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Occupational Classification

Occupational Classification


business world, AA.1
business overviews, AA.11
international trade (overview), AA.12
business studies, AA.3
use for: commerce
business & finance, AA.4
[see also: finance / accounting for non-financial managers (AK.11)]

management studies / science, AB.1
[see also: organisational behaviour (PK.8321)]
administrative management, AB.2
use for: business administration
[note: this is not office administration for which use the appropriate class in AY.]
chartered secretaries, AB.21
use for: company secretaries
[note: professional qualification combining elements of law, accountancy and management: nothing to do with shorthand / typing for which see appropriate class in AZ.]
management services, AB.22
[note: performance of management tasks on a contract or consultancy or inter-departmental basis]
company directorship, AB.3
business consultancy practice, AB.4
business counselling, AB.5
[note: provision of advice to the business: for support / counselling for individuals in a business context see counselling (business) (AF.47)]
entrepreneurship, AB.6
intrapreneurship, AB.61
industrial management (general), AB.7
non profit organisations: management, AB.8
[see also: fund raising (BA.121)]
research organisations: management, AB.81
trade associations: management, AB.82
chambers of commerce: management, AB.83
charities: management, AB.84
church / religious bodies: management, AB.85
societies / clubs: administration, AB.86
trades unions: management, AB.87
voluntary organisations: management, AB.88

local government administration, AC.3
national government administration, AC.4
use for: civil service

Europe: business studies, AD.2
use for: European financial studies
[note: include Russia and Turkey in Europe]
Europe: business studies: specific countries, AD.3
France: business studies, AD.31
Germany: business studies, AD.32
Middle East: business studies, AD.4
Africa: business studies, AD.5
Americas: business studies, AD.6
North America: business studies, AD.62
Caribbean: business studies, AD.63
Latin America: business studies, AD.64
Asia: business studies, AD.7
[note: include Russia and Turkey in Europe: use (AD.2)]
Japan: business studies, AD.71
India / Central Asia: business studies, AD.72
Far East (East Asia): business studies, AD.73
Australasia / Austronesia: business studies, AD.8
international business briefings, AD.9

use for: organisations (general)
cooperatives, AE.2
producer cooperatives, AE.21
sales cooperatives, AE.22
buyers' cooperatives, AE.23
workers' cooperatives, AE.24
self employment, AE.3
freelance working, AE.31
business start-up, AE.4
business plans: new businesses, AE.41
business proposals preparation, AE.42
small business management, AE.5
small business operations, AE.52
small business personnel, AE.53
small business finance, AE.54
small business marketing, AE.55
joint ventures, AE.6
business mergers / acquisitions, AE.7
business transfer, AE.71
business development, AE.8
business cessation, AE.9

management ethics, AF.1
use for: business ethics
[see also: ethics (DE.4)]
personal development (business), AF.2
self management (business), AF.21
self appraisal (business), AF.23
self motivation (business), AF.24
stress management (business), AF.25
[see also: stress control (personal) (HB.32)]
time management (business), AF.26
business communication skills, AF.3
use for: business correspondence
[see also: business correspondence (clerical work) (AY.6)]
dictation techniques, AF.31
letter writing (business), AF.32
presentation skills (business), AF.34
oral presentation skills (business), AF.341
visual presentation skills (business), AF.342
report writing (business), AF.35
technical report writing (business), AF.351
telephone techniques (business), AF.36
business interpersonal skills, AF.4
use for: management style
use for: facilitating skills
[see also: interpersonal skills (self development) (HB.7)]
assertiveness (business), AF.41
conflict management (business), AF.42
use for: mediation skill (business)
interviewing (business), AF.43
[note: conducting an interview: for preparing to be interviewed see job interviews (HC.63)]
negotiating skills (business), AF.44
racism awareness (business), AF.45
sexism awareness (business), AF.46
counselling (business), AF.47
[note: provision of support / counselling to individuals in a work situation: for providing advice to the business see business counselling (AB.5)]
teamworking, AF.48
use for: teamwork
disability awareness, AF.49
team building skills, AF.5
delegating, AF.51
motivating, AF.52
leadership, AF.53
influencing skills, AF.54
team briefing, AF.55
meetings / conferences, AF.6
committee work, AF.61
conference programme organisation, AF.62
meetings organisation, AF.63
minute taking, AF.64
decision making skills, AF.7
brainstorming / creative thinking (business), AF.71
prioritising, AF.72
problem solving, AF.73
supervisory skills, AF.8
use for: office supervision

[note: systems and techniques used to plan, implement and monitor business policies: concerned with things that can be quantified or at least recorded and systematised]
[see also: quality & reliability management (VD.)]
management planning, AG.1
use for: business planning
use for: corporate planning
use for: crisis management
use for: performance management of organisation
use for: business process re-engineering
policy / strategic planning, AG.11
use for: strategic planning
management by objectives, AG.12
management of change & innovation, AG.13
use for: downsizing
management audit, AG.14
business modelling / analysis, AG.2
use for: management analysis techniques
use for: business analysis
use for: modelling: business analysis
critical path analysis, AG.21
use for: Gantt charts
decision systems / theory, AG.22
network analysis, AG.23
quantitative business analysis, AG.24
pert, AG.25
risk analysis, AG.26
value analysis, AG.27
business forecasting, AG.3
use for: forecasting
use for: failure mode effects analysis (FMEA)
business mathematics / statistics, AG.4
business mathematics, AG.41
business statistics, AG.42
project management (business / industry), AG.6
[see also: project management (computer systems) (CL.3)]
business control systems, AG.7
use for: control systems (business)
[note: methods for ensuring that work is proceeding in the way it was planned: includes reporting systems]
management control techniques, AG.71
risk management, AG.8
disaster mitigation, AG.82
emergency planning (business), AG.83

use for: manpower services
use for: human resources planning
personnel administration, AJ.2
conditions of employment, AJ.22
equal opportunities (personnel work), AJ.221
contracts of employment, AJ.222
disciplinary procedures, AJ.23
employment termination procedures, AJ.24
dismissal procedures, AJ.241
outplacement procedures, AJ.242
redundancy procedures, AJ.243
payroll (personnel administration), AJ.25
use for: wages (personnel administration)
[note: for management of payroll not accounting for which see (AK.85)]
staff welfare services, AJ.26
industrial relations, AJ.3
trade union representatives, AJ.31
recruitment / selection, AJ.4
job analysis description & advertising, AJ.41
job applicant assessment, AJ.42
selection interviewing, AJ.43
[note: specific to the process of selecting staff: for general business interviews see interviewing (business), (AF.43): for job interview preparation see job interviews (HC.63)]
staff performance / development, AJ.5
use for: management development
use for: performance management (staff)
job evaluation, AJ.51
performance appraisal, AJ.52
use for: staff assessment
training administration (inhouse), AJ.53
work enrichment, AJ.54
absenteeism, AJ.55
work study, AJ.7
use for: work measurement
organisation & methods, AJ.71
time & motion study, AJ.72
remote work, AJ.8
use for: teleworking

[see also: personal finance (HE.1)]
finance / accounting (general), AK.1
finance / accounting for non-financial managers, AK.11
[see also: business & finance (general) (AA.4)]
financial management, AK.2
financial planning, AK.23
cash flow planning, AK.231
financial decision making, AK.232
resource management, AK.24
financial analysis, AK.25
financial modelling, AK.251
financial control, AK.3
budgetary control, AK.32
cost management, AK.33
credit management, AK.4
debt collection, AK.42
credit control, AK.43
finance raising, AK.5
[note: liquidating fixed assets or acquiring additional finance or reduction of overhead / liabilities including bank loans and government grants: this is not charitable etc fund raising]
[see also: fund raising for non profit organisations (BA.121)]
asset financing, AK.51
bank loans, AK.52
leasing (business), AK.53
mortgaging (business), AK.54
venture capital, AK.55
accounting, AK.6
use for: accountancy
auditing, AK.62
auditing (external), AK.621
liquidation / receivership (accounting), AK.622
internal auditing, AK.623
tax accounting, AK.63
VAT accounting, AK.631
income tax accounting, AK.632
corporation tax accounting, AK.633
property tax accounting, AK.634
excise duty accounting, AK.635
cost / management accounting, AK.64
cost accounting, AK.641
management accounting, AK.642
use for: administrative accounting
public finance, AK.7
taxation (national) administration, AK.71
taxation (local) administration, AK.72
local charges: personal, AK.721
[see also: benefits (HE.8)]
local charges: business, AK.722
use for: business rates
local charges: property, AK.723
use for: council tax
bookkeeping, AK.8
use for: nominal ledger
purchase ledger, AK.82
sales ledger, AK.83
invoicing, AK.84
payroll (accounting), AK.85
[note: for payroll management see payroll (personnel administration) (AJ.25)]
use for: salaries (accounting)
cashiers' work, AK.9
cash handling / collection, AK.91

banking, AL.2
merchant banking, AL.22
international banking, AL.23
building societies, AL.24
credit unions, AL.25
money stock securities & commodity market services, AL.3
stock market services, AL.31
money market services, AL.32
foreign exchange market services, AL.33
commodity market services, AL.34
securities market services, AL.35
post office counter services, AL.4
insurance, AL.5
use for: insurance estimating
actuarial science, AL.51
[note: mathematical / statistical calculations in relation to life insurance and pensions]
investment management, AL.6
financial services act, AL.61
pension fund management, AL.62
financial consultancy practice, AL.63
property investment, AL.64

[note: where the nature of the call centre is known, for example careers guidance, use a second notation to record the context]
call centre management, AM.1
call centre skills, AM.2

use for: clerical office skills
[note: includes administration NVQs]
office filing, AY.4
business documentation / record-keeping, AY.5
business correspondence (clerical work), AY.6
[see also: English for business (FK.241)]
[see also: business communication skills (AF.3)]
reception / telephone switchboard work, AY.7
[note: for telephony use (XM.3)]
telephonists work, AY.71
radio telephone operation, AY.711
reception (business), AY.72
[note: see also: specific occupations such as medical reception]
office technology skills, AY.8
VDU operation, AY.82
fax / telex operation, AY.83
use for: telefax operation
electronic mail (office use), AY.84
[note: use this class for learning how to send an email]
[see also: email (internet) software (use) (CR.3)]
office copying, AY.85
use for: photocopying
print room operations (office), AY.851
office equipment (non-electronic), AY.86
mail room operations, AY.87

secretarial skills, AZ.1
secretarial / linguist, AZ.13
secretarial / bilingual, AZ.131
secretarial / trilingual, AZ.132
secretarial skills: specific occupations, AZ.2
[see also: farm secretarial work (SM.61)]
medical secretarial work, AZ.21
legal secretarial work, AZ.22
personal assistant skills, AZ.3
use for: private secretaries
shorthand, AZ.4
use for: English shorthand
use for: stenography
shorthand: specific methods, AZ.41
Pitman shorthand, AZ.411
Speedwriting, AZ.412
Tee line shorthand, AZ.413
shorthand: languages other than English, AZ.43
shorthand: Welsh, AZ.431
shorthand: French, AZ.432
shorthand: German, AZ.433
typewriting / keyboarding, AZ.5
[see also: word processing (CQ.1)]
audiotyping, AZ.51
copy typing, AZ.52
shorthand typing, AZ.53
keyboarding, AZ.55
data input skills, AZ.7


use for: public relations
marketing, BA.1
[see also: SALES WORK (BE.)]
marketing for non profit organisations, BA.12
fund raising for non profit organisations, BA.121
[see also: finance raising (AK.5)]
international marketing, BA.13
marketing planning / evaluation, BA.14
product management, BA.2
product development / diversification (marketing), BA.21
product research, BA.22
brand management, BA.23
pricing, BA.24
customer care, BA.3
use for: customer service
customer complaints, BA.31
use for: complaints handling
franchising, BA.4
market research, BA.5
[see also: questionnaire design (CX.81)]
consumer studies, BA.51
[note: study of consumers: for consumerism see HE.7]
sales promotion, BA.6
merchandising, BA.61
publicity / public relations, BA.7
publicity, BA.71
advertising, BA.72
media buying, BA.721
advertising outdoor work, BA.722
use for: outdoor advertising work
exhibitions (marketing), BA.73
public relations, BA.74
information work (public relations), BA.741
lobbying (attention getting), BA.75
media relations, BA.76
use for: press relations

European Union sales, BB.1
use for: Single European market
European Union trading standards, BB.13
European Union trade documentation, BB.14
exporting, BB.2
export procedures, BB.21
use for: customs procedures: export
export documentation, BB.22
letters of credit, BB.221
export finance, BB.24
export marketing, BB.25
export sales, BB.26
importing, BB.3
customs procedures / documentation: importing, BB.31
foreign exchange for importing, BB.32

distributive trades (general), BC.1
retailing, BC.3
retail buying, BC.32
use for: buying (for resale)
shop work, BC.33
use for: retail sales
supermarket work, BC.331
point of sale work, BC.332
retail sales management, BC.34
retail display design, BC.35
window dressing, BC.351
market / street trading, BC.4
market supervision / inspection, BC.41
hiring services, BC.5
mail order services, BC.6
wholesaling, BC.7
showroom management, BC.71
consumer protection, BC.8
trading standards, BC.81

food retailing, BD.1
wine / spirits retailing, BD.13
bakery retailing, BD.14
dairy retailing, BD.15
meat retailing, BD.16
fish retailing, BD.17
fruit / vegetables retailing, BD.18
delicatessen retailing, BD.19
electrical / electronic appliance retailing, BD.2
business equipment retailing, BD.21
computer retailing, BD.22
leisure / domestic electronic equipment retailing, BD.23
motor trade operations (sales), BD.3
[see also: vehicle maintenance / repair (XS.)]
motor trade sales, BD.31
garage operations (sales), BD.32
forecourt work (garage operations), BD.321
vehicle parts / accessories (sales), BD.33

[see also: marketing (BA.1)]
sales management, BE.2
field sales management, BE.21
sales techniques, BE.3
use for: selling
sales prospecting, BE.31
use for: cold calling
direct sales (trade), BE.32
door to door sales, BE.33
demonstration (sales), BE.34
telesales, BE.4
roundspersons / van sales, BE.6

use for: e-business
use for: electronic commerce
[see also: e-commerce (technical) (CK.248)]


[note: this class relates (except for CJ.9) digital computers ie computers which use coded data: 'normal' computers]
[note: for microelectronics use microelectronics (general) (XL.15) or microelectronics systems design (XL.41)]
[see also: electronic engineering (XL.)]
computer design / engineering, CJ.1
computer engineering, CJ.11
mainframe computer design / engineering, CJ.111
microcomputer design / engineering, CJ.112
minicomputer design / engineering, CJ.113
AS/400, CJ.1131
computer electronics principles, CJ.2
[note: nearly all computers are digital]
computer architecture / systems, CJ.3
[note: integration of processing and other components in a computer]
computer architecture, CJ.31
computer architecture: standardisation / compatibility, CJ.311
extended industry standard architecture (EISA), CJ.312
parallel processing architectures, CJ.313
parallel sysplex, CJ.3131
transputers, CJ.3132
mainframe computer systems / technology, CJ.32
super computers, CJ.321
microcomputer systems / technology, CJ.33
desktop systems / technology, CJ.331
home / leisure systems / technology, CJ.332
use for: leisure computers
laptop systems / technology, CJ.333
notebook systems / technology, CJ.334
palmtop systems / technology, CJ.335
minicomputer systems / technology, CJ.34
RS/6000 (minicomputer), CJ.341
Sun Sparc (minicomputer), CJ.342
computer communications (hardware), CJ.4
[see also: computer communications / networking (CK.2)]
[see also: data communications systems (XM.1)]
communications protocols, CJ.41
[note: hardware protocols that determine the type of transmission medium (eg wiring): for software protocols, use the appropriate class in computer communications / networking (CK.2)]
X.25, CJ.411
V.90, CJ.412
computer cybernetics, CJ.42
computer interfacing (physical interfacing), CJ.43
computer network hardware, CJ.44
[see also: data communications hardware (XM.14)]
[see also: computer communications / networking (CK.2)]
direct access storage devices (DASD), CJ.441
X400, CJ.442
open systems interconnection (OSI), CJ.45
remote access, CJ.46
computer hardware / firmware, CJ.5
computer processing components, CJ.51
data handling components (computer), CJ.511
expansion cards / boards, CJ.512
memory (computer), CJ.513
motherboards, CJ.514
optical processors, CJ.515
computer media, CJ.6
[note: anything used to store machine-readable information: disks / tapes / bar codes]
compact disks (computer), CJ.61
use for: CD-ROM (computer media)
optical disks, CJ.62
smart cards, CJ.63
mainframe data storage systems, CJ.64
EMC Symmetrix, CJ.641
computer peripherals, CJ.7
computer input hardware, CJ.71
disk drives, CJ.711
redundant arrays of inexpensive disks (RAID), CJ.712
computer output hardware, CJ.72
computer displays, CJ.721
modems, CJ.73
plotters (computer), CJ.74
printers, CJ.75
computer output microform (COM), CJ.751
dot matrix printers, CJ.752
daisywheel printers, CJ.753
ink jet printers, CJ.754
bubble jet printers, CJ.7541
laser printers (computer), CJ.755
postscript printers (computer), CJ.7551
thermal printers, CJ.756
scanners (optical), CJ.76
analogue computer technology, CJ.9
[note: analogue computers are real time computers mainly used to simulate or control processes]
analogue computer applications, CJ.91
analogue computer design / engineering, CJ.92

[note: technical design / study of computer software]
[see also: software engineering (CL.)]
[see also: computer use (CN.)]
[see also: using software & operating systems (CP.)]
computer science, CK.1
[note: includes computer studies other than computer appreciation, eg use for degree level studies in 'computer studies']
[note: for computer appreciation, use computer appreciation / introduction (CN.1)]
computer communications / networking, CK.2
[note: software not hardware]
[note: for network management, use systems / network management (CM.4)]
[note: for hardware communications protocols, use communications protocols (CJ.41)]
[see also: computer communications (hardware) (CJ.4)]
[see also: communications / comms software (use) (CP.44)]
[see also: systems / network management (CM.4)]
client and middleware software, CK.21
[note: software that enables different operating system platforms to communicate on the same network]
Pathworks (client and middleware software), CK.211
Tuxedo (client and middleware software), CK.212
Opal (client and middleware software), CK.213
distributed systems, CK.22
EDI systems development, CK.23
internet systems, CK.24
[note: design, development and implementation of internet systems and services (ie based on TCP/IP)]
email systems, CK.241
[see also: email (internet) software (use) (CR.3)]
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), CK.2411
Netscape Mail Server, CK.2412
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) services, CK.242
internet security systems, CK.243
[note: includes all 'firewall' software]
[see also: computer security systems (CM.42)]
internet security systems: A-D, CK.2431
Border Manager, CK.24311
DECSafe, CK.24312
internet security systems: E-K, CK.2432
FireWall-1, CK.24321
Gauntlet, CK.24322
internet security systems: L-R, CK.2433
Proxy Server (Microsoft), CK.24331
[note: includes Catapult Server]
Praesidium, CK.24332
internet security systems: S-Z, CK.2434
Sun Screen, CK.24341
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), CK.244
Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), CK.245
world wide web systems, CK.246
use for: technical setting up of web sites
[note: for writing web pages use HTML authoring tools (CR.4)]
[see also: web browsers (use) (CR.1)]
[see also: HTML authoring tools (CR.4)]
extranets, CK.2461
intranets, CK.2462
Common Gateway Interface (CG1), CK.247
e-commerce (technical), CK.248
[see also: E-COMMERCE (BF.)]
X.500, CK.249
local area networks (LAN), CK.25
[note: for development of software applications that run on LANs, use software development (CL.4)]
Ethernet, CK.251
token ring, CK.252
Appletalk, CK.253
mainframe networks, CK.26
[note: for hardware, use computer network hardware (CJ.44)]
wide area networks (WAN), CK.27
[note: for development of software applications that run on WANs use software development (CL.4)]
Frame relay, CK.271
Banyan VINES, CK.28
computer programming, CK.3
[note: for object oriented programming use object oriented design (CL.42)]
[see also: software engineering (CL.)]
[see also: applications development (CL.1)]
computer languages, CK.31
[note: codes in which programs are written]
computer languages: A-D, CK.311
computer languages: A, CK.3111
ActiveX, CK.31111
Ada, CK.31112
Assembler, CK.31113
computer languages: B, CK.3112
Basic, CK.31121
[note: for Visual Basic use (CK.3342)]
Data Basic, CK.311211
Quick Basic (qbasic), CK.311212
computer languages: C, CK.3113
C language, CK.31131
C++, CK.31132
Certes, CK.31133
Cobol, CK.31134
computer languages: D, CK.3114
Datatrieve, CK.31141
DCL (digital control language), CK.31142
DECForms, CK.31143
computer languages: E-K, CK.312
use for: EISA
Forth, CK.3121
Fortran, CK.3122
Java, CK.3123
computer languages: L-R, CK.313
computer languages: L, CK.3131
Lisp, CK.31311
LotusScript, CK.31312
Lingo, CK.31313
computer languages: M, CK.3132
Machine code, CK.31321
Modular 2, CK.31322
computer languages: O, CK.3133
Objectpac, CK.31331
Occam, CK.31332
ObjectStar, CK.31333
computer languages: P, CK.3134
Pascal, CK.31341
[note: includes TurboPascal and Object Pascal]
[see also: Delphi (CK.3311)]
Perl, CK.31342
PL/1, CK.31343
PL/2, CK.31344
PL/M, CK.31345
Prolog, CK.31346
computer languages: R, CK.3135
Rexx, CK.31351
RPG, CK.31352
computer languages: S-Z, CK.314
Smalltalk, CK.3141
Structured Assembly Language (SAL), CK.3142
SCL, CK.3143
fourth generation language (4GL) programming (general), CK.32
[note: command system (usually natural language based) used for development of applications run in other computer languages]
fifth generation language programming, CK.33
[note: visual development environments]
5GL programming: A-D, CK.331
Delphi, CK.3311
[see also: Pascal (CK.31341)]
5GL programming: E-K, CK.332
5GL programming: L-R, CK.333
5GL programming: S-Z, CK.334
Visual Age (all types), CK.3341
Visual Basic, CK.3342
[note: includes Visual Basic for applications: for 'traditional' Basic use (CK.31121)]
Visual C++, CK.3343
Visual Café Pro, CK.3344
Visual J++, CK.3345
VB Script, CK.3346
year 2000 programming, CK.34
[note: includes all technical year 2000 software work]
[use for: millenium bug]
sound / image processing (programming), CK.4
image processing (computer), CK.41
[note: digitising and/or translating scanned images (drawings or maps) into usable/meaningful form]
[see also: digital processing (KJ.123)]
optical character recognition (programming), CK.411
pattern recognition, CK.412
sound processing (computer), CK.42
speech / voice processing (computer), CK.421
use for: speech recognition (computer)
use for: speech synthesis (computer)
use for: speech output (computer)
[note: do not use for automated word processing for which see the appropriate class in (CQ.1)]
intelligent systems, CK.5
artificial intelligence, CK.51
expert systems, CK.52
[note: knowledge based software shells with which applications are developed to assist in education, processing research information etc]
Intellect (expert system), CK.521
knowledge based systems / knowledge engineering, CK.53
[note: software which develops rules and/or generalisations from data: includes data warehouse and data mining software]
neural networks, CK.54
operating systems (programming), CK.6
[note: design, development and implementation of new operating systems or new versions of them: for interface (HCI) design / programming, use human computer interface (HCI) development (CL.2)]
[see also: operating systems / interfaces (use) (CP.1)]
[see also: shell / menu software (use) (CP.43)]
modelling / simulation systems, CK.7
modelling systems, CK.71
use for: computer modelling systems
[see also: business modelling software (CS.11)]
simulation systems, CK.72
use for: computer simulation

[note: application of computing skills to the production of software using engineering principles]
[see also: computer programming (CK.3)]
applications development, CL.1
[note: development / customising of existing software for specific tasks]
[see also: computer programming (CK.3)]
Object Linking and Embedding (OLE), CL.11
rapid application development, CL.12
systems application architecture, CL.13
human computer interface (HCI) development, CL.2
project management (computer systems), CL.3
[see also: project management (business / industry) (AG.6)]
project management methodologies: A-D, CL.31
Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM), CL.311
project management methodologies: E-K, CL.32
Joint Application Development (JAD), CL.321
project management methodologies: L-R, CL.33
project management methodologies: S-Z, CL.34
Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method (SSADM), CL.341
change control (software engineering), CL.35
software development, CL.4
Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE), CL.41
Oracle Designer 2000, CL.411
object oriented design, CL.42
[note: includes object oriented analysis, object oriented programming]
software development: mainframe systems, CL.43
software development: minicomputer systems, CL.44
software development: pc systems, CL.45
software quality assurance, CL.46
[note: includes software testing]
software documentation, CL.5
systems development, CL.6
[note: design and implementation of systems which include computer software]
[see also: systems / network management (CM.4)]
real time systems, CL.61
systems analysis, CL.62
systems design, CL.63
database design, CL.631
Foundation Class (Microsoft), CL.6311
information systems design, CL.632
public information systems design, CL.6321
systems engineering, CL.64
use for: computer systems engineering
[note: putting together hardware and software to achieve applications]

[note: includes mainframe computer operations and supporting operations regardless of computer type]
computer help desk operations, CM.1
[note: providing help with hardware or software usage problems: not repair or servicing for which see computer maintenance (CM.2)]
computer maintenance, CM.2
use for: computer servicing
[note: includes maintenance, repair and servicing of computer hardware and peripherals]
data acquisition / processing systems, CM.3
[note: systems specifically designed for large-scale data processing, typically used in mainframe or minicomputer environments]
[note: for small-scale systems based on multi-purpose software use word processing (CQ.1) or scanning / OCR software (use) (CQ.7)]
[see also: information / data collection (CX.8)]
data acquisition systems, CM.31
information processing systems, CM.32
job scheduling systems, CM.33
JES2 (job scheduling system), CM.331
Job Control Language (JCL) (job scheduling systems), CM.332
systems / network management, CM.4
[see also: computer communications / networking (CK.2)]
[see also: network software (use) (CP.42)]
[see also: systems development (CL.6)]
computer audit, CM.41
computer security systems, CM.42
[see also: internet security systems (CK.243)]
data management, CM.43
[see also: records management, CY.9]
database management (computer operations), CM.44
disaster / contingency planning (computer operations), CM.45
network management, CM.46
BMC Patrol, CM.461

computer appreciation / introduction, CN.1
[note: includes CLAIT, Integrated Business Technology and computer studies, where this is appreciation, rather than computer science, for which use computer science (CK.1)]
computer literacy, CN.11
computer file management, CN.2
data security, CN.3
computer virus protection, CN.31
[note: use of anti-virus software]
data recovery, CN.32
data security software, CN.33
encryption (data security), CN.331
personal computer use: specific types, CN.4
Apple Macintosh computers, CN.41

