxed very rich, and Michael de la Pole, merchant of Hull, came into so high favor for wit, activity, and riches, that he was made Earl of Suffolk, whereupon he got of King Richard II. many grants and privileges to the town; and in his time it was wonderfully augmented in buildings, and was inclosed with ditches, and the wall begun and in continuance ended, and made all of brick, as most of the houses of the town at that time were." Leland further says of Hull, that the country about the town was very fruitful of meadow and pasture; and that there was much cable-making and winding of hemp for small cords. He also says that there was no wall to the river Hull, but each merchant had his own stairs even to the north gate. He adds that Michael de la Pole built a good house of brick, with goodly orchard and garden. There were many religious foundations made by merchants of Hull. The town was paved with stones brought from the island of Iceland, which we now regard as belonging to America.
Camden's Account of Hull, in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth.- The account of the port of Hull given by Camden, who wrote about fifty years later than Leland, is of considerable interest, and shows that Hull was then advancing rapidly. After describing the town of Beverley and the river Hull, which flows past it, entering the river Humber at Hull, he states that near its mouth that river had a city of the same name, properly named Kingston-upon-Hull, but commonly known as Hull. He says that it had been formerly called Coning-cliffe or King's-cliffe; but of that there is no historical evidence. At the time when Camden wrote, Hull had risen to be a port of high standing, and was then the most celebrated emporium of that district, "with magnificent buildings, strong fortifications, crowded ships, abundance of merchants, and a great affluence of all things." This prosperity, he states, had arisen partly from the privileges which Michael de la Pole, the grandson of one of the most distinguished merchants of Hull, had obtained for them when raised to the dignity of earl of Suffolk, and partly from a profitable trade with Iceland in dried fish, called stock-fish, from which they had accumulated great riches. Thence, in a very short space of time, a strong wall had been built, strengthened by numerous towers, by means of which their city was defended, wherever it was not sufficiently protected by the rivers Hull and Humber. He says that, owing to the great extent of the trade and the large quantity of stones brought in ballast by their ships, all parts of the city were beautifully paved and constructed. As magistrates they had first a custos or warden, then bailiffs, afterwards a mayor with bailiffs, and from the time of Henry IV. a mayor and sheriffs, and the city itself made into a county. Hull appears to have been very nearly the first outport of England in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, if we may judge from the comparative amount paid as customs at that time.
Hull, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, fully retained its position during the first hundred years after the discovery of America, the great revolution in commerce which followed on that event, and the immense impulse given to the trade of Europe by the opening of the gold and silver mines of Mexico and Peru by the Spaniards, and the subsequent opening of the wealth of the Brazils and of India by the Portuguese. The great line of communication from Hull and the English ports generally with these regions was through the Spanish ports in the Low Countries, and more especially Antwerp and Bruges, to Spain and Portugal, and from Lisbon and Cadiz to the newly-discovered regions, both of the western and of the eastern world. It was not until the reign of James I. that any English colonies were founded on the coast of America or in the West or East Indies, and that the trade of England began to take somewhat of its present course. During the whole of that period, that is to say, to the middle of the seventeenth century, Hull retained a large trade in fish and whale oil with the Arctic regions, and an extensive trade with Flanders, Germany, and the Baltic in wool, corn, and English manufactures, besides an indirect trade through Flanders, or through Spain and Portugal, with India and America. The trade of Hull with India was for a long time limited by the exclusive privileges of the East India Company, and afterwards by the old colonial system, which for a time worked disadvantageously for the ports on the eastern side of Great Britain.
The Siege of Hull in the Great Civil War.- The events at Hull fill an important page in the history of the great civil war. That war was commenced by the closing of the gates of Hull against the king in person; and the town and port remained faithful to the Parliament during the whole of the civil war, and stoutly withstood a long siege, and several smaller attacks. It was one of the few English towns that were never taken in that war.
One of King Charles' principal objects in going down to Yorkshire, on the eve of the great civil war, was to seize the magazine at Hull, and on that fortress and harbour. Hull was at that time one of the few regularly fortified towns of England, and possessed advantages from its natural position which rendered it as easy to defend, and as difficult to take, as some of the strongest fortresses in Holland and Flanders. The art of defending military positions situate on low grounds close to the sea, and whose approaches were capable of being laid under water by the opening of sluices, had been brought to great perfection in the wars between the Dutch and the Spaniards; and the strength of such fortresses was clearly shown by the failure of the royalists to capture Hull, at the time when they had overrun the whole level country of Yorkshire, and had driven back the parliamentary forces, either into the hills of the West Riding, or beyond the limits of the county. From Hull the parliamentary garrison, and the forces of Fairfax and other parliamentary leaders, were able to communicate and to act with the earl of Manchester, Oliver Cromwell, and the well-trained armies of the eastern or associated counties. It was during the principal siege of Hull, by the earl of Newcastle, that Sir Thomas Fairfax transported himself and his Yorkshire cavalry across the Humber, into Lincolnshire, and there took part in the battle of Winceby or Horncastle fight.
On the 23rd April, 1640, Charles appeared before Hull, but was refused admittance by Sir John Hotham, the parliamentary governor, except with a small escort. Enraged by this complete failure of his plans to secure a supply of arms, he proclaimed Hotham a traitor, and returned to York. Thence he despatched a violent denunciation of Hotham's conduct to the Parliament, declaring that Hull and its magazine were his private property. Parliament, however, entirely approved of the conduct of Sir John Hotham, and drew up a reply, which was sent to York, in charge of a committee consisting of four Yorkshire members; namely, Lord Fairfax, Sir Hugh and Sir Henry Cholmley, and Sir Phillip Stapleton, who were directed to remain at York, and to watch the proceedings of the court assembled there.
It had been the original intention of the king, that the earl of Newcastle, after overpowering the parliamentary forces in Yorkshire, should advance southward to Newark and Nottingham, where the royalists had strong garrisons in the castles; and that there they should form a junction with the royal armies, in the centre of the kingdom, and then advance with their united forces upon London. But the resistance encountered by the earl, from the Fairfaxes and Hothams in Yorkshire, was so formidable, that he was unwilling to leave them in his rear, without striking a decisive blow against the Hothams at Hull, and the Fairfaxes in the manufacturing districts of the West Riding. This led to the battle of Adwalton Moor, fought between Leeds and Bradford, in which the royalists were successful; and also to the principal siege of Hull, in which they were repulsed with very heavy loss, and detained so long in the north that they were never able to make their way into the midland counties.
