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Alexander III Alexandrovich Romanov Tsar of Russia

NOTES: Emperor of Russia; Reign: 1881 - 1894; Alexander II acceded to the throne upon the assassination of his father, Alexander II in 1881. Alexander III's 13-year reign was characterized by police repression, industrial expansion, and a shift in foreign policy away from alliance with Germany to entente with France. He was 6'4" tall. Alexander III was a giant of a man, and proud of his physical strength. He could tear a pack of card in half, bend an iron poler over his knees and crush a silver rouble with his bare hands. His eyes were expressionless and he moved in a peculiarly ungainly way. Almost every drop of blood in his veins was German, but he had the stubborn, enigmatic look of a Russian peasant. He died at 2:30 PM of a kidney ailment, diagnosed as nephritis by his doctor. In reaction to the assassination of his father, he restored much of the absolutism of the reign of Nicholas I and sternly repressed all revolutionary agitation. Alexander tried to impose the Russian language on all of his subjects, persecuted the Jews, and restricted education. His foreign policy was marked by a close union iwth France in opposition to the Triple Alliance.


Tsarina Dagmar "Marie" of Denmark

NOTES: Dagmar of Denmark; a.k.a.: Dowager Empress Maria Alexandrovna; Consort of Alexander III. In April 1919, as the Red Army approached the Crimea, the seventy-two year old Empress left on board a British battleship, H.M.S. Marlborough. She rejected the fact that her son, Nicholas II and his family was murdered in Ekaterinburg. She received a pension of $48,000 a year from King George V of England (her nephew) after humiliation by her nephew, King Christian who subjected her to numerous petty financial humiliations. In Russia known as: Marie Feodorovna


Alexander II Alexandrovich Romanov Tsar of Russia

NOTES: Reign: 1855 to 1881; On March 3, 1861, over the strong objections of the landowning nobility, Alexander II freed the serfs and began a program of dramatic reform. He abolished corporal punishment, restructured the judiciary and the educational system and denied many of the privileges the nobility had enjoyed. In fact, the emancipation of the serfs brought financial hardship to many landowning families. Tsar Alexander II could not admit that reform had failed and that his regime was ingrained with terror, choking in bureaucracy, drowning in ignorance and greed. He grew more rigid, more cranky, more repressive and now the deadly spiral spun faster and faster. More young men and women arrested; more violence against the state; more attempts at assassination; more assassinations; more arrests; more executions. Tsar Alexander II was assassinated by revolutionaries. Notes: Harrison E. Salisbury (American Historian)


Marie of Hesse-Darmstadt

NOTES: Became Marie Feodorovna, Empress of Russia


Alexander II Alexandrovich Romanov Tsar of Russia

NOTES: Reign: 1855 to 1881; On March 3, 1861, over the strong objections of the landowning nobility, Alexander II freed the serfs and began a program of dramatic reform. He abolished corporal punishment, restructured the judiciary and the educational system and denied many of the privileges the nobility had enjoyed. In fact, the emancipation of the serfs brought financial hardship to many landowning families. Tsar Alexander II could not admit that reform had failed and that his regime was ingrained with terror, choking in bureaucracy, drowning in ignorance and greed. He grew more rigid, more cranky, more repressive and now the deadly spiral spun faster and faster. More young men and women arrested; more violence against the state; more attempts at assassination; more assassinations; more arrests; more executions. Tsar Alexander II was assassinated by revolutionaries. Notes: Harrison E. Salisbury (American Historian)



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