use for: personal computer software (general)
operating systems / interfaces (use), CP.1
[see also: operating systems (programming) (CK.6)]
operating systems (use): A-D, CP.11
AIX (operating system), CP.111
ALGOL (operating system), CP.112
DOS systems for personal computers, CP.113
[note: includes all flavours of personal computer DOS systems]
operating systems (use): E-K, CP.12
Gem (operating system), CP.121
operating systems (use): L-R, CP.13
Linux (operating system), CP.131
MPE/ix (operating system), CP.132
MVS (operating system), CP.133
OS/2 (operating system), CP.134
OS/390 (operating system), CP.135
Motif (operating system), CP.136
operating systems (use): S-Z, CP.14
operating systems (use): S-T, CP.141
operating systems (use): U, CP.142
Unix (operating system), CP.1421
HP-UX (operating system), CP.14211
SCO Open Server (operating system), CP.14212
Solaris (operating system), CP.14213
Sunnet (operating system), CP.14214
Sunos (operating system), CP.14215
shell systems (Unix), CP.14216
[see also: shell / menu software (use) (CP.43)]
Bourne Shell (Unix), CP.142161
Korn Shell (Unix), CP.142162
operating systems (use): V, CP.143
VM (operating system), CP.1431
VME (operating system), CP.1432
VMS (operating system), CP.1433
VSE (operating system), CP.1434
operating systems (use): W-Z, CP.144
Windows (general) (operating system), CP.1441
Windows (version 3) (operating system), CP.14411
Windows 95 (operating system), CP.14412
Windows 98 (operating system), CP.14413
Windows NT (operating system), CP.14414
[see also: Windows NT (network software use) (CP.426)]
Windows CE (operating system), CP.14415
Windows 2000 (operating system), CP.14416
Xenix (operating system), CP.1442
Xview (operating system), CP.1443
XWindows (operating system), CP.1444
database software (use), CP.2
database software (use): A-D, CP.21
database software (use): A, CP.211
ADABAS (database software), CP.2111
Access (database software), CP.2112
AllBase (database software), CP.2113
Approach (database software), CP.2114
database software (use): B, CP.212
database software (use): C, CP.213
Clipper (database software), CP.2131
database software (use): D, CP.214
Data-Q (database software), CP.2141
Dataease (database software), CP.2142
Dataease Express (database software), CP.2143
DataPerfect (database software), CP.2144
DB2 (database software), CP.2145
DBase (database software), CP.2146
Delta (database software), CP.2147
database software (use): E-K, CP.22
database software (use): E, CP.221
ERGO (database software), CP.2211
EssBase (database software), CP.2212
database software (use): F, CP.222
FileMaker Pro (database software), CP.2221
FileTab (database software), CP.2222
Focus 4GL (database software), CP.2223
FoxBase / FoxPro (database software), CP.2224
database software (use): G-H, CP.223
Huron (database software), CP.2231
database software (use): I, CP.224
InfoMaster (database software), CP.2241
Informix (database software), CP.2242
Ingres (database software), CP.2243
IDMS (CA), CP.2244
database software (use): J-K, CP.225
Jasmine (database software), CP.2251
database software (use): L-R, CP.23
Omnis (database software), CP.231
Oracle (database software), CP.232
Paradox (database software), CP.233
PC Express (database software), CP.234
Q & A (database software), CP.235
RapidFile (database software), CP.236
RBase (database software), CP.237
database software (use): S-Z, CP.24
SQL Server (database software), CP.241
SuperBase (database software), CP.242
SyBase (database software), CP.243
Tracker Five (database software), CP.244
WindowBase (database software), CP.245
TurboImage (database software), CP.246
structured query languages (SQLs), CP.25
Graphical Query Language (GQL), CP.251
HP Query, CP.252
Quest, CP.253
SQL/400, CP.254
spreadsheet software (use), CP.3
spreadsheet software (use): A-D, CP.31
spreadsheet software (use): E-K, CP.32
Excel (spreadsheet software), CP.321
Improv (spreadsheet software), CP.322
spreadsheet software (use): L-R, CP.33
Lotus 1-2-3 (spreadsheet software), CP.331
MultiPlan (spreadsheet software), CP.332
Quattro (spreadsheet software), CP.333
spreadsheet software (use): S-Z, CP.34
SCO Professional (spreadsheet software), CP.341
SuperCalc (spreadsheet software), CP.342
VisiCalc (spreadsheet software), CP.343
VP Planner (spreadsheet software), CP.344
Wingz (spreadsheet software), CP.345
systems and communications software (use), CP.4
systems utilities software (use), CP.41
[note: includes backup software and packages of systems utilities]
systems utilities software (use): A-D, CP.411
ArcServe (systems utilities software), CP.4111
systems utilities software (use): E-K, CP.412
JMP (systems utilities software), CP.4121
systems utilities software (use): L-R, CP.413
MXG (systems utilities software), CP.4131
PC Tools (systems utilities software), CP.4132
systems utilities software (use): S-Z, CP.414
network software (use), CP.42
[see also: systems / network management (CM.4)]
BackOffice (Microsoft), CP.421
LAN manager, CP.422
NetWare (Novell) (network software use), CP.423
Torus (network software use), CP.424
Vines (network software use), CP.425
Windows NT (network software use), CP.426
[see also: windows NT (operating system use) (CP.14414)]
shell / menu software (use), CP.43
[see also: operating systems (programming) (CK.6)]
[see also: shell systems (Unix) (CP.14216)]
communications / comms software (use), CP.44
[note: use of software packages to set up systems that allow computers to transfer data between each other: for using email software, use email (internet) software (use) (CR.3)]
[see also: email (internet) software (use) (CR.3)]
[see also: computer communications / networking (CK.2)]
communications / comms software (use): A-D, CP.441
Connect (communications software), CP.4411
communications / comms software (use): E-K, CP.442
Exchange Server (Microsoft) (communications software), CP.4421
communications / comms software (use): L-R, CP.443
LapLink (communications software), CP.4431
Open LAN manager (communications software), CP.4432
PC Anywhere (communications software), CP.4433
communications / comms software (use): S-Z, CP.444
integrated packages (use), CP.5
[note: software packages that combine word processing / spreadsheet / database and sometimes utilities]
integrated packages (use): A-D, CP.51
Ability (integrated package), CP.511
integrated packages (use): E-K, CP.52
Framework (integrated package), CP.521
integrated packages (use): L-R, CP.53
integrated packages (use): L, CP.531
Logistix (integrated package), CP.5311
integrated packages (use): M, CP.532
integrated packages (use): N, CP.533
integrated packages (use): O, CP.534
Office (Borland) (integrated package), CP.5341
Office (Corel) (integrated package), CP.5342
use for: WordPerfect Office (integrated package)
Office (Microsoft) (integrated package), CP.5343
Office Manager (integrated package), CP.5344
Office Power 20/20 (integrated package), CP.5345
OFIS (integrated package), CP.5346
integrated packages (use): P, CP.535
PerfectOffice (integrated package), CP.5351
integrated packages (use): Q, CP.536
integrated packages (use): R, CP.537
integrated packages (use): S-Z, CP.54
integrated packages (use): S, CP.541
SmartSuite (integrated package), CP.5411
SmartWare (integrated package), CP.5412
Symphony (integrated package), CP.5413
integrated packages (use): T, CP.542
Team Office (integrated package), CP.5421
integrated packages (use): U, CP.543
Uniplex (integrated package), CP.5431
integrated packages (use): V, CP.544
integrated packages (use): W , CP.545
WindowWorks (PFS) (integrated package), CP.5451
WordPerfect Executive (integrated package), CP.5452
Works (Claris) (integrated package), CP.5453
Works (Lotus) (integrated package), CP.5454
Works (Microsoft) (integrated package), CP.5455
integrated packages (use): X-Z, CP.546
Xchange (integrated package), CP.5461
personal organisation software (use): CP.55
personal organisation software (use): A-D, CP.551
personal organisation software (use): E-K, CP.552
personal organisation software (use): L-R, CP.553
Organiser (Lotus) (personal organisation software), CP.5531
Outlook (Microsoft) (personal organisation software), CP.5532
personal organisation software (use): S-Z, CP.554
Schedule+ (Microsoft) (personal organisation software), CP.5541
WordBase (personal organisation software), CP.5542
project management software (use), CP.6
project management software (use): A-D, CP.61
Artemis (project management software), CP.611
project management software (use): E-K, CP.62
project management software (use): L-R, CP.63
On Target (project management software), CP.631
Planning Assistant (project management software), CP.632
Project (Microsoft) (project management software), CP.633
Project Manager Workbench (project management software), CP.634
Project Scheduler (project management software), CP.635
project management software (use): S-Z, CP.64
SuperProject (project management software), CP.641
TimeLine (project management software), CP.642
accounting / payroll software (use), CP.7
payroll software (use), CP.71
payroll software (use): A-D, CP.711
payroll software (use): E-K, CP.712
payroll software (use): L-N, CP.713
payroll software (use): O-R, CP.714
Payroll (PBMS) (payroll software), CP.7141
Payroll (Pegasus) (payroll software), CP.7142
payroll software (use): S-Z, CP.715
Payroll (Sage) (payroll software), CP.7151
accounting software (use): A-D, CP.72
AccountsMaster (accounts software), CP.721
Chameleon (accounts software), CP.722
Compact Prof (accounts software), CP.723
Dynamics (accounts software), CP.724
accounting software (use): E-K, CP.73
Financial Control (accounts software), CP.731
accounting software (use): L-R, CP.74
MultiSoft (accounts software), CP.741
Pegasus (accounts software), CP.742
QuickBooks (accounts software), CP.743
Quicken (accounts software), CP.744
accounting software (use): S-Z, CP.75
Sage (accounts software), CP.751
Sterling (accounts software), CP.752
Take 5 (accounts software), CP.753
TAS (accounts software), CP.754
Tetra accounts (accounts software), CP.755
TetraPlan (accounts software), CP.756
Viztopia Accounts (accounts software), CP.757
credit control software (use), CP.76
management information systems software (use), CP.8
[see also: management information systems (CY.233)]

word processing, CQ.1
[note: sometimes known as text processing (eg RSA)]
[see also: typewriting / keyboarding (AZ.5)]
word processing software (use): A-D, CQ.11
AmiPro (Lotus) (word processing software), CQ.111
DisplayWrite (word processing software), CQ.112
word processing software (use): E-K, CQ.12
First Word (Gem) (word processing software), CQ.121
word processing software (use): L-R, CQ.13
LocoScript (word processing software), CQ.131
MacWrite (word processing software), CQ.132
Manuscript (word processing software), CQ.133
Multimate (word processing software), CQ.134
New Word (word processing software), CQ.135
Nisus Writer, CQ.136
word processing software (use): S-Z, CQ.14
word processing software (use): S-V, CQ.141
Samna Word (word processing software), CQ.1411
Volkswriter (word processing software), CQ.1412
word processing software (use): W, CQ.142
Word (Microsoft) (word processing software), CQ.1421
WordPerfect (word processing software), CQ.1422
WordPro (Lotus) (word processing software), CQ.1423
WordStar (word processing software), CQ.1424
WordWorks (word processing software), CQ.1425
Write-On (word processing software), CQ.1426
word processing software (use): X-Z, CQ.143
desktop publishing software (use), CQ.2
use for: DTP software use
desktop publishing software (use): A-D, CQ.21
AmiPro (desktop publishing software), CQ.211
desktop publishing software (use): E-K, CQ.22
Express (desktop publishing software), CQ.221
Finesse (desktop publishing software), CQ.222
Fleet Street Editor (desktop publishing software), CQ.223
FrameMaker (desktop publishing software), CQ.224
Fred (desktop publishing software), CQ.225
InDesign (desktop publishing software), CQ.226
desktop publishing software (use): L-R, CQ.23
PageMaker (desktop publishing software), CQ.231
PagePlus (desktop publishing software), CQ.232
Publisher (Microsoft) (desktop publishing software), CQ.233
Publisher (Ventura) (desktop publishing software), CQ.234
Report Styler (desktop publishing software), CQ.235
RSG (desktop publishing software), CQ.236
desktop publishing software (use): S-Z, CQ.24
TimeWorks (desktop publishing software), CQ.241
WordPerfect (desktop publishing software), CQ.242
Xpress (Quark) (desktop publishing software), CQ.243
desktop publishing fonts / utilities, CQ.25
Adobe (desktop publishing fonts / utilities), CQ.251
Bitstream (desktop publishing fonts / utilities), CQ.252
Monotype (desktop publishing fonts / utilities), CQ.253
Postscript PDL (desktop publishing fonts / utilities), CQ.254
Typographica (desktop publishing fonts / utilities), CQ.255
typesetting software (professional), CQ.3
hypertext / hypermedia software (use), CQ.4
[note: not specifically for internet / web use]
[see also: HTML authoring tools (CR.4)]
[see also: hypertext markup language (HTML), CY.2311]
Acrobat (hypertext / hypermedia software), CQ.41
HyperCard (hypertext / hypermedia software), CQ.42
graphics software (use), CQ.5
general graphics software (use), CQ.51
general graphics software (use): A-D, CQ.511
Applause (graphics software), CQ.5111
DesignWorks (graphics software), CQ.5112
Draw Perfect (graphics software), CQ.5113
Canvas (graphics software), CQ.5114
general graphics software (use): E-K, CQ.512
Freehand (graphics software), CQ.5121
GraphWriter (graphics software), CQ.5122
Harvard Graphics (graphics software), CQ.5123
Illustrator (graphics software), CQ.5124
general graphics software (use): L-R, CQ.513
Micrografx (graphics software), CQ.5131
Persuasion (graphics software), CQ.5132
PhotoImpact (graphics software), CQ.5133
PhotoPaint (graphics software), CQ.5134
PhotoShop (graphics software), CQ.5135
general graphics software (use): S-Z, CQ.514
SuperPaint (graphics software), CQ.5141
Studio Pro (graphics software), CQ.5142
presentation software (use), CQ.52
presentation software (use): A-D, CQ.521
presentation software (use): E-K, CQ.522
Freelance (presentation software), CQ.5221
Impact (Claris) (presentation software), CQ.5222
presentation software (use): L-R, CQ.523
PowerPoint (presentation software), CQ.5231
Presentation (presentation software), CQ.5232
presentation software (use): S-Z, CQ.524
drawing / painting software (use), CQ.53
[note: includes creative art packages: for image manipulation, use graphics software (use) (CQ.5): for CAD, use CAD software (use) (CQ.8)]
drawing / painting software (use): A-D, CQ.531
ArtLine (painting / drawing software), CQ.5311
CorelDraw (painting / drawing software), CQ.5312
drawing / painting software (use): E-K, CQ.532
GemDraw (painting / drawing software), CQ.5321
GemPaint (painting / drawing software), CQ.5322
drawing / painting software (use): L-R, CQ.533
MacDraw (painting / drawing software), CQ.5331
MacPaint (painting / drawing software), CQ.5332
Paint (painting / drawing software), CQ.5333
PaintBox (painting / drawing software), CQ.5334
PC PaintBrush (painting / drawing software), CQ.5335
Picture-It (painting / drawing software), CQ.5336
Picture-Publisher (painting / drawing software), CQ.5337
Pixie (painting / drawing software), CQ.5338
drawing / painting software (use): S-Z, CQ.534
fractals software, CQ.54
animation software (use), CQ.55
animation software (use): A-D, CQ.551
3D Studio (animation software), CQ.5511
Animator Pro (animation software), CQ.5512
animation software (use): E-K, CQ.552
Extreme 3D (animation software), CQ.5521
Fireworks (animation software), CQ.5522
Flash (animation software), CQ.5523
Infini-D (animation software), CQ.5524
animation software (use): L-R, CQ.553
LOGO motion (animation software), CQ.5531
animation software (use): S-Z, CQ.554
multimedia software (use), CQ.6
multimedia software (use): A-D, CQ.61
Director (multimedia software), CQ.612
multimedia software (use): E-K, CQ.62
Immedia (multimedia software), CQ.621
multimedia software (use): L-R, CQ.63
Premiere (multimedia software), CQ.631
QuickTime Pro (multimedia software), CQ.632
multimedia software (use): S-Z, CQ.64
Vision 3D (multimedia software), CQ.641
scanning / OCR software (use), CQ.7
use for: optical character recognition software (use)
scanning / OCR software (use): A-D, CQ.71
scanning / OCR software (use): E-K, CQ.72
scanning / OCR software (use): L-R, CQ.73
Pagekeeper (scanning / OCR software), CQ.731
Paperclip (scanning / OCR software), CQ.732
scanning / OCR software (use): S-Z, CQ.74
CAD software (use), CQ.8
use for: computer-aided design software (use)
[note: computer-aided design packages: for creative art packages, use drawing / painting software (use) (CQ.53): for diagramming software, use diagramming software (use) (CQ.9)]
[see also: computer-aided design (CAD) (VF.12)]
CAD software (use): A-D, CQ.81
AutoCAD (CAD software), CQ.811
AutoLisp (CAD software), CQ.812
AutoSketch (CAD software), CQ.813
CAD 3D (CAD software), CQ.814
CAD Pipe (CAD software), CQ.815
CAD software (use): E-K, CQ.82
Generic CAD (CAD software), CQ.821
CAD software (use): L-R, CQ.83
Landcadd (CAD software), CQ.831
Mini CAD (CAD software), CQ.832
Microstation (CAD software), CQ.833
CAD software (use): S-Z, CQ.84
VersaCAD (CAD software), CQ.841
diagramming software (use), CQ.9
[note: use of software for drawing diagrams such as flow charts and organisation charts: for computer-aided design packages, use CAD software (use) (CQ.8): for creative art packages, use drawing / painting software (use) (CQ.53)]
diagramming software (use): A-D, CQ.91
diagramming software (use): E-K, CQ.92
Flow (Corel) (diagramming software), CQ.921
diagramming software (use): L-R, CQ.93
OrgPlus (diagramming software), CQ.931
diagramming software (use): S-Z, CQ.94
Visio (diagramming software), CQ.941

[note: use of internet software, not development of internet sites and services: includes use of HTML authoring tools (CR.4)]
[see also: internet systems (CK.24)]
web browsers (use), CR.1
[see also: world wide web systems (CK.246)]
using the world wide web, CR.11
[note: use for web browsing where the software package is unspecified and for general use of web site facilities (eg search engines such as AltaVista and Yahoo)]
web browsers (use): A-D, CR.12
web browsers (use): E-K, CR.13
web browsers (use): L-R, CR.14
Internet Explorer (web browser), CR.141
Mosaic (web browser), CR.142
Navigator (web browser), CR.143
Opera (web browser), CR.144
web browsers (use): S-Z, CR.15
file transfer protocol (ftp) software (use), CR.2
email (internet) software (use), CR.3
[see also: electronic mail (office use) (AY.84)]
[see also: email systems (CK.241)]
[see also: communications / comms software (use) (CP.44)]
email (internet) software (use): A-D, CR.31
use for: All-in-1
cc:mail (email (internet) software), CR.311
email (internet) software (use): E-K, CR.32
email (internet) software (use): L-R, CR.33
MIMESweeper (email (internet) software), CR.331
ms mail (email (internet) software), CR.332
Open Mail (email (internet) software), CR.333
email (internet) software (use): S-Z, CR.34
SendMail (email (internet) software), CR.341
HTML authoring tools, CR.4
use for: web page design
[note: use of HTML authoring software, including writing web pages generally: for web systems development other than use of HTML authoring tools (eg ecommerce), use world wide web systems (CK.246)]
[see also: hypertext / hypermedia software (use) (CQ.4)]
[see also: hypertext markup language (HTML), CY.2311]
HTML authoring tools: A-D, CR.41
Centura (HTML authoring tools), CR.411
Dreamweaver (HTML authoring tools), CR.412
HTML authoring tools: E-K, CR.42
HoTMetaL Pro (HTML authoring tools), CR.421
Internet Assistant (HTML authoring tools), CR.422
Frontpage (HTML authoring tools), CR.423
GoLive (HTML authoring tools), CR.424
HTML authoring tools: L-R, CR.43
PageMill (HTML authoring tools), CR.431
HTML authoring tools: S-Z, CR.44
Web Author (HTML authoring tools), CR.441

[note: use of applications software primarily designed for use within particular industries or specific academic areas]
[see also: CAD software (use) (CQ.8)]
business software, CS.1
[note: software specifically designed for use in a business environment: for more general software that could be tailored for business but could also be used for other purposes (eg database packages) use the appropriate section under USING SOFTWARE & OPERATING SYSTEMS (CP.), USING TEXT / GRAPHICS / MULTIMEDIA SOFTWARE (CQ.) or USING INTERNET SOFTWARE (CR.)]
business modelling software, CS.11
[see also: modelling systems (CK.71)]
business intelligence software, CS.12
Business Objects (business intelligence software), CS.121
contact management software, CS.13
ACT (contact management software), CS.131
decision support systems (DSS) software, CS.14
group working software, CS.15
Domino (Lotus) (group working software), CS.151
GroupWise (group working software), CS.152
Notes (Lotus) (group working software), CS.153
Team Manager (group working software), CS.154
market research software, CS.16
PinPoint (market research software), CS.161
SAP (business software), CS.17
construction / architecture software, CS.2
engineering software, CS.3
transport software, CS.4
social sciences / humanities / arts software, CS.5
library software, CS.51
education / careers / schools software, CS.6
[see also: educational technology (GB.91)]
learning (education) software, CS.61
use for: CAL (computer aided learning) software
agriculture / catering / leisure services software, CS.7
ticketing software, CS.71
Galileo (ticketing software), CS.711
health / sciences / environment software, CS.8
sciences software, CS.81
mathematics software, CS.811
Global (mathematics software), CS.8111
statistics software, CS.8112
Statistical Analysis System (SAS), CS.81121
Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), CS.81122
[see also: statistics (RB.71)]
Scenario (statistics software), CS.81123
arts & crafts software, CS.9
[see also: pattern drafting (JC.6)]
recording software (audio-visual), CS.91

[note: using or working with different information sources]
information workservices (general), CX.1
business information services, CX.3
scientific / technical information services, CX.4
arts / humanities information services, CX.5
current affairs / news information services, CX.6
information sources: use/searching, CX.7
use for: documentation research
information retrieval, CX.71
information / data collection, CX.8
[see also: data acquisition / processing systems (CM.3)]
[see also: social research (EE.8)]
questionnaire design, CX.81
[see also: market research (BA.5)]
[see also: social research (EE.8)]

[note: for managing knowledge and the systems used to do this]
information studies, CY.1
information systems (general), CY.2
information theory, CY.22
information handling systems, CY.23
standard generalised markup language (SGML), CY.231
hypertext markup language (HTML), CY.2311
[see also: HTML authoring tools, CR.4]
[see also: hypertext / hypermedia software (use), CQ.4]
extensible markup language (XML), CY.2312
business information systems, CY.232
management information systems, CY.233
[see also: management information systems software (use) (CP.8)]
computer information systems (bibliographic), CY.24
use for: informatics
telematics, CY.25
[see also: data communications systems (XM.1)]
cataloguing systems / practice, CY.3
use for: document description
abstracting & indexing systems / practice, CY.4
use for: documentation indexing systems
classification systems, CY.41
database / collection indexing, CY.42
use for: information indexing
use for: indexing (collections)
contents indexing, CY.43
use for: book indexing
abstracts indexing, CY.44
subject indexing, CY.45
bibliographic control / description, CY.6
bibliographic citation, CY.61
bibliography compilation, CY.62
information management, CY.7
information audit, CY.71
information security, CY.72
archive studies, CY.8
[note: includes archive management]
records management, CY.9
[see also: data management (CM.43)]

librarianship (general), CZ.1
library operations (general), CZ.11
library management, CZ.13
use for: information management (libraries)
library paraprofessional studies, CZ.2
library technicians' work, CZ.21
library assistants' work, CZ.22
library / information science, CZ.3
use for: information (library) science
bibliometrics, CZ.31
library collection development / management, CZ.4
library services, CZ.5
lending services (libraries), CZ.51
reference services (libraries), CZ.52
children's library services, CZ.53
community services (libraries), CZ.54
services to special client groups (libraries), CZ.55
information services (libraries), CZ.56
libraries: specific media, CZ.6
use for: special libraries
audiovisual librarianship, CZ.61
picture librarianship, CZ.62
periodicals librarianship, CZ.63
libraries: specific types, CZ.7
academic libraries, CZ.71
business libraries, CZ.72
industrial libraries, CZ.74
medical libraries, CZ.75
public libraries, CZ.76
school libraries, CZ.77
use for: education librarianship
scientific / technical libraries, CZ.78
learning resource centres, CZ.8


general studies, DA.8
[note: use only where the subject of learning is general studies]
liberal studies, DA.81
modular studies, DA.82
combined studies, DA.83

history (theoretical), DB.1
theory / philosophy of history, DB.11
historical methods, DB.12
historical research, DB.121
historical computation, DB.122
historical sources, DB.123
historiography, DB.124
history of specific periods, DB.2
ancient history, DB.21
pre-classical history, DB.211
classical history, DB.212
[see also: CLASSICS (DF.)]
medieval history, DB.23
renaissance history, DB.24
modern history (17th to 20th century), DB.25
use for: Victorian studies
contemporary history (post-1945), DB.26
prehistory, DB.3
stone age, DB.31
bronze age, DB.32
iron age, DB.33
international & comparative history, DB.4
international history, DB.41
comparative history, DB.42
British history, DB.5
British history: specific areas, DB.52
English history, DB.521
Anglo Irish history, DB.522
Scottish history, DB.523
Welsh history, DB.524
Isle of Man: history, DB.525
Channel Islands: history, DB.526
British Commonwealth history, DB.527
British history: specific periods, DB.53
ancient history (UK), DB.531
pre classical history (UK), DB.5311
classical history (UK), DB.5312
medieval history (UK), DB.533
renaissance history (UK), DB.534
modern history (17th to 20th century) (UK), DB.535
contemporary history (post-1945) (UK), DB.536
history of specific areas / countries, DB.6
Europe: history, DB.62
Africa: history, DB.63
Americas: history, DB.64
Asia: history, DB.65
Australasia: history, DB.66
Middle East: history, DB.67
social history, DB.7
science / technology: history, DB.71
agricultural history, DB.711
medicine: history, DB.72
religion: history, DB.73
use for: church history
use for: ecclesiastical history
economic / political history, DB.74
economic history, DB.741
industrial history, DB.7411
labour history, DB.7412
transport history, DB.7413
political history, DB.742
military history, DB.743
local / regional history, DB.75
local / regional studies, DB.751
war history, DB.76
oral history, DB.8
family history, DB.9
genealogy, DB.91

archaeological practice, DC.2
archaeological surveying, DC.21
archaeological drawing, DC.22
excavation techniques, DC.23
analysis of artifacts, DC.24
post excavation studies, DC.241
archaeological computation, DC.25
[see also: mathematics for specific applications (RB.9)]
field archaeology, DC.26
archaeological sciences, DC.27
archaeometallurgy, DC.271
bioarchaeology, DC.272
archaeological documentation, DC.28
archaeological conservation, DC.3
archaeological heritage management, DC.31
ancient monuments: conservation, DC.32
paleography, DC.4
cuneiform studies, DC.41
hieroglyphics, DC.42
archaeology of specific kinds, DC.5
funerary archaeology, DC.51
industrial archaeology, DC.52
archaeology of specific environments, DC.6
marine archaeology, DC.61
landscape archaeology, DC.62
archaeology of specific areas / cultures, DC.7
Europe: archaeology, DC.72
Northern Europe: archaeology, DC.721
Mediterranean Europe: archaeology, DC.722
Greek archaeology, DC.7221
Roman archaeology, DC.7222
British Isles archaeology, DC.723
Middle East: archaeology, DC.73
Assyriology, DC.731
Byzantine archaeology, DC.732
Egyptology, DC.733
Africa: archaeology, DC.74
Americas: archaeology, DC.75
North America: archaeology, DC.752
Caribbean: archaeology, DC.753
Latin America: archaeology, DC.754
Asia: archaeology, DC.76
India / Central Asia: archaeology, DC.762
Far East (East Asia): archaeology, DC.763
Australasia / Austronesia: archaeology, DC.77
archaeology of specific periods / ages, DC.8

religious studies (general), DD.1
use for: divinity
use for: theology (general)
philosophy of religion, DD.12
systematic theology, DD.13
applied / practical theology, DD.14
comparative religion, DD.15
use for: community religions
Christian religious studies, DD.2
use for: theology (Christian)
Christian ethics, DD.21
biblical studies (Christian), DD.22
ecumenical studies, DD.23
Islamic religious studies, DD.3
Jewish religious studies, DD.4
Asian religious studies, DD.5
Buddhism, DD.51
Hinduism, DD.52
Parseeism, DD.53
Sikhism, DD.54
Bahaism, DD.55
Confucianism, DD.56
Taoism, DD.57
Shintoism, DD.58
Jainism, DD.59
African religious studies, DD.6
Australasian religious studies, DD.7
Americas: religious studies, DD.8
North America: religious studies, DD.81
Caribbean / West Indian religious studies, DD.82
South America: religious studies, DD.83
pastoral studies, DD.9
ministry (religion), DD.91
use for: ordained clergy
use for: clergy
non-ordained clergy, DD.92
lay workers (religion), DD.93

philosophy (theory), DE.1
philosophical problems, DE.11
history of philosophy, DE.12
medieval philosophy, DE.121
history of ideas, DE.13
metaphysics, DE.2
ontology, DE.21
aesthetics, DE.22
philosophy of mind, DE.23
epistemology, DE.3
ethics, DE.4
[see also: management ethics (AF.1)]
[see also: medical ethics (PA.83)]
moral philosophy, DE.41
social philosophy, DE.42
social ethics, DE.421
use for: citizenship
philosophical method, DE.5
logic (philosophy), DE.51
linguistic philosophy / analysis, DE.53
philosophical systems / philosophers, DE.6
existentialism, DE.63
phenomenology, DE.64
empiricism, DE.65
rationalism, DE.66
Marxism, DE.67
logical positivism, DE.68
philosophy of specific areas / cultures, DE.7
classical philosophy, DE.8
[see also: CLASSICS (DF.)]
Greek classical philosophy, DE.81
Chinese classical philosophy, DE.82

[see also: Latin and Greek (FK.32)]
[see also: classical philosophy (DE.8)]
[see also: classical history (DB.212)]


government / parliamentary studies, EA.1
parliamentary studies (general), EA.11
use for: central government studies
local government studies, EA.12
use for: local politics
politics, EA.2
political philosophies, EA.21
political systems, EA.22
political parties, EA.221
political organisations, EA.222
current affairs, EA.3
policy studies, EA.4
trade union studies, EA.5
international politics, EA.6
use for: world politics
use for: comparative government / politics
diplomatic studies, EA.61
environmental (green) studies, EA.62
use for: green politics
[note: strategic / political / holistic study of interaction of humans and biosphere]
[see also: environmental studies (QA.1)]
strategic studies, EA.7
peace studies, EA.71
defence studies, EA.72
[note: the politics of defence]
[see: military services (QH.8) for armed forces]
United Kingdom: government / politics, EA.8
use for: British politics
England: government / politics, EA.81
Northern Ireland: government / politics, EA.82
Scotland: government / politics, EA.83
Wales: government / politics, EA.84
Isle of Man: government / politics, EA.85
Channel Islands: government / politics, EA.86
politics of specific areas / countries, EA.9
European Union politics, EA.91
Europe: politics, EA.92
Middle East: politics, EA.93
Africa: politics, EA.94
Americas: politics, EA.95
North America: politics, EA.952
Caribbean: politics, EA.953
Latin America: politics, EA.954
Asia: politics, EA.96
India / Central Asia: politics, EA.962
Far East (East Asia): politics, EA.963
Australasia / Austronesia: politics, EA.97
Third World politics, EA.99

economics general / theory, EB.1
use for: monetarism
use for: Keynesianism
use for: economic theory
economic policy, EB.2
economic planning, EB.21
fiscal (taxation) planning, EB.22
use for: taxation (economics)
macroeconomics, EB.3
[note: covers areas such as national income, consumption, investment, output, expenditure and taxation systems: money (functions, supply and inflation) supply-side economics]
microeconomics, EB.4
[note: economics of firms, commodities, individuals, demand, supply, prices, markets]
econometrics, EB.5
economic analysis, EB.51
quantitative economics, EB.52
economic forecasting, EB.53
applied economics, EB.6
[see also: energy economics (QB.)]
business / industrial economics, EB.62
use for: management economics
social economics, EB.63
health economics, EB.631
education economics, EB.632
natural resource economics, EB.64
environmental economics, EB.641
[see also: environmental assessment (TC.613)]
land economics, EB.642
food / agricultural economics, EB.643
energy economics (general), EB.644
use for: fuel economics
[see also: energy economics (applied) (QB.1)]
labour economics, EB.65
use for: manpower studies (economics)
labour market analysis, EB.651
transport economics, EB.66
international economics, EB.7
European Union economics, EB.71
Europe: economics, EB.72
Middle East: economics, EB.73
Africa: economics, EB.74
Americas: economics, EB.75
North America: economics, EB.752
Caribbean: economics, EB.753
Latin America: economics, EB.754
Asia: economics, EB.76
India / Central Asia: economics, EB.762
Far East (East Asia): economics, EB.763
Australasia / Austronesia: economics, EB.77
cooperative studies, EB.78
development economics, EB.79