When the news of the crushing defeat at Adwalton reached London, the speaker of the House of Commons at once wrote to Lord Fairfax at Hull, to assure him that Parliament would always extend its utmost power and authority to support him; and on the 22nd July he was formally appointed governor of Hull. Before long he was joined by 1500 foot and 700 horse, and Sir Thomas Fairfax was stationed at Beverley, with the horse and about 600 foot. The royal army marched from York to Beverley, where Sir Thomas Fairfax, with a small and totally inadequate force, had been ordered to hold his ground. This was impossible, but he did his best. The royal force consisted of 12,000 foot and 4000 horse. Sir Thomas ordered his small body of foot to retreat to Hull, while he advanced westward with his handful of cavalry, until the royal army was close upon him, and then retreated slowly into Beverley, fighting here and there in the narrow lanes, and then closed the gates. This gave time for the foot to make good their retreat into Hull, and Sir Thomas followed with the horse, having the enemy close behind him. On Saturday, September 2, 1643, the earl of Newcastle's army laid siege to Hull.
"Kingston-upon-Hull," says Clements Markham, in his Life of the great Lord Fairfax, "was a strong defensible town, and proved to be a Torres Vedras to the Fairfaxes, and to their enemies. It stands at the mouth of the river Hull, its southern side facing the Humber, and its eastern being flanked by the Hull; and as the Parliament commanded the sea, there was no chance of its being reduced from want of supplies. The town was only assailable from the west and north, where there was a strong double wall. The fortifications commenced on the Humber, at a point where there was a pier called the West Jetty. On the west side were ten flanking towers and a gate, through which the road from Anlaby entered the town; and at the angle of the west and north faces there was another bastion, with the Beverley Gate on its eastern side. On the northern face there were fourteen flanking towers and a strong block-house, and near where the wall touched upon the river Hull a bridge of fourteen arches was thrown across, over which went the road into Holderness. Here also there was a building called the Charter-house, belonging to Colonel Almin, which Lord Fairfax was obliged to demolish. A moat ran round the base of the walls, from the Hull to the Humber. The old castle was at the mouth of the Hull, on the opposite bank, and the ships of the Parliament were anchored in the rivers Humber and Hull.
The overflowing of the rivers was provided against by raised banks, which protected the town and parliamentary garrison, but left the besieging army subject to inundations at spring tides.
"Newcastle encamped his army in the villages of Hessle, Anlaby, and Cottingham, and a curved line passing through them from the Humber to the Hull formed a semicircle, facing the west and the north sides of the town. Lord Fairfax planted guns on the walls and threw up a work on the banks of the Hull, near the Charter-house, on which he placed a large brass gun. All the servant girls of the town helped to carry earth and stones for this and the other works, yet only one of them ever got hurt during the siege. Lord Newcastle began throwing up earthworks and getting his guns into position; but on the 14th Fairfax caused the banks to be cut, which inundated great part of the country during the spring tides, so that the royalists were wet-shod in all their works, except those on the ridges of the banks.
"The old lord continued to conduct his successful defence of Hull. On the 28th the besiegers began a work half a mile from the north wall, and there were many sallies and much hard fighting to prevent its completion; but at last it was finished, mounted with two brass culvelins carrying thirty- six pound balls, and other guns, and was named the King's Fort. Red-hot shot was also prepared in furnaces, and a warm fire was opened upon the north wall. Lord Fairfax strengthened this part of his works, by adding two large culverins to the battery on Charter-house Fort.
"Finding that no impression could be made on this side, Lord Newcastle commenced approaches along the bank of the Humber, and planted some heavy guns within half a mile of the walls; upon which Fairfax raised a fort close to the west, or ragged jetty, which also protected the shipping, with a half-moon work flanking it. There were incessant assaults and sallies, and on October 3, the spring tide again overflowed the royalist works, and gave them wet lodgings. But affairs remained in much the same state until the 5th, when the earl of Manchester sent a reinforcement of 500 foot into the town, commanded by Sir John Meldrum, an experienced and able Scot.
"Four days afterwards, the royalists made a general assault upon the works. Captain Strickland, a gallant young officer, led a storming party, to attempt the West Jetty Battery and Half Moon, while another detachment attacked the Charter-house Fort, on the opposite side of the town. The assailants were not discovered until they began to scale the West Jetty works, when they were received by a galling fire from the Half Moon. Young Strickland then wheeled his men round to make a dash at the smaller work, and had reached the west of the parapet, when he was shot dead with a brace of bullets in the breast. The townsmen then fell upon the assailants with great fury, and very few escaped. The royalists were equally unsuccessful on the Charter-house side, and returned disheartened to their own damp unhealthy lines.
"It was at this time that Sir Philip Warwick paid his second visit to the earl of Newcastle. There had been much rain, and finding the men ankle-deep in water, he suggested that those without seemed likelier to rot, than those within to starve. The royalist general answered, 'You hear us often called the popish army, but you can see we trust not in our good works.'
"On October 11, Fairfax and Meldrum prepared to make a sally and to assault the enemy's works. A body of 1500 men, consisting of soldiers, townsmen, and sailors from the Lion, Employment, and other ships in the Humber, were assembled in two divisions, and at nine in the morning they sallied out. Sir John Meldrum led one party out of the Beverley Gate, to attack the enemy's left wing, while the second division advanced from the West Jetty and assaulted the royalist forts on the Humber. The camp of the besiegers was a quarter of a mile in the rear of their batteries, and in the first rush the Hull men carried all the works; but reinforcements were hurried up from the camp, and they were repulsed. Lord Fairfax and Sir John rallied their men under the walls of the town, and led them once more to the assault. This time they charged with such fury that they captured most of the besieging batteries, and turned the guns upon the flying royalists. Upwards of a hundred shots were fired from the cannon on the walls, and the fight raged furiously for three hours. It was decisive Fairfax captured the famous cannons called "Gog" and "Magog," which had done him such mischief on Adwalton Moor. They weighed 5790 pounds, and carried thirty-six pound shot. He also took a demi-culverin, four small drakes on one carriage, two large brass drakes, a saker, and much ammunition.
