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International Information D - E

International Information - D - E

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DENMARK
Denmark is a small kingdom in northern Europe that is almost surrounded by water. It consists of a peninsula and 482 nearby islands. The peninsula, called Jutland, shares a 42-mile (68-kilometre) border with Germany. Greenland, off the northeastern coast of Canada, is a province of Denmark even though it lies 1,300 miles (2,090 kilometres) away. The Faroe Islands, north of Scotland, are a self-governing part of the Danish kingdom. Denmark, along with Norway and Sweden, is one of the Scandinavian countries.
More than half of the Danes (people of Denmark) live on the islands near the peninsula. Copenhagen, the capital and largest city of Denmark, is on the largest island. About a fourth of all Danes live in the Copenhagen area, and almost half of the country's manufacturing industries are located there.
Denmark has one of the world's highest standards of living. The Danes have achieved prosperity even though their land is poor in natural resources. They sell their products to other countries to pay for the fuels and metals they must import for their industries.
Denmark is famous for its butter, cheese, bacon, ham, and other processed foods. The country is also known for its beautifully designed manufactured goods. These goods include furniture, porcelain, and silverware. Since the Viking era, the Danes have been a seafaring people, and Denmark is still known as a great shipping and fishing nation.
Denmark is a land of small green farms, blue lakes, and white coastal beaches. The carefully tended farmlands make up about three-fourths of the country. In the farm areas, the roofs of most houses are made of red or blue tiles, or are thatched. Storks, which the Danes believe bring good luck, build nests on some rooftops. Castles and windmills rise above the rolling landscape. Visitors can enjoy Denmark's charm even in the busy, modern cities, with their well-preserved sections of colourful old buildings and cobblestone streets.
Official Name
Kongeriget Danmark (Kingdom of Denmark).
Area
16,632 sq. mi. (43,077 sq. km).
Greatest distances
east-west, 250 mi. (402 km);
north-south, 225 mi. (362 km).
Coastline - 1,057 mi. (1,701 km).
Elevation
Highest - Yding Skovhoj, 568 ft. (173 m) above sea level.
Lowest - sea level along the coasts.
Population
Estimated 1996 population - 5,203,000; density, 313 persons per sq. mi. (121 persons per sq. km); distribution, 86 percent urban, 14 percent rural. 1991 census - 5,146,469. Estimated 2001 population - 5,251,000.
Chief Products
Agriculture - barley, beef and dairy cattle, eggs, hogs, milk, potatoes, poultry, sugar beets, wheat.
Fishing - cod, sand lances, trout.
Manufacturing - bacon, butter, cheese, diesel engines, electrical and electronic equipment, furniture, ham, machinery, porcelain, ships, silverware.
National Anthems
"Kong Christian stod ved hojen mast" ("King Christian Stood by Lofty Mast") and "Der er et yndigt land" ("There Is a Lovely Land").
Capital city
Copenhagen
592 miles from London
GMT +1 hour
International aircraft prefix
OY
International dialling code
00 45
Currency
Danish Krone (DKK)
Language
Danish, Faroese and Greenlandic
Vehicle nationality plates
DK
National holidays
5 June - Constutution Day
Embassy details
British Embassy
Kastelsvej 36-40
2100 Copenhagen
Telephone (00 45) 35445200
Opening hours 0800 to 1400 end of March to end of October, 0900 to 1700 end of October to end of March (local time)
email info@britishembassy.dk
National flag
Red with a white cross



DIEGO GARCIA
Diego Garcia is an island in the Indian Ocean. It is part of the Chagos Archipelago, an island group. The United States maintains a naval facility on the island that serves as a communications centre and a refueling stop for ships and airplanes. Diego Garcia is a U-shaped coral island called an atoll. It is about 15 miles (24 kilometers) long, and about 7 miles (11 kilometers) wide at its widest point. Diego Garcia came under Britain's control in 1814, and until 1965 was administered as a dependency of the British Colony of Mauritius. In 1965, Diego Garcia became part of a newly formed British dependency called the British Indian Ocean Territory. The U.S. naval facility on Diego Garcia was built during the 1970's. By 1972, British authorities had moved all of the island's inhabitants to Mauritius. Now, about 2,000 American naval workers and some British naval representatives live on Diego Garcia. Since 1982, Mauritius has claimed the Chagos Archipelago, including Diego Garcia. In 1991, during the Persian Gulf War, the United States used Diego Garcia as a base for airplanes that attacked Iraqi targets. In 2004 the English High Court declared that the expulsion of the population in 1972 was illegal. By various means the UK and USA governments have so far not allowed any of them to return. Protests are still ongoing.