[note: subclasses used for the study of law in general: law of specific occupations is included with the management of the occupation]
law (general), EC.1
use for: legal studies
jurisprudence, EC.12
comparative law, EC.13
legal history, EC.14
legal theory, EC.15
equity, EC.16
international law, EC.2
maritime law, EC.21
aviation law, EC.22
international treaties / regulations, EC.25
law of specific areas / countries, EC.3
European Union: law, EC.31
Europe: law, EC.32
use for: Europe: legal studies
Middle East: law, EC.33
Africa: law, EC.34
Americas: law, EC.35
North America: law, EC.352
Caribbean: law, EC.353
Latin America: law, EC.354
South America: law, EC.355
Asia: law, EC.36
India / Central Asia: law, EC.362
Far East (East Asia): law, EC.363
Australasia / Austronesia: law, EC.37
United Kingdom: law, EC.4
English law, EC.41
Northern Ireland: law, EC.42
Scottish law, EC.43
Welsh law, EC.44
Isle of Man: law, EC.45
Channel Islands: law, EC.46
constitutional / public law, EC.5
administrative law, EC.51
legal rights (law), EC.52
use for: civil rights
use for: human rights
sex discrimination (legal rights), EC.521
use for: gender discrimination
race discrimination (legal rights), EC.522
environmental law, EC.53
immigration law, EC.54
criminal law, EC.6
civil law, EC.7
contract law, EC.71
torts / liabilities, EC.72
use for: legal liability
accident compensation law, EC.721
use for: injury claims
family law, EC.73
welfare law, EC.731
children's law, EC.732
property law, EC.74
intellectual property, EC.741
copyright / patents (law), EC.7411
conveyancing, EC.742
company law, EC.75
use for: business law
use for: enterprises: law
use for: public enterprise law
labour law, EC.751
use for: industrial law
use for: employment law
consumer law, EC.76
law (specific statutes), EC.77
Data Protection Act, EC.771
Disability Discrimination Act, EC.772
legal practice / procedures, EC.8
legal procedures, EC.81
civil legal procedures, EC.811
criminal legal procedures, EC.812
industrial tribunals, EC.813
court procedures, EC.814
small claims courts, EC.8141
magistrates practice, EC.815
expert witness, EC.816
arbitration, EC.817
legal practice, EC.82
legal executives work, EC.822
legal practice management, EC.823
judiciary practice, EC.824
barristers' practice, EC.825
solicitors' practice, EC.826
advocates' practice, EC.827
legal advice work, EC.83
legal drafting, EC.84
parliamentary drafting, EC.841
law enforcement, EC.9
[note: the application of the law: for police service training see (QH.4)]

social studies: applied, ED.8

[note: for social studies of a particular area see FM.]
sociology, EE.2
sociology of specific subjects, EE.22
[see also: sociology of education, GA.32]
sociology of industry, EE.221
use for: industrial sociology
sociology of knowledge, EE.222
sociology of organisations, EE.223
use for: organisational sociology
sociology of religion, EE.225
sociology of science, EE.226
sociology of welfare, EE.227
anthropology, EE.23
biological anthropology, EE.231
use for: physical anthropology
social anthropology, EE.232
ethnology, EE.2321
demography, EE.2322
use for: population studies
[see also: statistics (RB.71)]
[see also: population dynamics (RH.14)]
material culture studies, EE.2323
psychological anthropology, EE.233
paleoecology, EE.234
paleopathology, EE.235
paleodemography, EE.236
anthropological archaeology, EE.237
criminology, EE.24
use for: crime / criminals (study)
offenders (criminology), EE.241
use for: social deviance
prisons / penal policy, EE.242
socio-legal studies, EE.243
use for: sociology of law
sociological theory, EE.25
comparative sociology, EE.26
community studies, EE.3
[see also: community work (general) (PR.3)]
community development, EE.31
community relations, EE.32
race relations, EE.321
use for: ethnic relations
age studies, EE.4
use for: gerontology
youth studies, EE.5
[see also: youth work (general) (PR.5)]
youth development, EE.51
regional studies, EE.6
industrial studies, EE.7
labour studies, EE.71
social research, EE.8
[see also: information / data collection (CX.8)]
[see also: questionnaire design (CX.81)]
social research methods, EE.81
social data analysis, EE.83
social surveying, EE.84


cultural studies, FB.1
arts (culture) & society, FB.11
popular culture, FB.12
cultural traditions, FB.13
religion & culture, FB.14
multicultural studies, FB.15
gender studies, FB.2
women's studies, FB.21
men's studies, FB.22
contemporary studies, FB.3
use for: modern studies
folklore, FB.4
paranormal phenomena, FB.41
use for: supernatural phenomena
parapsychology, FB.411
UFOlogy, FB.412
corn circles, FB.413
predictions, FB.42
use for: horoscopes
use for: fortune telling
astrology, FB.421
palmistry, FB.422
tarot cards, FB.423
mythology, FB.43
divining, FB.44
use for: dowsing
water divining, FB.441

literature: history / criticism, FC.2
literary history, FC.21
literary criticism, FC.22
critical theory, FC.221
textual criticism, FC.222
literary research, FC.23
comparative literature, FC.24
literary stylistics, FC.25
literature: specific forms, FC.3
poetry, FC.31
dramatic literature, FC.32
use for: theatrical works (literature)
use for: plays (literature)
novels / short stories, FC.33
belles lettres, FC.34
biographical literature, FC.35
children's literature, FC.36
humour (literature), FC.37
use for: comedy (literature)
oral literature, FC.38
English literature (general), FC.4
[note: the study of literature in the English language, either as the country of origin or as a translation]
English literature of specific periods, FC.41
old English literature, FC.411
medieval English literature, FC.412
sixteenth century English literature, FC.413
seventeenth century English literature, FC.414
eighteenth century English literature, FC.415
nineteenth century English literature, FC.416
twentieth century English literature, FC.417
English literature: specific authors, FC.48
literature: specific periods, FC.5
classical literature, FC.51
literature of specific areas / countries, FC.6
[note: the study of literature emanating from a specific area studied either in the language of the area/country or as a translation]
Europe: literature, FC.62
British Isles: literature of specific areas, FC.621
Ireland: literature, FC.6211
Scotland: literature, FC.6212
Wales: literature, FC.6213
Isle of Man: literature, FC.6214
Channel Islands: literature, FC.6215
Middle East: literature, FC.63
Africa: literature, FC.64
Americas: literature, FC.65
North America: literature, FC.652
Caribbean: literature, FC.653
Latin America: literature, FC.654
South America: literature, FC.655
Asia: literature, FC.66
India / Central Asia: literature, FC.662
Far East (East Asia): literature, FC.663
Australasia / Austronesia: literature, FC.67

linguistics, FJ.2
historical / comparative linguistics, FJ.22
use for: language development
use for: philology
historical linguistics, FJ.221
comparative linguistics, FJ.222
phonetics / phonology, FJ.23
syntax / morphology, FJ.24
use for: grammar
morphology (linguistics), FJ.241
syntax (linguistics), FJ.242
vocabulary, FJ.243
lexicology, FJ.244
etymology, FJ.245
semantics, FJ.25
pragmatics, FJ.251
computational linguistics, FJ.26
[see also: mathematics for specific applications (RB.9)]
psycholinguistics, FJ.27
sociolinguistics, FJ.28
interpreting, FJ.3
community interpreting, FJ.31
conference interpreting, FJ.32
translation, FJ.4
literary translation, FJ.41
technical translation, FJ.42
computer assisted translation, FJ.43

language studies, FK.1
modern languages, FK.12
languages for business, FK.13
community languages, FK.14
ancient languages, FK.15
biblical languages, FK.16
English language, FK.2
[see also: basic communication skills (HD.2)]
English language of specific periods, FK.21
old English (Anglo-Saxon), FK.212
middle English, FK.213
use for: medieval English
English for speakers of other languages, FK.22
English as a second language, FK.221
[note: for those living in the UK whose mother tongue is not English]
English as a foreign language, FK.222
[note: for those normally living outside the UK whose mother tongue is not English]
English for specific purposes, FK.24
English for business, FK.241
[see also: business correspondence (clerical work) (AY.6)]
Europe: languages, FK.3
Europe: languages of specific periods, FK.31
Latin & Greek, FK.32
[see also: CLASSICS (DF.)]
Latin language, FK.323
Greek (modern), FK.324
Greek (classical), FK.325
Greek (New Testament), FK.326
Germanic / Nordic languages, FK.33
Dutch language, FK.332
Flemish language, FK.3322
Afrikaans language, FK.3323
Danish language, FK.333
Frisian language, FK.334
German language, FK.335
Nordic (North Germanic) languages, FK.336
Faeroese language, FK.3361
Icelandic language, FK.3362
Norwegian language, FK.3363
Nynorsk (Landsmal) language, FK.3364
Swedish language, FK.337
Yiddish, FK.338
[see also: Jewish studies (FM.22)]
Romance languages, FK.34
Catalan language, FK.342
French language, FK.343
Italian language, FK.344
Moldavian language, FK.345
Portuguese language, FK.346
Romanian language, FK.347
Rhaetian languages, FK.348
Friulian language, FK.3481
Ladin language, FK.3482
Romansch language, FK.3483
Spanish language, FK.349

Celtic / Basque languages, FK.35
use for: British Isles ethnic languages
Basque (Euskara) language, FK.351
Breton language, FK.352
Cornish language, FK.353
Irish Gaelic (Erse), FK.354
Manx Gaelic, FK.355
Scots Gaelic, FK.356
Welsh language, FK.357
Romany languages, FK.36
Slavonic / Armenian languages, FK.37
Armenian languages, FK.372
Albanian language, FK.3721
Czech languages, FK.373
Slovak language, FK.3731
Lithuanian languages, FK.374
Latvian (Lettish) language, FK.3741
Polish language, FK.375
Russian language, FK.376
Byelorussian (White Russian) language, FK.3761
Ukrainian (Ruthenian / Little Russian) language, FK.377
South Slavic languages, FK.378
Serbian language, FK.3781
Croatian language, FK.3782
Slovenian language, FK.3783
Macedonian language, FK.3784
Bulgarian language, FK.3785
Uralian / Caucasian languages, FK.38
Estonian language, FK.382
Finnish (Suomi) language, FK.383
Hungarian (Magyar) language, FK.384
Livonian language, FK.385
Lappish language, FK.386
Samoyed languages, FK.387
Ugric languages, FK.388
African languages, FK.4
[note: includes Afar, Amharic, Benue-Congolese, Chuana (Tswana / Bechuana), Cushitic, Dinka, Fula, Galla, Ganda (Baganda), Hamitic, Herero / Ndonga / Ovambo, Khoi,
Kikuyu (Akikuyu), Luganda, Luhya (Baluha), Masai, Mauritian Creole, More (Dagonda), Nuba (Nubian), Nyanga (Chewa) (Chinyanja), Nyoro (Banyora), Rundi (Burundi), Rwanda, San, Shona (Chishona), Somali, Sotho / Basuto, Swahili, Togo, Xhosa (Hausa), Yoruba, Zulu]
Americas: languages, FK.5
Native American (Amerindian) languages, FK.51
Caribbean: language(s), FK.52
Carib languages, FK.521
Caribbean Patois, FK.522
Inuit / Aleutian languages, FK.53
North American Native languages, FK.54
[note: includes Algonkian, Appalachian, Athabascan, Aztec group, Californian group, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Chochaw, Creole, Galigh, Iroquian, Kenai, Lakota, Lerape, Mexican group, Mingit, Mohawk, Navajo, Oregon group, Ojibuze, Passamaquoddy, Pawnee, Pueblo group, Siouan, Tlingit, Yuma group]
Central American Native languages, FK.56
[note: includes Huaxtec, Maya, Quiche]
South American Native languages, FK.57
[note: includes Chibcha, Guarani, Omagua, Quechua, Tehuelch, Tupi]
Asian languages, FK.6
Altaic languages, FK.62
Manchu language, FK.621
Mongolian languages, FK.622
Buryat language, FK.6221
Kalmyk language, FK.6222
Mongolian language, FK.6223
Turkic languages, FK.623
Anatolian Ottoman language, FK.6231
Azerbaijani language, FK.6232
Turkish (Osmanli) language, FK.6233
Turkmen language, FK.6234
Tungusic (Evenki) language, FK.624
Chinese languages, FK.63
Cantonese language, FK.632
Hakka language, FK.633
Mandarin (Kuan-hua) language, FK.634
Pekinese language, FK.635
Indic / Dravidian languages, FK.64
Indic languages: general, FK.641
Indic languages: ancient, FK.642
Sanskrit language, FK.6421
Vedic language, FK.6422
Bengali language, FK.643
Dardic languages, FK.644
Kashmiri language, FK.6441
Khowar language, FK.6442
Pashai language, FK.6443
Shina language, FK.6444
Dravidian languages, FK.645
Malayalan language, FK.6451
Tamil language, FK.6452
Telugu language, FK.6453
Gujarati / Rajasthani / Bhili languages, FK.646
Gujarati language, FK.6461
Rajasthani language, FK.6462
Bhili language, FK.6463
Hindi / Hindustani / Urdu languages, FK.647
Hindi language, FK.6471
Hindustani language, FK.6472
Urdu language, FK.6473
Marathi language, FK.648
Indic languages: modern (other), FK.649
Assamese language, FK.6491
Lahnda language, FK.6492
Nepali language, FK.6493
Oriya language, FK.6494
Punjabi language, FK.6495
Sinhalese language, FK.6496
Japanese language, FK.65
Malayo-Polynesian / Indonesian languages, FK.66
Balinese language, FK.661
Borneo languages, FK.662
Dayak language, FK.6621
Celebes languages, FK.663
Sulawesi language, FK.6631
Formosan language, FK.664
Indonesia: non-Malayan languages, FK.665
Timor languages, FK.6651
Ambon languages, FK.6652
Javanese language, FK.666
Madagascar languages, FK.667
Malagasi language, FK.6671
Malay language, FK.668
Philippine languages, FK.669
Tagalog language, FK.6691
South East Asian languages, FK.67
Annamese language, FK.671
Austro-Asiatic languages, FK.672
Malacca language, FK.6721
Mon-Khmer language, FK.6722
Munda language, FK.6723
Nicobarese language, FK.6724
Burmese / Arakan language, FK.673
Cochinchinese language, FK.674
Korean language, FK.675
Laotian language, FK.676
Thai languages, FK.677
Siamese language, FK.6771
Tonkinese language, FK.678
Vietnamese language, FK.679
Tibetan / Burmese / Himalayan languages, FK.68
Assamese languages, FK.681
Burmese languages, FK.682
Himalayan languages, FK.683
Tibetan languages, FK.684
Balti language, FK.6841
Bhotian language, FK.6842
Ladakhi language, FK.6843
Tibetan language, FK.6844
Australasian and Austronesian languages, FK.7
Australian (Native Australian) languages, FK.72
South Australian (Native Australian) languages, FK.721
North Australian (Native Australian) languages, FK.722
Tasmanian languages, FK.723
Oceanian languages, FK.73
Fijian languages, FK.731
Melanesian languages, FK.732
Micronesian languages, FK.733
Papuan languages, FK.74
Polynesian languages, FK.75
Hawaiian languages, FK.751
Maori languages, FK.752
Samoan languages, FK.753
Western Polynesian languages, FK.754
Middle East languages, FK.8
Iranian languages, FK.82
Baluchi language, FK.822
Kurdish language, FK.823
Ossetic language, FK.824
Persian languages, FK.825
Persian: classical, FK.8251
Persian: modern (Farsi), FK.8252
Pushtu (Afghan) language, FK.826
Semitic languages (excluding Amharic), FK.83
Arabic language, FK.831
Aramaic language, FK.832
Nabataean language, FK.8321
Palestinian language, FK.8322
Palmyrene language, FK.8323
Samaritan language, FK.8324
East Aramaic languages, FK.833
Jacobite language, FK.8331
Nestorian language, FK.8332
Syriac language, FK.8333
East Semitic language, FK.834
Akkadian (Assyro-Babylonian) language, FK.8341
Sumerian language, FK.8342
Hebrew language, FK.835
international artificial languages, FK.9
Esperanto, FK.91
Glosa, FK.92
Interlingua, FK.93
Volapuk, FK.94

[note: use for studies to do with a particular area - this could be cultural or social eg interdisciplinary studies]
[see also: LANGUAGES (FK.)]
area studies (general), FM.1
Third World studies, FM.11
British Commonwealth studies, FM.12
Soviet studies, FM.13
diaspora studies, FM.2
Black studies, FM.21
Jewish studies, FM.22
[see also: Yiddish (FK.338)]
Celtic studies, FM.23
Romany studies, FM.24
Islamic studies, FM.25
Hispanic studies, FM.26
British Isles area studies, FM.3
English area studies, FM.31
Irish area studies, FM.32
[see also: Celtic area studies (FM.412)]
Northern Ireland area studies, FM.33
[see also: Celtic area studies (FM.412)]
Scottish area studies, FM.34
[see also: Celtic area studies (FM.412)]
Welsh area studies, FM.35
[see also: Celtic area studies (FM.412)]
athroniaeth, FM.351
dyniaethau, FM.352
Isle of Man area studies, FM.36
Channel Islands area studies, FM.37
Europe: area studies, FM.4
[note: excluding British Isles]
use for: European awareness
Europe: area studies: general, FM.41
Balkan area studies, FM.411
[note: this mainly covers the former Yugoslavia]
Celtic area studies, FM.412
[note: use for general studies]
[see also: Welsh area studies (FM.35)]
[see also: Irish area studies (FM.32)]
[see also: Scottish area studies (FM.34)]
[see also: Northern Ireland area studies (FM.33)]
Eastern Europe: area studies, FM.413
[note: includes the European areas of the former Soviet Union]
Scandinavia: area studies, FM.414
Western Europe: area studies, FM.415
European Union: area studies, FM.416

Europe (specific countries) A-B: area studies, FM.42
Albania: area studies, FM.421
Andorra: area studies, FM.422
Armenia: area studies, FM.423
Austria: area studies, FM.424
Belarus: area studies, FM.425
Belgium: studies, FM.426
Bosnia / Herzegovina: area studies, FM.427
Bulgaria: area studies, FM.428
Europe (specific countries) C-F: area studies, FM.43
Croatia: area studies, FM.431
Cyprus: area studies, FM.432
Czech Republic: area studies, FM.433
[see also: Slovakia: area studies (FM.473)]
Denmark: area studies, FM.434
Estonia: area studies, FM.435
Finland: area studies, FM.436
France: area studies, FM.437
Europe (specific countries) G-I: area studies, FM.44
Germany: area studies, FM.442
Gibraltar: area studies, FM.443
Greece: area studies, FM.444
[note: for Holland see Netherlands (FM.461)]
Hungary: area studies, FM.445
Iceland: area studies, FM.446
Ireland (Republic of): area studies, FM.447
use for: Eire: area studies
Italy: area studies, FM.448
Europe (specific countries) J-M: area studies, FM.45
Latvia: area studies, FM.451
Liechtenstein: area studies, FM.452
Lithuania: area studies, FM.453
Luxembourg: area studies, FM.454
Macedonia: area studies, FM.455
Malta: area studies, FM.456
Moldova: area studies, FM.457
Monaco: area studies, FM.458
Montenegro: area studies, FM.459
Europe (specific countries) N-R: area studies, FM.46
Netherlands: area studies, FM.461
use for: Holland: area studies
Norway: area studies, FM.462
Poland: area studies, FM.463
Portugal: area studies, FM.464
Romania: area studies, FM.465
Russian Federation: area studies, FM.466
use for: Siberian area studies
Europe (specific countries) S: area studies, FM.47
San Marino: area studies, FM.471
Serbia: area studies, FM.472
Slovakia: area studies, FM.473
[see also: Czech Republic: area studies (FM.433)]
Slovenia: area studies, FM.474
Spain: area studies, FM.475
Sweden: area studies, FM.476
Switzerland: area studies, FM.477
Europe (specific countries) T-Z: area studies, FM.48
Ukraine: area studies, FM.481
Vatican: area studies, FM.482
African area studies, FM.5
North Africa area studies, FM.51
Algeria: area studies, FM.512
Egypt: area studies, FM.513
Ethiopia: area studies, FM.514
Eritrea: area studies, FM.515
Libya: area studies, FM.516
Morocco: area studies, FM.517
Sudan: area studies, FM.518
Tunisia: area studies, FM.519
Sub-Saharan Africa: area studies, FM.52
West Africa: area studies, FM.53
Cape Verde Islands: area studies, FM.532
Mali: area studies, FM.533
Mauritania: area studies, FM.534
Niger: area studies, FM.535
Senegal: area studies, FM.536
Sierra Leone: area studies, FM.537
Upper Volta: area studies, FM.538
Upper West Africa area studies, FM.54
Benin: area studies, FM.541
Gambia: area studies, FM.542
Ghana: area studies, FM.543
Guinea: area studies, FM.544
Guinea-Bissau: area studies, FM.545
Ivory Coast: area studies, FM.546
Liberia: area studies, FM.547
Nigeria: area studies, FM.548
Togo: area studies, FM.549
Lower West Africa area studies, FM.55
Angola: area studies, FM.551
Cameroon: area studies, FM.552
Congo: area studies, FM.553
Equatorial Guinea: area studies, FM.554
Gabon: area studies, FM.555
Sao Tome: area studies, FM.556
Inner Africa area studies, FM.56
Burundi: area studies, FM.561
Central African Republic: area studies, FM.562
Chad: area studies, FM.563
Rwanda: area studies, FM.564
Zaire: area studies, FM.565
East Africa area studies, FM.57
Djibouti: area studies, FM.571
Kenya: area studies, FM.572
Somalia: area studies, FM.573
Tanzania: area studies, FM.574
Uganda: area studies, FM.575
Zambia: area studies, FM.576
Southern Africa area studies, FM.58
Botswana: area studies, FM.582
Lesotho: area studies, FM.583
Malawi: area studies, FM.584
Mozambique: area studies, FM.585
South Africa: area studies, FM.586
South West Africa: area studies, FM.587
Swaziland: area studies, FM.588
Zimbabwe: area studies, FM.589
African islands of Indian Ocean: area studies, FM.59
Comoros: area studies, FM.591
Madagascar: area studies, FM.592
Maldives: area studies, FM.593
Mauritius: area studies, FM.594
Reunion: area studies, FM.595
Seychelles: area studies, FM.596
Americas: area studies, FM.6
American area studies, FM.61
Latin America: area studies, FM.612
Caribbean area studies, FM.613
[see also: West Indies (Greater Antilles): area studies (FM.67)]
[see also: West Indies (Leeward Islands): area studies (FM.68)]
[see also: West Indies (Windward Islands): area studies (FM.69)]
North America: area studies, FM.63
Canada: area studies, FM.631
United States: area studies, FM.632
Greenland: area studies, FM.633
Bermudas: area studies, FM.634
Central America: area studies, FM.64
Belize: area studies, FM.642
Costa Rica: area studies, FM.643
El Salvador: area studies, FM.644
Guatemala: area studies, FM.645
Honduras: area studies, FM.646
Mexico: area studies, FM.647
Nicaragua: area studies, FM.648
Panama: area studies, FM.649
South Central America: area studies, FM.65
Colombia: area studies, FM.651
French Guiana (Guyane): area studies, FM.652
Guyana: area studies, FM.653
Surinam: area studies, FM.654
Venezuela: area studies, FM.655
South America: area studies, FM.66
Argentina: area studies, FM.662
Bolivia: area studies, FM.663
Brazil: area studies, FM.664
Chile: area studies, FM.665
Ecuador: area studies, FM.666
Falkland Islands: area studies, FM.667
Paraguay: area studies, FM.668
Peru: area studies, FM.669
West Indies (Greater Antilles): area studies, FM.67
[see also: Caribbean area studies (FM.613)]
Bahamas: area studies, FM.671
Cayman Islands: area studies, FM.672
Cuba: area studies, FM.673
Dominican Republic: area studies, FM.674
Haiti: area studies, FM.675
Jamaica: area studies, FM.676
Puerto Rico: area studies, FM.677
West Indies (Leeward Islands): area studies, FM.68
[see also: Caribbean area studies (FM.613)]
Antigua & Barbuda: area studies, FM.681
Guadeloupe: area studies, FM.682
Montserrat: area studies, FM.683
St Kitts / Nevis / Anguilla: area studies, FM.684
West Indies (Windward Islands): area studies, FM.69
[see also: Caribbean area studies (FM.613)]
Barbados: area studies, FM.691
Dominica: area studies, FM.692
Grenada: area studies, FM.693
Martinique: area studies, FM.694
St Vincent: area studies, FM.695
St Lucia: area studies, FM.696
Trinidad & Tobago: area studies, FM.697
Asian area studies, FM.7
India / Central Asia states: area studies, FM.72
Afghanistan: area studies, FM.722
Bangladesh: area studies, FM.723
Bhutan: area studies, FM.724
India: area studies, FM.725
Nepal: area studies, FM.726
Pakistan: area studies, FM.727
Sri Lanka: area studies, FM.728
East Asia states: area studies, FM.73
China: area studies, FM.732
Japan: area studies, FM.733
Mongolia: area studies, FM.734
North Korea: area studies, FM.735
South Korea: area studies, FM.736
Taiwan: area studies, FM.737
Tibet: area studies, FM.738
South East Asia states: area studies, FM.74
Burma: area studies, FM.742
Kampuchea: area studies, FM.743
Laos: area studies, FM.744
Malaysia: area studies, FM.745
Singapore: area studies, FM.746
Thailand: area studies, FM.747
Vietnam: area studies, FM.748
North West Asia: area studies, FM.75
Azerbaijan: area studies, FM.751
Georgia: area studies, FM.752
Kazakhstan: area studies, FM.753
Kyrgyzstan: area studies, FM.754
Tajikistan: area studies, FM.755
Turkmenistan: area studies, FM.756
Uzbekistan: area studies, FM.757
Australasian / Austronesian area studies, FM.8
Australasia: area studies (general), FM.81
Austronesia: area studies (general), FM.82
Melanesia: area studies, FM.821
Micronesia: area studies, FM.822
Polynesia: area studies, FM.823
Australasia: area studies: specific countries, FM.85
[note: use FM.81 if country not known]
Australia: area studies, FM.851
Indonesia: area studies, FM.852
New Zealand: area studies, FM.853
Papua New Guinea: area studies, FM.854
Philippines: area studies, FM.855
Austronesia: area studies: specific countries, FM.86
[note: use FM.82 if country not known]
Fiji: area studies, FM.861
Kiribati: area studies, FM.862
Nauru: area studies, FM.863
Solomon Islands: area studies, FM.864
Tonga: area studies, FM.865
Tuvalu: area studies, FM.866
Vanuatu: area studies, FM.867
Western Samoa: area studies, FM.868
Antarctica: area studies, FM.88
Middle East: area studies, FM.9
Middle East studies: FM.91
Semitic area studies, FM.911
Arabic area studies, FM.912
Byzantine area studies, FM.913
Iran (Farsi) area studies, FM.914
Turkish (Ottoman) area studies, FM.915
Arabian states: area studies, FM.92
Bahrain: area studies, FM.922
Kuwait: area studies, FM.923
Oman: area studies, FM.924
Qatar: area studies, FM.925
Saudi Arabia: area studies, FM.926
South Yemen: area studies, FM.927
United Arab Emirates: area studies, FM.928
Yemen Arab Republic: area studies, FM.929
Iran: area studies, FM.93
Iraq: area studies, FM.94
Israel: area studies, FM.95
Jordan: area studies, FM.96
Lebanon: area studies, FM.97
Syria: area studies, FM.98
Turkey: area studies, FM.99


[note: study of the theory of education, training and learning]
education (general), GA.1
higher education (general), GA.11
higher education learning issues, GA.111
further education (general), GA.12
further education learning issues, GA.121
adult / community education (general), GA.13
adult / community education learning issues, GA.131
secondary schools (general), GA.14
secondary schools learning issues, GA.141
primary schools (general), GA.15
primary schools learning issues, GA.151
nursery schools (general), GA.16
use for: playgroups (general)
[see also: playgroup practice, PT.214]
nursery schools learning issues, GA.161
multicultural education (general), GA.17
multicultural education learning issues, GA.171
integrated education (general), GA.18
integrated education learning issues, GA.181
special education (general), GA.19
special education learning issues, GA.191
comparative education, GA.2
[note: use for education in less developed countries]
education theory / philosophy, GA.3
history of education, GA.31
sociology of education, GA.32
use for: educational sociology
learning theory, GA.33
child development (education), GA.331
early learning, GA.332
education research, GA.4
education policy / planning, GA.5
equal opportunities in education, GA.7
problem awareness / counselling (for teachers), GA.8
[see also: health hazards awareness (PA.93)]
substance abuse awareness (schools), GA.81
child abuse awareness (schools), GA.82
AIDS/HIV awareness: schools, GA.83
training (general), GA.9