"Thus ended the siege of Hull. During the night Newcastle marched off and returned to York, ruthlessly pillaging the unfortunate town of Beverley on his way, and driving off all the cattle in the surrounding country. Like Massena, he had found his Torres Vedras, but he was consoled for the mortification of his reverse by being created a marquis, on October 27, 1643."
Hull at the time of the Visit of Daniel Defoe.- When this charming writer visited Hull about the year 1727, at the commencement of the reign of George II., he found it to be a flourishing seaport, and the only great place of trade on this part of the coast of England. His account of it is full of spirit, and is marked by his usual sagacity. He says, in substance, "If you would expect me to give an account of the city of Hamburg, or Dantzic, or Rotterdam, or any of the cities abroad which are famed for their commerce, the town of Hull may be a specimen; and I believe there is more business done in Hull than in any town of its size in Europe. Liverpool, indeed, of late," he says, writing, in 1727, "comes after it apace; but then Liverpool has not the London trade to add to it. In the late war [with France] the fleets from Hull to London were frequently 100 sail, sometimes [including the other creeks in the Humber] 150 to 160 sail at a time. And to Holland their trade [that of Hull] is so considerable, that the Dutch always employ two men-of-war to fetch and carry, that is, to convoy the trade, as they call it, to and from Hull, which was as many as they did to London. In a word, all the trade of Leeds, Wakefield, and Halifax, of which I have spoken so largely, is transacted here, and the goods are shipped here by the merchants of Hull. All the lead trade of Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire, from Bawtry Wharf; the butter from the North and East Ridings, brought down the Ouse; the cheese brought down the Trent, from Stafford, Warwick, and Cheshire; and the corn from all the counties adjacent-are brought down and shipped off here. Again, they [the merchants of Hull] supply all those counties in return with foreign goods of all kinds, for which they trade to all parts of the known world; nor have the merchants of any port in Britain a fairer credit or fairer character than the merchants of Hull, as well for the justice of their dealing as the greatness of their substance of funds for trade. They drive a great trade here to Norway and the Baltic, and an important trade to Dantzic, Riga, Neva, and St. Petersburg; from whence they make large returns in iron, copper, hemp, flax, canvas, pot-ashes, Muscovy linen and yarn, and other things; all which things they vend in the country to an exceeding quantity. They have also a great importation of wine, linen, oil, fruit, &c., trading to Holland, France, and Spain; the trade of tobacco and sugars from the West Indies they chiefly manage by way of London; but besides all this their export of corn, as well to London as to Holland and France, exceeds all of that kind that is or can be done at any port in England, London excepted.
"Their shipping is a great article, in which they outdo all the towns and ports on the coast, except Yarmouth; only that their shipping consists chiefly in smaller vessels than the coal trade is supplied with; though they have a great many large vessels, too, which are employed in their foreign' trade."*
At the time when Defoe was at Hull the Greenland whale fishery of that port was suspended; having become stopped in the time when the Dutch wars were so frequent, and when the wars with France were still more so. But a long period of peace, under the able administration of Sir Robert Walpole, followed the time of Defoe's visit to Hull, and during that and succeeding periods the whale fishery of Hull revived, and was carried on extensively quite to recent times, when the introduction of the use of gas, and other causes, rendered the whale fishery less profitable than it had previously been.
As a whale-fishing port Hull had long no rival in the kingdom. Thousands of tuns of oil have been fished out of the deep waters of the frozen regions by the ships of the Hull merchants, and that the produce of the whale fisheries has been a source of great income to the town is a fact not to be controverted. During the period of eighty years, from 1772 to 1852, the Hull whalers brought home the amount of 171,907 tuns of oil, which is an average of eighty-eight tuns per ship, per annum. Taking the price of oil for the greater part of the eighty years already mentioned, £30 per tun was about the average. The highest price obtained for oil was in the year 1813, when it was sold at £55 per tun. The lowest price obtained was about the years 1804, 1805, and 1806, when it only reached about £20 per tun. For one year the amount of oil and bone brought from the fisheries to Hull realized above £300,000; for twelve years the amount was above £200,000 per annum, and for sixteen years it was above; £100,000 per annum. The total value of the gross amount of oil and bone drawn from the vast deep by ships sailing from this port, from 1772 to 1852, amounted to £6,849,580, being on the average £85,619 per year for the eighty years. In these calculations the bounty guaranteed by government, which would increase the value of the returns considerably, is not taken into account.
The Older Parts of Hull.- In Wilberforce House Sir John Lister entertained King Charles I In this house was born Wilberforce, the eminent statesman. Aldgate, an ancient street, is now divided into Whitefriar-gate, Silver Street, and Scale Lane, named from the family of Schayl, who resided in it. Old Beverley Street is known as the land of Green Ginger. Blackfriar-gate and Blanket Row formed one street, called Monkgate. Mytongate was, previously to the year 1391, called Lyle Street, a part of which was called La Belle Tour, or "the fine walk." Dagger Lane was previously to 1470 called Champaign Street. Old Kirk Lane is now called Postern-gate and North Church Side. Bowl-alley Lane was previously called Denton Lane, and anciently Bishops-gate, from its possessor, an archbishop of York. Chapel Lane was called Aton Lane, from the Barons de Aton, who were wealthy holders of property in Hull. Lowgate is one of the most important streets, and was formerly called Market-gate, from the use to which it was then applied.
The Sanitary Condition of Hull.- This has greatly improved during recent years. A late writer upon the mortality of the town, Sir Henry Cooper, M.D., read a paper "On the Prevalence of Disease in Hull," before the British Association, from which we learn that, according to returns made, the rate of mortality for the borough in its entirety is one death in thirty-three. Fever, he said, was remarkably low for a large town, not favourably situated or well-drained. In another paper read before the same body, Dr. Cooper showed that the total number of cholera and diarrhoea cases was 1860, or one in forty-three of the whole population of the town. The greatest mortality compared with the annual average appears to have occurred in the prime of life (from thirty to thirty-five), where the ordinary mortality is very low. Of the above-stated number of victims of cholera, 1738 belonged to the labouring-classes, and 122 to the gentry, traders, and well-to-do classes. The localities in which there had been the greatest mortality were the parts of the borough where the levels were the lowest, and in which, therefore, the hygienic condition as regards moisture and drainage might be presumed to be most defective.