DJIBOUTI
Djibouti is a small country in northeastern Africa. It lies on the western shore of the Gulf of Aden. The Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea and Suez Canal to the north link the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Djibouti's location has helped make the country's capital a major port. The location also has potential strategic importance. Ships travel freely past Djibouti's coast. But it would be possible for a powerful nation that gained possession of the area to control the passage of vessels traveling between the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Djibouti is an extremely poor country with almost no natural resources. In 1977, it gained independence from France, which had ruled the area since the late 1800's. The French originally called Djibouti French Somaliland, but in 1967 they renamed it the French Territory of the Afars and Issas.
Capital
Djibouti (city).
Official Language
Arabic.
Area
8,958 sq. mi. (23,200 sq. km).
Greatest distances
east-west, 110 mi. (177 km); north-south, 125 mi. (201 km).
Coastline - 152 mi. (245 km).
Elevation
Highest - Mousaalli, 6,768 ft. (2,063 m) above sea level.
Lowest - Lake Assal, 509 ft. (155 m) below sea level.
Population
Estimated 1996 population - 526,000; density, 59 persons per sq. mi. (23 per sq. km); distribution, 83 percent urban, 17 percent rural. 1960-1961 census - 81,200. Estimated 2001 population - 608,000.
Chief Products
Hides, skins.
Money
Basic unit - Djibouti franc.
Flag
The flag has a blue horizontal stripe at the top, a green horizontal stripe at the bottom, and a red star on a white triangle near the staff. Adopted in 1977.


DOMINICA
Dominica is a small island country in the Caribbean Sea. It consists of one island that lies 320 miles (515 kilometres) north of the Venezuelan coast. Dominica has an area of 290 square miles (751 square kilometres) and a population of about 71,000.
Dominica became independent in 1978 after being ruled by Britain since the 1700's. Its official name is Commonwealth of Dominica. Roseau, which has a population of about 11,000, is the capital and largest city. Dominica's basic unit of money is the East Caribbean dollar.
Dominica is a republic. A president is officially the country's chief executive. But a prime minister is the most powerful official. The prime minister is a member of an eight-member Cabinet, which conducts the operations of the government. A legislature called the House of Assembly makes the nation's laws. It consists of 21 members elected by the people and 3 appointed by the government. The legislature elects the president. The prime minister is the leader of the political party with the most seats in the legislature.
Most Dominicans have African or mixed African, British, and French ancestry. A small percentage of Dominicans have mostly Carib Indian ancestry. About four-fifths of the people live in rural villages, and the rest live in urban areas. Most of the people of Dominica live in Western-style houses or in thatch-roofed huts. They wear Western-style clothing. Their main foods include bananas, crabs, crayfish, frog legs, lobsters, and sweet potatoes.
The majority of Dominicans who live in cities speak English, the nation's official language. The villagers chiefly speak a patois (dialect) that is a mixture of African languages and French. About 80 percent of the people are Roman Catholics, and almost all the rest are Protestants. Dominica has about 55 elementary schools and 7 high schools.
Dominica is a mountainous, tree-covered island formed by volcanic eruptions. Some mountains in the north and south rise over 4,000 feet (1,200 metres). Flatland lies on parts of the coast. The country has many rivers, but most are too rough to be used by boats other than canoes. Temperatures in Dominica seldom rise above 90 °F (32 °C) or fall below 65 °F (18 °C). Annual rainfall ranges from 79 inches (201 centimetres) in Roseau, on the southwest coast, to 400 inches (1,000 centimetres) in the mountains.
More than 60 percent of the people work on farms, and most of the rest are employed in processing agricultural products. Bananas are the country's chief product and export. Other products and exports include coconuts and coconut by-products. Manufacturing, mining, retail trade, and tourism are minor economic activities.
Arawak Indians, Dominica's first inhabitants, settled there about 2,000 years ago. Carib Indians took over the island about 1,000 years later. On Nov. 3, 1493 - a Sunday - Christopher Columbus became the first European to sight the island. He named it Dominica, the Latin word for Sunday.
French and British settlers began to arrive in Dominica in the 1600's. For many years, the Carib, British, and French fought for control of the island. The British gained possession of it in 1763 and shipped African slaves to Dominica as farmworkers. The slaves were freed in 1834, the year after Britain abolished slavery throughout its empire. From the 1930's to the 1970's, Britain increased Dominica's control over its own affairs. Dominica became independent on Nov. 3, 1978.
In 1979, a major hurricane struck Dominica. It killed over 50 people and caused much damage. In 1983, Dominica and several other Caribbean nations joined the United States in an invasion of Grenada, another West Indian country, to overthrow a Marxist government there.


DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
Dominican Republic is the country that makes up the eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola. Haiti covers the island's western end. The Dominican Republic is in the West Indies island group, about 575 miles (925 kilometres) southeast of Miami, Florida. The country is a land of fertile valleys and forested mountains.
Santo Domingo, a busy port city, is the largest city of the Dominican Republic. The country's name in Spanish is Republica Dominicana.
Christopher Columbus landed on Hispaniola in 1492. Some historians believe he is buried on that island in the Cathedral of Santo Domingo. Santo Domingo was the first city in the Western Hemisphere founded by Europeans. The University of Santo Domingo, which was established in 1538, is the oldest university in the Western Hemisphere.
During much of its history, the Dominican Republic has been ruled by dictators and by other countries. United States troops occupied the country twice in the 1900's to halt fighting between political groups there.
Capital
Santo Domingo.
Official Language
Spanish.
Form of Government
Republic.
Head of state
President.
Area
18,816 sq. mi. (48,734 sq. km).
Greatest distances
east-west, 240 mi. (388 km); north-south, 170 mi. (274 km).
Coastline - 604 mi. (972 km).
Elevation
Highest - Duarte Peak, 10,417 ft. (3,175 m) above sea level.
Lowest - Lake Enriquillo, 150 ft. (46 m) below sea level.
Population
Estimated 1996 population - 8,050,000; density, 428 persons per sq. mi. (165 per sq. km); distribution, 65 percent urban, 35 percent rural. 1981 census - 5,647,977. Estimated 2001 population - 8,749,000.
Chief Products
Agriculture - avocados, bananas, cacao, coffee, mangoes, rice, sugar cane, tobacco.
Mining - gold, nickel.
Manufacturing - molasses, sugar.
Money:
Basic unit - peso.
National Anthem
"Himno Nacional."
Flag
A white cross divides the national flag, flown by the people, into alternately red and blue quarters. Blue stands for liberty, white for salvation, and red for the blood of heroes. The state flag, used by the government, has the Dominican coat of arms in its centre.

EAST TIMOR
Timor is an island in Southeast Asia. Timor covers about 12,000 square miles (31,000 square kilometres) and has a population of about 2 million.
The western half of Timor has been part of Indonesia since that country was formed in 1949. The eastern half became a territory of Portugal in the 1500's. In 1975, Timorese people there demanded independence from Portugal. Fighting broke out among groups of Timorese who wanted to control the territory. The Portuguese rulers left eastern Timor.
Later in 1975, Indonesian troops occupied the region. In 1976, Indonesia claimed the region and declared it the Indonesian province of East Timor.
East Timor suffered food shortages until the mid-1980's, and many people died from starvation. Since then, the province has experienced some economic development. However, the East Timorese continue to protest Indonesian control, and fighting occurs from time to time between East Timorese guerrillas and Indonesian troops.