[note: use for courses on the practice of teaching and training]
teaching / training (general), GB.1
teacher training access / preparatory studies, GB.11
school based training (for teachers), GB.12
[note: use for Qualified Teacher Status]
teaching (general), GB.13
training practice, GB.14
training for trainers, GB.141
use for: training officers
teaching / training in post-compulsory education, GB.2
teaching / training in further education, GB.22
teaching / training in higher education, GB.23
teaching / training in adult education, GB.24
teaching / training in community education, GB.25
teaching in schools, GB.3
teaching in secondary schools, GB.31
use for: middle school teaching
teaching in primary schools, GB.32
use for: infant school teaching
use for: junior school teaching
education assistants, GB.33
use for: teaching assistants
teaching in nursery schools, GB.34
use for: nursery school teaching
use for: kindergarten teaching
[see also: playgroup practice (PT.214)]
integrated class teaching (disabled / non-disabled children), GB.37
remedial teaching, GB.5
remedial teaching: people with behavioural difficulties, GB.51
remedial teaching: people with emotional difficulties, GB.52
literacy / special needs teaching, GB.6
learning disadvantaged people: teaching, GB.61
travelling people: teaching, GB.611
displaced people: teaching, GB.612
use for: refugee teaching
people with other languages: teaching, GB.613
use for: remedial language teaching
literacy / basic skills teaching, GB.62
[see also: reading teaching (schools) (GC.59)]
reading & writing (literacy) teaching, GB.621
use for: reading teaching (adults)
use for: adult reading teaching
basic mathematics (numeracy) teaching, GB.622
[see also: mathematics teaching / training (GC.82)]
communication skills (basic skills) teaching, GB.623
social skills (basic skills) teaching, GB.624
living skills (basic skills) teaching, GB.625
hearing disabled people: teaching, GB.63
hearing disabled children: teaching, GB.631
visually disabled people: teaching, GB.64
visually disabled children: teaching, GB.641
partially sighted people: teaching, GB.642
people with learning difficulties: teaching, GB.65
people with severe learning difficulties: teaching, GB.66
gifted people: teaching, GB.68
dyslexic people: teaching, GB.69
teaching / training methods / skills, GB.7
use for: instruction techniques
learning methods, GB.71
teaching / training skills, GB.72
tutoring, GB.721
group work (teaching / training), GB.722
coaching (teaching / training), GB.723
telephone teaching / counselling, GB.724
mentoring, GB.725
outdoor education (teaching / training), GB.73
field party leadership, GB.731
teacher / trainer assessment, GB.74
use for: assessor (teachers) training
teaching / training methods, GB.75
training methods for specific industries, GB.751
learning / training design / development, GB.8
learning / training needs assessment, GB.81
curriculum development, GB.82
learning / training design, GB.83
[see also: learning materials design (GB.93)]
course design, GB.831
flexible learning design, GB.832
open learning design, GB.8321
distance learning course design, GB.8322
use for: correspondence course learning design
National Curriculum (teaching), GB.84
National Vocational qualifications (NVQs, SVQs, GNVQs, gSVQs), GB.85
use for: NVQs for trainers
VQs assessment / verification, GB.851
[note: this includes courses leading to TDLB units D33-D36 inclusive]
VQ implementation / delivery, GB.852
VQ development, GB.853
learning assessment / testing, GB.86
use for: testing (education)
use for: assessment / testing (education)
examination design, GB.861
examination administration, GB.862
achievement testing (education), GB.863
training evaluation, GB.864
accreditation of prior learning, GB.865
vocational preparation work, GB.87
[note: include courses for those who are going to prepare learners for work]
[see also: preparation for work (HC.42)]
training development, GB.88
continuing professional development (CPD), GB.881
[note: for development of CPD training opportunities]
management education / development, GB.882
[note: for the development of training opportunities in management]
training schemes implementation, GB.883
adult training schemes implementation, GB.8831
youth training schemes implementation, GB.8832
learning resources / educational technology, GB.9
educational technology, GB.91
[see also: education / careers / schools software (CS.6)]
learning resources, GB.92
learning materials design, GB.93
use for: education materials design
[see also: learning design (GB.83)]
distance learning materials design, GB.931
film / television / video in education, GB.94
[see also: film / video / television production (KJ.2)]
television in education, GB.941
CCTV in education, GB.942
film in education, GB.943
video in education, GB.944
computers in education, GB.95
use for: information technology in education
computer based training (CBT) (general), GB.96
computer assisted learning (CAL) (general), GB.97
visual aids production / use (teaching), GB.98
school workshop services, GB.99

business / industry / engineering teaching / training, GC.1
business & management studies teaching / training, GC.11
business studies teaching / training, GC.111
management studies teaching / training, GC.112
marketing teaching / training, GC.113
human resources management teaching / training, GC.114
finance / accounting teaching / training, GC.115
craft design and technology (CDT) teaching / training, GC.12
[note: for crafts teaching / training use arts and crafts teaching / training, GC.61]
industrial design teaching / training, GC.121
technology: general teaching / training, GC.122
architecture construction & property teaching / training, GC.13
surveying teaching / training, GC.131
architecture teaching / training, GC.132
building / construction engineering teaching / training, GC.133
civil engineering teaching / training, GC.134
building / construction studies teaching / training, GC.135
DIY teaching / training, GC.136
engineering / manufacturing teaching / training, GC.14
electrical engineering teaching / training, GC.141
electronic engineering teaching / training, GC.142
telecommunications engineering teaching / training, GC.143
electrical / electronic servicing teaching / training, GC.144
engineering / manufacturing / polymers teaching / training, GC.15
engineering: general teaching / training, GC.151
engineering craft work teaching / training, GC.152
manufacturing teaching / training, GC.153
mechanical engineering teaching / training, GC.154
metallurgy teaching / training, GC.155
oil / minerals / mining teaching / training, GC.156
polymer science / plastics teaching / training, GC.157
chemicals technology teaching / training, GC.158
materials technology teaching / training, GC.159
transport services / vehicle engineering teaching / training, GC.16
transport: general teaching / training, GC.161
aviation teaching / training, GC.162
marine transport teaching / training, GC.163
rail transport teaching / training, GC.164
road transport teaching / training, GC.165
vehicle maintenance / engineering teaching / training, GC.166
information technology / computer / information teaching / training, GC.2
information technology (general) teaching / training, GC.21
computer studies teaching / training, GC.22
computer programming teaching / training, GC.23
software use teaching / training, GC.24
library / information skills teaching / training, GC.25
office / secretarial / sales work teaching / training, GC.3
office practice teaching / training, GC.31
commerce teaching / training, GC.32
typewriting teaching / training, GC.33
keyboarding / VDU operating teaching / training, GC.34
word processing teaching / training, GC.35
shorthand teaching / training, GC.36
secretarial studies teaching / training, GC.37
reception / telephonist work teaching / training, GC.38
sales work teaching / training, GC.39
social sciences / humanities / culture teaching / training, GC.4
social sciences / humanities teaching / training, GC.41
general / modern studies teaching / training, GC.42
politics teaching / training, GC.43
economics teaching / training, GC.44
law teaching / training, GC.45
area studies teaching / training, GC.46
cultural studies teaching / training, GC.47
local studies teaching / training, GC.473
literature teaching, GC.474
English literature teaching, GC.4741
children's literature teaching, GC.4742
multicultural literature teaching, GC.4743
history teaching, GC.475
archaeology teaching / training, GC.476
religious studies teaching, GC.477
philosophy teaching, GC.478
social studies teaching / training, GC.48
use for: sex education teaching
community studies teaching / training, GC.481
sociology teaching, GC.482
social work teaching / training, GC.483
caring skills teaching / training, GC.484
counselling skills teaching / training, GC.485
languages / reading teaching / training, GC.5
languages teaching / training: general, GC.51
linguistics teaching / training, GC.511
modern languages teaching / training, GC.512
community languages teaching / training, GC.513
teaching a national language as a second/foreign language, GC.514
teaching a national language for specific purposes, GC.515
English language teaching, GC.52
TESOL (teaching English to speakers of other languages), GC.521
TEFL (teaching English as a foreign language), GC.522
TESL (teaching English as a second language), GC.523
GPE (general purpose English) teaching, GC.524
TESP (teaching English for specific purposes), GC.525
Europe: languages teaching / training, GC.53
French teaching / training, GC.531
German teaching / training, GC.532
Italian teaching / training, GC.533
Spanish teaching / training, GC.534
Middle East: languages teaching / training, GC.54
Africa: languages teaching / training, GC.55
Americas: languages teaching / training, GC.56
North America: languages teaching / training, GC.562
Caribbean languages teaching / training, GC.563
Latin America: languages teaching / training, GC.564
Asia: languages teaching / training, GC.57
India / Central Asia languages teaching / training, GC.572
Far East (East Asia) languages teaching / training, GC.573
Australasia: languages teaching / training, GC.58
reading teaching (schools), GC.59
[see also: literacy / basic skills teaching (GB.62)]
arts & crafts / communication / performing arts teaching / training, GC.6
arts & crafts teaching / training, GC.61
art history teaching / training, GC.611
fine art teaching / training, GC.612
design (non-industrial) teaching / training, GC.613
decorative arts teaching / training, GC.614
crafts / handicrafts teaching / training, GC.615
fashion / needlecraft teaching / training, GC.616
communication arts teaching / training, GC.62
media studies teaching / training, GC.621
creative writing / journalism teaching / training, GC.622
photography / film / video teaching / training, GC.623
publishing / print teaching / training, GC.624
self development / communication skills teaching / training, GC.63
self development teaching / training, GC.631
communication skills teaching / training, GC.632
relaxation arts / yoga teaching / training, GC.633
performing arts teaching / training, GC.64
dance teaching / training, GC.641
movement teaching / training, GC.642
drama teaching / training, GC.643
music teaching / training, GC.644
music performance teaching / training, GC.645
sports / physical education teaching / training, GC.7
[see also: horse riding / horse sports (MH.5)]
[see also: sports coaching (MA.4)]
aerobics teaching / training, GC.71
fitness trainer training, GC.72
science / mathematics / environment / health teaching / training, GC.8
sciences teaching, GC.81
physics teaching, GC.811
[see also: PHYSICS (RC.)]
chemistry teaching, GC.812
[see also: CHEMISTRY (RD.)]
earth sciences teaching, GC.813
geography teaching, GC.8131
geology teaching, GC.8132
astronomy teaching, GC.8133
life sciences teaching, GC.814
biochemistry teaching, GC.8141
biology teaching, GC.8142
botany teaching, GC.8143
ecology teaching, GC.8144
zoology teaching, GC.8145
mathematics teaching, GC.82
[see also: basic mathematics (numeracy) teaching (GB.622)
statistics teaching, GC.821
health care / medicine teaching / training, GC.83
health studies teaching / training, GC.831
medical sciences teaching / training, GC.832
supplementary medicine teaching / training, GC.833
physical therapies teaching / training, GC.834
psychology teaching / training, GC.835
nursing teaching / training, GC.836
health & safety teaching / training, GC.84
environmental health teaching / training, GC.85
environment studies teaching / training, GC.86
energy studies teaching / training, GC.87
security / military services teaching / training, GC.88
agriculture / catering / leisure services teaching / training, GC.9
catering teaching / training, GC.91
cookery / food processing teaching / training, GC.92
home economics teaching / training, GC.93
leisure / tourist services teaching / training, GC.94
agriculture / rural science teaching / training, GC.95
horticulture teaching / training, GC.96
forestry teaching / training, GC.97
animal husbandry teaching / training, GC.98
veterinary studies / animal care teaching / training, GC.99
[see also: horse riding / animal sports (MH.5)]

[see also: education (general) (GA.1)]
education administration (general), GD.1
higher education administration, GD.2
use for: universities organisation
further education administration, GD.3
community education administration, GD.4
use for: adult education: management
school administration, GD.5
secondary school administration, GD.51
primary school administration, GD.52
school inspection / assessment, GD.53
use for: education inspection / assessment
local management of schools (LMS), GD.54
school governors' work, GD.55
integrated education administration (disabled / non-disabled children), GD.56
multicultural education administration, GD.57
multilingual education administration, GD.571
nursery school administration, GD.58
use for: nursery school management
use for: kindergarten management
[see also: playgroup practice (PT.214)]
special education administration, GD.7
school support work / helpers, GD.8
learning support / classroom assistant, GD.81
playground supervisors, GD.82
school meals helpers, GD.83
school / college office support work, GD.84
education / industry links, GD.9
use for: school / industry links

careers advice work, GF.1
careers advice for secondary school students, GF.13
careers advice for further / higher education students, GF.14
careers advice for adults, GF.15
careers advice for people with special needs, GF.16
careers counselling, GF.2
education guidance work, GF.3


self development (general), HB.1
use for: personal development (general)
consciousness raising, HB.11
self appraisal (personal), HB.2
stress / tension handling, HB.3
relaxation, HB.31
stress control (personal), HB.32
use for: nervous tension: control
[see also: stress management (business) (AF.25)]
meditation, HB.33
yoga (meditation), HB.34
[see also: yoga (personal fitness) (HJ.553)]
mind improvement, HB.4
memory improvement, HB.41
neurolinguistic programming, HB.42
self defence, HB.5
self presentation, HB.6
[see also: personal appearance (self presentation) (HJ.9)]
assertiveness (social), HB.62
use for: self confidence
self image (self presentation), HB.63
use for: personal image (self presentation)
business image (self presentation), HB.64
interpersonal skills (self development), HB.7
[see also: business interpersonal skills (AF.4)]
[see also: communication skills (KB.)]
kinesics, HB.71
use for: body language
listening skills, HB.72
personal development groups, HB.8
co-counselling groups, HB.81
use for: counselling groups
action learning groups, HB.82
adventure / outdoor training, HB.9

career planning, HC.1
use for: educational guidance (personal)
retirement preparation, HC.2
redundancy / unemployment preparation, HC.3
preparatory courses, HC.4
use for: foundation courses
preparatory courses (special needs), HC.41
preparation for work, HC.42
use for: work preparation
[see also: vocational preparation work (GB.87)]
public service preparation, HC.421
[note: includes preparation for emergency services work, fire service]
pre-police studies, HC.4211
military services preparation, HC.422
preparation for training / education, HC.43
use for: return to study
vocational preparation, HC.44
use for: vocational education diploma
return to work, HC.45
bridging courses (general), HC.5
bridging courses (special needs), HC.51
job search skills, HC.6
curriculum vitae preparation, HC.61
use for: CV preparation
use for: employment histories: preparation
job applications, HC.62
job interviews, HC.63
[note: preparing to be interviewed: for conducting an interview see (AF.43)]
study skills, HC.7
reading (study skills), HC.71
speed reading, HC.711
use for: rapid reading
essay writing (study skills), HC.72
learning skills, HC.73
note taking (study skills), HC.74
library use (study skills), HC.75
dyslexia self help, HC.76
[see also: reading & writing (literacy) (HD.3)]
access courses (general), HC.8
[note: preparation courses for higher education for those who do not possess the normal qualifications for entry: this class ONLY for non-specific access: access courses normally classed with the subject itself]

use for: adult studies
use for: basic education
basic communication skills, HD.2
[note: includes spoken English]
[see also: English language (FK.2)]
reading & writing (literacy), HD.3
use for: adult literacy
[note: includes basic English classes and workshops covering basic reading and writing skills to prepare for examinations: double code with English language if appropriate]
[note: do not use for basic English as a second (FK.221) or foreign (FK.222) language]
[see also: dyslexia self help (HC.76)]
reading (literacy), HD.31
writing (literacy), HD.32
spelling (literacy), HD.33
mathematics (numeracy), HD.4
[note: includes basic maths classes and workshops covering basic numeracy skills to prepare for examinations: double code with mathematics if appropriate]
use for: arithmetic (numeracy)
use for: polymaths
[see also: arithmetic (general) (RB.14)]
calculator use, HD.41
social skills, HD.5
use for: life skills
independent living, HD.6
home management, HD.8

personal finance, HE.1
personal budgets, HE.11
personal investments, HE.12
personal pensions, HE.13
home buying / selling, HE.2
mortgages (home buying), HE.21
will making, HE.3
rights (personal) (general), HE.4
legal rights (personal), HE.5
welfare rights, HE.6
housing rights, HE.61
use for: homeless people: housing rights
medical treatment rights, HE.62
employment / unemployment rights, HE.63
consumerism, HE.7
consumer rights, HE.71
consumer information, HE.72
benefits, HE.8
use for: NI benefits
use for: DSS benefits
[see also: local charges: personal (AK.721)]
housing benefits, HE.81
family benefits, HE.82
retirement benefits, HE.83
[note: for pensions use HE.13]
disability benefits, HE.84

[note: the subjects below are for family carers: for professional carers see appropriate class in (PR.)]
parenting (general), HF.1
use for: child care (parenting)
use for: fathercraft
use for: mothercraft
[see also: child care skills, PT.21]
[see also: children / youth (social work) (PR.41)]
mother & toddler groups, HF.11
single parenting, HF.13
foster parenting, HF.14
adoption of children, HF.15
pregnancy / birth preparation, HF.2
use for: maternity
children with emotional / behavioural difficulties (parenting), HF.3
children with emotional difficulties (parenting), HF.31
children with behavioural difficulties (parenting), HF.32
substance abuse awareness (parents), HF.4
alcohol abuse awareness (parents), HF.41
drug abuse awareness (parents), HF.42
solvent abuse awareness (parents), HF.43
special children: parenting, HF.6
physically disabled children: parenting, HF.61
parenting: severely ill children, HF.62
learning difficulties children: parenting, HF.63
severe learning difficulties children: parenting, HF.64
carers / family care: general, HF.7
[note: for those who care at home for a sick, infirm or disabled family member or family members in crisis]
carers: respite care, HF.72
home nursing (family carers), HF.73

carers / family carers: specific conditions, HF.8
[see also: health hazards awareness (PA.93)]
AIDS: family carers, HF.81
substance abuse: family carers, HF.82
alcohol abuse: family carers, HF.821
drug abuse: family carers, HF.822
frail older people: family carers, HF.83
physically ill people: family carers, HF.84
physically disabled people: family carers, HF.85
mentally disturbed people: family carers, HF.86
learning difficulties people: family carers, HF.87
severe learning difficulties people: family carers, HF.871
terminally ill people: family carers, HF.88
use for: dying people: family carers

[see also: carers / family care: general (HF.7)]
[see also: carers / family carers: specific conditions (HF.8)]
[see also: communication for & with people with disabilities (KB.6)]
[see also: people with disabilities (social work) (PR.45)]
visually disabled people: skills / facilities, HG.1
visually disabled people: special skills development, HG.11
visually disabled people: learning aids, HG.13
visually disabled people: mobility aids, HG.14
guide dog use, HG.141
[note: how to use a guide dog: for training a guide dog see (SP.321)]
hearing disabled people: skills / facilities, HG.2
hearing disabled people: special skills development, HG.21
deaf-blind people: skills / facilities, HG.3
deaf-blind people: special skills development, HG.31
deaf-blind people: learning aids, HG.33
deaf-blind people: mobility aids, HG.34
physically disabled people: skills / facilities, HG.4
physically disabled people: special skills development, HG.41
physically disabled people: mobility aids, HG.42

[note: the subjects below are for people with these problems; for family carers see (HF.8); for professional carers see community work (PR.3) and families (social work) (PR.42)]
crisis self help, HH.1
unemployment self help, HH.11
divorce self help, HH.12
bereavement self help, HH.13
homeless people self help, HH.14
victims self help, HH.2
rape victims self help, HH.21
child abuse victims self help, HH.22
violence victims self help, HH.23
crime (non-sexual) victims self help, HH.24
addiction self help, HH.3
alcohol users self help, HH.31
drug users self help, HH.32
smokers self help, HH.33
use for: tobacco addiction self help
offenders self help, HH.4
food related disorders self help, HH.5
anorexia self help, HH.51
bulimia self help, HH.52
phobias self help, HH.6
illness self help, HH.7
cancer self help, HH.71
surgery patients self help, HH.72
diabetes self help, HH.73
MS (multiple sclerosis) self help, HH.74
ME (myalgic encephalitis) self help, HH.75
AIDS/HIV self help, HH.76
mental illness self help, HH.8
schizophrenia self help, HH.81

personal health, HJ.1
personal hygiene, HJ.11
family health, HJ.2
women's health, HJ.3
menopause, HJ.31
men's health, HJ.4
personal fitness, HJ.5
callanetics (holistic fitness), HJ.51
aerobics, HJ.52
use for: waterobics
use for: aquarobics
Alexander technique, HJ.53
keep fit, HJ.54
eastern fitness methods, HJ.55
shintaido, HJ.551
tai chi, HJ.552
yoga (personal fitness), HJ.553
[see also: yoga (meditation) (HB.34)]
exercise dancing, HJ.56
weight control / slimming, HJ.6
sauna treatment, HJ.7
Finnish sauna, HJ.71
personal appearance (self presentation), HJ.9
[see also: self presentation (HB.6)]
style (self presentation), HJ.91
use for: colour analysis (self presentation)
dress (self presentation), HJ.92
hair care (self presentation), HJ.93
makeup (self presentation), HJ.94

use for: alternative medicine
aromatherapy, HK.1
reflexology, HK.2
iridology, HK.3
massage techniques (personal health), HK.4
shiatsu, HK.5
spiritual healing, HK.6
Reiki healing, HK.61
Chinese medicine, HK.7

beauty care / services, HL.1
facial care, HL.11
beauty therapy, HL.12
makeup, HL.13
use for: cosmetics use
remedial camouflage, HL.2
epilation / electrolysis, HL.3
manicure, HL.4
pedicure, HL.5
salon work, HL.6
salon reception, HL.61
salon hygiene, HL.62
hairdressing services, HL.7
ethnic hairdressing, HL.71
Afro hairdressing, HL.711
women's hairdressing, HL.72
men's hairdressing, HL.73
trichology, HL.74
wigmaking, HL.75
use for: postiche
ear piercing, HL.8
fashion consultancy, HL.9
[note: for courses on how to advise people on fashion issues such as colour analysis and style]


art, JA.1
[note: use for qualification bearing courses like GCSE]
visual arts, JA.11
art & design (general), JA.2
design theory, JA.22
design history, JA.23
fine art (general), JA.3
use for: fine arts
art theory, JA.32
art history & criticism, JA.33
art history, JA.331
art criticism, JA.332
appreciation of art / specific artists, JA.333
art & society, JA.34
community arts, JA.5
art of specific cultures and periods, JA.7
Europe: art, JA.72
medieval art, JA.721
renaissance art, JA.722
baroque art, JA.723
classical art, JA.724
romantic art, JA.725
modern art, JA.726
Middle East: art, JA.73
Africa: art, JA.74
Americas: art, JA.75
use for: North American art
use for: Caribbean art
use for: Latin American art
use for: South American art
Asian art, JA.76
use for: Indian art
use for: Central Asian art
use for: Far Eastern art
use for: East Asian art
Australasia: art, JA.77
craft appreciation, JA.8
craft history, JA.81

painting / drawing (art), JB.2
painting (art), JB.21
oil painting, JB.212
watercolour painting, JB.213
chinese brush painting, JB.214
drawing (art), JB.22
charcoal drawing, JB.221
pastel drawing, JB.222
pencil drawing, JB.223
sculpture, JB.3
mural painting, JB.4
use for: mural making

art: specific techniques, JB.5
abstract painting / drawing, JB.51
animal / wildlife painting / drawing, JB.52
botanical painting / drawing, JB.53
[see also: natural history illustration (JB.632)]
landscape painting / drawing, JB.54
life painting / drawing, JB.55
portraiture, JB.551
canal boat art, JB.56
still life painting / drawing, JB.57
graphic arts, JB.6
cartoon drawing, JB.61
use for: cartooning
animation, JB.611
heraldry, JB.62
illustration, JB.63
scientific / technical illustration, JB.631
use for: medical illustration
natural history illustration, JB.632
[see also: botanical painting / drawing (JB.53)]
lettering, JB.7
calligraphy, JB.71
illumination (calligraphy), JB.72
print making (art), JB.8
screen printing (art), JB.81
lithography (art), JB.82
lino cutting (art), JB.83
wood cut (art), JB.84
signwork, JB.9
signwriting, JB.91
[note: for road signing use TK.7]

[see also: craft design & technology (XA.31)]
[see also: industrial design (VF.)]
[see also: art & design (JA.2)]
design (general), JC.1
two dimensional design (2D design), JC.2
use for: advertising design
use for: poster design
graphic design, JC.3
use for: commercial art
three dimensional design (3D design), JC.4
display design, JC.41
exhibition design, JC.42
pattern drafting, JC.6
[note: for all aspects of pattern design, particularly knitting & dressmaking: not to be confused with pattern making (engineering) (YD.33)]
[see also: arts & crafts software (CS.9)]
[see also: pattern cutting (clothes making) (JK.13)]
design & technology, JC.7
[note: use for joint courses like GCSE, BTEC and A Level]

[see also: arts / culture / heritage administration (NN.)]
museum skills, JD.1
[see also: museum administration (NN.6)]
museum design / organisation, JD.2
conservation skills (general), JD.4
[note: see also under specific types of artefact]
[see also: antiques: conservation (JE.2)]
art conservation, JD.41
book / paper conservation, JD.42
book repair, JD.421
use for: book restoration
taxidermy, JD.8
museum studies / museology, JD.9

antiques (general), JE.1
[note: use for general courses in the appreciation of antiques]
use for: antiques appreciation
[see also: antiques of specific periods (JE.4)]
[see also: antiques of specific cultures (JE.5)]
antiques: conservation, JE.2
[see also: conservation skills (general) (JD.4)]
[see also: antiques of specific periods (JE.4)]
[see also: antiques of specific cultures (JE.5)]
antiques of specific kinds, JE.3
antique furniture, JE.31
antique pictures / artworks, JE.32
antique collectables, JE.33
antique silver, JE.34
antiques of specific periods, JE.4
[note: use for courses in the appreciation and conservation of antiques of specific periods]
[see also: antiques: conservation (JE.2)]
[see also: antiques (general) (JE.1)]
antiques of specific cultures, JE.5
[note: use for courses in the appreciation and conservation of antiques of specific cultures]
[see also: antiques: conservation (JE.2)]
[see also: antiques (general) (JE.1)]
collecting, JE.6
coin collecting, JE.62
[see also: lapidary (JR.44)]
stamp collecting, JE.63
book collecting, JE.64
antiquarian books, JE.641

[note: use for courses which involve learning a range of arts and crafts techniques and for general courses in arts and crafts as hobbies]
crafts (specific occasions / seasons), JF.1
Christmas crafts, JF.11
Easter crafts, JF.12
crafts of specific cultures, JF.2
toy making / repair, JF.3
doll making, JF.31
puppet making, JF.32
toy repair, JF.33
dolls house making / restoring, JF.34
kite making, JF.35
model making (leisure craft), JF.4
use for: model engineering (leisure)
model railways, JF.41

flower crafts, JG.2
artificial flower making, JG.21
dried flower crafts, JG.22
flower arranging, JG.23
[see also: floristry (SE.7)]
party decorations, JG.3
candle making, JG.4
collage, JG.5
brass rubbing, JG.6
paper arts / crafts, JG.7
decoupage, JG.71
paper quilling, JG.72
giftwrap & boxes, JG.73
greetings card making, JG.74
origami, JG.75
paper novelties, JG.76
papier maché JG.78
hand paper making, JG.79
strawcraft / corn dollies, JG.8

[see also: metals working / finishing (XD.)]
precious metal working, JH.1
goldsmithing, JH.11
silversmithing, JH.12
decorative / craft metal working, JH.2
wrought iron work (art / craft), JH.21
use for: blacksmith craft: decorative
copper work (decorative), JH.22
pewter work (decorative), JH.23
enamelling (decorative), JH.3
engraving (decorative), JH.4
etching (decorative), JH.5
jewellery making, JH.6
jewellery design, JH.61
gemology / lapidary (jewellery), JH.62

[see also: textiles / fabrics (industrial) (WH.)]
fashion / textiles design, JK.1
textile design, JK.11
fashion design, JK.12
use for: clothing design
millinery design, JK.121
knitwear design, JK.122
footwear design, JK.123
leather goods design, JK.124
pattern cutting (clothes making), JK.13
[see also: pattern drafting (JC.6)]
spinning (craft), JK.3
weaving (craft), JK.4
ribbon craft, JK.5
clothes making (craft), JK.6
dressmaking (craft), JK.62
tailoring (craft), JK.63
traditional clothes making (craft), JK.64
use for: Asia: clothes making (craft)
sewing machine use (craft), JK.65
hand sewing, JK.66
[see also: decorative needlework (JL.2)]
knitting (craft), JK.7
hand knitting, JK.71
machine knitting (craft), JK.72
hat making / millinery (craft), JK.8
fashion accessories making (craft), JK.9

use for: textile arts
lace crochet & related crafts, JL.1
tatting, JL.11
crochet, JL.12
lace making, JL.13
macrame, JL.14
decorative needlework, JL.2
[see also: hand sewing (JK.66)]
embroidery, JL.21
tapestry, JL.22
applique, JL.23
smocking, JL.24
canvas work, JL.25
patchwork / quilting, JL.3
patchwork, JL.31
quilting, JL.32
felt work, JL.4
fabric painting, JL.5
fabric dyeing (craft), JL.6
batik, JL.61
soft furnishings (craft), JL.7
[see also: soft furnishings (industrial) (WH.7)]
[see also: upholstery, JP.5]
soft furnishings design, JL.71
curtain making, JL.72
loose covers, JL.73
tassel making, JL.74
rug / carpet making (craft), JL.8
leather / suede craft, JL.9

[see also: construction carpentry (TG.71)]
[see also: woodworking / furniture manufacture (WK.)]
ornamental woodwork crafts, JP.2
marquetry, JP.21
parquetry, JP.22
veneering, JP.23
wood carving, JP.24
pyrography, JP.25
wood traditional crafts, JP.3
bow making, JP.31
coopering, JP.32
stick dressing, JP.33
wheelwrights craft (traditional), JP.34
furniture making / repair (craft), JP.4
furniture design, JP.41
furniture restoration, JP.42
upholstery (craft), JP.5
[see also: soft furnishings (craft) (JL.7)]
[see also: upholstery (industrial) (WK.8)]
lampshade making, JP.6
picture framing, JP.7
basketry / canework, JP.8

use for: vitreous crafts
ceramics arts / crafts, JR.1
use for: pottery arts / crafts
use for: ceramics and pottery making
ceramics design, JR.11
use for: pottery design
ceramics decoration, JR.12
use for: pottery decoration
china painting, JR.13
use for: ceramics painting
china repair, JR.14
use for: ceramics repair
glass arts & crafts, JR.2
use for: etching: glass
decorative glass making, JR.21
use for: decorative glasswork
glass decoration, JR.22
glass engraving / etching, JR.23
stained glass work, JR.24
glass painting, JR.25
stone / slate art / crafts, JR.4
use for: carving: stone (art)
stone painting, JR.41
slate painting, JR.42
slate etching, JR.43
lapidary, JR.44
[see also: gemology / lapidary (jewellery) (JH.62)]


[see also: communication skills (KB.)]
communication studies (general), KA.1
mass communication, KA.11
communication processes, KA.12
communication design (general), KA.13
visual communication, KA.14
media studies, KA.2
news media studies, KA.21
broadcasting studies, KA.22
radio studies, KA.221
television studies, KA.222
film studies, KA.3
film history, KA.31

[see also: communication / media (KA.)]
[see also: interpersonal skills (self development) (HB.7)]
[see also: business communication skills (AF.3)]
media communication skills, KB.2
media interviewee skills, KB.21
speaking skills, KB.3
public speaking, KB.31
oratory, KB.32
storytelling, KB.33
toastmaster / mistress skills, KB.34
non verbal communication, KB.5
communication for and with people with disabilities, KB.6
visually disabled people: communication skills, KB.61
use for: blind awareness
braille, KB.611
Moon (reading), KB.612
hearing disabled people: communication skills, KB.62
use for: deaf awareness
sign language, KB.621
British Sign Language, KB.622
lip reading, KB.623
speech skills: profoundly deaf people, KB.624
Makaton, KB.625
deaf-blind people: communication skills, KB.63
use for: deaf-blind awareness

use for: authorship
technical authorship, KC.2
instructions writing, KC.21
manuals writing, KC.22
creative writing, KC.3
[see also: journalism (KD.)]
narrative prose writing, KC.31
use for: story writing
short story writing, KC.311
novel writing, KC.312
biography writing, KC.313
diary writing, KC.314
play writing, KC.32
comedy writing, KC.322
screenplay writing, KC.323
scenario writing, KC.324
script writing, KC.325
poetry writing, KC.33
writing for children, KC.34
writing for newspapers / magazines, KC.35
crossword / puzzle compilation, KC.351
writing for radio / television, KC.36
writing for radio, KC.361
writing for television, KC.362
non-fiction writing, KC.4