Steam Navigation of Hull.- The prosperity of Hull has within the last thirty years been greatly increased by steam navigation, as this port has within that period become a principal and important steam- packet station. In 1815 the first steamboat on the Humber, called the Caledonia, was built for the purpose of plying between Hull and Selby. In 1826 there were twenty-four steamers from Hull plying along the coast during the summer months; London being the greatest distance to which any of them ran. About the year 1835 the number had increased to something like forty; four being in the Hamburg trade, one to Rotterdam, three to London, and the remainder principally coastwise. In 1871 the number of registered vessels belonging to the port amounted to 673, with tonnage 158,672 tons, being an increase since 1870 of 29 vessels, averaging 912 tons each. The customs revenue amounted to £253,320 15s. 11d., showing a decrease of £49,914 4s. ld., owing to the abolition of the corn laws and the reduction of the duty on sugar. The number of vessels which entered inwards at the port in 1871 was:-British, 1739, with burden of 754,598 tons; foreign, 1497, with tonnage of 364,900 tons; total, 3236 vessels, with an aggregate tonnage of 1,119,498 tons, being an increase on the returns of 1870 of 233 vessels, with 56,112 tons. Of vessels clearing outwards there were 1471 British, with 699,608 tons, and 1080 foreign, with 237,064 tons; total, 2551, with an aggregate tonnage of 936,672 tons, being an increase on the returns of 1870 of 393 vessels, with 100,698 tons. The number of cattle imported in 1871 amounted to 29,648 beasts, 4753 calves, 31,690 sheep, 6026 pigs, and 15 goats. These statistics sufficiently attest the commercial importance of Hull, and justly support its claim as the "third port in the kingdom."
General Trade of Hull.- Hull is the port from which the cottons of Manchester, the woollens and linens of Yorkshire, and the lace and net of Nottingham, are exported to the Low Countries, France, Germany, and the north of Europe. During the last thirty years the exportation of cotton twist has been very considerable. At the close of the year 1839 the exports of Hull were considered to be about one-fifth of the exports of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1850 the declared value of the manufactured goods exported from the port of Hull was £10,366,610. The exports from the port of London for the same year were £14,137,527. The present annual value of the exports of Hull is about £23,000,000.
The Docks of Hull.- The docks of Hull are of considerable extent. Those called the Old Docks, which are situated within the town, occupy the site of the ancient fortifications. They are three in number; and are named respectively the Queen's, Humber, and Prince's Docks; the former having been constructed in the year 1775, the Humber Dock in 1807, and the Prince's Dock in 1827. In addition to these there are the Victoria Dock to the eastward, and the Railway Dock to the west of the Humber Dock; the former having been opened in 1850, and the latter in 1846. Both these docks were commenced about the same time, but the Railway Dock, being much the smaller, was sooner completed. In it some of the largest steamers frequenting the port load and discharge, and there is probably more business conducted in it than in any other dock of the same area, or in the same space, in any other dock in the kingdom. In 1863 the Victoria Dock was considerably enlarged, and a short time previously the works in connection with another large dock to the westward were commenced, the foundation being laid by the present chairman. This last dock, the length of which is 3300 lineal feet, was completed early in 1869, and in July of that year was formally opened by H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, who was accompanied by the Princess of Wales on the occasion. It was then named the Albert Dock, and the honour of knighthood was conferred by her Majesty upon the present chairman of the company, Sir William Wright, who has occupied that position for upwards of eight years, having been previously a director and deputy chairman for seventeen years, and in whose time and under whose supervision many of the greatest recent improvements and extensions of the Dock Estate have been carried out. The area of the water-space of the Hull docks is as follows:-
Queen's Dock, 10 Acres.|Albert Dock, 24 Acres. Humber Dock, 7 " |Timber Ponds, 25 " Prince's Dock, 6 " |Basins, 14 " Railway Dock, 3 " | Victoria Dock,. 20 " Total, 109 Acres.
The whole of these have been constructed by the present Dock Company, at a cost of between two and three millions of money; and further accommodation being still required to meet what are likely to be the wants of a rapidly increasing trade, the company have commenced the construction of two more docks westward of the Albert Dock, which will be of ten and eight acres' area respectively, and like the Albert Dock, of the form best suited for the accommodation of steamers, the increase of the steam trade of the port being very great: so much so that the tonnage of steamers, on which dues were received by the Dock Company in 1873, was 1,155,773 tons, against a little over 500,000 tons only ten years ago.
Hull contains, amongst other large business establishments, extensive shipbuilding yards, in which vessels of the largest class both merchant ships and ships of war, are constructed and launched into the waters of the Humber. Amongst others may be mentioned a large iron-clad ram for the Chilian Government, recently launched from the extensive premises of Earle's Shipbuilding Company, and the Bessemer saloon steamer, built at the same establishment; being the vessel which, as is well known, is being constructed on a principle by which M. Bessemer, the inventor, expects to overcome the ills and misery of sea-sickness.
The coasting trade of Hull is more extensive than that of any other port in the kingdom. A large trade is also carried on with the north of Germany, the Baltic, Holland, Belgium, and Denmark. The principal exported articles are woollen and cotton goods and hardware, and those of import are timber, grain, seeds, wool, iron, flax, pitch, tar, resin; tallow, and bones.
The Public Market.- The chartered market days are Tuesday and Friday, but the former is the principal day. There is also a weekly market on Saturday evening, for meat and vegetables and all kinds of provisions, &c. A stately cross, erected about the year 1430, formerly stood in the market-place, but was taken down during the civil war, for the sake of the lead which covered it.
Near the south end of the market-place, in 1734, a magnificent equestrian gilded statue was erected in honour of King William III., the work of Scheemakers. The cost was defrayed by voluntary subscription, and the sum amounted to £93. The figure, according to the taste of the age, is habited in Roman costume. The horse is finely modelled, and the whole is considered to be one of the most successful works of the kind in the kingdom.
Local Government.- Hull is governed by a corporation, winch consists of a mayor, a sheriff, fourteen aldermen, forty-two common council men, and a recorder. The town is divided into seven wards, viz., Lowgate, Market-place, Holderness, North Myton, South Myton, East Sculcoates, and West Sculcoates. It sends two members to Parliament.