ECUADOR
Ecuador is one of the smallest countries of South America. It lies on the west coast of the continent between Colombia and Peru. The equator crosses Ecuador and gives the country its name. Ecuador is the Spanish word for equator.
Ecuador has important petroleum deposits, and oil ranks as the country's leading export. However, agriculture employs more of the Ecuadorean labor force than does any other economic activity. Many of the nation's farmers still use old-fashioned farming equipment and methods.
The Andes Mountains rise through much of central Ecuador. About half the people live in the valleys and on the plateaus of the Andes. Quito, Ecuador's capital, lies more than 9,000 feet (2,700 metres) above sea level on an Andean plateau.
A flat, partly forested, tropical plain extends west of the Andes along the Pacific Ocean. This coastal plain is developing faster than any other part of the country. About half the Ecuadorean people live there. Since the 1940's, many have moved to the coastal plain to farm its rich soil. Others have moved to the coastal city of Guayaquil to find jobs. Guayaquil is Ecuador's largest city. It is also the country's leading commercial centre and chief seaport. East of the Andes Mountains is a large jungle where few people live.
The Galapagos Islands, a group of islands about 600 miles (970 kilometres) off the coast, belong to Ecuador. These islands are known for their strange animals and plants. The British biologist Charles R. Darwin studied the varieties of plant and animal life on the islands before writing The Origin of Species (1859). This book presented Darwin's theory of evolution.
Much of what is now Ecuador once made up part of the Inca Indian empire. Spanish conquerors overthrew the empire in 1534 and ruled the country for almost 300 years. Ecuador gained independence in 1830.
Official Name
Republica del Ecuador (Republic of Ecuador).
Area
109,484 sq. mi. (283,561 sq. km).
Greatest distances
north-south, 450 mi. (724 km);
east-west, 395 mi. (636 km).
Coastline - 1,278 mi. (2,057 km), including the Galapagos Islands.
Elevation
Highest - Chimborazo Volcano, in the Andes Mountains, 20,561 ft. (6,267 m) above sea level.
Lowest - sea level, along the coast.
Population
Estimated 1996 population - 12,063,000; density, 110 persons per sq. mi. (43 per sq. km); distribution, 61 percent urban, 39 percent rural. 1990 census - 9,648,189. Estimated 2001 population - 13,326,000.
Chief Products
Agriculture - bananas, beef, cacao, coffee, corn, milk, oranges, potatoes, rice, sugar cane, wheat.
Fishing - herring, mackerel, shrimp.
Forestry - balsa wood.
Manufacturing - cement, drugs, processed foods, straw hats, textiles.
Mining - petroleum.
National Holiday
Independence Day, August 10.
National Anthem
"Salve, O Patria" ("Hail, O Fatherland").


EGYPT
Egypt is a Middle Eastern country located in the northeast corner of Africa. A small part of Egypt, the Sinai Peninsula, is in Asia. Little rain falls in Egypt, and dry, windswept desert covers most of the land. But the Nile River flows northward through the desert and serves as a vital source of life for most Egyptians. Almost all of Egypt's people live near the Nile or along the Suez Canal, the country's other important waterway.
Egypt ranks as Africa's second largest country in population. Only Nigeria has more people. Cairo, the country's capital and largest city, is also the largest city in Africa.
Egypt's population has increased tremendously since the mid-1900's. In addition, many people have moved from rural villages to cities in search of work. As a result, the cities of Egypt overflow with people.
Most Egyptians consider themselves Arabs. About 90 percent are Muslims. Islam, the Muslim religion, influences family life, social relationships, business activities, and government affairs. Al-Azhar University in Cairo is the world's leading centre of Islamic teaching.
For thousands of years, floodwaters from the Nile deposited rich soil on the riverbanks. As a result, the Nile Valley and Delta region of Egypt contains extraordinarily fertile farmland. Agriculture provides jobs for more Egyptians than any other economic activity. Cotton is Egypt's most important agricultural export. Other crops grown in Egypt include oranges, rice, and sugar cane.
Egypt has expanded a variety of manufacturing industries since the mid-1900's. Cotton textiles and processed foods are the chief manufactured products. Petroleum provides much energy, as does hydroelectric power from the Aswan High Dam on the Nile River.
Egypt is a birthplace of civilization. The ancient Egyptians developed a great culture about 5,000 years ago. They created the first national government, as well as early forms of mathematics and writing.
Egypt's hot, dry climate has helped preserve many products of ancient Egyptian culture. Tourists from all over the world travel to Egypt to see such wonders as the Great Sphinx, an enormous stone sculpture with the head of a human and the body of a lion. They can also marvel at the huge pyramids that the ancient Egyptians built as tombs for their pharaohs (rulers).
After ancient times, Egypt was ruled by a series of foreign invaders. In 1953, Egypt became an independent republic. Since then, it has played a leading role in the Middle East, especially in Arab affairs. Egypt's official name is the Arab Republic of Egypt.
Form of Government
Republic.
Head of State
President.
Head of Government
Prime minister.
Area
386,662 sq. mi. (1,001,449 sq. km).
Greatest distances
east-west, 770 mi. (1,240 km);
north-south, 675 mi. (1,086 km).
Coastline - Mediterranean Sea, 565 mi. (909 km); Red Sea, 850 mi. (1,370 km).
Elevation
Highest - Jabal Katrinah, 8,651 ft. (2,637 m) above sea level.
Lowest - Qattara Depression, 436 ft. (133 m) below sea level.
Population
Estimated 1996 population - 59,713,000; density, 154 persons per sq. mi. (60 persons per sq. km); distribution, 55 percent rural, 45 percent urban. 1986 census - 48,254,238. Estimated 2001 population - 66,041,000.
Chief Products
Agriculture - corn, cotton, oranges, potatoes, rice, sugar cane, tomatoes, wheat.
Manufacturing - chemicals, cotton textiles, fertilisers, processed foods, steel.
Mining - petroleum.
National Anthem
"Beladi, Beladi" ("My Country, My Country").
Capital city
Cairo
2179 miles from London
GMT +2 hours
International aircraft prefix
SU
International dialling code
00 20
Currency
Egyptian Pound (EGP)
Language
Arabic, English and French
National holidays
23 July - Anniversary of the Revolution
Embassy details
British Embassy
7 Ahmed Ragheb Street
Garden City
Cairo
Telephone (00 20) (2) 794 0850-0
Opening hours 0730 to 1430 Sunday to Wednesday, 0730 to 1400 Thursday (local time)
email webmaster@britishembassy.org.eg
National flag
3 horizontal bands of red, white, and black with the national emblem centred in the white band