[see also: creative writing (KC.3)]
journalism (general), KD.1
feature writing, KD.11
reporting (journalism), KD.12
investigative journalism, KD.13
interviewing (journalism), KD.14
news (current affairs) journalism, KD.2
journalism: specific subjects, KD.3
business journalism, KD.31
arts journalism, KD.32
science journalism, KD.33
sports journalism, KD.34
press journalism, KD.4
radio journalism, KD.5
television journalism, KD.6
photojournalism, KD.7
press release writing, KD.8
copywriting, KD.9

publishing (general), KH.1
book publishing, KH.11
periodicals publishing, KH.12
community publishing, KH.13
microform publishing, KH.14
electronic publishing, KH.15
CD-ROM publishing, KH.151
online publishing, KH.152
music publishing, KH.16
literary agency, KH.17
publishing: editorial work, KH.2
editorial project management, KH.21
copy editing, KH.22
proof reading, KH.23
text formatting, KH.3
typesetting, KH.31
use for: composition (typesetting)
computer typesetting (commercial), KH.311
phototypesetting, KH.312
cold metal composition, KH.313
typography, KH.32
desktop publishing, KH.33
[note: for courses about the general design and production of documents: for use of specific packages see CQ.8]
print administration, KH.4
print estimating, KH.41
print buying, KH.42
printing, KH.5
printing (general), KH.51
print engineering, KH.511
print materials technology, KH.512
use for: ink technology
offset printing, KH.52
use for: litho printing
small offset printing, KH.521
lithography (printing), KH.53
plate making (printing), KH.531
engraving (printing), KH.54
screenprinting, KH.55
letter press / relief printing, KH.56
print finishing, KH.57
reprography / xerography, KH.58
microform filming / printing, KH.59
print / publications design, KH.6
use for: print origination
book design, KH.61
journal design, KH.62
newsletter design, KH.63
artwork: publications, KH.64
layout / paste-up work, KH.65
bookbinding, KH.7
book cover decoration, KH.71
stationery design / printing, KH.8

use for: photomedia
photography, KJ.1
photographic techniques / types, KJ.11
documentary photography, KJ.111
medical photography, KJ.112
scientific / technical photography, KJ.113
portrait photography, KJ.114
landscape photography, KJ.115
still life photography, KJ.116
fashion photography, KJ.117
photographic processing, KJ.12
black & white photographic processing, KJ.121
colour photographic processing, KJ.122
digital processing, KJ.123
[see also: image processing (CK.41)]
photographic science / technology, KJ.13
holography, KJ.14
film / video / television production, KJ.2
[see also: film / television / video in education (GB.94)]
film / video production, KJ.21
film / video direction, KJ.22
film / video editing, KJ.23
film / video lighting, KJ.24
interactive video, KJ.25
television / radio programme production, KJ.26
television programme production, KJ.261
radio programme production, KJ.262
film photography, KJ.27
video photography, KJ.28
audio & visual media, KJ.3
audiovisual studies, KJ.31
audiovisual technology, KJ.311
tape / slide production, KJ.32
sound recording, KJ.33



classical dance, LB.2
ballet (Europe): classical dance, LB.22
Middle East: classical dance, LB.23
Africa: classical dance, LB.24
Americas: classical dance, LB.25
North America: classical dance, LB.252
Caribbean: classical dance, LB.253
Latin America: classical dance, LB.254
Asia: classical dance, LB.26
India / Central Asia: classical dance, LB.262
Far East (East Asia): classical dance, LB.263
Australasia / Austronesia: classical dance, LB.27
modern dance, LB.3
choreography, LB.4
dance notation, LB.41
movement studies (dance), LB.5
folk / traditional dance, LB.6
English folk / traditional dance, LB.61
morris dancing, LB.611
country dancing, LB.612
Europe: folk / traditional dance, LB.62
Middle East: folk / traditional dance, LB.63
Africa: folk / traditional dance, LB.64
Americas: folk / traditional dance, LB.65
North America: folk / traditional dance, LB.652
Caribbean: folk / traditional dance, LB.653
Latin America: folk / traditional dance, LB.654
Salsa, LB.6541
Asia: folk / traditional dance, LB.66
India / Central Asia: folk / traditional dance, LB.662
Far East (East Asia): folk / traditional dance, LB.663
Australasia / Austronesia: folk / traditional dance, LB.67
free / expressive dancing, LB.7
popular dancing, LB.8
ballroom dancing, LB.81
old time dancing, LB.82
tap dancing, LB.83
sequence dancing, LB.84
disco dancing, LB.85
break dancing, LB.86
jazz dancing, LB.87
line dancing, LB.88
jive / rock dancing, LB.89

use for: theatre studies
[see also: theatre production (LE.)]
dramatic arts, LC.1
speech & drama, LC.11
amateur dramatics, LC.2
community theatre, LC.3
drama studies, LC.4
comedy (theatre), LC.41
tragedy, LC.42
farce (theatre), LC.43
musical theatre, LC.44
drama in education, LC.5
voice studies (drama), LC.6
theatre direction, LC.7
mime, LC.8

fashion modelling, LD.1
variety performance, LD.2
comedians (variety performance), LD.21
conjuring, LD.22
magic (variety performance), LD.23
puppeteering, LD.24
ventriloquy, LD.25
disc jockey work, LD.3
circus / stunt performance, LD.4
aerial / rope performance (circus), LD.41
clowning, LD.42
stunt work, LD.43

[see also: theatre & dramatic arts (LC.)]
[see also: theatre business administration (NN.7)]
stage management, LE.1
theatre design, LE.2
set design (theatre), LE.21
lighting (theatre), LE.22
properties (theatre), LE.23
theatre electrics, LE.3
theatre sound, LE.4
theatrical costume, LE.5
wardrobe work (theatre), LE.51
theatrical makeup, LE.52
theatrical haircraft, LE.53

music studies (general), LF.1
musicology, LF.2
ethnomusicology, LF.21
music history, LF.3
music theory, LF.4
counterpoint: music theory, LF.41
harmony: music theory, LF.42
music composition / arrangement, LF.5
music composition, LF.51
music arrangement, LF.52
music transcription, LF.53
orchestration, LF.54
song / lyric writing, LF.55
music score preparation, LF.6
music typography, LF.61
music editing, LF.62
music appreciation, LF.7
score reading (musical appreciation), LF.71

Europe: music, LG.2
European style 'classical' music, LG.22
use for: orchestral music
[note: in this and subsequent classes 'European' refers to style not location]
European 'classical' music of specific periods, LG.23
early music, LG.231
medieval music, LG.232
renaissance music, LG.233
baroque music, LG.234
classical music, LG.235
romantic music, LG.236
modern orchestral music, LG.237
European 'classical' music of specific countries, LG.24
opera (European style), LG.25
religious music, LG.26
European folk / traditional music, LG.27
Middle East: music, LG.3
Middle East: classical music, LG.32
Middle East: folk / traditional music, LG.33
Africa: music, LG.4
Africa: folk / traditional music, LG.42
Africa: classical music, LG.43
Americas: music, LG.5
North America: music, LG.52
North America: folk / traditional music, LG.522
North America: classical music, LG.523
Caribbean music, LG.53
Caribbean classical music, LG.532
Caribbean folk / traditional music, LG.533
Latin America: music, LG.54
Latin America: folk / traditional music, LG.542
Latin America: classical music, LG.543
Asia: music, LG.6
use for: eastern music
India / Central Asia: music, LG.62
Indian / Central Asian folk / popular music, LG.622
Indian / Central Asian classical music, LG.623
Far East (East Asia): music, LG.63
Far East (East Asia): folk / popular music, LG.632
Far East (East Asia): classical music, LG.633
Australasia / Austronesia: music, LG.7
Australasia / Austronesia: classical music, LG.72
Australasia / Austronesia: folk / popular music, LG.73
popular music, LG.8
rock music, LG.82
jazz / blues, LG.83
film music, LG.84
light music, LG.85
folk music (popular), LG.86

music performance (group), LH.1
ensemble playing, LH.11
orchestral playing, LH.12
band musicianship, LH.13
conducting (music), LH.2
band conducting, LH.21
orchestral conducting, LH.22
singing, LH.3
singing (choral), LH.31
singing (solo), LH.32
voice studies (singing), LH.33
keyboard instrument playing, LH.4
piano playing, LH.41
organ playing, LH.42
harpsichord / clavichord playing, LH.43
stringed instrument playing, LH.5
violin / viola playing, LH.51
cello playing, LH.52
double bass playing, LH.53
guitar playing, LH.54
classical guitar playing, LH.541
Spanish guitar playing, LH.542
rock / pop guitar playing, LH.543
harp playing, LH.55
wind instrument playing, LH.6
brass instrument playing, LH.61
cornet playing, LH.611
saxophone playing, LH.612
trombone playing, LH.613
trumpet playing, LH.614
woodwind instrument playing, LH.62
bassoon playing, LH.621
clarinet playing, LH.622
flute playing, LH.623
oboe playing, LH.624
piccolo playing, LH.625
bagpipe playing, LH.63
percussion instrument playing, LH.7
tympani, LH.72
bell ringing (handbells), LH.73
bell ringing (tower), LH.74
use for: campanology
electronic music, LH.8
computer music synthesis / sequencing, LH.81
use for: synthesised music

musical instrument making, LJ.1
stringed instrument making, LJ.11
brass instrument making, LJ.12
woodwind instrument making, LJ.13
percussion instrument making, LJ.14
musical instrument repairing, LJ.7
piano tuning, LJ.8
music technology (electronic), LJ.9
[see also: audio / recording technology (XL.82)]


sports studies general, MA.1
sports / movement science, MA.11
[note: includes kinesiology]
physical education, MA.2
combined sports, MA.3
modern pentathlon, MA.31
triathlon, MA.32
sports coaching, MA.4
[note: if coaching is sport specific, classify under specific sport as well]
[see also: sports / physical education teaching (GC.7)]
swimming / water sports coaching, MA.42
athletics / gymnastics / combat sports coaching, MA.43
cycle / vehicle / air sports coaching, MA.44
winter sports coaching, MA.45
football & team games coaching, MA.46
tennis & related games coaching, MA.47
riding & country sports coaching, MA.48
community sports, MA.5
sports organisation, MA.6
sports leadership, MA.62
sports refereeing (general), MA.63
use for: umpiring (sports)
sports judging (general), MA.64
sports time keeping, MA.65
sports organisation for disabled people, MA.7
outdoor pursuits organisation, MA.8

flying (leisure), MB.1
aircraft flying (leisure), MB.11
[see also: aircraft operation (ZR.7) and subclasses]
helicopter flying (leisure), MB.12
gliding, MB.13
microlighting, MB.14
aerobatics, MB.15
ballooning, MB.2
parachuting, MB.3
hang gliding, MB.4
parascending, MB.5

diving (sub-aqua), MC.1
swimming, MC.2
swimming (learners), MC.21
swimming (advanced), MC.22
water polo, MC.23
life saving (swimming), MC.24
artistic swimming, MC.25
diving (board), MC.26
surfing, MC.4
waterskiing, MC.5
fresh water leisure craft, MC.6
use for: boating (leisure)
canoeing, MC.61
canoe polo, MC.611
canoe racing, MC.612
wild water canoeing, MC.613
canal cruising, MC.62
narrowboating, MC.621
rowing, MC.63
punting, MC.64
sea leisure craft / sailing, MC.7
use for: water leisure craft (sea)
[see also: ship operation (ZS.3)]
sailing, MC.71
dinghy sailing, MC.711
coastal sailing, MC.712
ocean sailing, MC.713
sailboarding, MC.714
wind surfing, MC.715
yachting (leisure), MC.716
motor craft (sea) leisure, MC.72
cruising, MC.721
powerboat racing, MC.722
jet skiing, MC.723
seamanship (leisure), MC.73
skippering (leisure), MC.731
navigation: marine (leisure), MC.732

athletics, MD.1
athletics field events, MD.11
athletics track events, MD.12
running, MD.3
cross country running, MD.31
long distance running, MD.32
gymnastics, MD.4
trampolining, MD.41
weightlifting (sport), MD.5
combat / martial arts, MD.6
boxing, MD.61
wrestling, MD.62
aikido, MD.63
judo, MD.64
ju jitsu, MD.65
karate, MD.66
kendo, MD.68
tae kwon do, MD.69
fencing (sport), MD.7
speed walking (sport), MD.8
sports fitness / body training, MD.9
weight training, MD.91
circuit training, MD.92
multi gym training, MD.93
exercise machine use, MD.94
body building, MD.95
sports massage, MD.96

roller skating, ME.1
roller skate team sports, ME.11
skateboarding, ME.2
motor car sports, ME.3
rallying, ME.31
hill climbing, ME.32
motor racing, ME.33
motorcycle sports, ME.4
scrambling (motorcycle), ME.41
motocross, ME.42
motorcycle racing, ME.43
speedway riding, ME.44
bicycle sports, ME.5
cyclecross, ME.51
bicycle racing, ME.52
bicycle games, ME.53
karting, ME.6

ice skating, MF.1
ice skating games, MF.11
ice hockey, MF.111
ice skating: speed, MF.12
ice skating: short track, MF.121
ice skating: long track, MF.122
ice skating: relay, MF.123
figure skating / ice dancing, MF.13
figure skating, MF.131
figure skating: individual, MF.1311
figure skating: pairs, MF.1312
ice dancing, MF.132
skiing, MF.2
ski preparation, MF.21
skiing (basic), MF.22
skiing: speed, MF.23
alpine skiing, MF.24
ski slalom, MF.241
ski downhill, MF.242
nordic skiing, MF.25
ski cross country, MF.251
ski biathlon, MF.252
skiing: Nordic combination, MF.253
skiing: relay, MF.254
ski jumping, MF.255
sleighing / tobogganing, MF.3
bobsleigh, MF.31
luge, MF.32
curling (sport), MF.4

football, MG.1
association (soccer) football, MG.11
rugby football, MG.12
American / Canadian football, MG.13
Gaelic football, MG.14
hockey & related games, MG.2
hockey, MG.21
lacrosse, MG.22
shinty (shinny), MG.23
hand ball games, MG.3
basketball, MG.31
handball, MG.32
netball, MG.33
volleyball, MG.34
batting games, MG.4
cricket, MG.41
cricket scoring, MG.411
rounders, MG.42
baseball, MG.43
softball, MG.431
bowling games, MG.5
ten pin bowling, MG.51
bowls, MG.52
boule, MG.53
skittles (ninepins), MG.54
aunt sally, MG.55
golf, MG.6
golf caddying, MG.61
croquet, MG.7
racquet sports, MG.8
tennis, MG.81
lawn tennis, MG.811
real tennis, MG.812
badminton, MG.82
squash, MG.83
racquetball, MG.84

use for: outdoor pursuits
use for: field sports
walking / running (countryside), MH.1
walking, MH.11
fell running, MH.12
hill walking, MH.13
orienteering, MH.14
climbing, MH.2
mountaineering, MH.21
potholing, MH.22
caving, MH.23
abseiling, MH.24
rock climbing, MH.25
bridge swinging, MH.26
camping / caravanning, MH.3
caravanning, MH.31
camping, MH.32
fishing (sport), MH.4
fresh water fishing, MH.41
angling: fresh water, MH.411
fly fishing, MH.412
fly tying, MH.413
sea fishing (sport), MH.42
angling: sea, MH.421

horse riding / horse sports, MH.5
use for: equestrian sports
[see also: horse management (SH.712)]
[see also: sports & physical education teaching / training (GC.7)]
[see also: veterinary studies / animal care teaching / training (GC.99)]
horse / pony showing, MH.51
horse / pony riding, MH.52
dressage, MH.521
show jumping, MH.522
pony trekking, MH.523
eventing, MH.524
riding for disabled people, MH.525
horse racing, MH.53
flat racing, MH.531
national hunt rules racing, MH.532
point to point racing, MH.533
mounted games, MH.54
polo, MH.541
pony games, MH.542
hunting, MH.55
driving (horses), MH.56
archery / shooting, MH.6
archery, MH.61
shooting, MH.62
clay pigeon shooting, MH.621
rifle shooting, MH.622
pistol shooting, MH.623
war games, MH.7
paintball games, MH.71
historic battle restaging, MH.72
use for: sealed knot
animal sports, MH.8
falconry, MH.81
greyhound racing, MH.82
pigeon racing, MH.83

table games, MJ.1
table tennis, MJ.11
billiards, MJ.12
snooker, MJ.13
pool, MJ.14
darts, MJ.2
card games, MJ.3
bridge (game), MJ.31
whist, MJ.32
board games, MJ.4
chess, MJ.41
backgammon, MJ.42
scrabble, MJ.43
go (game), MJ.44
computer games, MJ.5
fantasy games, MJ.51
mahjong, MJ.6
dominoes, MJ.7


hotel / catering studies (general), NA.1
catering studies (general), NA.11
hotel studies (general), NA.12
catering assistants, NA.13
catering technology, NA.3
kitchen equipment, NA.31
hotel / catering management (general), NA.4
hotel / catering finance, NA.42
food costing, NA.421
hotel / catering bookkeeping, NA.422
catering production management, NA.43
kitchen supervision, NA.431
hotel / catering staff management, NA.44
hotel / catering customer relations, NA.45
hotel / catering sales / marketing, NA.46
catering as small business, NA.5
restaurant management, NA.6
hospitality management, NA.7
hotel management, NA.71
guesthouse management, NA.72
use for: bed & breakfast management
holiday / service flats management, NA.74
holiday camp management, NA.75
institutional management (hotel / catering), NA.8

food service, NB.1
waiting at table, NB.11
commis waiting, NB.111
silver service (catering), NB.112
maitre d'hotel work, NB.12
counter service (catering), NB.13
cafeteria service (catering), NB.131
table clearing (catering), NB.14
kitchen porters / washers-up, NB.15
vending service (catering), NB.16
drinks service, NB.2
bar service, NB.21
cocktail making, NB.211
wine waiting, NB.22
cellar work (catering), NB.23
stillroom work (catering), NB.24

restaurant / hotel catering, NC.2
hotel catering, NC.21
restaurant catering, NC.22
banqueting, NC.23
delivered catering, NC.3
industrial catering, NC.4
armed forces catering, NC.41
hospital catering, NC.42
contract catering, NC.5
use for: outside catering
offshore catering, NC.51
film location catering, NC.52
schools / colleges catering, NC.6
transport catering, NC.7
airline catering, NC.71
use for: in flight catering
nautical catering, NC.72
railway catering, NC.73
road transport catering, NC.74
fast food catering, NC.8
fish & chip shops, NC.81
licensed catering, NC.9
licensing laws, NC.91
bar stock control, NC.92
pub management, NC.93
use for: innkeeping
club management (catering), NC.94
wine bar management, NC.95

accommodation services (hotel), ND.1
conferencing (hotel), ND.2
front of house (hotel), ND.3
hotel reception, ND.31
portering / concierge (hotel), ND.32
domestic services / housekeeping, ND.4
housekeeping, ND.41
laundry (hotel), ND.42
butlers, ND.43
domestic / room staff, ND.44
domestic service: personal, ND.45
room service (hotel), ND.46

[see also: for large scale production: food / drink / tobacco (industrial) (WM.)]
food preparation (general), NE.1
food preservation (domestic / small scale), NE.11
use for: food freezing
baking / confectionery, NE.2
bakery (non industrial), NE.21
yeast bakery, NE.211
bread making, NE.212
cake making / decorating, NE.22
use for: confectionery craft
use for: flour confectionery
use for: patisserie
cake making, NE.221
cake decoration, NE.222
use for: sugar craft (cake decoration)
almond goods, NE.223
japonaise confectionery, NE.225
meringue confectionery, NE.226
pastry craft, NE.23
chocolate craft, NE.24
sugar confectionery craft, NE.25
dairy foods (small scale), NE.3
butter making (craft), NE.31
cheese making (craft), NE.32
ice cream making (craft), NE.33
yoghurt making (craft), NE.34
meat / fish processing (craft / small scale), NE.4
butchery skills / meat presentation, NE.42
poultry / game dressing, NE.43
fish processing (small scale), NE.44
fish smoking / curing, NE.441
fruit / vegetable processing (small scale), NE.5
brewing / winemaking (non-industrial), NE.6
beer making (non-industrial), NE.61
cider making (non-industrial), NE.62
wine making (non-industrial), NE.63
wine / food appreciation, NE.7
wine tasting, NE.71
oenology, NE.72

cookery: professional, NF.1
hotel / restaurant cooking, NF.11
short order cooking, NF.12
chef studies, NF.13
larder cookery, NF.14
cookery: specialisations, NF.2
use for: dessert cookery
use for: starters
use for: special occasion food
vegetarian / vegan cookery, NF.21
cookery of specific cultures, NF.22
cookery of specific foods, NF.23
diet cookery, NF.24
party foods, NF.25
health foods / wholefoods cookery, NF.3
macrobiotic foods, NF.31
wholefoods cookery, NF.32
cookery: domestic, NF.4
cookery: classical / modern, NF.5
haute cuisine, NF.51
nouvelle cuisine, NF.52
cordon bleu, NF.53
cookery: specific appliances / methods, NF.6
microwave cookery, NF.61
barbecue, NF.62
wok cookery, NF.63
fondue cookery, NF.64
lamp cookery, NF.65
appliance demonstration cookery, NF.66
cookery: local traditional, NF.7
food decoration: general, NF.8

use for: domestic science
housecraft, NG.2
home hygiene, NG.3
home safety, NG.4

food science (general), NH.1
nutrition / dietetics, NH.2
dietetics, NH.21
nutrition, NH.22
food hygiene, NH.3
[note: for catering hygiene see (PL.54)]
bakery hygiene, NH.31
canning hygiene, NH.32
dairy hygiene, NH.33
food handling hygiene, NH.34
food retailing hygiene, NH.35
meat hygiene, NH.36
poultry / game hygiene, NH.361
food analysis, NH.4
food inspection, NH.5
meat / poultry inspection, NH.51
food technology, NH.6
food biotechnology, NH.62
food chemistry, NH.63
food microbiology, NH.64

tourism, NK.1
tourist guiding, NK.13
tourism development / promotion, NK.14
tourist attractions development, NK.141
tourist information, NK.15
tour organisation (domestic), NK.16
ticket agency management, NK.17
travel, NK.2
travel studies, NK.21
business travel, NK.22
personal travel, NK.23
leisure travel, NK.232
tour operation (abroad), NK.24
travel agency work, NK.25
fares & ticketing (travel), NK.26
[note: use this class for the ticketing work undertaken by a travel agent, including BA ticketing]
[see also: airline ticketing / reservations (ZR.31)]
travel courier / escort work, NK.27

[note: includes activities such as maintenance of equipment]
leisure studies (general), NL.1
leisure management (general), NL.2
use for: recreation management
leisure facilities work, NL.3
leisure centre work, NL.31
leisure / theme park work, NL.32
fairground work, NL.34
amusement arcade work, NL.35
dance hall / disco work, NL.36
casino / gaming / betting work, NL.37
use for: gaming / betting management
use for: odds making
sports facilities work, NL.4
[see also: amenity horticulture (SF.)]
sports centre work, NL.41
sports stadium work, NL.43
winter sports facilities work, NL.44
water sports facilities work, NL.45
race tracks work, NL.46
zoos / safari parks work, NL.5

use for: leisure facilities (country) management
fishing facilities work, NM.1
hunting / shooting facilities work, NM.2
use for: shooting facilities management
horse / pony riding facilities work, NM.3
use for: pony riding facilities management
nature trails work, NM.4
marine leisure facilities work, NM.5
marina work, NM.51
inland waterway leisure facilities work, NM.6
camping / caravan site work, NM.7
[see also: farm camp site management (SM.93)]
campsite work, NM.71
caravan site work, NM.72

use for: culture / arts management (general)
[see also: museum / gallery / conservation skills (JD.)]
arts / culture administration (general), NN.1
art galleries administration, NN.2
music administration, NN.3
use for: band management
arts centre administration, NN.4
concert halls administration, NN.5
museums administration, NN.6
[see also: museum skills (JD.1)]
theatre / cinema business administration, NN.7
heritage buildings administration, NN.8
great houses administration, NN.81
use for: stately homes management
festivals administration, NN.9


health studies (general), PA.1
health service administration (general), PA.2
health service policy / planning, PA.21
health policy, PA.211
health planning, PA.212
health district / area administration, PA.22
community health care administration, PA.23
health practice administration, PA.3
use for: medical practice administration
GP fund holding, PA.31
health care resources / financial administration, PA.4
health care contracting / purchasing / tendering, PA.41
health care financial administration, PA.42
health unit income generation, PA.43
health care marketing / consumerism, PA.44
health unit administration, PA.5
health unit administration (general), PA.51
NHS trusts, PA.511
hospital administration, PA.512
nursing administration, PA.513
health care quality control, PA.53
health care performance assessment, PA.531
value for money (health care), PA.532
health care staff administration / training, PA.55
clinical services administration, PA.56
paramedical services administration, PA.561
nursing services administration, PA.562
patient / hotel services administration, PA.57
use for: hospital hotel services management
medical support services, PA.6
medical support services administration, PA.61
use for: health care support services management
hospital support services administration, PA.611
medical reception, PA.62
medical records, PA.63
hospital ancillary staff, PA.64
hospital domestic / porter staff, PA.65
primary health care, PA.7
health legal / ethical issues, PA.8
health legal issues (general), PA.81
use for: medical law
health product / service liability, PA.82
medical ethics, PA.83
[see also: ethics (DE.4)]
medical research ethics, PA.84
health promotion, PA.9
health education, PA.91
public health information, PA.92
health hazards: awareness, PA.93
[see also: hazard control (health & safety) (PL.3)]
[see also: problem awareness / counselling (for teachers) (GA.8)]
[see also: carers / family carers: specific conditions (HF.8)]
drugs / alcohol: awareness, PA.931
AIDS/HIV: awareness, PA.932
substance abuse: awareness, PA.933

use for: health sciences
use for: medical training courses
medicine / surgery (general), PB.1
surgery, PB.2
surgery (general), PB.21
accident & emergency surgery, PB.22
use for: A&E surgery
orthopedics, PB.23
use for: orthopaedics
cosmetic surgery, PB.24
prosthetic surgery, PB.25
medicine (general), PB.3
general medical practice, PB.31
use for: GP
community medicine, PB.32
use for: community health
preventive medicine, PB.33
medical specialisations: A-E, PB.4
aerospace medical studies, PB.41
anesthesiology, PB.42
use for: anaesthesiology
cardiovascular medical studies, PB.44
cardiology, PB.441
dermatology, PB.45
ear nose & throat medical studies PB.46
use for: ENT
audiology, PB.461
endocrinology (medicine), PB.47
epidemiology, PB.48
medical statistics, PB.481
[see also: applied statistics (RB.715)]
medical specialisations: F-O, PB.5
forensic medical studies, PB.51
[see also: forensic science (non-medical) (QH.6)]
gastroenterology, PB.52
geriatric medical studies, PB.53
gynecology, PB.54
use for: gynaecology
haematology, PB.55
neurology, PB.56
obstetrics, PB.57
oncology, PB.58
ophthalmology, PB.59
medical specialisations: P-Z, PB.6
pediatrics, PB.61
use for: child health (pediatrics)
use for: paediatrics
pathology, PB.62
immunology (medicine), PB.621
respiratory / chest diseases, PB.63
rheumatology, PB.64
sports medicine, PB.65
sports injuries, PB.651
tropical medicine, PB.66
urology, PB.67
venereology, PB.68
medical radiology, PB.7
[see also: medical radiography (PE.12)]
medical radiodiagnosis, PB.71
radiotherapy, PB.72
psychiatry, PB.8
psychoanalysis, PB.81