The Modern Public Buildings of Hull.- The Town Hall.-The finest modern building in Hull is the town hall, built in the Italian style, and opened in the year 1866. The gilt rails of the balconies and the varied colouring of the stone give a rich effect to the exterior, which has a frontage of 105 feet, the depth of the whole being 220 feet, with a tower 135 feet high. Above the grand staircase stands a statue of King Edward I., the founder of Kingston-upon-Hull. The general view is such as is seldom or never seen in any building in a provincial town. The interior is superbly decorated, and contains numerous statues and portraits of royal personages, patriots, and local worthies, by eminent artists, as well as the offices of the corporation. The law courts here are-the court of venire (over which the recorder presides, and which has in civil causes a jurisdiction over the town and county of Hull), the county court, the court of bankruptcy, and the police court. Formerly the assizes for the county of Hull were held here, but the trials for capital offences committed within the county are now held at York. The cost of this building was £28,000.
The Hull Docks Offices.- The Dock Offices were formally opened in 1871. In architectural beauty and in greatness of dimensions this edifice is by far the most striking in the town. It is triangular-shaped, and in the Italian style of the "Venetian" type. It has three facades, similar in character, corresponding with the three frontings, and coupled pilasters of the Ionic order for the ground floor, and of the Corinthian order for the first floor, with highly enriched entablatures. The external and internal appearance constitutes it one of the most perfect buildings of the kind in the kingdom.
The Hull Trinity House.- The Trinity House, where the business of the ancient and wealthy corporation or guild of the Trinity House is transacted, is occupied by pensioners. It was founded in 1457, and rebuilt in 1753. The front is of Tuscan architecture. The interior of the building contains many curiosities. Trinity House Chapel, connected with the former building, was opened in 1843, and is a remarkably fine specimen of architecture. The interior presents the appearance of a Grecian temple. The altar statue is of statuary marble, supported by an ancient eagle richly gilt.
The oriel window is of stained glass, and contains an impressive representation of our Saviour's ascension.
The Charter-House.- The Charter-house, as already intimated, was founded as a hospital, with a chapel, by Sir Michael de la Pole, in 1384, for twenty-six poor linen and women, "feeble and old," and was called La Maison Dieu. In 1408 the endowment was greatly augmented. After the dissolution of religious houses by Henry VIII. Edward VI. restored "the presentation, free disposition, and rights of patronage" of this institution, to the corporation of the borough, who have ever since exercised the right of appointing the master and electing the poor people of the hospital. In 1571 the corporation ordained that there should be "six brothers and six sisters," the number to be increased should the revenue permit. The master's salary was £10 according to the first grant, and £3 6s. 8d. was now added "for his better maintenance." In 1638 the annual rental of property belonging to the foundation amounted to £133; and in 1654 an order was made to admit the whole number of poor people, according to the first grant. During the siege of Hull the master's house was destroyed. In 1780 the whole structure was taken down and the present edifice erected. In 1803 further rooms were added for the accommodation of an increased number of pensioners. The buildings are of brick two stories high, consisting of a centre with wings. A semicircular portico, supported by six Tuscan pillars, forms the entrance of the hospital; and on the architrave is the inscription, "Deo et pauperibus Michael de la Pole, Comes de Suffolk, has aedas posuit, A.D. 1384." Over the portal is a pediment, within the tympanum of which are the arms of the De la Poles. On the summit of the roof is a circular turret of eight Ionic pillars supporting a dome. The chapel is commodious and well-furnished, and contains some fine mural monuments. The present income of the foundation is about £2500 per annum; the Rev. H. W. Kemp, incumbent of St. John's Church, receiving £200 a year as master.
The Post Office.- The new post office, opened in 1843, with money order office and other departments, is a complete and well-regulated establishment, embracing all the modern improvements adopted in other offices of this description.
The Custom House.- The custom house, a large red brick building, with stone quoins and dressings, originally opened in 1797 as the "Neptune Inn," is very spacious and commodious. The "long room" is fifty-two feet in length by twenty-four feet in width, having five circular-headed windows fronting the street, the central one with two small side lights. The ceiling is elaborately decorated.
The Public Cemetery.- The cemetery, situated at the end of Spring Bank, in Cottingham parish, incloses sixteen acres.
The public baths and wash-houses, situate in Trippet Street, were erected by the corporation at an outlay of £12,000, and opened April 22, 1850.
An Ionic pillar of cast iron, twenty feet in height, stands opposite the post office. Upon its top is placed a hexagonal lantern, which is illuminated with an argand light and reflector of large size. This column serves for lighting vessels into the harbour.
The Wilberforce monument, at the foot of the Junction Dock Bridge, is a noble fluted Doric column, upon which is a statue of the celebrated statesman and philanthropist, who was a native of this town. The pillar is seventy-two feet in height.
The new waterworks are erected about four miles from the town. Among the places of recreation and amusement are the Botanic Gardens (Linnaeus Street, Anlaby Road), opened in 1812. They are the property of shareholders and occupy about five acres of land, containing a large variety of rare alpine, aquatic, and other plants.
The Theatre Royal, Paragon Street, was opened in 1871.
The following newspapers are published in Hull:- The Hull Packet, first published in 1787; the Eastern Morning News, formerly the Hull Advertiser, in 1797; the Eastern Counties Herald, in 1838; and the Hull News, in 1852.
Railways.- Hull is a terminus on the Hull and Selby and the North Eastern railways, and holds communication with the Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire line across the Humber by the Ferry.
Literary and Scientific Institutions.- The institutions and societies include the Mechanics' Institute in George Street, founded in June, 1825; the Lyceum Library and Reading Room, St. John's Street, founded in 1807; and last, though far the most important, the Royal Literary Institution, commenced in May, 1853, situated in Albion Street. It has a noble stone front in the Roman style of architecture, 160 feet long. The subscription library attached to this building is tastefully fitted up and decorated. The book rooms are calculated to hold upwards of 60,000 volumes.
The Public Rooms, Jarratt Street, were erected by a company of shareholders, in 1830. This edifice is 142 feet long and 79 feet wide, and is ornamented with Ionic capitals and bases. The principal room is the music hall, a fine apartment richly decorated and capable of accommodating 1200 persons, exclusive of the orchestra, which will hold 200 performers.
The borough goal and house of correction, Hedon Road, was built in 1867, at an outlay of £57,000.