EL SALVADOR
El Salvador is the smallest Central American country in area. But it ranks as the third largest country in population in Central America. OnlyGuatemala and Honduras have more people. El Salvador is a tropical land of rugged mountains, cone-shaped volcanoes, green valleys, and scenic lakes. The Pacific Ocean lies to its south, Guatemala to its northwest, and Honduras to its northeast.
El Salvador ranks as the most densely populated nation on the mainland of the Americas. It has about 10 times as many people per square mile as the United States, which has the largest population in the Americas. Ownership of scarce fertile land--El Salvador's main resource--has been a cause of turmoil and conflict in the country.
As the supply of land became exhausted, many Salvadorans began to move from rural to urban areas, beginning in the 1940's. About 300,000 other Salvadorans who wanted land settled illegally in sparsely populated areas of neighbouring Honduras, where their presence sparked a brief war in 1969.
In 1979, civil war broke out between leftist guerrillas and the Salvadoran government. During the war, about 1 million Salvadorans, one-fifth of the population, sought refuge in neighbouring Central American countries and the United States. Hundreds of thousands more sought safety by moving to El Salvador's cities. The war ended in 1992.
The majority of El Salvador's people are of mixed Indian and Spanish ancestry. Most Salvadorans live in central El Salvador, the agricultural and industrial heartland. San Salvador, the capital and largest city, lies in this region. More than half the people are farmers. Coffee is El Salvador's leading crop.
In 1525, Spanish soldiers led by Pedro de Alvarado conquered what is now El Salvador for Spain. Alvarado directed the founding of San Salvador that year. He named it for the Roman Catholic feast of San Salvador del Mundo (Holy Savior of the World), for which the entire country was later named.
Official Name
Republica de El Salvador (Republic of El Salvador).
Area
8,124 sq. mi. (21,041 sq. km).
Greatest distances
north-south, 88 mi. (142 km);
east-west, 163 mi. (262 km).
Coastline - 189 mi. (304 km).
Elevation
Highest - Monte Cristo, 7,933 ft. (2,418 m) above sea level.
Lowest - sea level along the coast.
Population
Estimated 1996 population - 5,893,000; density, 725 persons per sq. mi. (280 per sq. km); distribution, 53 percent rural, 47 percent urban. 1992 census - 5,047,925. Estimated 2001 population - 6,554,000.
Chief Products
Agriculture - beans, coffee, corn, cotton, rice, sugar cane.
Manufacturing - chemicals, cigarettes, processed foods and beverages, leather goods, textiles.