[note: this is complementary medicine as practised by professionally qualified practitioners: for alternative medicine see (HK.)]
chiropractic, PC.1
holistic medicine, PC.2
homeopathy, PC.3
homeopathic pharmacy, PC.31
[see also: pharmacy (PE.7)]
naturopathy, PC.4
osteopathy, PC.5
acupuncture, PC.6
acupressure, PC.61
herbal medicine, PC.7
hydrotherapy, PC.8

medical assistant skills (hospital), PD.1
hospital operating assistant skills, PD.11
medical orderly skills, PD.12
health care assistant skills, PD.13
hospital portering, PD.14
blood donor services, PD.2
emergency clinical care, PD.4
paramedical work, PD.5
offshore paramedical work, PD.51
ambulance services, PD.6
ambulance control, PD.61

medical technology, PE.1
use for: hospital technology
cardiography, PE.11
medical radiography, PE.12
[see also: industrial radiography (WD.21)]
[see also: medical radiology (PB.7)]
medical electronics, PE.13
ultrasound: medical, PE.131
diagnostic imaging, PE.15
medical laboratory science / practice, PE.2
medical laboratory administration, PE.21
pathology technician work, PE.3
anatomy technician work, PE.31
cytology technician work, PE.32
histology technician work, PE.33
mortuary technician work, PE.34
theatre technician work (hospital), PE.4
prosthetics (medical technology), PE.5
biomechanics, PE.51
maxillo-facial prosthetics, PE.52
pharmacology, PE.6
use for: study of medicines
chemotherapy, PE.61
pharmacy, PE.7
[see also: homeopathic pharmacy (PC.31)]
hospital pharmacy, PE.71
drug dispensing (pharmacy), PE.72
dispensing technicians (pharmacy), PE.721
physiological measurement, PE.8

dentistry, PF.1
odontology, PF.11
orthodontics, PF.12
endodontics, PF.13
periodontics, PF.14
preventive dentistry, PF.15
conservative dentistry, PF.151
restorative dentistry, PF.16
prosthetic dentistry, PF.17
dentistry specialisms, PF.2
gerodontics, PF.21
child dentistry, PF.22
use for: pediatric dentistry
community dentistry, PF.23
cosmetic dentistry, PF.24
dental surgery assistants, PF.3
use for: dental nursing
dental technology, PF.4
dental mechanics, PF.41
dental radiology, PF.42
use for: dental radiography
dental practice administration, PF.5
dental reception / records, PF.6
dental hygiene, PF.7
dental health education, PF.8
child dental health education, PF.81

optometry, PG.1
orthoptics, PG.2
contact lens practice, PG.3
optical dispensing, PG.4
optical reception, PG.5

nursing studies, PH.1
[note: use for nursing degree courses]
pre nursing studies, PH.11
registered general nursing, PH.13
community nursing, PH.2
district nursing, PH.22
practice nursing, PH.23
patient aid work, PH.24
health visiting, PH.25
school nursing, PH.26
family planning nursing, PH.27
industrial nursing, PH.3
occupational health nursing, PH.31
offshore nursing, PH.32
mental health / addiction nursing, PH.4
mental health nursing (general), PH.41
use for: psychiatric nursing
use for: mental illness nursing
use for: people with eating disorders (nursing)
[note: includes bulimia and anorexia (nursing)]
community mental health nursing, PH.42
addiction (nursing), PH.45
alcohol dependency (nursing), PH.451
drug dependency (nursing), PH.452
nursing specialisms, PH.5
geriatric nursing, PH.51
use for: older people: nursing care
intensive care nursing, PH.52
midwifery, PH.53
operating theatre nursing, PH.54
children's nursing, PH.55
use for: pediatric nursing
child abuse awareness (nursing), PH.551
nursing: specific conditions, PH.6
AIDS nursing, PH.61
cancer nursing, PH.62
care of dying (nursing), PH.63
use for: terminally ill people (nursing)
diabetes nursing, PH.64
physical disability nursing, PH.65

occupational therapy, PJ.1
drama therapy, PJ.11
music therapy, PJ.12
art therapy, PJ.13
dance therapy, PJ.14
hospital play therapy, PJ.15
physiotherapy, PJ.2
physiotherapy: specific conditions, PJ.22
massage, PJ.23
remedial gymnastics, PJ.24
sports physiotherapy, PJ.25
speech therapy, PJ.3
hyperbaric medicine, PJ.4
chiropody, PJ.5
use for: podiatry
psychotherapy, PJ.6
Gestalt therapy, PJ.61

psychology (general), PK.1
clinical psychology, PK.11
applied psychology, PK.12
behavioural psychology, PK.2
[note: includes transactional analysis]
use for: behavioural science
ethology, PK.21
behaviour therapy, PK.22
group dynamics, PK.23
child psychology, PK.3
developmental psychology, PK.31
educational psychology, PK.32
psychological testing, PK.5
psychometry, PK.51
use for: psychometric testing
graphology, PK.52
hypnotherapy, PK.7
self hypnosis, PK.71
psychology specialisations, PK.8
cognitive psychology, PK.81
environmental psychology, PK.82
occupational psychology, PK.83
industrial psychology, PK.831
organisational psychology, PK.832
organisational behaviour, PK.8321
[see also: management studies / science (AB.1)]
social psychology, PK.84
psychopathology, PK.85
human sexuality, PK.86
psychosexual / sexual counselling, PK.861
psychological counselling, PK.87

occupational health & safety (general), PL.1
[note: for all general / awareness health & safety course, eg NEBOSH]
occupational health (general), PL.11
occupational hygiene (general), PL.13
safety administration / regulations, PL.2
use for: safety management / regulations
[note: for courses on the management of health & safety within an organisation, especially those to do with UK or EU regulation]
health & safety legislation, PL.21
safety regulations, PL.211
[note: for specific applications see PL.5]
[note: for use of specific equipment see PL.741]
risk assessment (health & safety), PL.212
safety committees / representatives, PL.22
safety inspection, PL.23
confined space working: safety, PL.25
accident procedures, PL.28
accident reporting, PL.281
accident investigation, PL.282
hazard control (health & safety), PL.3
[see also: hazardous freight handling (ZP.541)]
[see also: hazardous waste disposal (QE.42)]
[see also: health hazards awareness (PA.93)]
asbestos safety: hazards / protection, PL.31
[see also: asbestos removal (PL.531)]
chemical safety: hazards / protection, PL.32
farm chemicals: hazards / protection, PL.321
[see also: agriculture / horticulture / forestry health & safety (PL.58)]
[see also: agricultural / horticultural chemicals (SC.7)]
gas safety: hazards / protection, PL.33
radiation safety: hazards / protection, PL.34
environmental radioactivity, PL.341
radiation protection, PL.342
noise / vibration: hazards / protection, PL.35
use for: vibration / noise control
ventilation: safety, PL.37
ventilation: safety (mines), PL.371
dust control: safety, PL.38
dust control: safety (mines), PL.381
health & safety: specific industries / occupations, PL.5
office health & safety, PL.51
engineering health & safety, PL.52
construction health & safety, PL.53
[note: includes trench support]
asbestos removal, PL.531
[see also: asbestos safety: hazards / protection (PL.31)]
hotel / catering health & safety, PL.54
use for: catering hygiene
manufacturing health & safety, PL.55
mining health & safety, PL.56
mine rescue, PL.561
fire fighting underground, PL.562
[see also: fire fighting (QJ.3)]
offshore health & safety, PL.57
[see also: marine safety / survival, ZS.34]
fire fighting offshore, PL.571
[see also: fire fighting (QJ.3)]
agriculture / horticulture / forestry health & safety, PL.58
[see also: farm chemicals: hazards / protection (PL.321)]
[see also: agriculture / horticulture / forestry equipment: safety (PL.7415)]
working with animals: health & safety, PL.59
safety procedures / equipment, PL.7
lifting / handling (manual): safety, PL.73
use for: patient lifting
[see also: hazardous freight handling (ZP.541)]
[see also: lifting / handling (mechanical) (ZP.52)]
protective clothing / equipment use, PL.74
specific equipment use and regulations, PL.741
machinery guarding, PL.7411
abrasive wheels, PL.7412
display screen equipment, PL.7413
use for: DSE
use for: VDU regulations
power press, PL.7414
agriculture / horticulture / forestry equipment: safety, PL.7415
[note: includes safety training in the use of strimmers, brush cutters, hand held and tractor mounted pesticide sprayers, chainsaw (rope & harness, aerial rescue, tree climbing)]
[see also: agriculture / horticulture / forestry health & safety (PL.58)]
ladders and scaffolding: safety, PL.7416
use for: access work (construction): safety
wood machining: safety, PL.7417
protective clothing, PL.742
breathing apparatus use, PL.75
accident prevention, PL.8

[see also: CARING SKILLS, PT.]
social work (general), PR.1
applied social sciences, PR.11
case work (social work), PR.111
social policy / administration, PR.2
social services / social planning, PR.21
social security (policies), PR.211
social work administration, PR.22
community care issues / policies, PR.23
use for: care in the community (issues)
community work (general), PR.3
[see also: community studies (EE.3)]
social work specialisms, PR.4
children / youth (social work), PR.41
[see also: parenting (general) (HF.1)]
child protection, PR.411
child abuse protection, PR.4111
families (social work), PR.42
use for: social work with families
family welfare, PR.421
abused / battered families (social work), PR.422
homeless people (social work), PR.43
homeless families (social work), PR.431
homeless single people (social work), PR.432
refugees (social work), PR.434
hostels (social work), PR.435
people with disabilities (social work), PR.45
physically disabled people (social work), PR.451
hearing disabled people (social work), PR.452
visually disabled people (social work), PR.453
deaf-blind people (social work), PR.4531
learning difficulties people: social work, PR.454
severe learning difficulties people: social work, PR.4541
mentally disturbed people: social work, PR.455
community psychiatric care, PR.4551
older people (social work), PR.46
frail older people (social work), PR.461
offenders (social work), PR.47
probation work, PR.471
prison service, PR.472
residential care (social work), PR.48
[note: this is social work, for caring skills use PT.]
residential care management, PR.481
youth work (general), PR.5
[note: this is sometimes called youth & community work, not to be confused with general community work for which see (PR.3)]
[see also: youth studies (EE.5)]
youth leadership, PR.51
youth club work, PR.52
education welfare work, PR.6

counselling skills (general), PS.1
group counselling skills, PS.11
counselling skills (specialist), PS.2
addiction / substance abuse: support / counselling, PS.21
drug users: support / counselling, PS.211
substance abusers: support / counselling, PS.212
alcohol abuse: support / counselling, PS.213
bereavement: support / counselling, PS.22
homeless people: support / counselling, PS.23
refugee: support / counselling, PS.231
victim support / counselling, PS.24
crime (non-sexual) victim: support / counselling, PS.241
rape victim: support / counselling, PS.242
sexual abuse victim: support / counselling, PS.243
domestic violence victim: support / counselling, PS.244
family counselling, PS.25
family therapy, PS.251
sexual / marital relationships: counselling, PS.252
sexual relationships: counselling, PS.2521
use for: sexuality counselling
marital relationships: counselling, PS.2522
use for: divorce: counselling
use for: marriage guidance: counselling
health related issues: counselling, PS.26
pregnancy: counselling, PS.261
severe illness: support / counselling, PS.262
cancer: support / counselling, PS.2621
AIDS/HIV: support / counselling, PS.2622
family planning advice, PS.263
use for: contraception advice
use for: birth control advice
eating disorders: counselling, PS.264
suicide / depression: counselling, PS.265
debt counselling, PS.27
youth counselling, PS.28
offenders: support / counselling, PS.29
advice skills, PS.3
community advice work, PS.31
citizens advice bureau work, PS.32
welfare rights advice work, PS.33
advocacy, PS4

caring skills (general), PT.1
use for: community care skills
[note: use for all non-specialist caring courses or courses where caring skills are practised in a variety of settings]
caring skills (specialist), PT.2
childcare skills, PT.21
[see also: parenting (general) (HF.1)]
child minding, PT.211
baby sitting, PT.212
creche work, PT.213
playgroup practice, PT.214
[see also: teaching in nursery schools (GB.34)]
[see also: nursery schools (general) (GA.16)]
[see also: nursery school administration (GD.58)]
residential work (childcare), PT.215
care of the elderly, PT.22
care assistants in hospices, PT.23
home carers, PT.24
nursery nursing, PT.3
use for: nannies work
play skills, PT.4
use for: play work

[note: use for all courses that are not specific about context]
first aid in the workplace, PV.1
emergency first aid, PV.2
first aid in the home, PV.3
first aid with children, PV.4
first aid at sea, PV.5
offshore first aid, PV.6


[note: conservation of natural resources: not ecology for which see (RH.1)]
[see also: archaeological heritage management (DC.31)]
environmental studies, QA.1
use for: environmental awareness
[see also: environmental assessment (TC.613)]
[see also: environmental (green) studies (EA.62)]
landscape studies, QA.11
environmental conservation / policies, QA.2
environmental management, QA.21
environmental policy, QA.22
environmental analysis, QA.23
use for: environmental audit
use for: environmental assessment
environmental planning, QA.24
use for: environmental impact assessment
[see also: planning: general (TC.1)]
environmental regeneration planning, QA.25
renewable resources planning, QA.26
environmental science, QA.3
environmental monitoring, QA.31
environmental biology, QA.32
environmental chemistry, QA.33
tropical environmental science, QA.34
global warming, QA.35
[note: includes greenhouse effect and ozone depletion]
landscape conservation, QA.4
soil conservation, QA.41
conservation / protection of specific environments, QA.9
nature conservation / protection (land), QA.91
[see also: farm nature conservation (SL.6)]
[see also: forest / tree conservation (SG.5)]
wildlife conservation / protection, QA.911
wild plant conservation / protection, QA.912
habitat management, QA.913
nature reserve management, QA.914
wetland / river conservation / protection, QA.92
wetland / bog conservation / protection, QA.921
river / stream conservation / protection, QA.922
pond / lake conservation / protection, QA.923
pond construction conservation / protection, QA.9231
marine / coastal conservation / protection, QA.93
coastal conservation / protection, QA.931
marine conservation / protection, QA.932
marine resource management, QA.933
marine wildlife conservation / protection, QA.934
whale / dolphin conservation / protection, QA.9341
tropical rain forests conservation / protection, QA.94
use for: deforestation
temperate forests conservation / protection, QA.95
polar areas conservation / protection, QA.96
island conservation / protection, QA.97

[see also: applied economics (EB.6)]
energy economics (applied), QB.1
[see also: energy engineering (general) (XK.1)]
[see also: energy economics (general) (EB.644)]
energy resources, QB.12
use for: fuel resources
energy conservation, QB.13
energy management, QB.14
alternative energy research, QB.2
electric power economics, QB.3
nuclear electric power economics, QB.31
hydroelectric power economics, QB.32
solid fuel electric power economics, QB.33
gas fuelled electric power economics, QB.34
wind energy economics, QB.35
gas fuel economics, QB.4
oil based fuel economics, QB.5
solid fuel economics, QB.6
vegetable crop fuel economics, QB.7
waste materials fuel economics, QB.8
pelletised waste fuels, QB.81
waste biodegradation fuels, QB.82
renewable energy resources, QB.9
geothermal energy economics, QB.91
solar energy economics, QB.92
water energy economics (non-electric), QB.93
wind energy economics (non-electric), QB.94

environmental pollution (general), QC.1
environmental pollution control (general), QC.2
effluent inspection (general), QC.22
air pollution / pollution control, QC.3
soil pollution / pollution control, QC.4
water pollution / pollution control, QC.5
water supply pollution / pollution control, QC.51
river pollution / pollution control, QC.52
river quality inspection, QC.521
marine pollution / pollution control, QC.53
control of specific pollutants, QC.6
chemical pollution control, QC.61
industrial effluent control, QC.62
smoke pollution control, QC.621
light pollution control, QC.63
noise pollution control, QC.64
sewage effluent control, QC.65
oil pollution control, QC.66

environmental health (general), QD.1
[see also: environmental engineering (TL.23)]
environmental health inspection, QD.2
beach inspection, QD.21
sanitary inspection, QD.22
shops environmental health inspection, QD.23

pest control (environmental health), QD.3
animal pests (environmental health), QD.31
insect pests: (environmental health), QD.32
environmental health laboratory practice, QD.4
environmental safety, QD.5
use for: public safety

cleaning science / studies, QE.1
cleaning (hotel / domestic), QE.11
use for: carpet cleaning
industrial cleaning, QE.12
[see also: cleaning services (buildings) (TH.93)
cleaning services management, QE.13
laundry / dry cleaning, QE.2
cleansing (public), QE.3
street / road cleaning (public), QE.31
baths / lavatory / washroom services (public), QE.32
waste collection / disposal, QE.4
refuse / salvage collection, QE.41
hazardous waste disposal, QE.42
[see also: hazard control (health & safety) (PL.3)]
recycling: collection / treatment, QE.43
waste treatment site operation, QE.44

funeral direction, QG.1
use for: undertakers services
embalming, QG.11
crematoria services, QG.2
funerary hygiene, QG.3

security (general), QH.1
security management, QH.11
security services, QH.2
security guard services, QH.22
private investigation services, QH.23
security systems / equipment, QH.3
[see also: security systems (building work) (TH.8)]
security alarm systems, QH.31
police services, QH.4
special police services, QH.42
crime prevention, QH.5
neighbourhood watch, QH.51
forensic science (non-medical), QH.6
[see also: forensic medical studies (PB.51)]
forensic chemistry, QH.61
national border security, QH.7
coastguard service, QH.71
customs & excise service, QH.72
[note: this class does not include VAT (value added tax) related issues for which see VAT accounting (AK.631)]
immigration service, QH.73
military services, QH.8
use for: armed forces
use for: uniformed services
[note: for the politics of defence see defence studies (EA.72)]
army, QH.81
navy, QH.82
air force, QH.83
reserve forces, QH.84
use for: territorial army
civil defence forces, QH.85

fire engineering, QJ.1
fire prevention, QJ.2
fire fighting, QJ.3
[see also: fire fighting underground (PL.562)]
[see also: fire fighting offshore (PL.571)]
forest fires, QJ.31
rescue services, QJ.4


science (general / combined), RA.1
combined sciences (general), RA.11
natural sciences (general), RA.12
physical sciences (general), RA.13
applied sciences (general), RA.14
science laboratory practice, RA.3
science laboratory administration, RA.31
science laboratory technician work, RA.32
school laboratory technician work, RA.33
microscopy, RA.34
electron microscopy, RA.341
photo microscopy, RA.342
spectrography, RA.35
[see also: spectrochemical analysis (RD.611)]
chromatography, RA.36
research methods (science), RA.5
qualitative research, RA.51
quantitative research, RA.52
philosophy of science, RA.6

mathematics (general), RB.1
mathematics for non-mathematical studies, RB.13
arithmetic (general), RB.14
[see also: mathematics (numeracy) (HD.4)]
pure mathematics (general), RB.15
applied mathematics (general), RB.16
vedic mathematics, RB.17
mathematical logic / set theory, RB.2
mathematical logic, RB.21
set theory, RB.22
boolean algebra, RB.23
algorithms, RB.24
algebra & number theory, RB.3
algebra (general), RB.31
algebra: elementary, RB.32
[note: 'elementary' refers to content: this is not 'basic maths']
group theory, RB.33
Abelian groups, RB.332
finite groups, RB.333
semigroups, RB.334
Lie groups, RB.335
rings & modules, RB.34
lattices, RB.35
field theory / polynomials, RB.36
linear / multilinear algebra, RB.37
vectors, RB.371
linear mappings, RB.372
matrices, RB.373
algebraic geometry, RB.38
number theory, RB.39
special numbers / polynomials, RB.391
analytical number theory, RB.392
algebraic number theory, RB.393
Diophantine equations, RB.394
geometry, RB.4
trigonometry, RB.42
analytical geometry, RB.43
non Euclidean geometries, RB.44
differential geometry, RB.45
topology, RB.46
mathematical analysis, RB.5
real analysis, RB.51
real functions, RB.511
metric theory of functions, RB.5111
series / sequences, RB.512
complex analysis, RB.52
complex / imaginary numbers, RB.521
conformal mapping, RB.522
analytic functions, RB.523
integral representations, RB.524
Julia & Mandelbrot sets, RB.525
functional analysis, RB.53
Fourier analysis, RB.531
harmonic analysis (mathematics), RB.532
approximation theory, RB.54
calculus, RB.55
differential calculus, RB.551
integral calculus, RB.552
operational calculus, RB.553
differential equations, RB.56
ordinary differential equations, RB.561
linear ordinary differential equations, RB.5611
dynamic systems (mathematics), RB.5612
special functions, RB.562
partial differential equations, RB.563
non linear equations / systems, RB.5631
finite differences, RB.564
discrete mathematics, RB.6
combinatorics, RB.61
graph theory, RB.62
design theory (mathematics), RB.63
statistics / probability / operational research, RB.7
statistics, RB.71
[see also: demography (EE.2322)]
[see also: SPSS (CS.81122)]
sampling theory, RB.711
descriptive statistics / multivariate analysis, RB.712
statistical inference, RB.713
time series analysis, RB.714
applied statistics, RB.715
[see also: medical statistics (PB.481)]
statistical analysis, RB.716
statistical models, RB.717
[see also: mathematical modelling (OR) (RB.744)]
statistical data handling, RB.718
statistics for non-statisticians, RB.72
probability theory, RB.73
operational research (OR), RB.74
utility theory (OR), RB.741
game theory, RB.742
mathematical programming (OR), RB.743
mathematical modelling (OR), RB.744
[see also: statistical models (RB.717)]
optimisation / economic mathematical models, RB.745
networks (OR), RB.746
computational mathematics / cybernetics, RB.8
numerical analysis, RB.81
computer mathematics, RB.82
[note: mathematics USED FOR computing]
mathematical cybernetics, RB.83
control theory (mathematics), RB.84
data modelling (computational mathematics), RB.85
cryptography, RB.86
mathematics for specific applications, RB.9
[see also: computational linguistics (FJ.26)]
[see also: archaeological computation (DC.25)]
engineering mathematics, RB.91
industrial mathematics, RB.92
medical computation, RB.93

[see also: polymer physics (RJ.12)]
[see also: physics teaching (GC.811)]
physics (general), RC.1
computational physics, RC.11
analytical physics, RC.12
mechanics (physics), RC.2
theoretical mechanics, RC.21
stress mechanics, RC.22
finite element stress analysis, RC.221
[see also: vibration analysis (RC.251)]
stress analysis (physics), RC.222
solid mechanics, RC.23
engineering solid mechanics, RC.231
dynamics (physics), RC.232
statics, RC.233
fluid mechanics, RC.24
aerodynamics, RC.241
industrial aerodynamics, RC.2411
light structures: aerodynamics, RC.2412
ballistics, RC.2413
hydraulics (physics), RC.242
pneumatics (physics), RC.243
acoustics / vibration (physics), RC.25
use for: ultrasonics (physics)
use for: sound (physics)
vibration analysis, RC.251
[see also: finite element stress analysis (RC.221)]
electroacoustics, RC.252
optics, RC.3
thermal physics, RC.4
thermodynamics, RC.41
cryophysics, RC.42
electricity & magnetism (physics), RC.5
electricity (physics), RC.51
electronics (physics), RC.52
solid state physics, RC.521
microwave solid state physics, RC.5211
[see also: microwave principles (electronics) (XM.21)]
molecular electronics, RC.522
electromagnetism, RC.53
magnetism, RC.54
chemical physics / physics of matter, RC.6
chemical physics (general), RC.61
quantum mechanics, RC.62
use for: gravity
particle physics, RC.63
nuclear physics, RC.64
radiology (physics), RC.641
atomic physics, RC.65
molecular physics, RC.66
structure of molecular systems, RC.661
isotropy / anisotropy, RC.662
intermolecular forces, RC.663
properties of materials, RC.664
radiation physics, RC.67
theoretical physics, RC.7
mathematical physics, RC.71
cosmology, RC.72
relativity, RC.73
applied physics, RC.8
[note: see also: the application eg thermal engineering (XH.6)]
engineering physics, RC.81
industrial physics, RC.82
atmospheric physics, RC.83
applied radiation physics, RC.84
medical physics, RC.85

[see also: polymer chemistry, RJ.11]
[see also: chemistry teaching, GC.812]
chemistry (general), RD.1
computational chemistry, RD.11
coordination chemistry, RD.12
theoretical chemistry, RD.2
physical chemistry, RD.3
photochemistry, RD.31
electrochemistry, RD.32
electrophoresis, RD.321
colloids (chemistry), RD.33
solid state chemistry, RD.34
chemical structures, RD.35
atomic chemistry, RD.36
molecular chemistry, RD.361
nuclear chemistry, RD.362
radiochemistry, RD.363
allotropy, RD.37
surface chemistry, RD.38
organic chemistry, RD.4
carbon chemistry, RD.41
heterocyclic chemistry, RD.42
hydrocarbon chemistry, RD.43
organometallic chemistry, RD.44
organic chemical synthesis, RD.45
inorganic chemistry, RD.5
[note: chemistry excepting carbon compounds]
mineralogy, RD.51
industrial mineralogy, RD.511
crystallography, RD.52
silicate chemistry, RD.53
applied chemistry, RD.6
[see also: polymer science (RJ.1)]
analytical chemistry, RD.61
spectrochemical analysis, RD.611
use for: spectroscopy
use for: spectrometry
[see also: spectrography (RA.35)]
instrumental analysis, RD.612
industrial chemistry, RD.62
[see also: chemicals / materials engineering (YC.)]
[see also: chemical products (WE.)]
aerosol technology, RD.621
colour chemistry, RD.622
metallurgical chemistry, RD.623
[see also: metallurgy (YD.1)]
petrochemistry, RD.624
[see also: oil / gas / petrochemicals processing (YC.6)]
medical chemistry, RD.63

astronomy (general), RE.1
solar system, RE.12
planetology, RE.13
stellar / interstellar astronomy, RE.14
astrophysics, RE.2
radioastronomy, RE.3
space science, RE.4
space exploration, RE.41
space research, RE.42
navigation science (theory), RE.5
astro navigation, RE.51
chronology / chronometry, RE.52

geology, RF.2
petrology, RF.21
applied geology, RF.22
engineering geology, RF.221
engineering geomorphology, RF.222
exploration geology, RF.223
petroleum geology, RF.224
paleontology, RF.23
palynology, RF.231
use for: pollen study
geological data analysis, RF.232
sedimentology, RF.233
stratigraphy, RF.234
quaternary studies, RF.235
micropaleontology, RF.236
marine geology, RF.24
geophysics, RF.3
rock mechanics, RF.31
exploration geophysics, RF.32
applied geophysics, RF.33
seismology, RF.34
engineering seismology, RF.341
petroleum seismology, RF.342
geography, RF.4
physical geography, RF.42
economic geography, RF.43
social geography, RF.44
historical geography, RF.441
human geography, RF.442
geography of specific areas, RF.45
maritime geography, RF.46
meteorology, RF.5
use for: weather
climatology, RF.51
hydrology, RF.6
limnology, RF.61
use for: fresh water (lakes / ponds): study
marine hydrology, RF.62
engineering hydrology, RF.63
hydrogeology, RF.64
soil science, RF.7
pedology, RF.71
soil chemistry, RF.72
soil geology, RF.73
oceanography, RF.8
physical oceanography, RF.81
applied oceanography, RF.82
geochemistry, RF.9
organic geochemistry, RF.91

[see also: quantity surveying / economics (TC.3)]
[see also: surveying: general practice (TC.4)]
land & sea surveying (general), RG.1
surveying methods, RG.2
aerial surveying, RG.21
geodetic surveying, RG.22
marine geodesy, RG.221
photogrammetry, RG.23
remote sensing, RG.231
topographic science, RG.3
cartography, RG.4
use for: map making
map reading, RG.41
hydrographic surveying, RG.5
geographical / land survey information management, RG.6
applied land & sea surveying, RG.7
civil engineering surveying, RG.71
military surveying, RG.72
minerals surveying, RG.73
rural practice surveying, RG.74
farm surveying, RG.741
fishing grounds surveying, RG.75
natural resource management (surveying), RG.8
land resource management (surveying), RG.81
minerals resource management (surveying), RG.82
marine resource management (surveying), RG.83
rural resource management (surveying), RG.84

use for: biological sciences
ecology, RH.1
[note: relation of living organisms to one another and to their environment: not environmental protection topics for which see (QA.)]
landscape ecology, RH.11
terrestrial ecosystems, RH.12
marine ecosystems, RH.13
population dynamics, RH.14
[see also: demography (EE.2322)]
natural history, RH.2
[see also: biology (RH.3)]
[see also: botany (RH.6)]
[see also: zoology (RH.7)]
[note: use for identification or awareness not for detailed academic study for which use the appropriate class in (RH.)]
land plant life / plant identification, RH.21
wild flower identification, RH.211
use for: plant identification
fungi identification, RH.212
use for: mushroom identification
use for: toadstool identification
use for: mycelia identification
tree identification, RH.213
freshwater life, RH.22
use for: pond life
marine / seashore life, RH.23
conchology, RH.231
use for: shells
seaweeds, RH.232
fish (ichthyology), RH.233
whale / dolphin spotting, RH.234
insects (entomology), RH.24
butterflies / moths (lepidoptery), RH.241
dragonflies, RH.242
spider identification (arachnology), RH.25
amphibia (natural history), RH.26
reptiles (herpetology), RH.27
birds (ornithology), RH.28
use for: bird watching
mammals (natural history), RH.29
biology, RH.3
[see also: natural history (RH.2)]
biology (general), RH.31
biometry, RH.311
computational biology, RH.3111
social biology, RH.312
behavioural biology, RH.3121
evolutionary biology, RH.313
field biology, RH.314
bioaeronautics, RH.315
biology of specific environments, RH.32
hydrobiology, RH.321
fresh water biology, RH.3211
marine biology, RH.3212
polar biology, RH.322
temperate zone biology, RH.323
arid zone biology, RH.324
tropical biology, RH.325
genetics, RH.33
animal genetics, RH.331
plant genetics, RH.332
human genetics, RH.333
cell biology, RH.34
cytology, RH.341
histology, RH.342
cryogenics (biology), RH.343
molecular biology, RH.36
biophysics, RH.361
radiation biophysics, RH.3611
biophysical chemistry, RH.3612
bioenergetics, RH.362
bioreactor systems, RH.363
neuroscience / neurobiology, RH.364
parasitology, RH.37
helminthology, RH.371
nematology, RH.372
microbiology, RH.38
virology, RH.383
immunology (microbiology), RH.384
immunobiology, RH.3841
bacteriology, RH.385
human biology / biomedicine, RH.4
use for: pathobiology
human biology (general), RH.41
anatomy (human), RH.42
physiology (human), RH.43
biomedical sciences, RH.46
biomedical physics, RH.461
biomedical technology, RH.462
medical biochemistry, RH.463
medical microbiology, RH.464
toxicology, RH.465
serology, RH.466
immunochemistry, RH.467
biochemistry, RH.5
enzymology, RH.51
molecular biochemistry, RH.52
analytical biochemistry, RH.53
endocrinology (biochemistry), RH.54
botany, RH.6
[see also: natural history (RH.2)]
plant physiology, RH.61
plant nutrition, RH.611
plant biochemistry, RH.612
plant pathology, RH.62
use for: plant diseases (biology)
applied botany, RH.63
systematic botany, RH.64
plant taxonomy, RH.65
use for: botanical classification
mycology, RH.66
zoology, RH.7
use for: animal biology
[see also: natural history (RH.2)]
animal physiology, RH.71
animal pathology, RH.72
applied zoology, RH.73
systematic zoology, RH.74
taxonomy: zoology, RH.741
applied life sciences, RH.8
applied biology, RH.81
industrial biology, RH.811
biotechnology, RH.82
microbial biotechnology, RH.821
plant biotechnology, RH.822
process biotechnology, RH.823
biodeterioration, RH.824
applied microbiology, RH.83
industrial microbiology, RH.831
environmental health microbiology, RH.832
radiobiology, RH.85
applied biochemistry, RH.86
industrial biochemistry, RH.861
[note: artificial production of hormones, enzymes, moulds etc used in therapeutic drugs, fermentation etc]
bioengineering, RH.862
genetic engineering, RH.87
[see also: genetically engineered crop production (SD.9)]

polymer science, RJ.1
[see also: applied chemistry (RD.6)]
polymer chemistry, RJ.11
[see also: CHEMISTRY (RD.)]
polymer physics, RJ.12
[see also: PHYSICS (RC.)]
wood science, RJ.2
bituminous materials science, RJ.3

agricultural biology, RK.1
agricultural biochemistry, RK.11
agricultural biotechnology, RK.12
agricultural botany, RK.13
agricultural microbiology, RK.14
agricultural zoology, RK.15
agricultural chemistry, RK.2
agricultural meteorology, RK.3
crop science, RK.4
seed technology, RK.41
crop physiology, RK.42
hydroponics, RK.43
weed science, RK.5
agricultural / horticultural research, RK.6
agricultural research, RK.61
horticultural research, RK.62