The Merchants Exchange.- The Merchants' Exchange, Lowgate, was completed in 1866. It forms one of the chief ornaments of the town, and has a bold commanding effect. The style of architecture is Italian. The principal entrance is surmounted by a large figure of Britannia, accompanied by the usual emblems. The internal arrangements are of a magnificent character, and not surpassed in beauty and excellence by any building in England.
The General Infirmary.- This valuable building, in Prospect Street, was opened in 1782. The institution is one of the most important in the town.
The Female Penitentiary, Anlaby Road, was first established in 1811, and affords an asylum to thirty-six reclaimed women.
Churches and Chapels.- Of ecclesiastical edifices the first is the church of the Holy Trinity, usually denominated the High Church. The present church was constructed at different times; but the east end, now used as the chancel, is of the greatest antiquity. This part of the edifice was the ancient chapel of Wyke, and it is certainly the oldest building in Hull. In 1661 the Holy Trinity Church, which up to that time was only a chapel of ease to the mother church at Hessle, was on the petition of the corporation constituted a parish church by Act of Parliament. In 1552 this church was put under an interdict, the doors and windows were closed up with thorns and briars, the pavement torn up, and the bells deprived of their tongues. No worship was performed in it; every person who presumed to enter the building was declared to be accursed; and even the dead were not suffered to be buried. There is no reason assigned for this severe sentence. The church is a noble cruciform structure in the Gothic style, with a lofty and very beautiful tower rising from the intersection, and is said to be the largest parish church in the kingdom, with one exception. It is 272 feet long from west to east, the length of the nave being 144; the breadth of the nave of the transept under the tower is 28 feet; the length of the chancel 100 feet; the breadth of the nave of the church is 172 feet; the length of the transept 96 feet; and the breadth of the chancel 70 feet. It occupies an area of not less than 20,056 square feet. The west front consists of a centre and wings divided by buttresses. The nave is much higher than the aisles, and is finished by a parapet of blank quatrefoils. The south transept is the height of the aisles, and in front of it is a handsome stone porch, the roof of the interior having longitudinal stone ribs. The whole edifice has recently undergone thorough restoration, and now presents a very commanding appearance. The noble tower is in two stories; at the angles are buttresses, terminating in crocketed pinnacles. The height of the tower from the ground to the top of the pinnacle (according to Tickhill), is 147½ feet. The entire church has a very fine appearance, and adds much to the beauty of the town. Previous to the year 1846 the west end of the nave, to the extent of three intercolumniations, was separated from the portion devoted to the service of the church, and the latter part had galleries round it. The nave was separated from the transept by an immense screen of oak, the sweep of the arches being also filled with timber, and from the entrances to the aisles ascended flights of stairs leading to the galleries of the nave. But happily, in the above year, the interior of the church was completely remodelled. An elegant Caen stone pulpit was erected at the same period. The chancel or choir is very spacious and lofty. The windows are filled with exquisitely stained glass, adorned with curious figures and shields of arms; and the great east window alone contains the History of the Bible. The organ is said to have been originally built by Schmidt.
St. Mary's and other Churches.- St. Mary's Church, Lowgate, commonly called the Low Church, was almost rebuilt by Sir Gilbert G. Scott in 1863. Its style is perpendicular, and we hardly need add that the work is excellent. St. John's Church, in the parish of the Holy Trinity, stands near the Wilberforce monument. It is a neat edifice of red brick, with stone dressings; the original cost of its erection was about £4600; but the tower at the west end, and a projection at the east end, have subsequently been built. The interior is neatly and comfortably furnished to seat 1500 persons. St. James' Church is situated in St. James' Street, formerly called Cent-per-cent Street. Its foundation stone was laid on the 14th of December, 1829, and the building was finished in July, 1831. It is a neat structure of white brick and stone, in the early English style, with a tower at the west end, rising to the height of 110 feet. St. Stephen's Church, near Canning Street, was erected in the parish of Holy Trinity, and opened for divine service in 1844. Hull also contains the following churches :- Drypool Church, erected in 1824; St. Mark's, Jenning's Street, Groves, with a lofty spire; Sculcoates St. Mary, Air Street; St. Paul's, Cannon Street; Christ's Church, John Street; Mariner's Church, St. Luke's, St. Matthew's, St. Silas', and St. Jude's. The Methodists have nearly twenty chapels, the Independents about twelve, the Roman Catholics two, the Baptists four, the Presbyterians one, the German Lutherans one, the Society of Friends one, the Jews one, and the Unitarians one.
The Public Schools of Hull.- The schools in Hull are:-The Grammar School, founded by Bishop Alcock in 1486; the Vicar's School, founded by the Rev. W. Mason in 1737; the Kingston College; Trinity House School; Cogan's School for forty girls; and the Roman Catholic free schools. Besides the above there are National, British, and Foreign schools, Wesleyan, Independent, and private schools. The Navigation School is an example of the successful introduction of scientific training of a superior kind into elementary schools.