ENGLAND (Also see UK)
England is the largest of the four political divisions that make up the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales are the other three political divisions of the United Kingdom, which is often called Great Britain or simply Britain. England is the industrial and trading centre of the United Kingdom.
England lies in the southern and eastern part of the island of Great Britain in the British Isles. It covers about three-fifths of the island. England has much charming countryside, with green pastures and neat hedges. But most of the English people live in sprawling cities. London, the capital, is England's largest city.
England has a rich history. The Industrial Revolution, a period of rapid industrialisation, began there in the 1700's.
English sailors, traders, explorers, and colonists helped found the British Empire - the largest empire in history. England produced William Shakespeare, who is considered the greatest dramatist of all time, and Sir Isaac Newton, one of history's most important scientists.
The English people have a long history of freedom and democracy. Their democratic ideas and practices have influenced many countries, including the United States and Canada. Most English people take great pride in their history and have deep respect for England's customs and traditions.
Area
50,378 sq. mi. (130,478 sq. km).
Greatest distances
north-south, about 360 mi. (579 km);
east-west, about 270 mi. (435 km).
Coastline - about 1,150 mi. (1,851 km).
Elevation
Highest - Scafell Pike, 3,210 ft. (978 m) above sea level.
Lowest - Great Holme Fen, near the River Ouse in Cambridgeshire, 9 ft. (2.7 m) below sea level.
Population
Estimated 1996 population - 48,999,000; distribution, 95 percent urban, 5 percent rural; density, 973 persons per sq. mi. (376 persons per sq. km). 1991 census - 47,078,000. Estimated 2001 population - 49,921,000.
English National Anthem
Land of Hope and Glory. (For Commonwealth Games, Jerusalem is used)
Chief Products
Agriculture - barley, cattle, chickens and eggs, fruits, milk, potatoes, sheep, sugar beets, wheat.
Fishing - cod, haddock, mackerel.
Manufacturing - aircraft engines, beverages, chemicals, clothing, electronic equipment, fabricated steel products, footwear, leather goods, paper, printed materials, processed foods, tobacco, wool and other textiles.
Mining - coal, natural gas, petroleum.


EQUATORIAL GUINEA
Equatorial Guinea is a small country in western Africa. It consists of a territory on the west coast of the continent, plus five offshore islands.
Most of the nation's people live in the territory, Rio Muni, which lies between Cameroon and Gabon.
The largest island, Bioko (formerly Fernando Po), is in the Gulf of Guinea, about 100 miles (160 kilometres) northwest of Rio Muni. The other islands - Corisco, Elobey Chico, Elobey Grande, and Annobon - are southwest of Rio Muni. Malabo is the nation's capital. Bata is the largest city of Equatorial Guinea.
Equatorial Guinea became independent in 1968. It had been ruled by Spain since the mid-1800's.
Official Name
Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial (Republic of Equatorial Guinea).
Total Land Area
10,831 sq. mi. (28,051 sq. km).
Elevation
Highest - Santa Isabel Mountain, 9,869 ft. (3,008 m).
Lowest - sea level along the coast.
Population
Estimated 1996 population - 410,000; density, 38 persons per sq. mi. (15 per sq. km); distribution, 70 percent rural, 30 percent urban. 1983 census - 300,000. Estimated 2001 population - 463,000.
Chief Products
Bananas, cacao, cassava, coffee, sweet potatoes, timber.
National Anthem
"Caminemos pisando la senda de nuestra inmensa felicidad" ("Let's walk down the path of our immense happiness").


ERITREA
Eritrea is a small country on the northeast coast of Africa. It stretches along the Red Sea, between Sudan and Djibouti. Ethiopia lies to the south. Most of Eritrea's people are farmers or herders. The country has little industry. Asmara is Eritrea's capital and largest city. The country's official name is the State of Eritrea.
Eritrea was once a part of the Aksum Kingdom. The kingdom reached its height as a trading and cultural centre between the A.D. 300's and 600's. Italy gained control of Eritrea in the late 1800's. Britain took over the area in 1941, during World War II. In 1952, Eritrea became part of Ethiopia.
Principal language
Tigrinya.
Area
45,405 sq. mi. (117,598 sq. km).
Greatest distances
northwest-southeast, 510 mi. (821 km);
northeast-southwest, 290 mi. (467 km).
Coastline - 620 mi. (1,000 km).
Elevation
Highest - Mount Soira, 9,885 ft. (3,013 m) above sea level.
Lowest - Denakil Depression, about 360 ft. (110 m) below sea level.
Population
Estimated 1996 population - 3,920,000; density, 86 persons per sq. mi. (33 per sq. km); distribution, 80 percent rural, 20 percent urban. 1984 census - 2,621,566. Estimated 2001 population - 4,636,000.
Chief products
Agriculture - barley, dairy products, lentils, millet, sorghum, teff, wheat.
Manufacturing - construction materials, leather goods, processed foods, salt.
Flag
The flag has a red triangle across the middle, bearing a yellow wreath and olive branch; a green triangle at the top; and a light blue triangle at the bottom.