[see also: pathology (PB.62)]


agriculture (general), SA.1
use for: farming
tropical agriculture, SA.11
subtropical agriculture, SA.12
marginal / small scale farming, SA.13
crofting, SA.131
hill / upland farming, SA.132
horticulture (general), SA.2

crop protection (general), SC.1
seed protection, SC.11
growing crops protection, SC.12
grain crops protection, SC.121
root crops protection, SC.122
vegetable crop protection, SC.123
fruit protection, SC.124
fibre crop protection, SC.125
stored crops protection, SC.13
animal pest / predator control (farms), SC.2
bird pest / predator control (farms), SC.21
insect pest / predator control (farms), SC.22
insect pests: biological control, SC.221
mammals pest / predator control (farms), SC.23
plant diseases (agriculture), SC.3
moulds / fungi: control, SC.31
plant viruses: control, SC.32
beneficial insect promotion, SC.6
agricultural / horticultural chemicals, SC.7
[see also: health & safety: farm chemicals (PL.321)]
[see also: crop spraying equipment (SK.13)]
herbicides (farms), SC.72
use for: weed killers (farms)
pesticides (farms), SC.73
fungicides (farms), SC.74
artificial fertilisers (farm), SC.75
natural / organic fertilisers (farm), SC.8
agricultural byproducts utilisation (farm), SC.9
manure (animal) utilisation, SC.91
straw utilisation, SC.92
vegetable crop waste utilisation, SC.93

use for: agricultural produce
crop production (general), SD.1
arable farming (general), SD.11
market gardening (general), SD.12
vegetable production (general), SD.13
field crop production, SD.2
use for: general feed crop production
use for: forage crop production
use for: market crop production
cereals, SD.22
use for: grain
oats, SD.221
wheat, SD.222
barley, SD.223
maize, SD.224
rye, SD.225
rice, SD.226
millet, SD.227
sorghum, SD.228
feed cereals, SD.229
root / bulb crops, SD.23
potatoes, SD.231
carrots, SD.232
sugar beet, SD.233
fodder beet, SD.234
onions, SD.235
legumes, SD.24
peas, SD.241
beans, SD.242
lupins, SD.243
forage legumes, SD.244
brassicas, SD.25
market brassicas, SD.251
forage brassicas, SD.252
breakcrops, SD.26
oilseed rape, SD.261
sunflowers, SD.262
linseed, SD.263
herbs / salads (field grown), SD.27
ornamental plants (field grown), SD.28
flowers / flower bulbs (field grown), SD.281
grassland, SD.3
dairy grassland, SD.32
beef grassland, SD.33
sheep grassland: upland, SD.34
sheep grassland: downland, SD.35
glasshouse / protected crop production, SD.4
glasshouse crop production (general), SD.41
use for: greenhouse crops
glasshouse heating, SD.411
protected crop production (general), SD.42
vegetable production (protected), SD.43
tomatoes, SD.431
mushrooms, SD.432
cucumbers, SD.433
exotic vegetables, SD.434
herbs: protected, SD.435
peppers (capsicum), SD.436
watercress, SD.437
flowers (glasshouse), SD.44
plants: ornamental (glasshouse), SD.45
fruit production, SD.5
hard / top fruit, SD.51
use for: fruit trees
pomaceous fruits, SD.511
[note: all fruits with pomes such as apple, pear & quince]
stone fruits, SD.512
olive production, SD.5121
nut production, SD.5122
soft fruit, SD.52
citrus fruits, SD.53
vineyard culture, SD.55
use for: wine growing
use for: viticulture
hop production, SD.56
organic crop production, SD.6
use for: organic agriculture
plant propagation / breeding, SD.7
micropropagation, SD.71
nursery stock production, SD.8
genetically engineered crop production, SD.9
[see also: genetic engineering (RH.87)]

use for: horticulture: gardening
landscape gardening, SE.1
use for: hard landscaping
garden pond construction, SE.11
use for: pond construction (garden)
domestic gardening, SE.2
use for: amateur gardening
garden flower growing, SE.21
garden vegetable growing, SE.22
garden ornamental plant growing, SE.23
garden design (domestic), SE.24
bonsai / Japanese gardening, SE.25
garden lawn / grass care, SE.26
wildlife gardening, SE.27
organic gardening, SE.3
organic manures / fertilisers (gardening), SE.31
compost making (organic gardening), SE.32
pest control (organic gardening), SE.33
weed control (organic gardening), SE.34
garden pests / chemicals, SE.4
pest control: chemical (gardens), SE.41
weed control: chemical (gardens), SE.42
fertilisers: chemical (gardens), SE.43
plant diseases (gardens), SE.44
indoor gardening, SE.5
conservatory plant care, SE.51
house plant care, SE.52
bottle gardening, SE.53
floristry, SE.7
[see also: flower arranging (JG.23)]
garden centre work (horticultural), SE.8

[see also: sports facilities work (NL.4)]
park keeping, SF.2
sports ground / green keeping, SF.3
cricket wicket preparation, SF.31
bowling green preparation, SF.32
field event ground preparation, SF.33
sports surfaces: artificial, SF.34
tennis court construction / maintenance, SF.35
sports turf culture / management, SF.36
golf course maintenance, SF.37
ornamental amenity horticulture, SF.4
use for: decorative amenity horticulture
lawn / grass care (amenity horticulture), SF.41
plants / shrubs (amenity horticulture), SF.42
hedges (amenity horticulture), SF.43
cemeteries / crematoria gardening, SF.5
grave digging, SF.51
park safety / security, SF.6
dog problem awareness (parks), SF.61

use for: silviculture
use for: tree growing
forestry (general), SG.1
timber production, SG.11
amenity forestry, SG.12
forestry research, SG.13
agroforestry, SG.14
arboriculture, SG.2
nursery tree stock production, SG.21
tree planting, SG.22
tree maintenance, SG.23
forestry planning, SG.3
woodland creation / management, SG.4
forest / tree conservation, SG.41
forestry nature conservation, SG.5
[see also: nature conservation / protection (land) (QA.91)]
[see also: farm nature conservation (SL.6)]
forestry habitat conservation, SG.51
forestry wild plant conservation, SG.52
forestry wildlife conservation, SG.53
forestry / timber operations, SG.6
use for: debarker operation
use for: chipper operation
use for: mobile saw bench operation
brushcutting / scrubcutting, SG.61
coppicing, SG.62
tree felling, SG.63
logging, SG.64
chainsaw work, SG.65
saw milling, SG.66
wood storage / seasoning, SG.67
tree extraction, SG.68
use for: cable crane extraction
tree surgery, SG.7
tree climbing, SG.8

use for: stock farming
use for: livestock production
use for: meat production
use for: animal production
use for: farm animals
[see also: organic livestock production (SH.5)]
animal health / nutrition (farm), SH.2
animal feedstuffs, SH.21
silage making, SH.211
animal health, SH.22
animal sales / disposal, SH.3
livestock transport, SH.31
use for: lairage practice
livestock markets, SH.32
livestock slaughter, SH.33
carcass disposal, SH.34
abattoir management / procedures, SH.35
animal breeding, SH.4
cattle breeding, SH.41
sheep breeding, SH.42
pig breeding, SH.43
rare breeds, SH.44
organic livestock production, SH.5
[see also: ANIMAL HUSBANDRY (SH.)]
animal husbandry: specific animals, SH.6
cattle farming, SH.61
calf rearing, SH.611
beef production, SH.612
lowland beef, SH.6121
upland beef, SH.6122
dairy farming, SH.613
milk production (farm), SH.6131
artificial insemination (cattle), SH.614
use for: AI (cattle)
sheep farming, SH.62
sheep meat production, SH.621
sheep wool production, SH.622
sheep dairying, SH.623
lowland sheep, SH.624
upland sheep, SH.625
sheep shearing, SH.626
lambing, SH.627
use for: lamb resuscitation
use for: ewe post mortem
pig farming, SH.63
pig meat production, SH.631
pig unit management, SH.632
poultry farming, SH.64
poultry (general), SH.641
poultry keeping (domestic), SH.6411
poultry meat production, SH.642
egg production (poultry), SH.643
poultry breeding, SH.644
poultry hatchery work, SH.645
ducks / geese, SH.646
turkeys, SH.647
deer farming, SH.65
goat keeping, SH.66
working animals, SH.7
horses / ponies keeping, SH.71
use for: equine studies
horse breeding, SH.711
stud management, SH.7111
horse management, SH.712
use for: horse care
[see also: horse riding / animal sports (MH.5)]
horse training, SH.713
use for: horse schooling
stable management, SH.714
groom work, SH.715
heavy horses, SH.716
pony keeping, SH.717
donkey / mule keeping, SH.72
working dogs, SH.73
sheep dogs, SH.731
game / exotic animal farming, SH.8
game keeping, SH.81
game preservation / protection, SH.811
use for: predator control (gamekeeping)
game rearing, SH.812
moorland / heather game keeping, SH.813
exotic animal farming, SH.82
fur farming, SH.83
snail production, SH.84
silkworm production, SH.85
use for: sericulture
butterfly production, SH.86
zoo / safari park animal keeping, SH.87
bee keeping, SH.9
use for: apiculture

fish farming, SJ.2
use for: pisciculture
fresh water fish production, SJ.21
seawater fish production, SJ.22
fish breeding for release, SJ.3
shellfish / crustacean production, SJ.4
use for: conchyliculture
clam cultivation, SJ.41
lobster cultivation, SJ.42
mussel cultivation, SJ.43
oyster cultivation, SJ.44
scallop cultivation, SJ.45
fishing rights management, SJ.5
fishing (trade) / fisheries, SJ.6
fisheries management / marketing, SJ.61
fishing, SJ.62
inshore / coastal fishing, SJ.621
middle waters fishing, SJ.622
deep water fishing, SJ.623
fishing gear maintenance, SJ.63
trawl gear maintenance, SJ.631
creel pot construction / repair, SJ.632
fish processing at sea, SJ.64
crustacean gathering, SJ.7
shellfish gathering, SJ.8
seaweed gathering, SJ.9
kelp collecting, SJ.91

farm machinery: operation / maintenance / repair, SK.1
harvesting equipment, SK.11
cereal harvesting equipment, SK.111
root harvesting equipment, SK.112
forage harvesting equipment, SK.113
combine harvesting equipment, SK.114
crop processing equipment, SK.12
crop spraying equipment, SK.13
[see also: agricultural / horticultural chemicals (SC.7)]
crop irrigation equipment, SK.14
field maintenance equipment, SK.15
use for: ploughing equipment
crop planting equipment, SK.16
farm tractors / vehicles, SK.17
tractor operation / driving, SK.171
tractor power units / mechanisms, SK.172
quad bike operation, SK.173
livestock equipment, SK.18
dairy equipment, SK.19
farm workshop practice, SK.2
[see also: welding / joining (XE.)]
[see also: fabrication (XD.74)]
horticultural equipment operation / maintenance, SK.3
garden machinery operation / maintenance, SK.31
agricultural blacksmiths / wheelwrights craft, SK.4
blacksmith craft: agricultural, SK.41
wheelwrights: agricultural, SK.42
agricultural engineering, SK.5
horticultural engineering, SK.6
forestry engineering, SK.7

farm building maintenance, SL.1
[see also: construction carpentry (TG.71)]
[see also: painting & decorating (TG.8)]
farm estate maintenance, SL.2
use for: forestry estate maintenance
farm fencing / walling / paths, SL.3
use for: forestry fencing / walling / paths
stone walling, SL.31
dry stone walling, SL.311
wet stone walling, SL.312
hedging / ditching, SL.32
fencing (farm / forestry), SL.33
post hole borer equipment, SL.331
footpath maintenance (farms), SL.34
gates / stiles (farms / forests), SL.35
bridge building (farms / forests), SL.36
farm / forestry land maintenance, SL.4
use for: soil maintenance (farms)
ploughing, SL.41
farm / forestry land drainage / irrigation, SL.42
farm land drainage, SL.421
farm irrigation, SL.422
soil testing, SL.43
soil manuring (farms), SL.44
farm nature conservation, SL.6
[see also: nature conservation (land) (QA.91)]
[see also: forest / tree conservation (SG.5)]
farm habitat conservation, SL.61
farm wild plant conservation, SL.62
farm wildlife conservation, SL.63

use for: agricultural business management
rural business, SM.1
horticultural business, SM.12
forestry business, SM.13
equine business, SM.14
farm business, SM.15
[note: farm in the classes below includes agriculture / horticulture / forestry / equine]
farm finance, SM.3
farm accounting, SM.31
farm budgetary control, SM.32
farm taxation, SM.33
farm quotas / subsidies, SM.34
use for: common agricultural policy (CAP)
farm sales / marketing, SM.4
farm quality control, SM.41
farm office work, SM.6
farm secretarial work, SM.61
farm diversification, SM.7
farm shops / direct sales, SM.8
farm leisure facilities, SM.9
farm tourism, SM.91
farmhouse catering / accommodation, SM.92
farm camp site management, SM.93
[see also: camping / caravan site work (NM.7)]
farm visits, SM.94

use for: animal health: veterinary services
veterinary medicine, SN.2
aquatic veterinary medicine, SN.21
tropical veterinary medicine, SN.22
veterinary microbiology, SN.23
veterinary parasitology, SN.24
veterinary epidemiology, SN.25
homeopathic veterinary practice, SN.3
veterinary nursing, SN.4
use for: animal nursing
veterinary science, SN.5
veterinary anesthesia, SN.6
use for: veterinary anaesthesia
veterinary pharmacy, SN.7
dispensing: veterinary pharmacy, SN.71
laboratory animal care, SN.8
use for: animal technicians

pet care (general), SP.1
animal care (non-agricultural) (general), SP.2
small mammals: care, SP.21
domestic animals: care, SP.22
wild animals: care, SP.23
bird keeping (domestic), SP.24
use for: aviculture
use for: aviaries
pigeon keeping / fancying, SP.241
reptile / amphibian keeping, SP.25
terrarium making, SP.251
fish (ornamental) keeping, SP.26
use for: aquarium keeping
insect keeping (domestic), SP.27
animals (domestic) services, SP.3
dog grooming, SP.31
dog training, SP.32
guide dog training, SP.321
animal boarding / kennels, SP.33
animal protection / welfare, SP.5
farriery, SP.6
pet store management, SP.7




planning: general, TC.1
[see also: environmental planning (QA.24)]
land registration, TC.12
planning law / regulations, TC.13
housing planning, TC.14
town & country planning, TC.2
country planning, TC.21
regional planning, TC.22
town planning, TC.23
urban studies, TC.231
transport planning / design, TC.24
public transport planning, TC.241
freight transport planning, TC.242
road traffic control, TC.243
crossing patrol work, TC.2431
traffic wardens' work, TC.2432
quantity surveying / economics, TC.3
building / construction economics, TC.31
construction estimating, TC.33
use for: building estimating
quantity surveying, TC.36
[note: includes construction, civil and engineering project quantity surveying]
surveying: general practice, TC.4
use for: theodolite use
use for: dumpy level use
construction site surveying, TC.41
structural surveying, TC.42
use for: building surveying
property valuation, TC.43
valuation: buildings, TC.431
council charge valuation, TC.4311
use for: rating valuation
valuation: plant & machinery, TC.432
valuation: chattels, TC.433
valuation: business assets, TC.434
valuation: land, TC.435
insurance surveying, TC.436
investment surveying, TC.437
estate agency, TC.44
auctioneering, TC.5
auctioneering: land & buildings, TC.51
use for: property auctioneering
auctioneering: chattels, TC.52
auctioneering: agricultural, TC.53
auctioneering: fine art, TC.54
property development / management, TC.6
estate development / management, TC.61
land management / development, TC.612
environmental assessment, TC.613
[see also: environmental economics (EB.641)]
[see also: environmental studies (QA.1)]
country / rural estate management, TC.614
urban estate management, TC.615
property management, TC.62
property servicing, TC.621
housing management / development, TC.63
use for: housing studies

architecture (general), TD.1
architectural history, TD.13
architectural practice management, TD.14
building design (general), TD.2
architectural design, TD.21
architectural drawing, TD.22
use for: building drawing
architectural model making, TD.23
environmental design (architecture), TD.24
landscape architecture / design, TD.241
civic design, TD.242
building design: specific applications, TD.3
commercial buildings design, TD.31
education buildings design, TD.32
housing design, TD.33
medical buildings design, TD.34
public buildings design, TD.35
building conservation, TD.4
use for: architectural conservation

construction studies (general)/ access, TE.1
building studies (general), TE.2
home maintenance crafts (general) (DIY), TE.3
home extensions / improvements (DIY), TE.31
use for: conservatories
use for: loft conversions
building work for amateurs (DIY), TE.32
construction technology (basic), TE.5
use for: building technology
use for: architectural technology
construction materials (basic), TE.6
builders' merchant services, TE.61

construction management (general), TF.1
[note: managing whole construction operation in terms of costs, material, time, labour and quality]
construction quality control, TF.12
construction project management, TF.13
[note: management of a construction project as a whole: integration and monitoring of the various activities]
contracting / subcontracting (construction), TF.2
construction site management, TF.3
construction site supervision, TF.31
construction site security, TF.32
clerks of works (building / construction), TF.33
construction forepersons, TF.34
building law & regulations, TF.4
CDM regulations, TF.41
building inspection, TF.5
building inspection: NHBC, TF.51
use for: National House Building Council inspection

[see also: construction site work (TK.)]
building / construction operations (general / combined), TG.1
building / construction operations (craft), TG.11
building / construction operations (labouring), TG.12
brickwork / masonry, TG.2
use for: trowel skills
bricklaying, TG.21
blocklaying, TG.211
concrete work, TG.22
use for: cement work
use for: vibrating plate / table operation
formwork, TG.23
shuttering, TG.24
path / pavement surfacing, TG.25
stone masonry, TG.26
monumental masonry, TG.261
architectural stonework, TG.262
architectural stone carving, TG.263
architectural stone restoration, TG.264
letter cutting in stone, TG.265
brickwork / masonry for amateurs (DIY), TG.27
glazing (buildings), TG.3
double glazing, TG.31
leaded lights: glazing, TG.32
replacement window fixing, TG.33
plastic / polycarbonate glazing work, TG.34
floor / wall tiling, TG.4
use for: flooring
floor construction, TG.41
wood floor laying, TG.42
parquet floor laying, TG.421
concrete floor laying, TG.43
composition floor laying, TG.44
floor tiling, TG.45
wall tiling, TG.46
terracotta fixing, TG.461
mosaic floor laying, TG.47
terrazzo floor laying, TG.48
building insulation, TG.5
thermal insulation, TG.51
draught proofing, TG.511
acoustic insulation, TG.52
wall insulation, TG.53
roof insulation, TG.54
damp proofing, TG.55
roof surfacing, TG.6
use for: roofing
thatching, TG.61
roof tiling, TG.62
roof slating, TG.63
roofing felt fixing, TG.64
asphalting (buildings), TG.65
construction carpentry / shopfitting / erection, TG.7
construction carpentry, TG.71
[see also: farm building maintenance (SL.1)]
building joinery, TG.711
staircase building, TG.712
roofing carpentry, TG.713
shopfitting, TG.72
exhibition erection, TG.721
hoarding erection, TG.74
portable building erection, TG.75
marquee erection, TG.76
sign fixing, TG.77
painting & decorating, TG.8
[see also: farm building maintenance (SL.1)]
painting & decorating (DIY), TG.82
paperhanging, TG.83
painting: interiors, TG.84
painting: exteriors, TG.85
decorative paintwork, TG.86
use for: spray painting (decorating)
use for: distressing
use for: gilding
use for: ragging
use for: stamping (decorative paintwork)
use for: tortoiseshell
graining / marbling, TG.861
stencilling (house painting), TG.862
plastering, TG.87
plastering: decorative, TG.871
use for: pargetting
ceiling work: decorative, TG.872
ceiling fixing, TG.873
fencing (construction), TG.9

[see also: farm building maintenance (SL.1)]
building services (general), TH.1
energy efficiency (buildings), TH.11
building services engineering, TH.12
building electrical work, TH.2
building electrical work (DIY), TH.21
electrical installation (buildings / construction), TH.22
[note: for courses in electrical installation specifically in construction work: for general electrical installation in plant and machinery see electrical installation / wiring (XJ.3)]
electrical maintenance (buildings), TH.23
emergency lighting / power supply, TH.24
lighting (building work), TH.25
street lighting, TH.251
plumbing (building work), TH.3
plumbing (professional), TH.31
plumbing (DIY), TH.32
plumbing installation work, TH.33
drainage (building work), TH.34
use for: sanitary plumbing
water supply (building work), TH.35
water meter fixing, TH.351
copper work (plumbing), TH.36
lead work (plumbing), TH.37
heating installation (building work), TH.4
heating appliance installation / servicing, TH.41
boiler installation / servicing, TH.42
central heating installation / servicing, TH.43
fireplace building / installation, TH.44
oil fuelled equipment installation / servicing, TH.45
gas-fired equipment installation / servicing, TH.46
use for: CORGI
use for: ACOP
solid fuelled equipment installation / servicing, TH.47
gas supply / installation (building work), TH.5
gas supply work, TH.51
gas plumbing work, TH.52
gas maintenance work, TH.53
ventilation (building work), TH.6
air conditioning (building work), TH.7
security systems (building work), TH.8
[see also: security systems (QH.3)]
alarms installation, TH.81
building maintenance, TH.9
building maintenance (general), TH.91
DIY building maintenance, TH.911
building maintenance engineering, TH.912
historic property maintenance, TH.913
caretaking (building control), TH.92
cleaning services (buildings), TH.93
[see also: industrial cleaning (QE.12)]
chimney maintenance / sweeping, TH.94
window cleaning, TH.95
architectural stonework maintenance / cleaning, TH.96
timber / impregnation / treatment / preservation, TH.97

interior design (general), TJ.1
use for: interior landscaping
Feng Shui, TJ.11
fitted furniture installation, TJ.4
fitted kitchen installation, TJ.41
blind fixing, TJ.42
fitted bedroom installation, TJ.43
floorcoverings planning / fitting, TJ.5
carpet estimating, TJ.51
floorcoverings fitting, TJ.52
carpet fitting, TJ.521

construction machinery / plant operation / maintenance, TK.1
crane operation (construction), TK.11
slinger / banksman (construction), TK.111
construction plant maintenance, TK.12
construction plant (stationary) operation, TK.13
drilling (construction), TK.131
pile driving (construction), TK.132
construction plant (mobile) operation, TK.14
[see also: driving (ZX.2)]
track laying vehicles driving, TK.141
plant (construction) hire services, TK.15
scaffolding / access work, TK.2
steeplejack work, TK.21
setting out site work, TK.3
groundwork (construction), TK.4
compacting site work, TK.41
levelling site work, TK.42
foundation site work, TK.43
excavation site work, TK.44
structural work, TK.5
structural steelwork, TK.51
demolition work, TK.6
roadwork, TK.7
use for: street furniture
use for: road signing
asphalting (roadwork), TK.71
road surfacing, TK.72

use for: construction engineering
civil engineering (general), TL.1
civil engineering administration, TL.11
civil engineering law, TL.111
clerk of works (civil engineering), TL.12
municipal engineering, TL.2
rural engineering, TL.21
urban engineering, TL.22
environmental engineering, TL.23
[see also: environmental health (general) (QD.1)]
water engineering, TL.3
water management, TL.32
water supply / irrigation engineering, TL.33
water supply engineering, TL.331
groundwater engineering, TL.3311
aquifers: water supply, TL.3312
reservoirs: civil engineering, TL.3313
boring / drilling (water) engineering, TL.3314
irrigation engineering, TL.332
dams: civil engineering, TL.333
coastal / river engineering, TL.34
coastal engineering, TL.341
sea defences, TL.3411
coastal dynamics, TL.3412
river engineering, TL.342
estuary engineering, TL.3421
river maintenance, TL.3422
canal engineering, TL.343
dredging / channel maintenance, TL.344
land drainage engineering, TL.35
marine civil engineering, TL.36
harbour engineering, TL.361
barrage engineering, TL.362
public health engineering, TL.4
drainage (wastewater) engineering, TL.41
sewage treatment, TL.42
water treatment, TL.43
desalination technology, TL.431
tropical public health engineering, TL.44
transport engineering, TL.5
highway engineering, TL.51
highway maintenance engineering, TL.511
traffic engineering, TL.52
road safety engineering, TL.521
bridge engineering, TL.53
excavation engineering, TL.6
tunnel engineering, TL.61
embankment engineering, TL.62
geotechnical engineering, TL.63
marine geotechnics, TL.631
soil mechanics, TL.632
subsidence engineering, TL.633
explosives (civil engineering), TL.64
blasting techniques, TL.641
theme park engineering, TL.7
use for: leisure park engineering

architectural engineering, TM.2
foundation engineering, TM.3
structural design (construction), TM.4
structural materials engineering, TM.5
structural failure investigation (construction), TM.6


[see also: quality & reliability testing (WD.4)]
quality management, VD.1
quality standard (BS5750) (ISO9000) implementation, VD.12
use for: introduction to BS5750 and ISO9000 series
[see also: standards / specifications (VD.6)]
total quality management, VD.13
quality circles, VD.14
Taguchi methods, VD.15
performance measurement, VD.16
Kaizen, VD.17
reliability / quality engineering, VD.2
reliability maintainability & availability, VD.21
value engineering, VD.22
quality assurance, VD.3
quality control, VD.32
statistical quality control / improvement, VD.321
quality auditing, VD.33
product liability, VD.4
product safety, VD.5
standards / specifications, VD.6
[see also: quality standard (BS5750) (ISO9000) implementation (VD.12)]
British Standards (general), VD.61
European standards (general), VD.62
international standards (general), VD.63

production control / automation (general), VE.1
control engineering (general), VE.12
process control, VE.13
control systems (production), VE.2
automatic control instrumentation, VE.21
electronic control systems, VE.211
programmable controllers, VE.212
use for: PLC
computer control systems (production), VE.22
real time control systems, VE.221
mechanical control systems, VE.23
hydraulic / pneumatic control systems, VE.231
statistical process control, VE.24
monitoring (production), VE.3
computer monitoring systems (production), VE.31
automated manufacturing systems, VE.4
industrial cybernetics, VE.41
[note: control systems which react to stimuli and/or learn]
industrial robotics, VE.42
[note: cybernetic machines which perform physical tasks]
flexible manufacturing systems (FMS), VE.43
computer integrated manufacture (CIM) (general), VE.44
computer-aided manufacture (CAM) (general), VE.45
[see also: computer-aided design (CAD) (VF.12)]
advanced manufacturing systems / technology, VE.46
use for: AMT
computer-aided engineering (general), VE.47
fault finding / trouble shooting (production), VE.5
failure analysis, VE.51
[note: for failure mode effects analysis use (AG.3)]

industrial design (general), VF.1
[see also: design (non-industrial) (JC.)
computer-aided design (CAD), VF.12
[note: for general courses about CAD]
[see also: CAD software (use) (CQ.8)]
[see also: computer-aided manufacture (CAM) (general) (VE.45)]
design technology, VF.13
product design, VF.2
use for: quality function deployment
design for assembly, VF.22
design for testability, VF.23
ergonomics, VF.24
safety design, VF.25
environment friendly design, VF.26
engineering design, VF.3
mechanical engineering design, VF.31
tool / jig design, VF.32
process design, VF.33
environment friendly process design, VF.331
industrial research & development, VF.4
development engineering, VF.41
experimental engineering, VF.42
product development (R&D), VF.43
prototyping, VF.44
industrial model making, VF.5
technical / engineering drawing, VF.6
drawing office technician work, VF.61
drafting, VF.62
tracing, VF.63
patenting (industrial), VF.7
patent agency work, VF.71
patent engineering, VF.72

plant / machinery / terotechnology, VG.2
maintenance engineering, VG.21
factory maintenance, VG.22
plant / machinery (industrial) layout, VG.24
plant / machinery (industrial) installation / maintenance, VG.25
plant / machinery servicing, VG.26
plant engineering, VG.3
foundry engineering, VG.31
furnace engineering, VG.32
project engineering, VG.4
estimating (engineering / industrial), VG.6


sub contracting, VJ.1
tendering, VJ.2
contract management (business / industry), VJ.3
subcontracts control (business / industry), VJ.4


[see also: engineering / technology (general) (XA.)]
manufacturing administration, WA.1
manufacturing technology general, WA.2
industrial engineering (general), WA.3
process engineering (general), WA.4
use for: engineering processes
production engineering (general), WA.5
manufacturing engineering, WA.6
use for: engineering manufacture
manufacturing mechanical engineering, WA.61
[see also: mechanical engineering (general) (XH.1)]

production process work (general), WB.1
assembly work (general), WB.2
electrical / electronic goods manufacture / assembly, WB.21
electronic goods manufacture / assembly, WB.211
use for: PCB assembly
[note: for PCB design / theory use XL.563]
electrical goods manufacture / assembly, WB.212
wiring (assembly work), WB.213
metal goods: manufacture / assembly, WB.22
plastic goods: manufacture / assembly, WB.23
finishing (production), WB.3
surface finishing, WB.31
paint application (industrial), WB.32
paint spraying (industrial), WB.321
packing (industrial), WB.4

[see also: musical instrument technology (LJ.)]
precision engineering (general), WC.1
astronomical instrument making, WC.2
optical instrument making, WC.3
scientific / medical instrument making, WC.4
clock / watch making & repair, WC.5
use for: horology
locksmith work, WC.6

testing (industrial) (general), WD.1
non destructive testing, WD.2
industrial radiography, WD.21
[see also: medical radiography (PE.12)]
dye penetrant techniques, WD.22
magnetic particle inspection, WD.23
ultrasonic inspection, WD.24
mechanical testing, WD.3
use for: destructive testing
quality & reliability testing, WD.4
[see also: quality and reliability management (VD.)]
measurement / metrology, WD.5
use for: recording instruments (measurement)
metrology, WD.51
calibration, WD.52
gauging, WD.53
micrometer use, WD.54
stress analysis (measurement), WD.55
use for: strain gauges / stress analysis
electronic / electric instrumentation (general), WD.6
inspection (industrial), WD.7
engineering inspection, WD.71
plant (industrial) inspection, WD.72
process inspection, WD.73
product inspection, WD.74

[see also: industrial chemistry (RD.62)]
industrial chemicals, WE.1
colloids / surfactants production, WE.11
industrial gases production, WE.12
photochemicals production, WE.13
pharmaceuticals production, WE.2
toiletries / cosmetics production, WE.3
essential oils / perfumery production, WE.31
explosives technology, WE.4
pyrotechnics, WE.41
colour / coatings technology, WE.5
use for: surface coatings
paint technology, WE.51
colourings / dyes, WE.52
adhesives, WE.54
varnishes / lacquers, WE.55

ceramics technology, WF.1
ceramic materials, WF.11
kiln firing, WF.12
ceramics production (industrial), WF.13
mould making (ceramics), WF.131
earthenware, WF.14
porcelain, WF.15
glass technology, WF.2
glass materials, WF.21
glass production (industrial), WF.22
use for: glass manufacture
glass making (hand), WF.23
glass blowing (hand), WF.231
glass blowing (scientific), WF.232
glass design, WF.24
concrete / cement technology, WF.3
brickmaking, WF.31
cement manufacture, WF.32
concrete manufacture, WF.33
reinforced concrete, WF.331
special concretes, WF.332
artificial stone, WF.333
refractory technology, WF.4

[see also: polymer science (RJ.1)]
compounding (polymers), WG.1
plastics milling, WG.11
moulding / extrusion (polymers), WG.2
injection moulding, WG.21
extrusion (polymers), WG.22
profile extrusion, WG.23
extrusion blow moulding, WG.24
extrusion film blowing, WG.25
compression moulding, WG.26
rotational moulding, WG.27
calendering, WG.3
thermoforming, WG.4
foamed systems (polymers), WG.5
reinforced systems processing, WG.6
use for: fibre glass processing
use for: carbon fibre processing
polymer products, WG.7
plastics products, WG.71
rubber products, WG.72

fabric production, WH.1
yarn preparation processes, WH.11
spinning (industrial), WH.111
textile production processes, WH.12
weaving (industrial), WH.121
knitted fabric production, WH.122
use for: knitting (industrial)
fabric finishing processes, WH.13
fabric printing, WH.131
use for: textile printing
fabric dyeing / coloration (industrial), WH.132
rope making, WH.2
textile / clothing technology, WH.3
use for: sewing machine technology
textile chemistry, WH.31
textile engineering, WH.32
knitting machines (textiles), WH.33
fabric making-up machinery, WH.35
fabric making-up, WH.4
industrial sewing, WH.41
clothes manufacture (industrial), WH.42
fashion accessories making (industrial), WH.43
millinery (industrial), WH.431
tent / sail making, WH.5
tent making, WH.51
sail making, WH.52
floorcoverings, WH.6
floorcoverings design, WH.61
floorcoverings production, WH.62
carpet production (industrial), WH.621
soft furnishings (industrial), WH.7
[see also: soft furnishings (craft) (JL.7)]

leather preparation / technology, WJ.1
tanning, WJ.11
leather goods manufacture, WJ.2
leather / suede clothing, WJ.22
saddlery, WJ.3
harness making / repair, WJ.31
use for: tack making / repair
use for: lorinery
footwear manufacture, WJ.4
footwear repair, WJ.42
furriery, WJ.5