Eminent Natives of Hull.- Hull is the birthplace of several eminent men. First in point of antiquity, historical associations, and high rank, is the family of De la Pole. "The curtain rises upon this great family in the reign of Edward I., and sets in that of Henry VIII. Their story, therefore, is contemporaneous, and closely blended also, with the brilliant achievements of Edward III. and the Black Prince; with the still more brilliant achievements of Henry V. and his heroic brothers, Bedford, Clarence, and Gloucester; with the fierce internecine struggles of the rival Roses; and with the transfer, on the bloody field of Bosworth, of the sceptre of England from the house of Plantagenet to that of Tudor. From Sir William de la Pole, a merchant prince, sprung the great and powerful family of Suffolk. He was the friend and favourite of Edward III., a great benefactor to his native town, and founder of the Carthusian monastery and hospital, afterwards completed by his son, Sir Michael, who was created first earl of Suffolk. Sir Michael also built a stately palace here, afterwards known by the name of Suffolk's palace. William de la Pole, fourth earl and first duke of Suffolk, was, however, the most important historical personage of the family. He served in arms and diplomacy in France, and took a prominent part in court intrigues at home. His character and fate are portrayed by Shakspeare in "Henry VI. part 2." Bishop Alcock, founder of Jesus College, Cambridge, and the grammar school, Hull, was the son of a Hull merchant. He was successively bishop of Rochester, Worcester, and Ely, twice lord high chancellor of England, master of the rolls, privy councillor, and ambassador to the king of Castile. He was not only a considerable writer and eminent divine, but also an excellent architect, having designed and built Henry VII.'s chapel at Westminster. He died at Wisbeach in 1500. The name of Andrew Marvell, although he was not born in Hull, is intimately connected with the history of the town. At the time of his birth his father was rector at Winestead, as well as master of the grammar school, Hull. No name of his age is more deserving of admiration than that of the "incorruptible patriot," the friend of Milton. He received the rudiments of his education at the grammar school, and at the age of fifteen was admitted at Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1657 he was appointed assistant to Milton, who at that time was Cromwell's secretary. In 1658 he was elected M.P. for Hull, and faithfully represented the town for twenty years, always maintaining the character of an honest man, a true patriot, and an incorruptible senator. As a poet and controversial writer he holds no mean position, and was the last member of Parliament paid by his constituents. He died in 1678. William Mason, the poet, politician, and divine, was born here in 1725. His father was vicar of Holy Trinity Church from 1722 to 1752. In 1754 he took orders, and afterwards became chaplain to the king. He was the author of "Isis," "Elfrida," "Caractacus," "Argentile and Curan," "Sappho," "Pygmalion," a translation, and the "English Garden." His chief performances were "Elfrida" and "Caractacus," both dramas cast in a classical mould. He is, however, best known as the friend and biographer of Gray, the famous author of the "Elegy," whose letters he edited with great care. He died in 1797, and his memory is honoured by a marble tablet in the Poet's Corner, Westminster Abbey. In 1759 William Wilberforce was born in High Street, Hull. He was returned to Parliament as a representative of his native place in 1780, and was elected for the county of York in 1784. His long struggle for the abolition of the African slave trade is a matter of universal history, and need not be detailed here. In 1825 he retired from public life, having sat in Parliament for forty-five years, and died in 1833. His "Practical View of Christianity" holds a high place in our religious literature. Commodore Thompson, editor of the works of Marvell, Oldham, and Paul Whitehead; Benjamin Thompson, the famous German scholar, and translator of Kotzebue, Schiller, Iffland, Goethe, Lessing, &c.; Sir John Lawson, the celebrated admiral, who distinguished himself in various engagements with the Dutch; the late General Perronet Thompson, author of the "Cathecism of the Corn Laws," &c.-were natives of Hull. Among the more modern celebrities belonging to this town are Dr. Bromby, the present bishop of Tasmania; Earle, the celebrated sculptor; Cuthbert Brodrick, the eminent architect; and John Symons, M.R.I.A., a distinguished local historian and antiquary, who was born here in 1825. His chief literary performances are "High Street, Hull," and "Hullinia," two pleasantly written and interesting volumes, full of antiquarian lore, showing deep research into the ancient history of the town.
Progress of the Population of Hull.- At the beginning of the present century the population of Hull amounted to 29,580 souls. At the Census of 1871 the town contained 123,111 persons, and 25,455 inhabited houses; showing an increase since the Census of 1861 of 25,450 persons and 5939 inhabited houses.
Boundaries of Kingston-upon-Hull.- The borough of Kingston-upon-Hull consists of the district described as follows in the Reform Act, 2 & 3 Will. IV. c. 6, Schedule O:-"The several parishes of St. Mary, the Holy Trinity, Sculcoates, and Drypool, together with the extra-parochial space called Garrisonside, and all other extra-parochial places, if any, which are surrounded by the boundaries of the said parishes of St. Mary, the Holy Trinity, Sculcoates, and Drypool, or any of them; and also all such part of the parish of Sutton as is situated to the south of a straight line to be drawn from Sculcoates Church to the point at which the Sutton drain meets the Summegang drain." The population of Hull in 1861 was 97,661, then showing an increase of 45,750 since 1831. The parliamentary and municipal boroughs are co-extensive, and comprise an area of 3656 acres. "Hull owes its prosperity to its position at the point where the river Hull flows into the great estuary of the Humber, and supplies the best shelter and anchorage for ships that is to be found at any point of the east coast of England, between the Thames and the Tyne. Hull, which is one of the great sea-ports of England, is fast increasing in population and wealth."
Population and Occupations of the Inhabitants of Kingston-upon-Hull.- The
occupations of the inhabitants of a great seaport like Hull, of course, differ most materially
from those of the people of the inland and manufacturing towns previously described. The
following return shows the chief occupations of the people of Hull at the Census of 1871, and
may be taken as characteristic of those of seaports of the first class. The male population
above twenty years of age was 32,798, and their occupations were as follows:-
bank service, 44;
insurance and benefit society service, 52;
brokers, agents, and factors, 186;
salesmen (not otherwise described), 7;
auctioneers, valuers, and house agents, 45;
commercial clerks, 599;
commercial travellers, 115;
other mercantile men, 1;
shopkeepers (branch undefined) and general dealers, 95;
hucksters and costermongers, 13;
hawkers and pedlars, 165;
railway engine drivers and stokers, 82;
railway officers, clerks, and station-masters, 125;
railway attendants and servants, 323;
toll collectors and turnpike-gate keepers, 8;
coach, omnibus, and cab owners, and livery stable keepers, 30;
coachmen (not domestic), cabmen, and flymen, 125;
carmen, carriers, carters, and draymen, 422;
inland navigation service, 2;
bargemen and watermen, 692;
others (not defined), 3;
steam navigation service, 325;
ship stewards and cooks, 60;
seamen (merchant service) 2420;
harbour and dock service labourers, 1765;
others, (not defined) 29;
meters and weighers, 15;
messengers, porters, and errand boys, 137;
telegraph company service, 14.