ESTONIA
Estonia is a European nation that regained its independence in 1991, after more than 50 years of forced annexation to the Soviet Union. Estonia lies on the Baltic Sea in northern Europe. It had been independent from 1918 until 1940, when the Soviet Union occupied it and made it one of the 15 republics of the Soviet Union.
Tallinn is Estonia's capital and largest city. Other major cities include Kohtla-Jarve, Narva, and Tartu. The country's name in Estonian, the official language, is Eesti Vabariik (Republic of Estonia). Estonia's manufacturing and mining industries are the country's leading employers.
Through the centuries, Germans, Danes, Swedes, Poles, and Russians controlled Estonia. But the Estonians kept an independent spirit, and they continue to treasure their own culture and language.
Official Name
Eesti Vabariik (Republic of Estonia).
Area
16,632 sq. mi. (43,077 sq. km).
Greatest distances
north-south, 150 mi. (240 km);
east-west, 230 mi. (370 km).
Coastline - 481 mi. (774 km).
Elevation
Highest - Munamagi, 1,043 ft. (318 m).
Lowest - sea level along the coast.
Population
Estimated 1996 population - 1,572,000; density, 90 persons per sq. mi. (36 per sq. km); distribution, 73 percent urban, 27 percent rural. 1989 census - 1,572,916. Estimated 2001 population - 1,581,000.
Chief Products
Agriculture - barley, beef cattle, butter, chickens, eggs, hogs, milk, rye.
Manufacturing - machinery, petrochemicals, food products, textiles.
Capital city
Tallinn
1105 miles from London
GMT +2 hours
International aircraft prefix
ES
International dialling code
00 372
Currency
Kroon (EEK)
Language
Estonian, Russian, Ukrainian, English and Finnish
Vehicle nationality plates
EST
National holidays
24 February - Independence Day
Embassy details
British Embassy
Wismari 6
Tallinn 10136
Telephone (00 372) 664700
Emergencies outside office hours number on recorded message
Opening hours 0930 to 1230 and 1400 to 1630 Monday to Friday (local time)
email information@britishembassy.ee
National flag
3 horizontal bands of blue, black and white


ETHIOPIA
Ethiopia is a country in northeastern Africa. Much of Ethiopia consists of rugged mountains and a high, fertile plateau. The northern part of the country, near the Red Sea, ranks among the hottest places in the world.
The name Ethiopia comes from a Greek word meaning sunburned faces. The ancient Greeks applied the word to people living south of Egypt - including in Ethiopia - because the people had darker skin than the Greeks did.
Ethiopia was formerly often called Abyssinia. Some people think this name came from an Arabic word meaning mixed, a reference to the many ethnic groups in Ethiopia's population. Other people believe it came from the name of an early Ethiopian tribe.
Droughts have occurred in Ethiopia from time to time. In the 1970's, 1980's, and early 1990's, droughts helped cause severe famines, which led to many deaths.
Ethiopia is one of the oldest African nations. According to tradition, the first emperor of Ethiopia, Menelik I, was the son of the Biblical Queen of Sheba and King Solomon of Israel. Many later Ethiopian rulers claimed descent from Solomon and Sheba. Emperors or kings ruled Ethiopia for about 2,000 years.
Official language
Amharic.
Official name
Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.
Area
426,373 sq. mi. (1,104,302 sq. km).
Greatest distances
north-south, 800 mi. (1,290 km);
east-west, 1,035 mi. (1,666 km).
Elevation
Highest - Ras Dashen, 15,158 ft. (4,620 m) above sea level.
Lowest - Denakil Depression, 381 ft. (116 m) below sea level.
Population
Estimated 1996 population - 55,279,000; density, 130 persons per sq. mi. (50 per sq. km); distribution, 88 percent rural, 12 percent urban. 1984 census - 39,995,310. Estimated 2001 population - 64,010,000.
Chief products
Agriculture - coffee, corn, oilseeds, sorghum, sugar cane, teff, wheat.
Manufacturing - cement, processed food, shoes, textiles.
National anthem
"Whedefit Gesgeshi Woude Henate Ethiopia" ("March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia, Bloom and Flourish").
Flag
The national flag, flown by the people, consists of three horizontal stripes - green, yellow, and red (top to bottom). The state flag, used by the government, is the same, but the Ethiopian coat of arms appears in the centre.
Money
Basic unit - birr.


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This page (internatd.html) was last modified on Thursday 26/07/2012