[see also: construction carpentry (TG.7)]
woodworking / carpentry (general), WK.1
woodworking / carpentry (DIY), WK.11
woodworking, WK.2
wood turning, WK.21
machine woodworking, WK.22
joinery, WK.23
carpentry, WK.24
cabinet making, WK.25
wood finishing, WK.3
wood polishing, WK.31
french polishing, WK.311
wood staining, WK.32
wood protection, WK.5
furniture manufacture (industrial), WK.6
cane furniture making, WK.61
furniture accessories manufacture, WK.7
upholstery (industrial), WK.8
[see also: upholstery (craft) (JP.5)]

paper technology, WL.1
paper / card making, WL.11
recycled paper making, WL.111
cardboard manufacture, WL.113
board manufacture, WL.12
paper conversion, WL.2
photographic paper / film making, WL.21
packaging manufacture, WL.3
packaging design, WL.31
packaging materials, WL.32
box manufacture, WL.33
carton manufacture, WL.34

[see also: (for small scale production) baking / dairy / food & drink processing (NE.)]
food manufacture / processing (industrial), WM.1
food quality control, WM.11
food process engineering, WM.12
food storage / preservation (industrial), WM.2
food canning, WM.21
food chilling, WM.22
food drying (commercial), WM.23
use for: freeze drying: food
food freezing (commercial), WM.24
food pickling / salting, WM.25
food packaging, WM.26
drinks processing (industrial), WM.3
drinks processing (non-alcoholic), WM.31
coffee processing, WM.311
tea processing, WM.312
mineral waters processing, WM.313
soft drinks processing, WM.314
alcoholic drinks processing, WM.32
brewery work, WM.321
distillery work, WM.322
maltster's work, WM.323
wine making (industrial), WM.324
grain / flour / bakery / confectionery (industrial), WM.4
bakery: factory processing, WM.41
confectionery manufacture, WM.42
grain / flour processing, WM.43
dairy foods processing (industrial), WM.5
milk processing, WM.51
cream processing, WM.52
yoghurt processing (industrial), WM.53
butter processing (industrial), WM.54
cheese processing (industrial), WM.55
ice cream processing (industrial), WM.56
egg processing, WM.57
meat / fish processing (industrial), WM.6
meat processing, WM.61
poultry / game processing, WM.63
fish processing, WM.64
fruit / vegetable processing (industrial), WM.7
tobacco processing, WM.9


[see also: manufacturing (general) (WA.)]
engineering (general), XA.1
engineering management, XA.13
engineering craft studies, XA.14
engineering technician studies, XA.15
technology (general), XA.3
craft design & technology, XA.31
use for: CDT
[see also: DESIGN (JC.)]
technology management, XA.32
technology analysis, XA.33
engineering materials, XA.5

[see also: decorative metal crafts / jewellery (JH.)]
forge work, XD.4
blacksmiths (industrial), XD.41
use for: wrought iron work (industrial)
forming, XD.5
rolling, XD.51
extrusion (metals), XD.52
drawing (metals), XD.53
shaping (metals), XD.54
pressing / stamping (metals), XD.541
bending (metals), XD.542
hardening / dressing (metals), XD.6
hardening (metals), XD.61
heat treatment (metals), XD.62
metal dressing, XD.63
shot blasting: industrial, XD.64
metal working / fabrication, XD.7
sheet metal working, XD.71
plate metal working, XD.72
structural plate metal working, XD.721
boiler making, XD.722
metal spinning, XD.73
fabrication (industrial), XD.74
[see also: farm workshop practice (SK.2)]
metal finishing, XD.8
metal coating / plating processes, XD.9

[see also: farm workshop practice (SK.2)]
welding (general), XE.2
[note: use this class for general courses in aluminium welding: classify with particular welding technique if known]
welding: blueprint reading, XE.21
welding inspection, XE.22
electric welding, XE.3
arc welding, XE.31
metal arc welding, XE.311
mig / tig welding, XE.312
gas shielded arc welding, XE.313
electron beam welding, XE.32
high frequency welding, XE.33
ultrasonic welding, XE.34
resistance welding, XE.35
gas welding, XE.4
fusion welding, XE.41
pressure welding, XE.42
high pressure welding, XE.43
friction welding, XE.44
radial friction welding, XE.45
oxyacetylene welding, XE.46
welding (for specific applications / materials), XE.5
braze welding, XE.51
thick plate welding, XE.52
thin plate welding, XE.53
robotic welding, XE.54
automated welding, XE.541
forge welding, XE.55
coded welding, XE.56
spot welding, XE.57
plastics welding, XE.58
joining (non-welding), XE.6
brazing, XE.61
bonding, XE.62
hard facing, XE.63
riveting, XE.64
soldering, XE.65

use for: machining (abrasive working)
machine shop practice, XF.1
use for: engineering workshop practice
tool / jig making, XF.11
marking out / laying out work (engineering), XF.12
machine tool setting / operating, XF.2
numerically controlled machining, XF.21
use for: NC programming
computer controlled machining, XF.22
use for: CNC programming
part programming, XF.23
milling / grinding (industrial), XF.3
cutting (industrial), XF.4
thermal cutting, XF.41
oxyacetylene flame cutting, XF.411
plasma cutting, XF.412
screw cutting, XF.42
drilling / boring (production), XF.5
lathe work, XF.6
use for: turning (metal work)
autolathe setting, XF.61
capstan lathe work, XF.62
centre lathe work, XF.63
turret lathe work, XF.64
tools: use / maintenance, XF.7
power hand tools, XF.71

mechanical engineering (general), XH.1
[see also: manufacturing mechanical engineering (WA.61)]
mechanical engineering technician studies, XH.11
mechanical engineering craft studies, XH.12
mechanical production engineering, XH.13
hydraulic engineering, XH.2
hydraulic power systems, XH.21
water turbines (engineering), XH.22
fluid engineering, XH.3
flow systems, XH.31
membrane technology, XH.311
pipework engineering, XH.312
steam engineering, XH.32
boiler engineering, XH.321
blowers / fans, XH.33
mixing machines, XH.34
use for: cyclones
turbine engineering, XH.35
pneumatic equipment / processes, XH.36
compressors, XH.361
pumps, XH.362
valves, XH.363
gaskets, XH.364
pneumatic engineering, XH.4
pressure vessels, XH.41
vacuum technology, XH.42
refrigeration engineering, XH.43
use for: cooling systems
cryogenics (engineering), XH.431
heat pumps, XH.44
heat exchanger technology, XH.45
acoustic / vibration engineering, XH.5
thermal engineering, XH.6
use for: heat engineering
[note: mechanics of systems which control or use heat energy including cold engineering: not heating engineering for which use (XH.92)]
internal combustion engineering, XH.61
gas turbines, XH.62
solar engines, XH.63
tribology, XH.7
bearings, XH.71
gears (mechanical engineering), XH.72
lubrication technology, XH.73
materials handling technology, XH.8
lifting / handling engineering, XH.81
crane engineering, XH.811
lift technology, XH.82
heating / ventilation engineering, XH.9
air conditioning engineering, XH.91
heating engineering, XH.92
[note: fixed and space heating systems not heat (thermal) engineering for which use (XH.6) or heating installation for which use (TH.4)]
thermal control, XH.921
ventilation engineering, XH.93

[note: the production of electricity and its use to produce heat / light and work]
electrical engineering (general), XJ.1
electrical craft studies, XJ.11
electrical technician studies, XJ.12
electrical maintenance engineering, XJ.13
electronic / electrical engineering, XJ.14
electrical safety, XJ.2
electrical hazards (protection from), XJ.21
electrical equipment protection, XJ.22
electric circuit protection, XJ.23
electric installation / wiring (plant / machinery / appliances), XJ.3
[note: electric power circuitry in plant and machinery and electric-powered appliances: for building electrical work see (TH.2)]
wiring regulations, XJ.31
use for: IEE regulations
use for: 16th edition (wiring regulations)
electrical testing, XJ.32
electric circuits, XJ.33
electric circuit wiring, XJ.331
electric machines, XJ.4
[note: electric equipment with moving parts]
electromechanical engineering, XJ.41
electric motors, XJ.42
[note: electric equipment which provides motive power in plant, machinery and appliances]
servo systems, XJ.43
electric materials, XJ.5
plasma technology, XJ.51
electrical principles, XJ.6
electric circuit theory, XJ.61
electric components, XJ.7

[note: generating, storing, regulating and transmitting electric energy]
energy engineering (general), XK.1
[see also: energy economics (applied) (QB.1)]
energy plant safety (general), XK.11
energy distribution (general), XK.12
energy applications (general), XK.13
electric power engineering, XK.2
use for: power engineering
electric power (general), XK.21
power plants (general), XK.211
power plant maintenance, XK.212
electric generators (general), XK.213
hydroelectric power, XK.22
tidal powered generators, XK.221
water (river / lake) powered generators, XK.222
water turbine generators, XK.223
wind powered generators, XK.23
wind turbine generators, XK.231
gas fuelled power generators, XK.24
oil fuelled power generators, XK.25
solid fuelled power generators, XK.26
nuclear power engineering, XK.3
use for: nuclear engineering
nuclear fuel production, XK.31
fusion reactors, XK.32
fission reactors, XK.33
nuclear engineering instrumentation, XK.34
nuclear power station plant, XK.35
nuclear waste processing / storage, XK.37
electric power storage / transmission, XK.4
power supply (general), XK.41
power transformers, XK.42
switchgear, XK.43
power transmission, XK.44
[note: distribution of mains electricity to customers]
electric power storage, XK.45
batteries, XK.451
superconductivity (power storage / transmission), XK.452
[note: use of low resistance materials to store and transmit electric power]
power lines maintenance, XK.46
electromagnetic engineering, XK.5
permanent magnets, XK.51
electrets, XK.52

[note: concerned with generating / processing signals as waveforms or electric charges; prefixes such as 'micro-' or 'digital' are used to modify other terms; look at the second part of the term: note also that all electrical equipment produces electromagnetic radiation but this is used in electronics as a signal form thus 'electromagnetic' and 'radiation' may also be modifiers not the core term]
[see also: computer technology (CJ.)]
electronic engineering (general), XL.1
digital electronics (general), XL.13
[note: representing signals as a series of pulses]
analogue electronics (general), XL.14
[note: representing one variable by another physical variable, eg amplitude, voltage]
microelectronics (general), XL.15
use for: microelectronic engineering
electronic maintenance engineering, XL.16
industrial electronics, XL.2
electronic craft skills, XL.21
electronics technicians, XL.22
electronics testing / fault finding, XL.23
power electronics, XL.24
[note: control & delivery of power in electronic equipment]
electronic materials, XL.3
superconductors (electronics), XL.31
electronics systems design, XL.4
microelectronics systems design, XL.41
computer aided electronic design, XL.42
electronics calculations, XL.43
[note: mathematics applied to electronics not electronic calculators]
electronic components / circuits, XL.5
solid state devices, XL.51
anti static components / techniques, XL.52
microprocessors, XL.53
use for: microchips
[note: devices containing logic circuits which have a variety of uses including in washing machines and computers: do not use for microcomputers for which use the appropriate class in COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY (CJ.)]
microprocessor architecture, XL.531
[note: design / integration of microprocessors]
microprocessor testing / fault finding, XL.532
very large / large scale integration (VLSI/LSI), XL.54
[note: advanced arrays of microprocessors]
semiconductor devices, XL.55
transistors, XL.551
electronic circuits, XL.56
feedback effects / sequential circuits, XL.561
integrated circuits, XL.562
printed circuits, XL.563
[note: for printed circuit board assembly see WB.211]
logic circuits, XL.564
logic gates, XL.565
amplifiers / signal generators, XL.57
signal processing components, XL.571
surface mount technology, XL.58
optoelectronics, XL.6
[note: electronics using or generating light]
fibre optics, XL.61
[note: transmission of light through glass or plastic 'wires']
laser technology, XL.62
[note: use of high-intensity coherent light beams for processing / transmitting / recording data]
laser devices, XL.621
optical electronic devices, XL.63
[note: light (optical) circuits replace electronic circuits]
electromagnetic compatibility, XL.7
[note: preventing one electromagnetic activity interfering with another including insulation, coding and decoding, frequency control and use of special materials]
sound / audio technology, XL.8
sound based technology, XL.81
sonar, XL.811
[note: sound waves used for underwater detection]
audio / recording technology, XL.82
[see also: music technology (electronic) (LJ.9)]
compact disc systems (audio), XL.821
[note: includes recordable compact disc systems]
mechatronics, XL.9
[note: mechanical electronic devices]

use for: communication technology
[note: all technology concerned with sending / receiving signals over distance]
data communications systems, XM.1
[note: communication of text information over distance]
[see also: computer communications (hardware) (CJ.4)]
[see also: telematics (CY.25)]
viewdata / videotex, XM.11
public viewdata systems, XM.111
private viewdata systems, XM.112
teletext, XM.113
fax (telecommunications), XM.12
integrated services digital networks (ISDN), XM.13
data communications hardware, XM.14
[see also: computer network hardware (CJ.44)]
telecommunications fitting / line work, XM.141
optical communications networks, XM.142
radio communication, XM.2
[note: technical aspects of radio broadcasting / receiving: do not use for programme making for which see radio programme production (KJ.262)]
microwave principles (electronics), XM.21
[note: use of microwaves (extra high frequency electromagnetic radiation) for communication not cooking for which use (NF.61)]
[see also: microwave solid state physics (RC.5211)]
transmission telecommunications, XM.22
radio propagation, XM.221
aerials (electronics), XM.222
[note: function / design of aerials including satellite television aerials]
[see also: television aerial installation (XN.32)]
telemetry, XM.223
[note: use of radio signals to convey information from distant instruments]
image processing (telemetry), XM.2231
radio frequency engineering, XM.23
satellite communications, XM.24
[note: use of satellites to receive, redirect and transmit telecommunications signals: do not use for satellite television aerials for which use (XN.321)]
[see also: satellite television installation (XN.321)]
DBS (direct broadcast by satellite), XM.241
[note: transmission of signals originated by space equipment]
radio amateurs, XM.25
radio operators, XM.26
telephony, XM.3
[note: technical aspects of telephone systems not telephone switchboard work for which see telephonists work (AY.71)]
telephone installation / servicing, XM.31
radio telephones (telecommunications), XM.32
television systems (electronics), XM.4
television principles, XM.41
closed circuit television (electronics), XM.42
colour television (electronics), XM.43
cable television systems (electronics), XM.44
satellite television systems (electronics), XM.45
video equipment (electronics), XM.46
radar systems, XM.5

[see also: computer maintenance (CM.2)]
electrical appliance servicing, XN.1
electrical appliance fitting, XN.13
domestic electrical appliance servicing, XN.14
business equipment servicing, XN.2
business electronic equipment servicing, XN.21
office machinery servicing, XN.211
retail electronic equipment servicing, XN.212
leisure / domestic electronic equipment servicing, XN.3
television servicing, XN.31
television aerial installation, XN.32
[see also: aerials (electronics) (XM.222)]
satellite television installation, XN.321
[see also: satellite communications, XM.24]
teletext servicing, XN.33
video recorders servicing, XN.34
audio servicing, XN.35
radio servicing, XN.36

aerospace engineering, XP.1
use for: air transport engineering
use for: aeronautical engineering
aircraft engineering, XP.11
aircraft design, XP.111
aircraft manufacture, XP.112
aircraft technology, XP.113
aircraft engines, XP.114
avionics, XP.2
[note: electronics associated with aeronautics and spacecraft]
aircraft, XP.3
aircraft: fixed wing, XP.31
aircraft: moving wing, XP.32
helicopters, XP.33
hovercraft, XP.34
aircraft maintenance engineering, XP.4
aircraft engine maintenance, XP.41
airframes maintenance, XP.42
avionics maintenance, XP.43
space technology, XP.5
space vehicle design, XP.51
space vehicle materials, XP.52
space vehicle propulsion, XP.53
space vehicle electronics / navigation, XP.54
space vehicles, XP.55
space vehicles (return), XP.551
space vehicles (non-return), XP.552
space probes, XP.553
space platforms, XP.554
satellites (artificial), XP.555
defence / weapons technology (general), XP.6

[see also: MARINE TRANSPORT (ZS.)]
marine engineering, XQ.1
use for: nautical engineering
naval architecture, XQ.2
ship design, XQ.21
ship building, XQ.3
ship fitting, XQ.31
ship joinery, XQ.32
marine plumbing, XQ.33
boat building, XQ.4
boat design, XQ.41
fitting out (boatbuilding), XQ.42
small boat technology, XQ.43
yacht building, XQ.44
boatyard management, XQ.45
marine electronics / instruments, XQ.5
marine electronic engineering, XQ.51
marine electronic maintenance, XQ.511
marine telecommunications maintenance, XQ.512
offshore electronic engineering, XQ.52
marine electrical engineering, XQ.6
marine electrical maintenance, XQ.61
marine mechanical engineering, XQ.7
marine engine maintenance. XQ.71
seagoing mechanics craft, XQ.72
submarines / submersibles, XQ.8
offshore engineering, XQ.9
offshore platforms technology, XQ.91
offshore electrical engineering, XQ.92
offshore mechanical engineering, XQ.93

[see also: ROAD TRANSPORT (ZV.)]
automotive engineering, XR.1
use for: vehicle engineering
[note: this is manufacturing new cars: for vehicle maintenance see (XS.)]
vehicle design / production (general), XR.2
vehicle design (general), XR.21
vehicle engine design, XR.211
vehicle body design / styling, XR.212
vehicle production (general), XR.22
vehicle assembly, XR.221
vehicle body building, XR.23
vehicle finishing, XR.24
vehicle painting / spraying (industrial), XR.241
vehicle customising, XR.242
coach trimming, XR.243
disabled people's vehicles: adaptation, XR.244
road vehicles: design / production, XR.3
car & van design / production, XR.31
disabled people's vehicles: design / production, XR.32
public service vehicles: design / production, XR.33
heavy goods vehicles: design / production, XR.34
bicycles: design / production, XR.35
motorcycle design / production, XR.36
[note: includes motorbike design / production]
special vehicles design / production, XR.4
electric vehicles: design / production, XR.41
industrial vehicles: design / production, XR.42
military vehicles: design / production, XR.43
remotely piloted vehicles: design / production, XR.44
tractor units: design / production, XR.45
trailer units: design / production, XR.46
horse drawn vehicles: design / production, XR.47

[see also: motor trade operations (BD.3)]
vehicle maintenance / repair (general), XS.1
[note: includes vehicle maintenance engineering and vehicle servicing]
vehicle cleaning, XS.15
use for: car valeting
vehicle inspection, XS.16
vehicle roadworthiness inspection, XS.161
use for: MOT
use for: vehicle emission inspection
vehicle workshop practice, XS.2
use for: transport workshop practice
vehicle body maintenance / repair, XS.3
panel beating, XS.31
vehicle welding, XS.32
vehicle restoration, XS.33
classic vehicle restoration, XS.331
vintage vehicle restoration, XS.332
vehicle painting / spraying (bodyshop), XS.34
vehicle engine maintenance / repair, XS.4
engine diagnostics, XS.41
LGV engines, XS.42
car & van engines, XS.43
diesel engines (vehicle), XS.44
vehicle fuel systems, XS.45
fuel injection systems, XS.451
turbocharging, XS.452
catalytic converters, XS.453
vehicle exhaust systems, XS.46
vehicle ignition systems, XS.47
vehicle lubrication, XS.48
vehicle wheel & tyre fitting, XS.5
dynamic balancing, XS.51
vehicle electrical / electronic systems, XS.6
vehicle battery / charging systems, XS.61
vehicle steering / braking / transmission, XS.7
braking systems, XS.71
gears / gear boxes (vehicle), XS.72
bicycle maintenance / repair, XS.8
motorcycle maintenance / repair, XS.9
[note: includes motorbike maintenance / repair]

[see also: RAIL TRANSPORT (ZT.)]
rail rolling stock, XT.1
rail locomotives, XT.2
light / portable railways, XT.3
cable railways, XT.31
monorails, XT.32
trams, XT.33
air cushion railways, XT.34
maglev railways, XT.35
use for: magnetic levitation trains


mining (general), YA.1
mining management, YA.11
minerals exploration, YA.2
mining geology, YA.21
mining operations, YA.3
mining (coal), YA.31
mining (not coal), YA.32
maintenance work (mining), YA.33
above ground work (mining), YA.34
below ground work (mining), YA.35
explosives (mining), YA.36
shot firing (mining), YA.361
underground mining, YA.37
surface mining, YA.38
opencast mining, YA.39
mining engineering, YA.5
mining electrical engineering, YA.51
mining electronics, YA.52
mining mechanical engineering, YA.53
mining hydraulics / pneumatics, YA.533
quarrying, YA.6
extractive plant operation, YA.7

oil & gas operations: general, YB.1
oil & gas operations: management, YB.11
offshore supply, YB.4
diving (offshore), YB.5
oil / gas exploration, YB.6
offshore maintenance, YB.7
offshore electronics maintenance, YB.72
oil / gas extraction operations, YB.8
use for: gas rig technology
use for: oil / gas rig technology
mud (oil wells) engineering, YB.81
drilling / well sinking (oil & gas), YB.82
well capping (oil & gas), YB.83
pipeline operations (oil & gas), YB.84

[see also: industrial chemistry (RD.62)]
chemical process engineering, YC.2
combustion engineering, YC.21
corrosion engineering, YC.22
electrochemical process engineering, YC.23
bioprocess engineering, YC.24
reaction engineering, YC.25
chemical plant engineering, YC.3
chemical instrumentation, YC.31
chemical systems automation, YC.32
process plant operation, YC.33
materials engineering & technology, YC.4
materials engineering (general), YC.41
materials technology (general), YC.42
materials development (general), YC.43
minerals technology, YC.5
minerals processing / technology, YC.51
minerals processing (general), YC.52
coal processing / distillation, YC.53
oil / gas / petrochemicals processing, YC.6
use for: petroleum oil & gas technology
[see also: petrochemistry (RD.624)]
petrochemical plant engineering, YC.61
oil refining, YC.62
petroleum technology, YC.621
petrochemicals processing, YC.63
gas processing technology, YC.64
fuel technology: general, YC.65

metallurgy, YD.1
[see also: metallurgical chemistry (RD.625)]
extraction metallurgy, YD.11
production metallurgy, YD.12
engineering metallurgy, YD.13
powder metallurgy, YD.14
metal refining / processing, YD.2
metal refining, YD.21
metal recovery, YD.22
metal processing (metal production), YD.23
ferrous metals production, YD.24
iron alloy production, YD.241
steel alloy production, YD.242
non ferrous production, YD.25
furnace operations (metals), YD.26
casting (metals), YD.3
die casting, YD.31
core making, YD.32
pattern making (engineering), YD.33
mould making (engineering), YD.34

use for: plastics & rubber technology
[see also: polymer science (RJ.1)]
polymer materials, YE.2
plastic materials, YE.21
thermoplastics, YE.211
thermoset, YE.212
rubber materials, YE.22
natural rubbers, YE.221
synthetic rubbers, YE.222
new polymer synthesis, YE.23
use for: polymer synthesis
composite materials, YE.24
reinforced plastics, YE.25
polymer engineering / design, YE.4


supply chain management, ZM.1
production / operations management, ZM.2
production management (general), ZM.21
use for: management: production
production planning, ZM.211
production estimating / costing, ZM.212
production control (management), ZM.213
use for: control (management): production
productivity, ZM.3
production scheduling, ZM.4
just in time, ZM.41
progress chasing, ZM.42
inventory control, ZM.5
stock / stores control, ZM.51
[see also: warehousing / storage (ZP.2)]
stocktaking, ZM.52
operations management, ZM.6
waste control (production), ZM.7

material requirements planning, ZN.1
use for: materials management
procurement & sourcing (general), ZN.2
use for: sourcing (goods / services)
goods procurement & sourcing, ZN.21
services procurement & sourcing, ZN.22
purchasing, ZN.3
ordering systems, ZN.31

use for: distribution: physical
freight forwarding, ZP.1
warehousing / storage, ZP.2
[see also: stock / stores control (ZM.51)]
storekeeping, ZP.21
[note: not shop keeping]
transport broking & chartering, ZP.3
air broking & chartering, ZP.31
ship broking & chartering, ZP.32
goods collection / delivery services, ZP.4
postal services, ZP.41
courier services, ZP.42
security collection / delivery services, ZP.421
freight handling, ZP.5
use for: cargo handling
loading / unloading, ZP.51
lifting / handling (mechanical), ZP.52
[see also: lifting / handling safety (PL.73)]
crane operation (freight), ZP.521
slinger / banksman (freight handling), ZP.522
forklift truck operation, ZP.523
hoist operation, ZP.524
kinetic handling, ZP.525
bulk liquids handling, ZP.53
freight safety, ZP.54
hazardous freight handling, ZP.541
[see also: hazard control (health & safety) (PL.3)]
[see also: lifting / handling safety (PL.73)]
driving: hazardous cargo, ZP.542
[see also: driving (ZX.2)]
freight security, ZP.55
bonded freight, ZP.551
furniture removal, ZP.56
pipelines (distribution), ZP.6
[note: pipelines used for distribution, not for operation]
[see also: pipeline operations (oil & gas), YB.84]

transport (general), ZQ.1
transport regulation / legislation, ZQ.11
transport costs / tariffs, ZQ.12
transport management, ZQ.13
passenger care (transport), ZQ.14
travel attendant work, ZQ.141
international transport, ZQ.15

air transport operations, ZR.1
flight planning, ZR.11
flight despatching, ZR.12
aircraft load control, ZR.13
air traffic routing, ZR.14
air freight transport, ZR.2
hazardous freight (air), ZR.21
air passenger transport, ZR.3
airline ticketing / reservations, ZR.31
[note: this is the ticket handling work at an airport]
[see also: fares & ticketing (travel) (NK.26)]
airline cabin work, ZR.32
aviation safety, ZR.4
aviation security, ZR.5
airport management / ground services, ZR.6
runway maintenance, ZR.61
airport ground services, ZR.62
aircraft fuelling, ZR.621
aircraft cabin equipment maintenance, ZR.622
aircraft cabin maintenance / cleaning, ZR.623
aircraft operation, ZR.7
[see also: aircraft flying (leisure) (MB.11)]
flying (commercial), ZR.71
[see also: aircraft flying (leisure), MB.11]
pilot's licence (commercial), ZR.711
pilot's licence (private), ZR.712
pilot's licence (helicopter), ZR.713
crop spraying (flying), ZR.714
aerial advertising (flying), ZR.715
aircraft navigation, ZR.72
aircraft instruments (using), ZR.73
aeronautics, ZR.74
astronautics, ZR.741
air traffic control, ZR.8

marine transport operation, ZS.1
international shipping, ZS.11
marine traffic routing, ZS.12
marine transport services, ZS.2
marine freight transport, ZS.21
hazardous goods (marine), ZS.211
marine passenger transport, ZS.22
marine passenger care, ZS.221
port / harbour services, ZS.23
port administration, ZS.231
harbour master, ZS.232
ferry services, ZS.24
towage / tug services, ZS.25
inland waterway transport, ZS.26
canal transport, ZS.261
[note: includes waterman's certificate]
river transport, ZS.262
lake / inland sea transport, ZS.263
marine salvage, ZS.27
wreck raising, ZS.271
buoy / signal / lighthouse maintenance, ZS.28
ship operation, ZS.3
[see also: sea leisure craft / sailing (MC.7)]
nautical science, ZS.31
coastal sailing (nautical science), ZS.311
seamanship, ZS.32
pre sea training, ZS.321
seamanship: basic, ZS.322
use for: deckhand
watch leadership, ZS.323
deck officers, ZS.324
command endorsement, ZS.325
yacht mastership, ZS.326
crew competence, ZS.327
day skipper, ZS.328
night skipper, ZS.329
marine navigation / communications, ZS.33
small craft navigation, ZS.331
pilotage (marine), ZS.332
marine radar / sonar, ZS.333
marine radio, ZS.33
use for: GMDSS
marine safety / survival, ZS.34
[see also: offshore health & safety, PL.57]
marine safety, ZS.341
marine survival, ZS.342
marine fire fighting, ZS.343
survival craft proficiency, ZS.344
marine rescue, ZS.4
lifeboat operations, ZS.41
helicopter rescue, ZS.42

rail transport operations, ZT.1
rail traffic routing, ZT.11
rail traffic despatch, ZT.12
rail freight transport, ZT.2
rail passenger transport, ZT.3
railway operation / maintenance, ZT.4
railway signal operations, ZT.41
railway crossing operations, ZT.42
railway track operations, ZT.43
railway track maintenance, ZT.431
tramway maintenance, ZT.432
steam / narrow gauge railways, ZT.5
steam railways, ZT.51
narrow gauge railways, ZT.52

road freight transport operations, ZV.1
[note: includes traffic routing and load planning]
international road freight operations, ZV.11
road passenger transport operations, ZV.2
bus services, ZV.21
coach services, ZV.22
taxi services, ZV.23
taxi knowledge, ZV.231
coach / bus station operation, ZV.24
road transport legislation, ZV.3
tachographs, ZV.31

driving instructor training, ZX.1
driving examiner training, ZX.11
driving, ZX.2
[see also: driving: hazardous cargo (ZP.542)]
[see also: construction plant (mobile) operation (TK.14)]
driving: car / van, ZX.21
driving test theory, ZX.211
driving: advanced, ZX.22
driving: LGV, ZX.23
driving: PCV, ZX.24
use for: bus driving
driving: motorcycle / motorbike, ZX.25
driving: towing, ZX.26
use for: caravans
driving for disabled people, ZX.27
vehicle test driving, ZX.28
cycle proficiency, ZX.3
road safety, ZX.4
Highway Code, ZX.41
road accident investigation, ZX.42

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This page (occlass.html) was last modified on Tuesday 24/04/2012