Booksellers and publishers, 40;
newspaper agents and news-room keepers 20;
others engaged in publications, 5;
musical instrument makers and dealers, 49; others (not defined), 4;
lithographers and lithographic printers, 21; others (not defined), 4;
wood carvers, 29; others (not defined), 7;
toy makers and dealers, 10;
watch and clock makers, 84;
philosophical instrument makers and opticians, 15;
weighing machine, scale, and measure maker, 1;
surgical instrument makers, 3;
gunsmiths and gun manufacturers, 7;
engine and machine makers, 1370;
spinning and weaving machine maker, 1;
agricultural implement makers, 2;
tool-makers and dealers, 20;
filemakers and dealers, 6;
sawmakers and dealers, 4;
others engaged in toolmaking, &c., 5;
others engaged about carriages, 1;
saddlers, harness and whip makers, 61;
shipbuilders, ship-wrights, and boatbuilders, 1205;
sailmakers, 115; others (not defined) 20;
house proprietors, 22;
carpenters and joiners, 1137;
marble masons, 28;
masons and paviors, 229;
slaters and tilers, 42,
plumbers, painters, and glaziers, 565; others (not defined), 2;
cabinet-makers and upholsterers, 275;
carvers and gilders, 35;
furniture brokers and dealers, 46;
manufacturing chemists and labourers, 51;
dye and colour manufacturers, 116;
dyers, scourers, and calenderers, 33; others, 20;
oil millers and refiners, 795;
oil and colourmen, 9;
French polishers, 49;
India rubber and gutta percha manufacturers and dealers, 3; others (not defined, 82;
timber and wood merchants and dealers, 213;
lath, fence, and hurdle makers, 150;
wood turners and workers, 50;
box and packing case makers, 8;
coopers, hoop makers, and benders, 328;
cork cutters and manufacturers, 36;
hay and straw dealers, 22;
rag gatherers and dealers, 11;
paper manufacturers, 30;
stationers (not law), 29;
paper stainers, 7; other workers in paper, 15.
DATES AND NOTES RELATING TO THE PORT OF HULL.
Vyk-upon-Hull, or the Harbour on the river Hull, the name of what is now known as Hull, or
Kingston-upon-Hull, in the time when the Danes and other Scandinavian tribes had possession of
this part of England.- Yorkshire: Past and Present, vol. ii. p. 509.
1150, 16th King Stephen.-Abbey of Melsa or Meaux founded by William le Gros, earl of Albemarle.- Vol. ii. p. 512.
1160, 7th Henry II.-Grant of lands, Del Wike de Mitune, now forming part of the site of Hull, made to the monks of Melsa or Meaux Abbey, by Matilda, the daughter of Hugh Camin.-Vol. ii. p. 510.
1160.-A croft in Sutton described as having belonged to Henrieus de Hull. -Vol. ii. p. 513.
1204, 6th King John.-Monks of Melsa pay a fine of 100s. (£75 of modern money) to Richard Ducket, parson (persona) of the church at Hessle.- Vol. ii. p. 512.
1206, 7th and 8th King John.-Hull, mentioned by that name in the Pipe Roll or high sheriff's account of Yorkshire, as paying a tax of £344 of the money of that time, equal to £5170 of present money, to King John. Mention also made of the conveying of the king's wines from Hull to York.-Vol. ii. pp. 513, 514.
1206, 7th and 8th King John.-Comparative value of the income of the principal ports of England at this time.-Vol. ii. p. 514.
1269, 54th Henry III.-Hull mentioned in the Register of Walter Giffard, archbishop of York.-Vol. ii. p. 513.
1275, 3rd Edward I.-Mention made of Thomas de Wyke.-Vol. ii. p. 515.
1278, 6th Edward I.-Abbot of Meaux obtains permission to hold a market on Thursday in each week at Wyke, near Myton-upon-the-Hull, and a fair there each year on the vigil, the day, and the morrow of the Holy Trinity, and on the twelve following days.-Vol. ii. p. 514.
1285, 14th Edward I.-Church of Holy Trinity at Hull founded as a chapel by one James Helward, the mother church being, at Hessle.-Vol. ii. p. 538.
1293, 21st and 22nd Edward I.-King Edward buys Vyk-upon-Hull from the abbot of Melsa, makes it a royal borough, and gives it the name of Kingston, or the King's-town-upon-Hull, appointing a warden (custos) and bailiffs, making it a manor of itself, independent of Myton.-Vol. ii. pp. 514, 515.
1294.-lnquiry on a writ of ad quod damnum, dated November 5, 22nd Edward I., directed to the king's bailiffs of Kingston-super-Hull, as to the value of land about to be granted to Philip de Coltfield in the town of Kyngeston-on-Hull.-Vol. ii. p. 516.
1300, 28th and 29th Edward I.-King Edward I. visited the town of Hull, crossing the Humber from Barton to Hessle.-Pavage grants made for the streets of Hull.-Vol. ii. p. 516.
1316, 9th and 10th Edward II.-Ferry established across the Humber.-Vol. ii. p. 517. 1322, 15th and 16th Edward II.-Inhabitants petitioned for license to fortify the town with ditches and moats.-Fortifications of Hull in times of Charles I. and Charles II.-Vol. ii. pp. 520, 524.
1440, 18th Henry VI.-Hull made a county and a corporate town, with a mayor, sheriff, and aldermen.- In the wars of York and Lancaster, Hull on the side of the house of Lancaster.-Vol. ii. pp. 518-523.
1538.-Leland's account of Hull in the reign of King Henry VIII.-Vol. ii. p. 517.
1577-1588.-Hull the second outport in England.-Supplied 800 men and £600 to defend the kingdom against the Spanish Armada.-Vol. ii. pp. 521, 523.
1590.-Camden's account of Hull in the reign of Queen Elizabeth.-Vol. ii. p. 522.
1640-1643, 16th-18th Charles I.-Hull besieged by King Charles' army, under William Cavendish, earl, afterwards marquis, of Newcastle, and successfully defended by Fernando, Lord Fairfax, and his son, Sir Thomas, for the Parliament of England.-Vol. ii. pp. 524-529.
1727.-Daniel Defoe's account of the commerce of Hull.-Vol. ii. p. 529.
1780-1850.-The first docks at Hull.-Vol. ii. p. 533.
1815.-Introduction of steam navigation at Hull.-Vol. ii. p. 532.
1869.-Boundaries of the borough of Hull.-Modern boundaries of Hull.- Vol. ii. p. 542.
1871.-Great extension of modern docks and trade of Hull.-Vol. ii. pp. 533, 534.
1871.-Population in 1871, 123,111 persons.-Vol. ii. p. 542.
1871.-Population and occupations of the people of Hull.-Vol. ii. pp. 543, 544.
1873.-Exports of Hull in this year amounted in value to £23,034,662.- Vol. ii. p. 533
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